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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Insomnia disorder comorbid with diabetes].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Insomnia disorder is one of the most prevalent conditions comorbid with diabetes and has been shown to have a possible role in the development of diabetes. Insomnia is characterized by a state of excessive physiological and cognitive arousal with alterations in autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. The chronic neuroendocrine activation in insomnia may predispose insomniacs to the development of metabolic disorders including glucose intolerance. In contrast, diabetic complications, in combination with the disruption of a sleep-wake homeostatic and circadian process, can be key factors precipitating insomnia symptoms and involve several subtypes of insomnia. Furthermore, inappropriate lifestyles are also likely responsible for the exacerbation of insomnia and diabetes. Thus, the pathogenesis of insomnia disorder and diabetes could mutually interact to develop each disease with a vicious cycle, accounting for the high comorbidity between the diseases.
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Maximum home systolic blood pressure is a useful indicator of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Maximum (max) home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) as well as mean HSBP or HSBP variability was reported to increase the predictive value of target organ damage. Yet, the association between max HSBP and target organ damage in patients with type 2 diabetes has never been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between max HSBP and pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness which in turn is a marker of target organ damage, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Is home blood pressure reporting in patients with type 2 diabetes reliable?
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of self-reported home blood pressure (HBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes by comparing the self-reported values with HBP measurements stored in the memory of the blood pressure (BP) monitor. We also examined what factors affect the reliability of HBP measurements. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were requested to perform triplicate morning and evening measurements over a span of 2 weeks and to enter their HBP values into logbooks. Patients were not informed about the memory function of their BP monitoring devices. The concordance rate of HBP reporting was 78.6%. A total of 51.4% of patients (n=144) had >90% concordant data, and 15.7% of patients (n=44) had ?50% concordant data. In general, HBP values from the logbook were significantly lower and less variable than those from the stored memory (P<0.05). The most common type of incorrect data was selected data that were reported in the logbooks that were randomly selected from multiple readings by the HBP monitors (55.8%). The concordance rate of HBP reporting significantly correlated with hemoglobin A1c levels (?=-0.156; P=0.0149) and with smoking status (current vs. never, ?=-0.165; P=0.0184). In conclusion, HBP measurements from the patients' logbooks were lower and less variable than those from the stored memory in the BP monitors of patients with type 2 diabetes, and the reliability of HBP reporting was affected by glycemic control and smoking status. Repeated instructions regarding HBP measurement to the patients or the use of stored BP measurements is recommended to ensure accurate HBP measurements in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Low serum bilirubin concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. It is very important to identify the factors that affect CKD. Previous studies have reported that serum bilirubin concentration was positively correlated with renal function in a cross-sectional study. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and the progression of CKD.
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Home-measured heart rate is associated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Epidemiological studies have shown that elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy, as well as cardiovascular events and mortality, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, the advantages of the self-measurement of blood pressure (BP) at home have been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between home-measured HR and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We designed a cross-sectional multicenter analysis of 1245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the relationship between the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (log UAE) and home-measured HR or other factors that may be related to nephropathy using univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that age, duration of diabetes mellitus, morning HR (?=0.131, P<0.001), morning systolic BP (?=0.311, P<0.001), hemoglobin A1C, triglycerides, daily consumption of alcohol, use of angiotensin II receptor blockers and use of beta-blockers were independently associated with the log UAE. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with 1 beat per min and 1?mm?Hg increases in the morning HR and morning systolic BP for albuminuria were 1.024 ((1.008-1.040), P=0.004) and 1.039 ((1.029-1.048), P<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, home-measured HR was significantly associated with albuminuria independent of the known risk factors for nephropathy, including home-measured systolic BP, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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The inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Recent studies have suggested that the inter-arm blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether the IAD could be a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a cross-sectional retrospective study of 206 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 49-76 years, we examined the correlation of the IAD with the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) or cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI). The IAD was positively correlated with the maximum IMT (r=0.266, P<0.0001), mean IMT (r=0.209, P=0.00726) or CAVI (r=0.240, P=0.0005). The IAD was higher in patients with CVD than in those without (P=0.0020). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the IAD was an independent determinant of maximum IMT (?=0.169, P=0.0167), mean IMT (?=0.178, P=0.0153), ABI (?=-0.222, P=0.0033) or CAVI (?=0.213, P=0.0011) after adjusting for known risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the IAD as a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis was similar to the AUC of the Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk score. In conclusion, the IAD could be a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Effect of repaglinide versus glimepiride on daily blood glucose variability and changes in blood inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hemoglobin A1c is the main treatment target for patients with type 2 diabetes. It has also been shown recently that postprandial glucose and daily glucose fluctuations affect the progression of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic damages.
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Low serum bilirubin concentration is a novel risk factor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Bilirubin has been recognized as an important endogeneous antioxidant. Previous studies reported that bilirubin could prevent atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if serum bilirubin concentration could be a predictor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Morning pulse pressure is associated more strongly with elevated albuminuria than systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Recently, focus has been directed toward pulse pressure as a potentially independent risk factor for micro- and macrovascular disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship between pulse pressure taken at home and elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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A difference in systolic blood pressure between arms is a novel predictor of the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Recent studies have suggested that a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between arms is associated with both vascular disease and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a difference in SBP between arms and change in urinary albumin excretion or development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk factor for the progression of coronary artery calcification.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Recent studies have suggested that variability in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between variability in the SBP and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), which is a useful marker for CVD. We measured SBP in 164 consecutive patients at every visit over the course of a year and calculated the coefficient of variation and s.d. of the SBP. We performed a follow-up study using multislice computed tomography to assess the progression of the CAC score, the mean interval of which was 3.93 ± 1.36 years. We then evaluated the relationship between variability in the SBP and progression of the CAC score. The coefficient of variation for the SBP correlated positively with the progression of the CAC score (r=0.4382, P<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the coefficient of variation of the SBP (?=0.3826, P<0.0001) was independently associated with the progression of the CAC score. The visit-to-visit variability in SBP could be a novel risk factor for the progression of CAC.
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Could home arterial stiffness index be a novel marker for arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes?
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Recent studies suggested that home arterial stiffness index (HASI) may be a new measure of arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HASI is more strongly associated with arterial stiffness than is pulse pressure (PP) and thus a more suitable tool than PP for evaluating arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the relationship of HASI or PP with pulse wave velocity (PWV) as well as with major cardiovascular risk factors in 332 patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we compared the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of HASI or PP for PWV. Morning PP was positively associated with PWV (r=0.303, P<0.0001), while morning HASI was not (r=-0.006, P=0.9063). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that morning PP (?=0.179, P=0.0210), but not morning HASI (?=-0.040, P=0.5036), was independently associated with PWV. The AUCs (95% confidence interval (CI)) of morning HASI and morning PP for arterial stiffness were 0.510 (0.448-0.573) (P=0.745) and 0.638 (0.578-0.698) (P<0.0001), respectively. The AUC (95% CI) of morning HASI for arterial stiffness was significantly less than that of morning PP (P=0.0005). In conclusion, morning HASI is less correlated with PWV than is morning PP in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.
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Effects of liraglutide on postprandial insulin and glucagon responses in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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This study assessed the endocrine pancreatic responses to liraglutide (0.9 mg once a day) during normal living conditions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 14 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Meal tests were performed after improvement of glycemic control achieved by two weeks of multiple insulin injection therapy and after approximately two weeks of liraglutide treatment. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed to compare daily variation in glycemic control between multiple insulin injection therapy and liraglutide treatment. Liraglutide reduced plasma glucose levels after the test meals (60-180 min; p<0.05), as a result of significant increases in insulin secretion (0-180 min; p<0.05) and decreases in the incremental ratio of plasma glucagon (15-60 min; p<0.05). Continuous glucose monitoring showed that liraglutide treatment was also associated with a decrease in glucose variability. We also demonstrated that optimal glycemic control seen as a reduction in 24-h mean glucose levels and variability was obtained only with liraglutide monotherapy. In conclusion, liraglutide treatment increases insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon secretion in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under normal living conditions. The main therapeutic advantages of liraglutide are its use as monotherapy and its ability to decrease glucose variability.
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Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a novel risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Recent study has suggested that not only the presence of hypertension but also the variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) are risk factors for vascular disease and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between visit-to-visit variability in SBP and change in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) or development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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A difference in systolic blood pressure between arms and between lower limbs is a novel risk marker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Recent studies have demonstrated that a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between arms is associated with both vascular disease and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs and the degree of albuminuria, which is an established marker for cardiovascular disease and diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. We measured blood pressure in the arms and lower limbs of 314 consecutive patients with Type 2 diabetes, and we calculated a difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs. We then evaluated the relationship of the difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs to the degree of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). The average difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs was 3.52±3.94 and 9.66±14.1?mm?Hg, respectively. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that a difference in SBP between arms (?=0.172, P=0.0239) and between lower limbs (?=0.238, P=0.0033) independently correlated with the logarithm of the UAE. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that a difference in SBP of ?10?mm?Hg between arms (odds ratio 12.23 (95% CI 1.130-132.35), P<0.0393) and a difference in SBP of ?15?mm?Hg between lower limbs (odds ratio 4.291 (95% CI 1.403-13.123), P<0.0106) correlated with the risk of albuminuria. A difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs, therefore, could be a novel risk marker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
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LOX-1 is a novel marker for peripheral artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1), which mediates initiation and progression of atherosclerosis in endothelial cells, could be a novel marker for peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Testosterone deficiency induces markedly decreased serum triglycerides, increased small dense LDL, and hepatic steatosis mediated by dysregulation of lipid assembly and secretion in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Although low serum testosterone (T) is associated with metabolic disorders, the mechanism of this association is unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of T deficiency and a high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic lipid homeostasis in mice.
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Lepr(db/db) Mice with senescence marker protein-30 knockout (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-)) exhibit increases in small dense-LDL and severe fatty liver despite being fed a standard diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a 34 kDa protein originally identified in rat liver that shows decreased levels with age. Several functional studies using SMP30 knockout (Smp30(Y/-) ) mice established that SMP30 functions as an antioxidant and protects against apoptosis. To address the potential role of SMP30 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis, we established Smp30(Y/-) mice on a Lepr(db/db) background (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice). RESEARCH DESIGN/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice were fed a standard diet (340 kcal/100 g, fat 5.6%) for 16 weeks whereupon the lipid/lipoprotein profiles, hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were analyzed by HPLC, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Changes in the liver at a histological level were also investigated. The amount of SMP30 mRNA and protein in livers was decreased in Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice compared with Lepr(db/+)Smp30(Y/+) mice. Compared with Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice, 24 week old Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice showed: i) increased small dense LDL-cho and decreased HDL-cho levels; ii) fatty liver accompanied by numerous inflammatory cells and increased oxidative stress; iii) decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (PPAR?) and lipoprotein uptake (LDLR and VLDLR) but increased CD36 levels; and iv) increased endoplasmic reticulum stress.
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High plasma 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Serotonin mediates vasoconstriction and induces the activation of platelets, which may promote atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA; a derivative end product of serotonin) concentrations are high in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to investigate the relationship between plasma 5-HIAA concentrations and clinical and biochemical metabolic parameters.
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Eosinophil count is positively correlated with coronary artery calcification.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Recent studies suggested that allergic disorders and increased eosinophil count were associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between eosinophil count and coronary artery calcification (CAC). We performed a cross-sectional study in 1363 consecutive participants with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the relationships between CAC score determined by multislice CT and peripheral eosinophil count as well as major cardiovascular risk factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Sex (P=0.0004), hypertension (P=0.0002), dyslipidemia (P=0.0004) and DM (P=0.0061) were associated with log(CAC+1), respectively. Positive correlations were found between log(CAC+1), and age (r=0.325, P<0.0001) and eosinophil count (r=0.165, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between log(CAC+1) and eGFR (r=-0.166, P<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that age (?=0.314, P<0.0001), sex (?=0.124, P<0.0001), hypertension (?=0.084, P=0.0008), DM (?=0.108, P<0.0001), eGFR (?=-0.079, P=0.0021) and eosinophil count (?=0.147, P<0.0001) were independent determinants of log(CAC+1). In conclusion, eosinophil count correlated positively with CAC in participants with clinical suspicion of CHD.
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17?-Estradiol attenuates saturated fatty acid diet-induced liver injury in ovariectomized mice by up-regulating hepatic senescence marker protein-30.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) plays an important role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of estrogens on liver apoptotic damage and changes in SMP30 expression induced by a high saturated fatty acid diet (HSFD). Ovariectomized mice (OVX) and sham-operated mice (SHAM) were randomly divided into five groups: SHAM fed a normal diet (SHAM/ND), SHAM fed HSFD (SHAM/HSFD), OVX fed ND (OVX/ND), OVX fed HSFD (OVX/HSFD) and OVX fed HSFD with 17?-estradiol (E2) supplementation using an implanted slow-release pellet (OVX/HSFD+E2). After 8 weeks, markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF? and SMP30 expression were investigated. Compared with SHAM/ND, OVX/HSFD mice showed significantly increased spliced X-box protein-1 (s-XBP1), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2? (p-eIF2?), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GPR78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cytosolic cytochrome c, caspase-3 activity, and TNF?, and significantly decreased SMP30. These differences in OVX/HSFD mice were restored to the levels of SHAM/ND mice by E2 supplementation. These results suggest that E2 supplementation attenuates HSFD-induced liver apoptotic death in ovariectomized mice by up-regulating SMP30.
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The coefficient variation of home blood pressure is a novel factor associated with macroalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between day-by-day variability in home blood pressure (HBP) on 14 consecutive days and macroalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the coefficient of variation (CV) of HBP in 858 Japanese patients with and without macroalbuminuria. Next, we analyzed the relationship between the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and the CV of HBP using linear regression analysis. Then, we evaluated the association between the CV of HBP and macroalbuminuria, defined as UAE ?300?mg?g(-1) creatinine, using logistic regression analysis. The CVs of morning and evening systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly greater in patients with macroalbuminuria than in those without (8.08±3.35 vs. 7.19±2.25%, P<0.05 and 9.01±3.58 vs. 7.98±2.57%, P<0.05, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that the CVs of morning SBP (P<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P<0.05), and those of evening SBP (P<0.05) were the independent explanatory variables for the logarithm of UAE. Multivariate logistic regression analyses also demonstrated that the odds ratio for the CVs of morning SBP, morning DBP and evening SBP for macroalbuminuria were 1.35 (P<0.05), 1.29 (P<0.05) and 1.44 (P<0.05), respectively. We conclude that the CV of HBP is correlated with macroalbuminuria, independent of the known risk factors, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Five-item version of the international index of erectile function correlated with albuminuria and subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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There is increasing evidence of a strong link between erectile dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score and albuminuria as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
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Visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure is correlated with diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Recent studies make remarks on the effect of variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the variability in SBP and the degree of diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Risk factors for development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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We investigated the risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia simultaneously in a community-based observational cohort study (n=4304). When hypertension or dyslipidemia was present at baseline, hazard ratio (95% CI) of developing diabetes mellitus at year 5 is 3.014 (2.131-4.264) or 2.112 (1.520-2.936), respectively.
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A simple meal plan of eating vegetables before carbohydrate was more effective for achieving glycemic control than an exchange-based meal plan in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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This study aimed to determine whether educating diabetic patients to eat vegetables before carbohydrate was as effective on long-term glycemic control as a traditional exchange-based meal plan. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a randomized, controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes that compared changes in HbA1c as the primary outcome. A total of 101 patients were stratified according to sex, age, BMI, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c, and then randomized to receive instructions to eat either vegetables before carbohydrate (VBC, n=69) or an exchange-based meal plan (EXB, n=32). The impact of the two plans on glycemic control was compared over 24 months of follow-up. Significant improvements in HbA1c over 24 months were observed in both groups (VBC, 8.3 to 6.8% vs EXB, 8.2 to 7.3%). HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the VBC group than in the EXB group after 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of the study. Both groups exhibited similar improvements in dietary practices with respect to intake of carbohydrate, fats and sweets, while the VBC group had a significant increase in consumption of green vegetables and a significant decrease in fruit consumption. A simple meal plan of eating vegetables before carbohydrate achieved better glycemic control than an exchange-based meal plan in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes over a 24-month period.
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Pancreatic insulin release in vitamin C-deficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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We recently identified senescence marker protein-30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase, which is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells using senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, vitamin C-deficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance with significantly lower blood insulin levels at 30 and 120 min post-challenge than in wild type mice (p<0.01-0.05). In contrast, vitamin C-sufficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice demonstrated significantly higher blood glucose and lower insulin only at the 30 min post-challenge time point (p<0.05). Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice showed enhanced insulin sensitivity regardless of vitamin C status. Static incubation of islets revealed that 20 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet ATP production were significantly decreased at 60 min only in vitamin C-deficient SMP30/GNL knockout mice relative to wild type mice (p<0.05). These results indicate that the site of vitamin C action lies between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, while SMP30 deficiency itself impairs the distal portion of insulin secretion pathway.
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Relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Early detection of atherosclerosis is important for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus because cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a main cause of death in these people. In this study, we investigated the relationship between an arterial stiffness parameter called cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and coronary artery calcification (CAC). We performed a cross-sectional study in 371 type 2 diabetic patients with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the relationships between CAVI and CAC score determined by multislice computed tomography as well as major cardiovascular risk factors, including age, body mass index, hemoglobinA1c and the Framingham CHD risk score. CAVI was correlated with age (r = 0.301, p < 0.0001), uric acid (r = 0.236, p < 0.0001), estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.145, p = 0.0166), CHD risk score (r = 0.327, p < 0.0001) and log (CAC + 1) (r = 0.303, p < 0.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CAVI was higher than that of CHD risk score in predicting CAC >0, CAC >100, CAC >400, or CAC >1000. CAVI is positively correlated with CAC, and is considered to be a useful method to detect CAC.
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Low urine pH Is a predictor of chronic kidney disease.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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BackGROUND/AIMS: A variety of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), including the metabolic syndrome, were recently reported. It has been suggested that a low urine pH is another characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between urine pH and CKD remains to be elucidated.
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Uncontrolled home blood pressure in the morning is associated with nephropathy in Japanese type 2 diabetes.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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The purposes of this study were to investigate the state of blood pressure control level and to investigate the relationship between blood pressure control level and nephropathy in Japanese type 2 diabetes. We measured clinic and home blood pressure in 923 type 2 diabetic patients. According to the criteria for hypertension in the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines 2009, patients were classified into four groups by clinic systolic blood pressure (130 mmHg) and morning systolic blood pressure (125 mmHg), as follows: controlled hypertension (CH), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MH), and sustained hypertension (SH). Of all patients, 13.9, 12.6, 13.3, and 60.2% were identified as having CH, WCH, MH, and SH, respectively. The average number of drugs prescribed was 1.8. We assessed the association between blood pressure control level and nephropathy in diabetic patients. The degree of urinary albumin excretion and the prevalence of nephropathy in diabetic patients were higher in MH and SH groups than those in the CH group. The majority of patients had poor blood pressure control, regardless of ongoing conventional antihypertensive therapy, and diabetic patients with MH and SH were associated with nephropathy. It is suggested that more aggressive antihypertensive treatment is recommended to prevent nephropathy in diabetic patients.
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Low insulin level is associated with aortic stiffness.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Recent studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum insulin level and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), which was developed as a marker of arterial stiffness. We performed a cross-sectional study of 260 consecutive and nondiabetic subjects with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease. We measured CAVI in all subjects. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured in venous blood collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after the test. Statistical analyses were conducted for four subgroups according to the insulin area under the concentration time curve (InsAUC). Mean CAVI and InsAUC were 8.7 and 109.5 ?IUml(-1)h(-1), respectively. Unadjusted analysis demonstrated that the InsAUC quartiles were significantly associated with CAVI (P<0.0001), and the lowest InsAUC quartile (P=0.001) had a lower glucose AUC. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that the lowest InsAUC quartile had the highest CAVI, and, after adjusting for several coronary risk factors, the highest InsAUC quartile had a higher CAVI than the second and third InsAUC quartiles (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the lowest InsAUC quartile was related to CAVI, although the lowest InsAUC quartile maintained glucose homeostasis in this study population. Both hyperinsulinemia and low insulin level are independently associated with CAVI.
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Decreased senescence marker protein-30 could be a factor that contributes to the worsening of glucose tolerance in normal aging.
Islets
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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In our recent paper, we proposed that senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) could be a novel molecule which was involved in an impairment of ?-cell function with aging. SMP30 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a standard diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks from 7 weeks of age. In an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test at 15 weeks of age, blood glucose levels in SD-fed KO mice were significantly increased by 25% at 30 min after glucose administration compared to SD-fed WT mice. Insulin levels in SD-fed KO mice were significantly decreased by 37% at 30 min postglucose compared to SD-fed WT mice. Interestingly, an insulin tolerance test showed a greater glucose lowering effect in SD-fed KO mice. Morphometric analysis revealed no differences in the degree of HFD-induced compensatory increase in ?-cell mass and proliferation. Collectively, these data indicate that impairment of the early phase of insulin secretion underlies glucose intolerance in KO mice. Decreased SMP30 may contribute to the worsening of glucose tolerance that occurs in normal aging.
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U-shaped relationship between insulin level and coronary artery calcification (CAC).
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Recent studies have suggested that hyperinsulinemia is associated with high cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the serum insulin level and coronary artery calcification (CAC).
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Efficacy of long-term ezetimibe therapy in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2010
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Hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress can heavily contribute to the initiation and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, there is no established treatment for this disease. Recently, several studies have shown that ezetimibe (EZ), a lipid-lowering drug, attenuates liver steatosis in an experimental NAFLD model. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of long-term EZ monotherapy in patients with NAFLD.
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The fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the effect of long-term ezetimibe therapy on these levels.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) and estimated desaturase activity and the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study also assessed the effect of ezetimibe on CE levels.
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Association between capacity of interferon-alpha production and metabolic parameters.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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A prompt and regulated interferon (IFN) system is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Although increased susceptibility to infection has been observed in subjects with diabetes or obesity, little is known about the relationship between metabolic disorders and increased susceptibility to infection. In order to evaluate the association between immune function and metabolic parameters, we examined the relationship between capacity of IFN-alpha production and metabolic parameters including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipids, uric acid, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure in 575 healthy subjects. Linear regression analysis showed that log(IFN-alpha production) was positively correlated with log(triglyceride) (r = 0.088, P = 0.03) and uric acid (r = 0.091, P = 0.03), and negatively correlated with age (r = -0.158, P = 0.0001) and FPG (r = -0.088, P = 0.03). Multiple regression analysis showed that log(IFN-alpha production) was independently determined by age (beta = -0.148, P < 0.0001), sex (beta = -0.240, P = 0.0003), and FPG (beta = -0.096, P = 0.0209), suggesting that lesser degrees of hyperglycemia also affect IFN-alpha production. We conclude that hyperglycemia but not BMI, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia may be associated with decreased capacity of IFN-alpha production and glycemic control is critical even for both subjects without any medication for diabetes and subjects under the diagnosis of diabetes on infectious diseases.
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Effect of pioglitazone on various parameters of insulin resistance including lipoprotein subclass according to particle size by a gel-permeation high-performance liquid chromatography in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Pioglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent that has been reported to have anti-arteriosclerotic effects. The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism involved in the insulin sensitizing effect of pioglitazone. A total of 50 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups, 25 of who were treated with 15 mg/day pioglitazone and 25 with 500 mg/day metformin for 12 weeks. Changes in various parameters of insulin resistance including lipoprotein subclass according to particle size determined by high performance liquid chromatography, as well as glucose metabolism, were monitored to determine the relationship between lipoprotein subclass and other insulin resistance parameters. Both pioglitazone and metformin treatment were associated with significant reductions in hyperglycemia, HOMA-IR and HbA1c levels. Pioglitazone treatment, but not metformin treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL: 44.5-64.0 nm) and increases in serum adiponectin levels (both <0.001). In the pioglitazone group, the change in large VLDL levels correlated positively with changes in HbA1c (r=0.468, P=0.0174), HOMA-IR (r=0.593, P=0.0014), very small LDL (r=0.714, P<0.0001) and net electronegative charged modified-LDL (r=0.412, P=0.0399), and inversely with changes in adiponectin level (r=-0.526, P=0.0061). The results in this study suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone is achieved mainly through improvement of hepatic insulin resistance, and that pioglitazone may have an antiatherosclerotic effect by decreasing serum atherogenic modified-LDL and by increasing adiponectin.
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Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase deletion worsens glucose tolerance through impairment of acute insulin secretion.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is an androgen-independent factor that decreases with age. We recently identified SMP30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase (GNL), which is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis in animal species. To examine whether the age-related decrease in SMP30/GNL has effects on glucose homeostasis, we used SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice treated with L-ascorbic acid. In an ip glucose tolerance test at 15 wk of age, blood glucose levels in SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly increased by 25% at 30 min after glucose administration compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Insulin levels in SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly decreased by 37% at 30 min after glucose compared with WT mice. Interestingly, an insulin tolerance test showed a greater glucose-lowering effect in SMP30/GNL KO mice. High-fat diet feeding severely worsened glucose tolerance in both WT and SMP30/GNL KO mice. Morphometric analysis revealed no differences in the degree of high-fat diet-induced compensatory increase in beta-cell mass and proliferation. In the static incubation study of islets, insulin secretion in response to 20 mm glucose or KCl was significantly decreased in SMP30/GNL KO mice. On the other hand, islet ATP content at 20 mm in SMP30/GNL KO mice was similar to that in WT mice. Collectively, these data indicate that impairment of the early phase of insulin secretion due to dysfunction of the distal portion of the secretion pathway underlies glucose intolerance in SMP30/GNL KO mice. Decreased SMP30/GNL may contribute to the worsening of glucose tolerance that occurs in normal aging.
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Eosinophil count is positively correlated with albumin excretion rate in men with type 2 diabetes.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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Patients with allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis or asthma have been reported to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the relationships between peripheral eosinophil count and degree of albumin excretion rate, which is a useful marker of cardiovascular mortality as well as diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Serum albumin levels predict vascular dysfunction with paradoxical pathogenesis in healthy individuals.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Serum albumin is affected by both nutritional status and inflammation. It is, therefore, thought to be highly linked with pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction.
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Evaluation of characteristics and degree of remodeling in coronary atherosclerotic lesions by 64-detector multislice computed tomography (MSCT).
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) permits reliable imaging of not only the coronary artery lumen but also vessel wall. It is assumed that both lipid-rich plaques and those that display positive remodeling are more prone to rupture and erosion with subsequent coronary events. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the characteristics of coronary arteries by MSCT and several measures of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
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Hepatic senescence marker protein-30 is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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Both insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress in the liver are associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) was initially identified as a novel protein in the rat liver, and acts as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic protein. Our aim was to determine whether hepatic SMP30 levels are associated with the development and progression of NAFLD.
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Synergistic effect of HLA class II loci and cytokine gene polymorphisms on the risk of gastric cancer in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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It has been reported that polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and several cytokine genes are associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer (GC). However, the results of studies from different geographic regions, ethnic groups and study groups are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of H. pylori infection and host genetic factors on GC susceptibility in Japanese patients with GC. We analyzed genotypes for HLA class I and II, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-1 receptor, IL-4, IL-4Ralpha and IL-10 in 330 H. pylori-infected noncardia patients with GC and 190 H. pylori-infected nonulcer dyspeptic controls. Haplotype analyses indicated that the frequencies of the HLA DRB1*0405 and DQB1*0401 alleles were increased in the patients with intestinal-type GC when compared with controls (both DRB1*0405 and DQB1*0401: p = 0.015, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.09-2.26), but the changes were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. None of the cytokine gene polymorphisms were associated with GC susceptibility, whether patients with GC were analyzed as a group according to the histological subtype. Of interest was the comparison of controls and patients with intestinal-type GC. The frequency of an IL-10-592AA homozygote showing concomitant carriage of the HLA DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401 haplotype was significantly higher in patients with intestinal-type GC (chi(2) = 6.369, p = 0.0116, p(c) = 0.0464, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.21-4.48). Our results suggest that the HLA class II and IL-10-592A/C polymorphisms synergistically affect the susceptibility to GC development of H. pylori-infected individuals in the Japanese population.
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Hemoglobin concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Anemia is a common but often overlooked complication of diabetes. We investigated the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and various factors as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hemoglobin concentration was measured in 319 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and various factors including age, body mass index, and glycemic control, as well as between hemoglobin concentration and pulse wave velocity or ankle-brachial index (n = 209) and between hemoglobin concentration and carotid intima-media thickness or plaque score (n = 125). Mean hemoglobin concentration was 14.2 +/- 0.80 g/dL. Body mass index (r = 0.340, P < .0001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.219, P = .0011) were positively associated with hemoglobin concentration, whereas age (r = -0.388, P < .0001), glycated albumin (r = -0.148, P = .0121), serum creatinine concentration (r = -0.206, P = .0019), and log (urinary albumin excretion) (r = -0.188, P = .0010) were negatively associated with hemoglobin concentration. Multiple regression analysis identified age (beta = -0.222, P = .0019), body mass index (beta = 0.145, P = .0432), systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.214, P = .0015), total cholesterol concentration (beta = 0.170, P = .0077), and serum creatinine concentration (beta = -0.181, P = .0045) as independent determinants of hemoglobin concentration. No significant association was observed between hemoglobin concentration and serum erythropoietin concentration (r = -0.079, P = .2980). Negative correlations were found between hemoglobin concentration and pulse wave velocity (r = -0.289, P < .0001) and between hemoglobin concentration and plaque score (r = -0.275, P = .0024). In conclusion, hemoglobin concentration was associated with various factors; and decreased hemoglobin concentration was associated with subclinical markers of atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Plasma serotonin is a predictor for deterioration of urinary albumin excretion in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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We performed an observational study to investigate if plasma 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), a derivative end product of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), concentration could be a predictor for deterioration of urinary albumin excretion. The relationship between baseline plasma 5-HIAA concentration and changes in urinary albumin excretion for 24 months was investigated in 162 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into tertiles according to plasma 5-HIAA concentration. Greater changes in urinary albumin excretion were seen in patients with high plasma 5-HIAA concentration (112.8 +/- 36.2 mg/g creatinine) than in patients with low plasma 5-HIAA concentration (7.6 +/- 8.0 mg/g creatinine, P = .0011) or in patients with intermediate plasma 5-HIAA concentration (25.6 +/- 15.0 mg/g creatinine, P = .0070) after adjustment for baseline values of urinary albumin excretion. A positive correlation was observed between log (plasma 5-HIAA concentration) and changes in urinary albumin excretion (r = 0.314, P < .0001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that log (plasma 5-HIAA concentration) (beta = .284, P = .0013) was an independent determinant of changes in urinary albumin excretion. In conclusion, plasma 5-HIAA concentration was positively correlated with changes in urinary albumin excretion, which may indicate causality in diabetic nephropathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high plasma 5-HIAA concentration.
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Low serum bilirubin concentration is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC).
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and previous studies have reported the relationship between low serum bilirubin concentration and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between serum bilirubin concentration and coronary artery calcification (CAC).
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Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, prevents the development of diabetes in male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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To assess the beneficial effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan on a non-obese animal model of reduced function and mass of islet beta-cells prior to the development of diabetes, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were treated with telmisartan at 8 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, the treatment with telmisartan dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and high-dose (5 mg/kg/day) treated SDT rats did not developed diabetes. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that treatment with high-dose telmisartan reduced mRNA expression of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, components of NAD(P)H oxidase, transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the pancreas of male SDT rats. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses revealed that treatment with telmisartan also reduced expression of p47(phox). These results suggest that treatment with telmisartan reduces oxidative stress by local RAS activation and protects against islet beta-cell damage and dysfunction. These findings provide at least a partial explanation for the reduced incidence of new-onset diabetes that has been observed in several clinical trials involving angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors.
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Home blood pressure variability on one occasion is a novel factor associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
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Recent studies have suggested that not only mean blood pressure but also variability in blood pressure might be related to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between home blood pressure variability on one occasion and markers of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationship between the s.d. of clinic- or home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 332 patients with type 2 diabetes, and we evaluated whether the SD of clinic- or home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion was an independent determinant of PWV by multivariate linear regression analysis, after adjustment for known risk factors for arterial stiffness, including sex, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking status, drinking alcohol, presence of antihypertensive medication, average systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Age, average morning home-measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate and PWV (r=0.259, P<0.0001) were positively correlated with the s.d. of morning home blood pressure on one occasion. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age, average morning home-measured systolic blood pressure (P=0.0019), heart rate and the s.d. of morning home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion (P=0.0159) were independently associated with PWV. In conclusion, home blood pressure variability on one occasion was correlated with PWV, independent of other known risk factors, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Serum pepsinogen I/II ratio is correlated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Endocr. J.
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Helicobacter pylori infection, which is a common cause of atrophic gastritis, has been reported to represent a causal factor increasing the vascular damage and consequent albuminuria. On the other hand, decreased serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio can be used to assess gastric mucosal atrophy. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the correlation between PG I/II ratio and diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between PG I/II ratio and degree of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated relationships between PG I/II ratio and degree of UAE or estimated glomerular filtration rate as well as various factors, including age, body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, serum lipid concentrations, uric acid or C-reactive protein in 333 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes. PG I/II ratio correlated positively with logarithm of UAE in all patients (r = 0.174, P = 0.0016) and in patients without Helicobacter pylori infection (r = 0.352, P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis identified that PG I/II ratio correlated independently with logarithm of UAE in all patients (? = 0.264, P = 0.0005) and in patients without Helicobacter pylori infection (? = 0.295, P = 0.0022). These data suggest that serum PG I/II ratio is correlated with diabetic nephropathy.
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Low daily salt intake is correlated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
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Both high and low salt intakes have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between daily salt intake and albuminuria, a marker of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes. We classified 270 patients with type 2 diabetes, who were not receiving antihypertensive medication into four groups according to their daily salt intake (<8, 8-10, 10-12 and >12?g per day). We investigated the relationship between daily salt intake and the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). A multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate whether daily salt intake independently correlated with the logarithm of UAE. In addition, we assessed the contribution of the variables, including age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A(1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum creatinine, alcohol intake, smoking status and square of (daily salt intake-10) on albuminuria, defined as a UAE>30?mg?g(-1) of creatinine, using a multiple logistic regression analysis. The logarithm of the UAE was lowest in the third quartile of daily salt intake. The multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the logarithm of the UAE was significantly correlated with the quadratic term of daily salt intake centered at 10?g per day (?=0.170, P=0.008). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of albuminuria was 3.996 (1.295-12.327; P=0.016) in patients whose daily salt intake was less than 8?g per day compared with patients whose daily salt intake was 10-12?g per day. In conclusion, low daily salt intake was correlated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, who were not receiving antihypertensive medication.
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Atrophic gastritis is associated with coronary artery disease.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
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Atrophic gastritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection and other factors. Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to coronary artery disease. To our knowledge, however, no reports are available on the relationship between atrophic gastritis and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis, which is diagnosed based on serum pepsinogen levels (pepsinogen I ? 70 ng/mL and pepsinogen I/II ratio ? 3.0), and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in general Japanese population. Among 2,633 study subjects, 531 subjects (20.2%) were diagnosed as atrophic gastritis. The prevalence of coronary artery disease was higher in the atrophic gastritis-positive group than that in the atrophic gastritis-negative group (5.8% vs 2.8%, p = 0.0005). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that atrophic gastritis was independently associated with coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.72), after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and habits of smoking and drinking. These results suggest that atrophic gastritis is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa may be associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease.
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Second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria.
Clin. Nephrol.
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It is important to control blood pressure as well as to control blood glucose for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports investigating which blood pressure, including morning, evening and clinic, is more closely associated with albuminuria and whether one measurement is sufficient or not in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
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Serum allograft inflammatory factor-1 is a novel marker for diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
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Recent studies have identified macrophage-mediated injury as an important component in the development of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) concentration, which is a marker of activated macrophages, and diabetic nephropathy.
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Toe-brachial index is associated more strongly with albuminuria or glomerular filtration rate than ankle-brachial index in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether toe-brachial index (TBI) is more strongly associated with albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than ankle-brachial index (ABI), and thus is a more suitable tool for evaluating the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetic nephropathy than ABI in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the relationships between ABI or TBI and the degree of urinary albumin excretion or eGFR, as well as the major cardiovascular risk factors, in 390 patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we compared the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of TBI or ABI for albuminuria or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was negatively associated with ABI. Age and duration of diabetes were negatively associated with TBI, and diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were positively associated with TBI. Log (urinary albumin excretion) was associated more strongly with TBI (r=-0.265, P<0.0001) than with ABI (r=-0.132, P=0.0111), and eGFR was positively associated with TBI (r=0.195, P=0.0002) but not with ABI (r=0.023, P=0.6571). The AUCs of TBI for albuminuria (P=0.0002) and CKD (P=0.0322) were significantly greater than those of ABI. In conclusion, TBI is associated more strongly with albuminuria and eGFR than ABI in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that TBI may be a more suitable tool for evaluating the association between PAD and diabetic nephropathy than ABI in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Pepsinogen I/II ratio is related to glucose, triacylglycerol, and uric acid levels.
Nutrition
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Under- and overnutrition are associated with a worse prognosis and constitute independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is increasingly important to understand the factors that affect nutritional and metabolic statuses. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the pepsinogen I/II ratio and several biochemical markers.
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide could be a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Heart Vessels
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which is a useful biomarker of chronic heart failure, has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between NT-proBNP and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Relationships of NT-proBNP to pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) as well as to various parameters, including body mass index, blood pressure, serum lipid concentration, serum uric acid concentration, and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c), age, hemoglobin, serum creatinine concentration, severity of diabetic nephropathy or retinopathy, current treatment of diabetes, cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiograph, presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and/or ST-T changes evaluated by electrocardiograph, smoking status and presence of cardiovascular disease were investigated in 323 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes. Log (NT-proBNP) correlated positively with PWV (r = 0.283, p < 0.0001) and correlated negatively with ABI (r = -0.144, p = 0.0094). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age (? = 0.200, p = 0.0033), systolic blood pressure (? = 0.246, p < 0.0001), total cholesterol (? = -0.135, p = 0.0326), uric acid (? = 0.133, p = 0.0462), creatinine (? = -0.184, p = 0.0122), smoking status (? = -0.129, p = 0.0499) and log (NT-proBNP) (? = 0.177, p = 0.0149) were independently correlated with PWV and that systolic blood pressure (? = -0.145, p = 0.0310), log triglyceride (? = -0.151, p = 0.0397) and log (NT-proBNP) (? = -0.207, p = 0.0094) were independently correlated with ABI. In conclusion, NT-proBNP could be a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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The serum concentration of allograft inflammatory factor-1 is correlated with metabolic parameters in healthy subjects.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
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Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation characterized by inflamed adipose tissue with increased infiltration of macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the serum concentration of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), which is a marker of activated macrophages, and metabolic parameters. The serum AIF-1 concentrations were measured in 303 healthy subjects (163 men and 140 women). We then evaluated the relationships between the serum AIF-1 concentrations and metabolic parameters, including fasting plasma glucose levels, serum lipid concentration, uric acid concentration, and waist circumference. The serum AIF-1 concentrations positively correlated with levels of fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.159, P =.0056), hemoglobin A(1c) (r = 0.169, P = .0032), triglycerides (r = 0.137, P = .0172), and uric acid (r = 0.146, P = .0108) and with waist circumference (r = 0.221, P = .0001) and body mass index (r = 0.185, P = .0012), whereas the serum AIF-1 concentrations inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (r = -0.178, P = .0019). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that hemoglobin A(1c) level (? = .133, F = 5.490, P < .05) and waist circumference (? = .197, F = 11.954, P < .05) were independent predictors of the serum AIF-1 concentrations. The serum AIF-1 concentrations correlated with clinical and biochemical metabolic parameters. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 may be a significant predictor of activated macrophages as well as cardiovascular disease in humans.
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