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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ursolic acid triggers nonprogrammed death (necrosis) in human glioblastoma multiforme DBTRG-05MG cells through MPT pore opening and ATP decline.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Ursolic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpenic acid, possesses anticancer potential and diverse biological effects, but its correlation with glioblastoma multiforme cells and different modes of cell death is unclear. We studied the cellular actions of human glioblastoma multiforme DBTRG-05MG cells after ursolic acid treatment and explored cell-selective killing effect of necrotic death as a cell fate.
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Monosodium urate crystals trigger Nrf2- and heme oxygenase-1-dependent inflammation in THP-1 cells.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Gouty arthritis is an inflammatory disease that is caused by an accumulation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints. MSU is capable of activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, leading to interleukin-1? (IL-1?) secretion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major mediators of the NLRP3/IL-1? interaction. Although nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is recognized as a transcription factor that is involved in the response to oxidative stress, the effect of MSU on Nrf2 and on Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. The treatment of THP-1 monocytes using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was shown to initiate inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that THP-1 cells, following treatment with MSU crystals, significantly increased IL-1? release, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ROS production. MSU also promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and activated lysosomal destabilization. Moreover, the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in gene and protein expressions were upregulated by MSU. MSU-induced IL-1? secretion and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were inhibited by the knockdown of Nrf2 and via the HO-1 inhibitor zinc (II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). In addition, HO-1 inhibition increased the level of superoxide anion production and the consumption of glutathione. These findings suggest that Nrf2 and HO-1 mediate redox homeostasis and interact with pro-inflammatory factors in MSU-challenged THP-1 cells, thereby providing new insight into how MSU-induced gouty inflammation is mediated by specific mechanisms that are involved in the Nrf2/Ho-1 antioxidant signaling pathway.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.65.
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DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates the prevention of ketoprofen-induced GI mucosal ulcers. Recent reports suggested that Nrf2 becomes unstable in the absence of DJ-1/PARK7, attenuating the activity of Nrf2-regulated downstream antioxidant enzymes. Thus, increasing Nrf2 translocation by DJ-1 may represent a novel means for GI protection. In vitro, caffeic acid increases the nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 ratio and the mRNA expression of the downstream antioxidant enzymes, ?-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and heme oxygenase-1, by activating the JNK/p38 pathway in Int-407 cells. Moreover, knockdown of DJ-1 also reversed caffeic acid-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression in a JNK/p38-dependent manner. Our results also indicated that treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with caffeic acid prior to the administration of ketoprofen inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the inhibitory effects of ketoprofen on the antioxidant system and DJ-1 protein expression in the GI mucosa. Our observations suggest that DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the GI mucosa.
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Diallyl sulfide as a potential dietary agent to reduce TNF-?- and histamine-induced proinflammatory responses in A7r5 cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Oxidative stress-aggravated chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway are well documented; hence, treatment with antioxidants to ameliorate oxidative stress might be an effective strategy to reduce airway complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of diallyl sulfide (DAS), which is a natural organosulfuric compound found in garlic, on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)- or histamine-induced inflammation in rat aortic smooth muscle A7r5 cells.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the flowers of Nymphaea mexicana Zucc.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Nymphaea mexicana Zucc. is an aquatic plant species which belongs to the family Nymphaea and is commonly known as the yellow water lily. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the flowers of Nymphaea mexicana Zucc. Seven phenolic compounds including vanillic acid, 4-methoxy-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, (2R,3R)-3,7-dihydroxyflavanone, naringenin (4), kaempferol 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranoside), kaempferol 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranoside), and quercetin 3-(30 0-acetylrhamnoside) (7) were isolated from the flowers of Nymphaea mexicana Zucc. These results revealed that compound 4 has the most prominent inhibitory effect on the LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, compound 4 also inhibited LPS-mediated induction of protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and phospho-ERK in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Thus, compound 4 from the flowers of Nymphaea mexicana Zucc. may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.
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Assessment of the anti-invasion potential and mechanism of select cinnamic acid derivatives on human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Patients with lung adenocarcinoma are often diagnosed with metastasizing symptoms and die of early and distal metastasis. Metastasis is made up of a cascade of interrelated and sequential steps, including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix degradation, cell movement, and invasion. Hence, substances carrying the ability to stop one of the metastasis-associated steps could be a potential candidate for preventing tumor cells from metastasizing and prolonging the life of cancer patients. Cinnamic acid (CA) was demonstrated to be such a candidate for human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of CA derivatives on invasion of lung cancer cells is still unclear. The aims of this study were to explore the mechanisms underlying several select CA derivatives against invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results revealed that caffeic acid (CAA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), and ferulic acid (FA) can inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated invasion of A549 cells at a concentration of ?100 ?M. The MMP-9 activity was suppressed by these compounds through regulating urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and PAI-2; the cell-matrix adhesion was decreased by CAA only. The proposed molecular mechanism involved not only decreasing the signaling of MAPK and PI3K/Akt but also inactivating NF-?B, AP-1, and STAT3. In the present study, we selected CAA, CHA, and FA as potential inhibitors for invasive behaviors of human lung adenocarcinoma cells and disclosed the possible mechanisms. The association between structural features and anti-invasive activity of these compounds cannot be determined here and needs to be further verified.
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EGCG-rich green tea extract stimulates sRAGE secretion to inhibit S100A12-RAGE axis through ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE in type 2 diabetes.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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The receptor for advanced glycation of end products (RAGE) plays a critical role in the progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) is one of the RAGE variants, which acts as a decoy domain receptor and competes with RAGE, thus contributing to prevention of T2D. In this study, we conducted clinical trials of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) rich green tea extract (300-900 mg/day) to investigate the effect of EGCG on relationship between S100A12 RAGE ligand and diverse sRAGE in T2D. Moreover, mechanism of sRAGE production also confirmed in vitro. Our data indicated that EGCG could stimulate sRAGE circulation but inhibited RAGE ligand in T2D, and ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE was mainly involved in EGCG-stimulated sRAGE circulation. The present evidence indicates that EGCG has a potential to block S100A12-RAGE axis by stimulating sRAGE production through ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE. Therefore, EGCG contributes to nutritional strategies for diabetes, not only because of its efficient antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals, but also because of its ability stimulating sRAGE release in the circulation. Additionally, ADAM10-induced ectodomain shedding of extracellular RAGE leading to sRAGE circulation should be a potential of passive mechanism of sRAGE production to block S100A12-RAGE axis-related pathogenesis of proinflammation and diabetes.
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The preventive role of breadfruit against inflammation-associated epithelial carcinogenesis in mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Artocarpus communis has been identified as a rich source of flavonoids and has been gaining attention for its potential chemopreventive abilities. In this study, methanol extracts from the fruit of A. communis (MEFA) and leaf of A. communis (MELA) were prepared, and their effects on inflammation-associated skin tumorigenesis were assessed using mouse models, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced cutaneous inflammation as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[?]anthracene (DMBA) initiated and TPA-promoted skin tumorigenesis. According to the results, both MEFA and MELA decreased the intensity of leukocyte infiltration in mouse dorsal skin and cutaneous edema induced by TPA, which appeared to be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-1?, and IL-6) and proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-1?, and Prostaglandin E2 ). In addition, topical application with MEFA or MELA effectively attenuated tumor incidence, multiplicity, volume, malignancy as well as angiogenesis of TPA-stimulated skin tumor promotion in DMBA-initiated mice. Notably, immunohistochemical stain showed that MEFA and MELA attenuated COX-2 expression of both skin and tumor tissues in different animal tests, which may be closely related to the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B/activator protein signaling networks. These findings first demonstrate that flavonoid-rich A. communis may exert potent anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of COX-2 in TPA-activated skin and tumor tissues.
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Invadopodia-associated proteins blockade as a novel mechanism for 6-shogaol and pterostilbene to reduce breast cancer cell motility and invasion.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Invadopodia are actin-rich membrane protrusions of tumor cells that are thought to initiate the local migration and invasion during cancer metastasis. The blockade of invadopodia-associated proteins has been reported as a promising approach for prevention of tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of 6-shogaol and pterostilbene on invadopodia in aggressive breast cancer cells.
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Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.
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The inhibitory effect of pterostilbene on inflammatory responses during the interaction of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Chronic inflammation is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue. Accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues. Many studies have indicated that the adipocyte-related inflammatory response in obesity is characterized by an enhanced infiltration of macrophages. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on the change in inflammatory response due to the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the TNF-?-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, garcinol and pterostilbene significantly decreased the mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1? and IL-6 secretion by suppressing phosphorylation of p-I?B? and p-p65. In a coculture model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, pterostilbene suppressed IL-6 and TNF-? secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression and also reduced the migration of macrophages toward adipocytes. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived conditioned medium (RAW-CM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte and 3T3-CM-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage models, pterostilbene significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-? secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression (COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-?, PAI-1, CRP, MCP-1, resistin, and leptin). Our findings suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene may provide novel and useful applications to reduce the chronic inflammatory properties of adipocytes. We also found that pterostilbene inhibits proinflammatory responses during the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.
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Alternanthera paronychioides protects pancreatic ?-cells from glucotoxicity by its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and insulin secretagogue actions.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The antioxidant and antiglucotoxic effects of Alternanthera paronychioides on pancreatic ?-cell were investigated. Antioxidant assays demonstrated that ethanol extracts of A. paronychioides (EEAP) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, which also had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents. Two major polyphenolics, ferulic acid and quercetin, were identified from EEAP by HPLC-DAD. Effects of EEAP, ferulic acid and quercetin on high glucose (25 mmol/L)-induced pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis and dysfunction were further evaluated. Results showed that EEAP and quercetin but not ferulic acid protected ?-cells from glucotoxicity through several mechanisms, including: (1) maintaining ?-cell viability; (2) suppressing reactive oxygen species production; (3) reducing characteristic features of apoptosis; (4) inhibiting the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; (5) upregulating pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 gene expression and the insulin secretagogue action of pancreatic ?-cells. These findings may shed light on the preventive actions of A. paronychioides on diabetic glucotoxicity.
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Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries, suppresses the generation of breast cancer stem cells within tumor microenvironment and metastasis via modulating NF-?B/microRNA 448 circuit.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to promote metastasis and malignancy. Pterostilbene, a natural stilbene isolated from blueberries, has been suggested for anti-cancer effects. Here, we explored the potential cancer stem cells (CSCs)/TAM modulating effects of pterostilbene in breast cancer.
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Effect of diallyl sulfide on in vitro and in vivo Nrf2-mediated pulmonic antioxidant enzyme expression via activation ERK/p38 signaling pathway.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Increasing oxidative stress is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of lung failure. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key element in redox homeostasis. Nrf2 regulates antioxidant-associated genes that are often the target of phytochemicals in chemoprevention. This study evaluated the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), which is present in garlic, on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the rat lung and the Nrf2 modulation in MRC-5 lung cells. DAS increased the activities of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and catalase as well as the GSH/GSSG ratio compared with the lung of untreated control rats (p < 0.05). The pulmonic superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, and catalase mRNA levels were also significantly increased (p < 0.05) after DAS treatment. Following DAS treatment, DAS level was measured in the plasma after 7 days of oral administration, and the C(max) value was 15 ± 4.2 ?M. The total amount of pulmonic Nrf2 and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 were elevated in DAS-treated rats, clarifying the effect of DAS on the modulation of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, DAS could induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 via ERK/p38 signaling pathway in lung MRC-5 cells. This study demonstrates that DAS administration can significantly induce the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat lungs and suggests a possible use for DAS as a dietary preventive agent against oxidative stress-induced lung injury.
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Inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on cell proliferation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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The aim of this work was to study the effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on cell proliferation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The results showed that garcinol and pterostilbene decreased the cell population growth and caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. During adipocyte differentiation, both garcinol and pterostilbene had inhibitory effects on fat droplet formation and triacylglycerol accumulation. The data indicated that garcinol and pterostilbene could inhibit the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity by 97.8 and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to the control. Both garcinol and pterostilbene significantly attenuated the protein expressions of PPAR? and C/EBP? during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, garcinol and pterostilbene caused an inhibition of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation phase. Garcinol and pterostilbene also significantly up-regulated the gene expression of adiponectin as well as down-regulated the gene expressions of leptin, resistin, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, garcinol significantly down-regulated the protein expressions of PPAR? and FAS as well as up-regulated the protein expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and adiponectin. Garcinol also significantly up-regulated the gene expression of adiponectin as well as down-regulated the gene expressions of leptin and FAS. These results suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene have anti-adipogenic effects on preadipocytes and adipocytes.
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Glycyrrhizic acid and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of NF-?B through PI3K p110? and p110? inhibitions.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The roots and rhizomes of licorice ( Glycyrrhia ) species have been used extensively as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this work was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?GA) from licorice in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model. The results showed that treatment with 25-75 ?M GA or 18?GA did not reduce RAW 264.7 cell viability but did significantly inhibit the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that GA and 18?GA significantly reduced the protein and mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced macrophages. Both GA and 18?GA inhibited the activation of NF-?B and the activities of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) p110? and p110? isoforms and then reduced the production of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1? in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these results indicate that GA and 18?GA may provide an anti-inflammatory effect by attenuating the generation of excessive NO, PGE(2), and ROS and by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes through the inhibition of NF-?B and PI3K activity. Thus, the results suggest that GA and 18?GA might serve as potential agents for the treatment of inflammatory-mediated diseases.
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AGE-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport as a possible cause of insulin resistance in adipocytes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct roles of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. AGE-modified proteins, namely, GO-AGEs, were prepared by incubating bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glyoxal (GO) for 7 days. Glucose utilization rates and the expression of insulin signaling-associated proteins, including Akt, insulin receptor substrate-1, and glucose transporter 4, were determined. GO-AGEs caused insulin resistance (IR) by suppressing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake both in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 muscle cells. Interestingly, an unexpected finding was that insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes was affected by GO-AGEs in a biphasic manner, with an initial steep increase (168%) during the first 8 h of incubation followed by a significantly impaired uptake after extended culture times (24-48 h, p < 0.05). Treatment with GO-AGEs for 24 h markedly accelerated lipid droplet formation compared to the BSA control; however, it was blocked by incubation with an anti-RAGE antibody. Our study suggests that GO-AGEs induce an early dramatic elevation of glucose transport in adipocytes that may be related to the activation of insulin signaling; however, subsequent IR may result from increased oxidative stress and proinflammatory TNF-? production.
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A comparative study on the effectiveness of cis- and trans-form of cinnamic acid treatments for inhibiting invasive activity of human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Lung cancer is the major cause of tumor-related death, and approximately 70% of lung cancer patients die from metastasis. Evidence that phenolic compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. Cinnamic acid is a member of phenolics which having several isoforms in nature. The trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA) has been investigated extensively for its potential pharmacological effects whereas the study of cis-cinnamic acid (c-CA) is limited because pure c-CA was hard to obtain. We had developed a practicable method previously to transform and obtain pure c-CA, and the pure compound was used to evaluate the anti-invasive effect on human adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The A549 cells were treated with 0-200 ?M of c-CA and t-CA in the presence of 200 nM phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) at 37 °C for 24 h, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, adhesive, migratory, and invasive activities of the cells were determined. The results showed that the treatment of c-CA and t-CA dose-dependently reduced the PMA-induced MMP-2 and -9 activities but without significant effect on the adhesive activity of cells. The PMA-induced motility was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by a 24-h treatment with c-CA and t-CA. The invasive ability was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 68% and 65%, respectively, relative to PMA treatment alone after treatment of PMA-treated A549 cells with either 50 ?M c-CA or 100 ?M t-CA for 24 h. The results suggest that both of the c-CA and t-CA are inhibitors for invasion of A549 cells and the activity of c-CA seems to be higher than t-CA.
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Effect of hesperetin against oxidative stress via ER- and TrkA-mediated actions in PC12 cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Hesperetin is known to activate estrogen receptors (ERs). Estrogen-mediated neuroprotection could be via both ER and tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) signaling. This study tested whether hesperetin protected PC12 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage via ER- and/or TrkA-mediated actions. Hesperetin (0.1, 1, and 50 ?M) inhibited cell viability decreases and reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium level, and caspase-3 activity increases in H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cells. Such actions were significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed by ICI 182,780 (an ER antagonist) or K252a (a TrkA antagonist) at low concentrations (0.1 or 1 ?M) only. Hesperetin also stimulated the activation of Akt, ERK, and CREB as well as induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor, PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), and seladin-1 (selective Alzheimers disease indicator-1) via both ER and TrkA in the cells. This study demonstrates that the neuroprotective effects of hesperetin, at low concentrations, are attributed to its stimulation on receptor signaling. Moreover, ER and TrkA are known to be expressed in most Alzheimers disease (AD) vulnerable brain regions. This study thus suggests that hesperetin might have potential for intervention in neurodegenerative disorders, particularly for AD.
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Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by foodstuffs.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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The Maillard reaction, which is generally termed nonenzymatic browning or glycation, has been implicated in accelerated aging and diabetic complications in vivo. Although the molecular basis of glycation-induced pathogenesis is not well understood, the following have been noted: (1) protein glycation leads to the formation and accumulation of toxic advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs); (2) AGEs can permanently alter the structure and function of body proteins; and (3) the interaction between AGE-modified proteins and AGE-specific receptors (RAGEs) on the cell surface induces the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and inflammatory mediators, which leads to cellular disorders in biological systems. To date, studies that have examined the contribution of protein glycation to disease-states have primarily focused on the deleterious effects and related mechanisms of these glycotoxins. However, it remains unknown whether phytochemicals exert protective effects against glycotoxin-induced damage. Thus, the development and investigation of AGE inhibitors, especially the natural anti-AGE agents without adverse effects, may provide a therapeutic approach for delaying and preventing premature aging and diabetic complications. In this review, we provide an outline of anti-glycation properties of foodstuffs and/or their active components, and discuss their mechanisms of action.
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Hepatoprotection of quercetin against oxidative stress by induction of metallothionein expression through activating MAPK and PI3K pathways and enhancing Nrf2 DNA-binding activity.
N Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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Flavonoids are natural phenolic substances widely found in fruit, vegetables, grains, and wine. Most of these compounds exert health-promoting effects seem to attribute to their antioxidant activity. Metallothioneins (MT) has been suggested to protect against acute heavy metal toxicity in the liver, and the proteins of MT can be induced by various stimuli including antioxidant. Measuring the induction of MT genes may provide an efficient approach to understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of eight flavonoids was determined by TEAC and ORAC assays and their effects on MT protein were also measured. HepG2 cells were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced MT induction. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity of flavonoids and MT expression. Quercetin-induced MT expression may function by activating the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and PI3K/Akt as well as by enhancing Nrf2 DNA-binding activity. Moreover, quercetin exhibited a potential protective effect on t-BHP-caused injury in hepatocytes through the induction of MT. These results suggest that quercetin is a natural antioxidant in the diet and the consumption of foods that are rich in quercetin could be beneficial for the prevention of environmental oxidant-induced liver damage.
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Chemopreventive effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer invasion and metastasis: phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives.
Cancer Treat. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death, and chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic substances to prevent cancer formation or cancer progress. Evidence that phenolic compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. Curcumin, resveratrol, and their related derivatives are the most studied compounds in this topic so far; gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, carnosol, capsaicin, 6-shogaol, 6-gingerol, and their corresponding derivatives are also suggested to be the active members of the phenolic family on anti-invasion and anti-metastasis. Because metastasis occurs through a multistep process, these bioactives might act on a variety of stages of the metastatic process to prevent tumor cells from metastasizing. This review summarizes the common protein targets and signaling pathways for the inhibition of invasion and metastasis as well as past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms of phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives, except flavonoids, on cancer invasion and metastasis. Based on these data, we conclude that the daily consumption of natural dietary components that are rich in phenolics could be beneficial for the prevention of cancer metastasis.
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Protective effects of anthocyanins against amyloid ?-peptide-induced damage in neuro-2A cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Alzheimers disease is neuropathologically characterized by amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition, resulting in neurotoxicity. Herein, we focused on the prevention of anthocyanins from amyloid-mediated neurodysfunction. The data demonstrated that combined exposure of A?(1-40) and A?(25-35) to Neuro-2A cells resulted in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and perturbation of calcium homeostasis. The expressions of LXR?, ApoE, ABCA1, and seladin-1 genes were significantly down-regulated upon A? challenge. ?-Secretase, the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes amyloid precursor protein transform to A?, was up-regulated by A? treatment. For the duration of A? stimulation, malvidin (Mal) or oenin (Oen; malvidin-3-O-glucoside) was added, and the protective effects were observed. Mal and Oen showed protective effects against A?-induced neurotoxicity through blocking ROS formation, preserving Ca(2+) homeostasis, and preventing A?-mediated perturbation of certain genes involved in A? metabolism and cellular defense. The present study implicates anthocyanin as a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of amyloid-mediated neurodysfunction.
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Effects of polyphenolic compounds on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced changes of adipokines and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2010
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Over the last few decades, obesity has become a global epidemic in both developed and developing countries. Recent studies have indicated that obesity is closely associated with chronic inflammation characterized by abnormal levels of adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokines in adipocytes. The aim of this work was to study the effects of 21 polyphenolic compounds on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced changes of adipokines and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol have greater inhibition (p < 0.05) of a TNF-?-induced increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) among 21 tested polyphenolic compounds. p-Coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol demonstrated inhibitions of TNF-?-induced changes in levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and resveratrol increased levels (p < 0.05) of secreted adiponectin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in TNF-?-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results indicate that the inhibition of TNF-?-induced changes of adipokines and oxidative stress by some polyphenolic compounds might have further implications in preventing obesity-related pathologies.
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Anti-inflammatory effect of the 5,7,4-trihydroxy-6-geranylflavanone isolated from the fruit of Artocarpus communis in S100B-induced human monocytes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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The fruit of Artocarpus communis Moraceae, a traditional starch crop, is a rich source of phytochemicals, such as flavonoids and their derivatives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 5,7,4-trihydroxy-6-geranylflavanone (AC-GF), a geranyl flavonoid derivative isolated from the fruits of A. communis, could decrease the activation of inflammatory mediators induced by S100B (ligand of receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE) in THP-1 monocytes. According to the results, low levels of AC-GF (?2.5 ?M) showed a great inhibitory effect on gene expression of RAGE and down-regulated both TNF-? and IL-1? secretion and gene expression (p < 0.05). AC-GF also decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to S100B (p < 0.05). Additionally, Western blotting revealed that AC-GF could effectively attenuate RAGE-dependent signaling, including expression of protein kinase C (PKC) and p47phox, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and particularly NF-?B activation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report that AC-GF possesses great antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. This finding may contribute to increased implication and utilization of the fruit of A. communis Moraceae in functional foods.
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Silymarin: a novel antioxidant with antiglycation and antiinflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of silymarin (SM) on advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation and monocyte activation induced by S100b, a specific ligand of receptor for AGEs. The in vivo verification of antiglycation, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory capacities was examined by 12 weeks of SM administration in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In vitro glycation assays demonstrated that SM exerted marked inhibition during the late stages of glycation and subsequent crosslinking. Dual action mechanisms, namely, antioxidant and reactive carbonyl trapping activities, may contribute to its antiglycation effect. SM produced a significant decrease in monocytic interleukin-1? and COX-2 levels and prevented oxidant formation caused by S100b, which appeared to be mediated by inhibition of p47phox membrane translocation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that S100b increased the recruitment of nuclear factor-kappaB transcription factor as well as cAMP response element-binding-binding protein and coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase-1 cofactors to the interleukin-1? promoter, whereas these changes were inhibited with SM treatment. In vivo, SM reduced tissue AGE accumulation, tail collagen crosslinking, and concentrations of plasma glycated albumin. Levels of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were also significantly decreased in SM-treated groups compared with the diabetic group. These data suggest that SM supplementation may reduce the burden of AGEs in diabetics and may prevent resulting complications.
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Hepatoprotection by freshwater clam extract against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Freshwater clam is traditionally used as a food and has been mentioned in ancient books to have a hepatoprotective effect. The hepatoprotective effect of freshwater clam extract was evaluated in the model of chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with freshwater clam extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.5 g/kg of bw) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg of bw) along with the administration of CCl4 (0.5 ml/rat, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) for eight consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected for assaying serum biochemical parameters. The livers were excised for evaluating peroxidation products and antioxidant substances, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Pathological histology was also performed. The data showed that supplementation of freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in rats treated with CCl4, and also decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroxyproline and excessive inflammation in the livers of CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological analysis of the liver showed that freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) markedly reduced the injury score of the fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. The data suggest that oral administration with freshwater clam extract might provide a novel and alternative approach for treating chronic liver failure.
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Glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit inflammation via PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta signaling and glucocorticoid receptor activation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Many lung-related diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are initiated by airway inflammation, and several studies indicate that glycyrrhizic acid (GA) alleviates inflammatory lung disease. We previously showed that GA and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA), found in licorice, can act as neuroprotective agents by promoting downstream PI3K/Akt signaling. In this study, we investigate the effects of GA and 18betaGA on inflammation. We show that both GA and 18betaGA reduce inflammatory cytokine production and its resulting anti-inflammation. GA acts via PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta to reduce cytokine production, while 18betaGA leads to the dissociation of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-HSP90 complex to block inflammation. Our data suggest that GA and 18betaGA display anti-inflammatory activities but inhibit inflammation via different mechanisms. We propose that GA and 18betaGA may be valuable biological inhibitors of lung inflammation. Interestingly, these data may explain why licorice is frequently used to treat inflammatory disease and it might be a promising nutraceutical for remedying inflammation.
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Anti-invasive effect of a rare mushroom, Ganoderma colossum , on human hepatoma cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Ganoderma colossum is a rare species of the Ganodermataceae family with biological activity but has not been widely used to date. Because of its rareness and hard availability, the literature regarding the bioactivity of G. colossum is very limited and the bioactive components in G. colossum have never been explored. In the present study, an ethanol extract was prepared from the fruiting body of a G. colossum strain (EEGC) and then fractionated by reverese-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of the EEGC on the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion of HepG2 cells were investigated. The fractions of the EEGC cannot be totally identified, but the lucidenic acids were considered as the major component. When HepG2 cells were treated with the EEGC, the PMA-induced invasion was reduced in a dose-dependent manner and the PMA-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was also suppressed at the transcriptional level. The EEGC also showed an inhibitory effect on the PMA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) in cytosol, as well as the activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) levels in the nucleus of HepG2 cells. This study provides the first evidence demonstrating that the EEGC is an effective inhibitior on the PMA-induced invasion of hepatoma cell. The EEGC could be further tested by an in vivo model to verify whether it is effective for the prevention of hepatoma invasion or metastasis.
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Anti-invasion effects of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two active components in ginger, on human hepatocarcinoma cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer and is highly metastatic. Metastasis is considered to be the major cause of death in cancer patients. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-invasion activity of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two compounds found in ginger, on hepatoma cells.
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Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid induce apoptosis in HuH7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway and downregulation of XIAP.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are commonly found in plants and herbs and have been reported to possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In the present study, the effects of OA and UA on induction of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HuH7 cells and the related mechanisms were investigated. The results demonstrate that OA and UA could inhibit the growth of HuH7 cells with IC(50) values of 100 and 75 microM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry indicated that the fraction of HuH7 cells in sub-G1 phase progressively increased with increasing concentrations of OA or UA from 20 to 80 microM. Treatment with OA and UA for 8 h induced a dramatic loss of the mitochondria membrane potential and interfered with the ratio of expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members in HuH7 cells. OA and UA-induced apoptosis involving the release of mitochondria cytochrome c into the cytosol and subsequently induced the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Moreover, HuH7 cells treated with OA and UA suppressed the activity of NF-kappaB and modulated the mRNA expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptotic protein (XIAP) as compared with untreated cells. These results demonstrate that OA and UA induce apoptosis in HuH7 cells through a mitochondria-mediated pathway and downregulation of XIAP.
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Ursolic acid, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, suppresses migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells by modulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Metastasis is one of the most important factors related to breast cancer therapeutic efficacy. Ursolic acid, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, has various anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ursolic acid exerted a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of highly metastatic breast MDAMB231 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. This effect was associated with reduced activities of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and u-PA, which correlated with enhanced expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, respectively. Ursolic acid suppressed the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin, but had no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Ursolic acid also strongly reduced the levels of NFkappaB p65, c-Jun and c-Fos proteins in the nucleus of MDAMB231 cells. A time-dependent inhibition of the protein levels of Rho-like GTPases, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2, Ras and vascular endothelial growth factor in cytosol by ursolic acid treatment was also observed. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the anti-invasive effects of ursolic acid on MDAMB231 cells might be through the inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation and a reduction of the level of NFkappaB protein in the nucleus, ultimately leading to downregulation of MMP-2 and u-PA expression. These results suggest that ursolic acid has potential as a chemopreventive agent for metastatic breast cancer.
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Dietary phenolic acids attenuate multiple stages of protein glycation and high-glucose-stimulated proinflammatory IL-1beta activation by interfering with chromatin remodeling and transcription in monocytes.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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This study examined the effects of dietary phenolic acids on individual stages of protein glycation and utilized monocyte cultures to assess whether these phytochemicals modulate the activation of proinflammatory cytokine under high glucose (HG, 15 mmol/L) conditions mimicking diabetes. In vitro glycation assays showed that a number of phenolic acids exerted inhibitory effects on the glycation reaction and its subsequent crosslinking. Phenolic acids, especially methoxyphenolic acids, prevented increase in both levels of the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and oxidative stress caused by HG. The effect appeared to be mediated by modulation of the protein kinase C/nuclear factor-kappaB axis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated for the first time that HG increased the recruitment of nuclear factor-kappaB p65 and CREB-binding protein to the IL-1beta promoter. Interestingly, HG also increased histone acetylation and methylation within the IL-1beta promoter and decreased histone deacetylase activities in monocytes, thus facilitating chromatin remodeling and transcription. Such inappropriate inflammatory responses were found to be controlled effectively by treatment with methoxyphenolic compounds. In conclusion, this study suggests that phenolic acids could exert their anti-inflammatory activities as antiglycation agents and as modifiers of signaling pathways. It provides evidence for a novel mechanism by which phenolics supplementation might have additional protective effects against diabetic complications.
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The in vitro and in vivo experimental evidences disclose the chemopreventive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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The Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst, an edible mushroom, has been utilized for centuries in East Asia to prevent or treat various diseases and to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis. The primary bioactive compounds are commonly considered to be polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Evidence that G. lucidum extract and its bioactive compounds may have a potential inhibitory effect on cancer invasion and metastasis is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. This review assembles and summarizes past publications on the in vitro and in vivo effects of G. lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis, and concludes that these effects occur through modulation of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) or Akt kinase (protein kinase B). Activation of these kinases subsequently inhibits the activity or expression of activator protein-1(AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), resulting in the down-regulation of urokinase plaminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, interleukin (IL)-8, inducible nitric oxide (NO) and beta1-integrin as shown in various cell lines or animal models. G. lucidum may be an effective nutraceutical used in the prevention of cancer metastasis. To further elucidate the bioactive components present in G. lucidum and the anti-metastatic mechanisms underlying these compounds, more in vitro and in vivo tests as well as clinical trials are necessary.
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Evaluation of anti-invasion effect of resveratrol and related methoxy analogues on human hepatocarcinoma cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and is also highly metastatic. Metastasis is considered to be the major cause of death in cancer patients. Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) and related analogues have been reported as candidates to prevent cancer growth and invasion. The bioactivity of resveratrol-related analogues could be altered due to the presence and positioning of methoxy groups on the basic resveratrol chemical structure. This study investigated the effects and mechanism of action of resveratrol and its methoxy analogues on invasion of human hepatocarcinoma cells. The migratory and invasive abilities of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated HepG2 and PMA-untreated Hep3B cells were both reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with resveratrol and 3,5,4-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (MR-3). Upon incubation of PMA-treated HepG2 cells with resveratrol (0-50 microM) or MR-3 (0-50 microM), the MMP-9 activity decreased but TIMP-1 protein increased in a dose-dependent manner. With resveratrol (0-50 microM) or MR-3 (0-1 microM) treatment on PMA-untreated Hep3B cells, both of the MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities decreased but TIMP-2 protein increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that resveratrol and its related methoxy analogue MR-3 might exert anti-invasive activity against hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. Further analysis with semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that the regulation of MMP-9 and TIMP-2 expressions by resveratrol and MR-3 in hepatoma cells may be on the transcriptional level but on the translational or post-translational level for TIMP-1.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Orthosiphon aristatus and its bioactive compounds.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq., which can be used as a food ingredient, is grown throughout Southeast Asia and Australia. O. aristatus is frequently used for the treatment of renal inflammation, kidney stones and dysuria. The focus of the current work was to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, ethanol and water extracts from O. aristatus (abbreviated as MEOA, EEOA and WEOA, respectively). The evaluation of antioxidant activity was determined by total phenolics, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. These assays demonstrated a relatively high antioxidant activity for MEOA and EEOA. These results revealed that EEOA had the most prominent inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. A high performance liquid chromatography profile indicated that MEOA and EEOA contained both ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Moreover, ursolic acid significantly reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Both EEOA and ursolic acid inhibited LPS-stimulated protein and mRNA expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in these cells. These results demonstrate that EEOA and its bioactive compound, ursolic acid, suppress LPS-induced NO and PGE(2) production by inhibiting ROS generation, along with reducing expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells.
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The proglycation effect of caffeic acid leads to the elevation of oxidative stress and inflammation in monocytes, macrophages and vascular endothelial cells.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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In this study, the effects of phenolic acids [caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid, m-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid] on methylglyoxal (MG)-induced protein glycation were investigated in vitro. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-specific fluorescence showed that MG-mediated protein modification was enhanced dose-dependently by CA (P<.05), whereas ?-lipoic acid, glutathione and EDTA inhibited these changes. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra showed that CA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during glycation, suggesting the proglycation mechanism of CA is associated with its pro-oxidative properties. Additionally, fetal bovine serum (FBS) was utilized as the source of target proteins for evaluating the effects of CA in cells. Differential glycation of FBS samples was performed by incubating FBS with MG, CA or aminoguanidine (AG, an AGE inhibitor). FBS incubated with MG and CA (MG/CA-FBS) evoked the greatest deleterious responses, as follows: (1) inducing proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin-1? expression and ROS production in monocytic THP-1 cells, (2) stimulating TNF-? secretion in RAW 264.7 macrophages and (3) causing oxidative DNA damage and inducing the expression of receptor for AGEs (RAGE), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, adhesion and transendothelial migration of monocytes were also significantly increased by MG/CA-FBS treatment compared to MG-FBS (P<.05). In conclusion, our data show that CA exhibits pro-oxidative and pro-glycative effects during the glycation process, suggesting a detrimental role for CA under high-glycotoxin conditions.
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Antihypertensive effects of Hsian-tsao and its active compound in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens Hemsl.) and its active compound on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were orally administrated either a water extract of Hsian-tsao (WEHT) (1.0 g/kg) or caffeic acid (CA) [0.1 g/kg of body weight (BW)] on a daily basis for 6 weeks. The results indicated that both hepatic and plasmatic malondialdehyde concentration were increased and total liver glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in SHRs when compared to the control Wistar Kyoto rats at the end of the trail. In SHRs, oral administration of WEHT or CA for 6 weeks reduced blood pressure as well as plasma and hepatic malondialdehyde levels and increased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities when compared to SHRs control rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the changes in hepatic antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels by WEHT or CA were similar to those noted in the enzyme activity levels. The hepatic levels obtained from WEHT or CA-administrated rats had significantly greater oxygen radical absorbance capacity values and total GSH levels than those of control rats. Following oral administration of CA, phenolic acid was detected in the plasma, and C(max) value after 1.0 h administration was 0.92 micromol/L. These findings indicate that a supplement of Hsian-tsao may prevent development of increased blood pressure and enhance the total antioxidant status in vivo.
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Protective effect of Millettia reticulata Benth against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage and inflammatory action in rats.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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The effects of the water extracts of Millettia reticulata Benth (WEMRB) and its active compound (protocatechuic acid [PCA]) on acute hepatic injury and inflammation in CCl(4)-induced Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with WEMRB or PCA for 28 consecutive days, and then the rats were given an intraperitoneal injection with CCl(4). Pretreatment with WEMRB or PCA significantly lowered the CCl(4)-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases). Liver histopathology showed that WEMRB reduced the incidence of cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis induced by CCl(4) in rats. Pretreatment with WEMRB also showed anti-inflammation on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase, as well as nitrite and nitrate levels in the CCl(4)-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. The results suggest that oral administration of WEMRB decreases the hepatotoxic effects by increasing glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzyme activity, thereby reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in CCl(4)-induced Sprague-Dawley rats.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of the roots of Alpinia pricei Hayata and its phenolic compounds.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Alpinia pricei Hayata is cultivated throughout Asia and is an endemic plant in Taiwan. The leaf and root of this plant are used for traditional wrapping of food and as a cooking substitute for fresh ginger. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts from A. pricei Hayata (EEAP) and its phenolic compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling indicated that EEAP contained caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, apigenin, curcumin and pinocembrin. EEAP and its phenolic compounds, apigenin, curcumin, and pinocembrin, inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, EEAP, apigenin, curcumin, and pinocembrin decreased LPS-mediated induction of protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, EEAP and its major active compound pinocembrin inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and NF-kappaB-mediated reporter gene expression. EEAP and pinocembrin also significantly inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. When these results are taken together, they indicate that EEAP and pinocembrin suppressed LPS-induced NO and PGE(2) production by inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and ROS generation.
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Protective effect of sulforaphane on indomethacin-induced cytotoxicity via heme oxygenase-1 expression in human intestinal Int 407 cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Sulforaphane is known to be an indirect antioxidant that acts by inducing NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent phase II enzymes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human intestinal Int 407 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot data revealed that sulforaphane induced an increase in HO-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. This induction was also marked by an increase in HO-1 activity. Actinomycin D (an RNA synthesis inhibitor) and cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) inhibited sulforaphane-responsive HO-1 mRNA expression, indicating that sulforaphane is a requirement for transcription and de novo protein synthesis. Moreover, sulforaphane increased the nuclear levels of Nrf2 and increased the binding activity of nuclear proteins to the antioxidant responsive element consensus sequence. We also found that U0126, an ERK kinase inhibitor, suppressed the sulforaphane-induced HO-1 expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Moreover, the cytoprotective effect of sulforaphane on indomethancin-induced cytotoxicity was partially blocked by ERK and HO-1 inhibitors, further demonstrating that sulforaphane attenuated oxidative stress through a pathway that involved ERK and HO-1. Taken together, this study gives additional support to the possible use of sulforaphane as a dietary preventive agent against oxidative stress-induced intestinal injury.
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Naturally occurring flavonoids attenuate high glucose-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytic THP-1 cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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Activation of circulating monocytes by hyperglycemia is bound to play a role in inflammatory and atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined whether flavonoids (catechin, EGCG, luteolin, quercetin, rutin) - phytochemicals that may possible belong to a new class of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibitors - can attenuate high glucose (15 mmol/L, HG)-induced inflammation in human monocytes. Our results show that all flavonoids significantly inhibited HG-induced expression of proinflammatory genes and proteins, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, at a concentration of 20 microM. Flavonoids also prevented oxidative stress in activated monocytes, as demonstrated by their inhibitory effects on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine formation caused by HG. These inhibitory effects may involve inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation and may be supported by downregulation of the following: i) PKC-dependent NADPH oxidase pathway; ii) phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and iii) mRNA expression of receptor of AGEs. In addition, we found for the first time that lower levels of Bcl-2 protein under HG conditions could be countered by the action of flavonoids. Our data suggest that, along with their antioxidant activities, flavonoids possess anti-inflammatory properties and might therefore have additional protective effects against glycotoxin-related inflammation.
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Resveratrol analog-3,5,4-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene inhibits invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cells by suppressing the MAPK pathway and decreasing matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol that presents various physiological activities. It has been reported that the methylated derivatives of resveratrol show better potential antifungal and antiproliferative activities than resveratrol. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of 3,5,4-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (MR-3), a methylated derivative of resveratrol, on the invasion of A549 cells (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line). We found that treatment with MR-3 at the concentration of 5 muM resulted in antiadhesive, antimigratory, and antiinvasive activities on A549 cells through the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 protein expression and transcriptional levels in a time-dependent manner. The suppression of MMP-2 expression by MR-3 led to an inhibition of A549 cell invasion by inactivating phosphorylation of SAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. A time-dependent inhibition of protein levels for p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the nucleus by MR-3 treatment was also observed. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the antiinvasive effects of MR-3 on A549 cells are likely mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of JNK and p38, as well as a reduction in the protein levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in the nucleus, ultimately leading to downregulation of MMP-2 expression.
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Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-bound flavonoids increase the resistance of LDL to oxidation and glycation under pathophysiological concentrations of glucose in vitro.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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The higher susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation and glycation in diabetes has been shown to be related to poor glycemic control. The aim of this study was to determine whether LDL-bound flavonoids attenuate high-glucose (HG)-mediated LDL oxidation and glycation. For this purpose, human plasma was preincubated with individual flavonoids for 3 h, followed by sequential ultracentrifugation and extensive dialysis to remove unbound flavonoid samples. Enriched LDL was subsequently isolated and challenged for its resistance to oxidation and glycation. Results showed that glucose (5-30 mM) dose-dependently accelerates copper (Cu(2+))-mediated LDL oxidative modification. The enrichment of flavonoids such as luteolin, naringenin, and kaempferol significantly increased the resistance of LDL to oxidation and prevented endogenous alpha-tocopherol consumption caused by HG/Cu(2+) (p < 0.05). The long-term glycation of LDL, which was measured by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs)-related fluorescence and boronate affinity chromatography, was found to be inhibited by LDL-bound flavonoids in the following order: rutin > luteolin > quercetin > kaempferol > naringenin > catechin approximately EC > naringin. Moreover, a solid-phase extraction system with HPLC-diode array detection provided evidence that flavonoids were bound to LDL particles to a certain extent concurrently facilitating the lipoprotein antioxidant and antiglycation activities. In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that HG promoted oxidative and glycative modifications of LDL. This is the first study to show that the introduction of flavonoids into LDL particles protects the lipoprotein against glycotoxin-mediated adverse effects.
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Mechanisms of apoptotic effects induced by resveratrol, dibenzoylmethane, and their analogues on human lung carcinoma cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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While lung cancer accounts for approximately 20% of cancer diagnoses, it is the leading cause of tumor-related deaths. The apoptotic effects of 3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol), dibenzoylmethane (DBM), and their analogues on human lung cancer cells are generally unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the apoptotic effects and molecular mechanisms of resveratrol, DBM, and their analogues on human lung cancer cells. The results of the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays indicated that resveratrol, 3,5,4-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (MR-3), and 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione (HMDB) could inhibit cell population growth and induce cell injury in A549 and CH27 cell lines. Resveratrol and HMDB could induce apoptotic cell death in the A549 and CH27 cell lines. Moreover, cellular growth of the A549 and CH27 cell lines might be inhibited by MR-3 through induction of apoptosis and regulation of the cell cycle. The A549 and CH27 cell lines treated with resveratrol, MR-3, and HMDB showed a time-dependent reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased gradually with a higher concentration of polyphenols. The resveratrol-, MR-3-, and HMDB-induced apoptosis in the A549 and CH27 cell lines were controlled through activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequent cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that resveratrol, DBM, and their analogues could be effective candidates for chemoprevention of lung cancer and HMDB might have the strongest ability for inducing apoptosis.
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Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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Metastasis is considered to be the major cause of death in patients with cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly metastatic cancer. Ganoderma lucidum , a well-known mushroom with various biological effects, is a functional food known to contain lucidenic acid. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-invasion effect of a lucidenic acid-rich G. lucidum extract (GLE) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells as well as the antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of GLE in human hepatoma cells implanted into ICR-nu/nu mice. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression levels of HepG2 cells were reduced by GLE treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of GLE on MMP-9 expression proceeded by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B in the cytosol as well as reducing activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in the nucleus of HepG2 cells. In a human tumor xenograft model, a dose-response inhibition was observed in the average size, volume, and weight of tumors upon oral administration of GLE. The number of metastatic tumor-bearing mice, the number of affected organs, and the number of tumor foci as well as the MMP-2 and -9 activities in serum of mice were also significantly suppressed by oral administration of GLE. These results suggest that the lucidenic acid-rich GLE could serve as a chemopreventive agent for the tumorigenesis and metastasis of highly invasive hepatoma cells.
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Inducing gene expression of cardiac antioxidant enzymes by dietary phenolic acids in rats.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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An increase in oxidative stress is suggested to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Phenolic acids are widespread in plant foods; they contain important biological and pharmacological properties. This study evaluated the role of phenolic acids on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Gallic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid at a dosage of 100 mg kg(-1) body weight significantly increased the activities of cardiac superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) as compared with control rats (P<.05). The changes in cardiac CuZnSOD, GPx and CAT mRNA levels induced by phenolic acids were similar to those noted in the enzyme activity levels. A significant (P<.05) increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio was observed in the heart of phenolic acid-treated rats. The heart homogenates obtained from rats that were administered phenolic acids displayed significant (P<.05) increases in capacity for oxygen radical absorbance compared with control rats. Immunoblot analysis revealed the increased cardiac total level of Nrf2 in phenolic acid-treated rats. Interestingly, phenolic acid-mediated antioxidant enzyme expression was accompanied by up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1. This study demonstrates that antioxidant enzymes in rat cardiac tissue can be significantly induced by phenolic acids following oral administration.
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Antioxidant and cognitive promotion effects of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus atropurpurea L.) on senescence-accelerated mice and prevention of Alzheimers disease.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2009
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In the present study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of mulberry extracts (ME), which are rich in phenolics and anthocyanins, on the induction of antioxidant enzymes and on the promotion of cognition in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP). Six-month old SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.18% and 0.9% ME for consecutive 12 weeks. The results showed that the mice fed the ME supplement demonstrated significantly less amyloid beta protein and showed improved learning and memory ability in avoidance response tests. ME-treated mice showed a higher antioxidant enzyme activity and less lipid oxidation in both the brain and liver, as compared to the control mice. Furthermore, treatment with ME decreased the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride and total cholesterol that increase with ageing. The hepatoprotective effect of ME appeared to occur through a mechanism related to regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2, where the latter regulates the induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes and reduction of oxidative damage. Overall, supplementation of ME might be advantageous to the induction of an antioxidant defense system and for the improvement of memory deterioration in ageing animals.
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Modulation of Akt, JNK, and p38 activation is involved in citrus flavonoid-mediated cytoprotection of PC12 cells challenged by hydrogen peroxide.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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The physiological benefits of dietary flavonoids have been attributed to their antioxidant and signaling properties. Our previous study revealed that hesperetin exhibits neuroprotection in PC12 cells by diverse mechanisms. Biological activities of flavonoids might be determined by their chemical structures. Here, we further studied the effects of hesperetin and its structural counterparts, isorhamnetin and isosakuranetin, on kinases related to survival signaling as well as other cytoprotective actions. Pretreatment with flavonoids (0.8 or 50 microM) increased cell viability and catalase activity (CA) and decreased membrane damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i), and caspase-3 activity in H2O2-treated PC12 cells. Increased CA, [Ca2+]i, and ROS levels, but lower caspase-3 activities, were obtained upon treatment with 50 microM isorhamnetin or isosakuranetin. Based on their structural differences and the concentrations used, these flavonoids differentially activated pro-survival signaling molecules, including Akt/protein kinase B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and inhibited the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase, which triggers apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that signaling actions of thses flavonoids are involved in their neuroprotection against oxidative stress and that they act more as signaling molecules than antioxidants.
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Neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in PC12 cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA) are the bioactive compounds of licorice. The neuroprotective effects of GA and 18betaGA against serum/glucose deprivation and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and the mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were determined. PI3K/Akt pathway signaling was also evaluated to study the possible protective mechanism. The results showed that GA treatment decreased the ROS content by elevating the activities of GPx and catalase, leading to a decreased MMP. GA and 18betaGA also lowered the mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activated PI3K/Akt signal. The results suggest that GA may protect PC12 cells from ischemic injury via modulation of the intracellular antioxidant system and mitochondria-induced apoptosis. Moreover, GA and 18betaGA may modulate the ratio of the mitochondrial Bcl-2 family and influence PI3K/Akt signaling. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective ability of GA and 18betaGA and suggest that the cytotoxicity of 6-OHDA may influence the mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2 ratio without altering the expression of Bax. This study also suggests a possible compound for treating neural disease and general neuronal health.
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Phenolic compounds rutin and o-coumaric acid ameliorate obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Dietary fat is one of the most important environmental factors associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the antiobesity effects of rutin (R) and o-coumaric acid (oCA) were investigated. Wistar rats were divided into normal and obese groups, and obese rats were prefed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 40% beef tallow for 4 weeks. Then, R and oCA were given as a supplement to obese rats at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for a period of 8 weeks. The results showed that body, liver organ, and adipose tissue weights of peritoneal and epididymal fat pads in the HFD+ R and HFD+oCA groups were significantly decreased as compared to those in the HFD group. Serum lipid profiles, insulin, and leptin were significantly decreased in the HFD+ R (high dose, HD) and HFD+oCA (HD) groups as compared to those in the HFD group. Hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the HFD+ R (HD) and HFD+oCA (HD) groups as compared to those in the HFD group. Moreover, the consumption of R and oCA reduced oxidative stress and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content, and enhanced the levels of glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase (GPx), GSH reductase (GRd), and GSH S-transferase (GST) in the hepatic tissue of rats with HFD-induced obesity. These results demonstrate that intake of R and oCA can be beneficial for the suppression of high-fat-diet-induced dyslipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and oxidative stress in rats.
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Molecular mechanism depressing PMA-induced invasive behaviors in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by cis- and trans-cinnamic acid.
Eur J Pharm Sci
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Dietary polyphenols have been reported as an effective phytochemical for health protection and cinnamic acid (CA) is one of the polyphenols that has been demonstrated having chemopreventive potential. It was known that the early and distal metastasis might lead to the high mortality of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We previously compared and verified the inhibitory effect of cis-CA and trans-CA on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. By gelatin zymography and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, the activities and mRNA of MMP-9/MMP-2 exerted a significantly (p<.05) dose-dependent reduction by treating with cis-CA and trans-CA. Western blots further showed that the cis-CA- and trans-CA-inhibited MMPs might partly through modulating TIMP-1 and the PAI-2-regulated uPA activity. In molecular level, the AP-1 and NF-?B as well as the downstream of the MAPK pathway might be involved in cis-CA- and trans-CA-inhibited MMPs expression. This study disclosed the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-invasive activity of cis-CA and trans-CA and concluded the cis- and trans-form of CA should be a safe and potential agent to prevent lung tumor cells from metastasizing.
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Glycyrrhizic acid and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid recover glucocorticoid resistance via PI3K-induced AP1, CRE and NFAT activation.
Phytomedicine
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Glucocorticoids are widely used in the clinical setting as remedies for inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the constant increase in the number of patients suffering from glucocorticoid resistance could present a serious problem for clinicians. In these cases, it may be reasonable to use additional treatments to restore the therapeutic effect of glucocorticoids. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?GA) are bioactive compounds in licorice that have been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat coughs. We showed that GA and 18?GA exhibit potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. GA and 18?GA induced dual specificity protein phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) expression, and this effect was unchanged by the addition of RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. The stimulation of DUSP1 expression by GA and 18?GA occurred via both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and PI3K signaling, and the simultaneous activation of transcription elements, such as AP1 (activator protein 1), CRE (cAMP response element), GRE (glucocorticoid receptor element) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells), was confirmed. Furthermore, we designed an in vitro glucocorticoid resistance model to verify the effects of GA and 18?GA on glucocorticoid resistance that was induced by ROS. The data showed that these two phytochemicals restored glucocorticoid sensitivity by depleting ROS through HO-1 expression. p38 and NO, which are factors that are induced by reactive oxygen species and caused depletion of GR signaling, were inhibited by GA and 18?GA treatment. This phenomenon was considered to be related to the coordinated modulation of GR and PI3K signaling by GA and 18?GA, in conjugation with AP1, CRE, GRE and NFAT activation. This study provides a possible strategy for enhancing the efficacy of glucocorticoids and may improve the prognosis of patients with serious inflammatory diseases.
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Pro-cellular survival and neuroprotection of citrus flavonoid: the actions of hesperetin in PC12 cells.
Food Funct
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Hesperetin protects cells against oxidative stress by diverse mechanisms including receptor-mediated actions. PGC-1? and seladin-1 provide potential targets for intervention in oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration. PC12 cells express TrkA and estrogen receptor (ER). It is known that TrkA triggers the MAPK/ERK1, PI-3 K/Akt, PLC?/PKC and cAMP/PKA pathways, and membrane ER triggers the MAPK/ERK1, PKA, Akt/PKB or PKC pathway. Using PC12 cells and immunoblotting, we show that hesperetin induces the rapid (15 min) and sustained (~24 h) expression of PGC-1? (regulated by CREB) and seladin-1 (regulated by ER); hesperetin activates PI-3 K, PKA, PKC, ERK1 and CREB, and it induces PI-3 K, PKA, PGC-1? and seladin-1 via both ER and TrkA; any inhibitor of PI-3 K, PKA or PKC effectively suppresses the activation of ERK1 and CREB as well as the induction of PGC-1? and seladin-1; ERK1 inhibitors effectively suppress hesperetin-induced CREB activation and PGC-1? expression, but have no effect on the induction of seladin-1. This study reveals that hesperetin triggers ER- and TrkA-mediated parallel pathways, collaborating to induce proteins regulated by different transcriptional factors. This novel mechanism explains why hesperetin, although it is known to have relatively low antioxidant and estrogen activities, can exhibit multiple neuroprotective effects.
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Molecular mechanism inhibiting human hepatocarcinoma cell invasion by 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol.
Mol Nutr Food Res
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We previously demonstrated that 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two active compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale), possess antiinvasive activity against highly metastatic hepatoma cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism underlying the transcription and translation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in Hep3B cells as well as the antiangiogenic activity of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol.
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Sulforaphane potentiates the efficacy of imatinib against chronic leukemia cancer stem cells through enhanced abrogation of Wnt/?-catenin function.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Sulforaphane (SFN) has been indicated for the prevention and suppression of tumorigenesis in solid tumors. Herein, we evaluated SFNs effects on imatinib (IM)-resistant leukemia stem cells (LSCs). CD34(+)/CD38(-) and CD34(+)/CD38(+) LSCs were isolated from KU812 cell line flowcytometrically. Isolated LSCs showed high expression of Oct4, CD133, ?-catenin, and Sox2 and IM resistance. Differentially, CD34(+)/CD38(-) LSCs demonstrated higher BCR-ABL and ?-catenin expression and imatinib (IM) resistance than CD34(+)/CD38(+) counterparts. IM and SFN combined treatment sensitized CD34(+)/CD38(-) LSCs and induced apoptosis, shown by increased caspase 3, PARP, and Bax while decreased Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, the combined treatment reduced BCR-ABL and ?-catenin and MDR-1 protein expression. Mechanistically, IM and SFN combined treatment resensitized LSCs by inducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, ?-catenin-silenced LSCs exhibited reduced glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) expression and intracellular GSH level, which led to increased sensitivity toward IM and SFN. We demonstrated that IM and SFN combined treatment effectively eliminated CD34(+)/CD38(-) LSCs. Since SFN has been shown well tolerated in both animals and human, this regimen could be considered for clinical trials.
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Catechin protects against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by up-regulating Nrf2 in vitro and in vivo.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine. However, these drugs may damage the gastrointestinal mucosa. Some reports have suggested that intestinal diseases, such as ulcers, are associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in the mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, are common dietary antioxidants that possess many beneficial characteristics, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of polyphenols on ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa. We evaluated the effects of catechin, theaflavin, malvidin, cyanidin and apigenin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human intestinal-407 (Int-407) cells and rat primary gastric cells treated with ketoprofen. The results indicated that catechin significantly (P<.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (40.5%) and reactive oxygen species (30.0%), and increased the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and total sulfhydryl groups. More importantly, the treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with catechin (35 mg/kg/day) prior to the administration of ketoprofen (50 mg/kg/day) successfully inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of the antioxidant system in the intestinal mucosa. Western blot analysis revealed that catechin stimulated a time-dependent increase in both the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and total heme oxygenase-1 protein expression in Int-407 cells. These results suggest that catechin may have a protective effect on gastrointestinal ulcers.
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Cytoprotective effects of hesperetin and hesperidin against amyloid ?-induced impairment of glucose transport through downregulation of neuronal autophagy.
Mol Nutr Food Res
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This study investigated whether flavonoids, such as hesperetin and hesperidin, inhibited amyloid ? (A?)-impaired glucose utilization through regulating cellular autophagy in insulin-stimulated neuronal cells.
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Synergistic effect of cyanidin and PPAR agonist against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-mediated oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity through MAPK and Nrf2 transduction pathways.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is caused by an elevation in oxidative stress, which might further lead to hepatic fibrogenesis. Importantly, both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) play roles in modulating oxidative stress-mediated hepatic dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the multifunctional effects of cyanidin on regulating antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity. The data indicated that cyanidin-mediated antioxidant enzyme expression involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of cyanidin and the PPAR agonist, troglitazone, on Nrf2-PPAR activation, was also observed. Besides, treatment of cyanidin and troglitazone abolished H?O?-induced downregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, H?O?-mediated cytotoxicity, which was caused by inducing ROS formation and apoptotic cell death, was also ameliorated upon cyanidin and troglitazone stimulation. In conclusion, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the transcription factor Nrf2 played regulatory roles in cyanidin-mediated antioxidant enzyme activation. Furthermore, the combination of cyanidin and troglitazone activated PPAR?-Nrf2 and improved H?O?-mediated perturbation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. These data suggested that cyanidin and PPAR agonists might have synergistic benefits against metabolic dysfunction-related oxidative damage.
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Flavonoids, a ubiquitous dietary phenolic subclass, exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities.
Cancer Metastasis Rev.
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Cancer metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from the primary neoplasm to distant sites, where secondary tumors are formed, and is the major cause of death from cancer. Natural phytochemicals containing phenolic compounds have been widely demonstrated to have the capability to prevent cancer metastasis. Among phenolic compounds, flavonoids are a very large subclass, and they are abundant in food and nutraceuticals. The number of reports demonstrating that flavonoids are an effective natural inhibitor of cancer invasion and metastasis is increasing in the scientific literature. Catechin derivatives, (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (?)-epigallocatechin, (?)-epicatechin-3-gallate,and (?)-epicatechin, are the most studied compounds in this topic so far; genistein/genistin, silibinin, quercetin, and anthocyanin have also been widely investigated for their inhibitory activities on invasion/metastasis. Other flavonoids in dietary vegetable foods that are responsible for anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities of tumors include luteolin,apigenin, myricetin, tangeretin, kaempferol, glycitein, licoricidin,daidzein, and naringenin. To effectively overcome the metastatic cascade, including cell-cell attachment, tissue barrier degradation, migration, invasion, cell-matrix adhesion,and angiogenesis, it is essential that a bioactive compound prevent tumor cells from metastasizing. This review summarizes the effects of flavonoids on the metastatic cascade and the related proteins, the in vitro anti-invasive activity of flavonoids against cancer cells, and the effects of flavonoids on antiangiogenic and in vivo anti-metastatic models. The available scientific evidence indicates that flavonoids are a ubiquitous dietary phenolics subclass and exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities.
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Neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoids.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Recent attention has been given to the influence of dietary factors on health and mental well-being. Oxidative stress is associated with many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary flavonoids exert cardioprotective, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective effects. The biological activities of flavonoids have been attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and signaling properties. A clear understanding of the mechanisms of action, as either antioxidants or signaling molecules, is crucial for the application of flavonoids as interventions in neurodegeneration and as brain foods. Citrus flavonoids exert little adverse effect and have low or no cytotoxicity to healthy, normal cells. The main citrus flavonoids can also traverse the blood-brain barrier; hence, they are promising candidates for intervention in neurodegeneration and as constituents in brain foods. In this review, we discuss the bioactivity, multiple neuroprotection mechanisms, and antioxidant and signaling properties of citrus flavonoids. Receptor-mediated neuroprotective actions and parallel signaling pathways are also explored. Finally, the induction of cellular defense proteins against oxidative stress and neurotoxicity by hesperetin, a main and widespread citrus flavonoid, are also discussed. It is suggested that citrus fruits, which are rich in abundant sources of hesperetin and other flavonoids, are promising for the development of general food-based neuroprotection and brain foods.
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Beneficial effects of camellia oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on ketoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of HO-1 and VEGF.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ketoprofen, are generally used to treat pain and inflammation and as pyretic agents in clinical medicine. However, the usage of these drugs may lead to oxidative injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. Camellia oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used in Taiwan and China as cooking oil. Traditional remedies containing this oil exert beneficial health effects on the bowel, stomach, liver, and lungs. However, the effects of camellia oil on ketoprofen-induced oxidative gastrointestinal mucosal lesions remain unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of camellia oil on ketoprofen-induced acute gastrointestinal ulcers. The results showed that treatment of Int-407 cells with camellia oil (50-75 ?g/mL) not only increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression but also increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) protein secretion, which served as a mucosal barrier against gastrointestinal oxidative injury. Moreover, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with camellia oil (2 mL/kg/day) prior to the administration of ketoprofen (50 mg/kg/day) successfully inhibited COX-2 protein expression, inhibited the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitrite oxide (NO), reversed the impairment of the antioxidant system, and decreased oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa. More importantly, pre-treatment of SD rats with camellia oil strongly inhibited gastrointestinal mucosal injury induced by ketoprofen, which was proved by the histopathological staining of gastrointestinal tissues. Our data suggest that camellia oil exerts potent anti-ulcer effects against oxidative damage in the stomach and intestine induced by ketoprofen.
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A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of licorice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Licorice is an herbal plant named for its unique sweet flavor. It is widely used in the food and tobacco industries as a sweetener. Licorice is also used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and complementary medicine. Because the use of licorice has long been a part of TCM, the details of its therapeutic applications have been thoroughly established. In modern science, licorice is of interest because of its broad range of applications. Extracts of and compounds isolated from licorice have been well studied and biologically characterized. In this review, we discuss the nutraceutical and functional activities of licorice as well as those of the extracts of and the isolated compounds from licorice, including agents with anti-inflammatory activity, cell-protective abilities and chemopreventive effects. The side effects of licorice are also enumerated. A comparison of the activities of licorice described by modern science and TCM is also presented, revealing the correspondence of certain characteristics.
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