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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increased CD8 T-cell granzyme B in COPD is suppressed by treatment with low-dose azithromycin.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major challenge. We have reported increased bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and increased airway CD8 T-cell numbers in COPD. Apoptosis can be induced via the serine protease, granzyme B. However, glucocorticosteroids fail to adequately suppress granzyme B production by CD8 T cells. We previously showed that low-dose azithromycin reduced airways inflammation in COPD subjects and we hypothesized that it would also reduce granzyme B production by CD8 T cells.
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Phenotypic differences of Cryptococcus molecular types and their implications for virulence in a Drosophila model of infection.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Compared to Cryptococcus neoformans, little is known about the virulence of the molecular types in Cryptococcus gattii. We compared in vitro virulence factor production and survival data using a Drosophila model of infection to further characterize the phenotypic features of different cryptococcal molecular types. Forty-nine different isolates were inoculated into wild-type flies and followed for survival. In vitro, isolates were assessed for growth at 30 and 37°C, melanin production, capsule size, resistance to H(2)O(2), and antifungal susceptibility. A mediator model was used to assess molecular type and virulence characteristics as predictors of survival in the fly model. VGIII was the most virulent molecular type in flies (P < 0.001). At 30°C, VGIII isolates grew most rapidly; at 37°C, VNI isolates grew best. C. gattii capsules were larger than those of C. neoformans (P < 0.001). Mediator model analysis found a strong correlation of Drosophila survival with molecular type and with growth at 30°C. We found molecular-type-specific differences in C. gattii in growth at different temperatures, melanin production, capsule size, ability to resist hydrogen peroxide, and antifungal susceptibility, while growth at 30°C and the VGIII molecular type were strongly associated with virulence in a Drosophila model of infection.
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Targeting peripheral blood pro-inflammatory cytotoxic lymphocytes by inhibiting CD137 expression: novel potential treatment for COPD.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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We have shown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the cytotoxic mediator, granzyme B by peripheral blood steroid resistant CD28nullCD137 + CD8+ T cells and granzyme B by NKT-like and NK cells. We hypothesized that we could target these pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes by inhibiting co-stimulation through CD137.
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Loss of glucocorticoid receptor from pro-inflammatory T cells after lung transplant.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Pro-inflammatory cytokines in T and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells increase with time post-transplant in otherwise stable patients, suggesting that some patients become relatively resistant to immunosuppressants such as glucocorticoids (GC). We hypothesized that GC receptor (GCR) would be down-regulated in peripheral blood pro-inflammatory T and NKT-like cells after lung transplantation and loss of GCR would correlate with time post-transplant.
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Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function) were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL) before and after oxidation (oxMBL) with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochroride (AAPH) was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively). Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1) in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.
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Enhanced cytotoxic function of natural killer and natural killer T-like cells associated with decreased CD94 (Kp43) in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease airway.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells represent a small but important proportion of effector lymphocytes that we have previously shown to be major sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzymes. We hypothesized that these cells would be increased in the airway in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), accompanied by reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor CD94 (Kp43) and increased expression of cytotoxic mediators granzyme B and perforin.
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Targeting peripheral blood pro-inflammatory CD28null T cells and natural killer T-like cells by inhibiting CD137 expression: possible relevance to treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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We have shown that bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is associated with attenuated suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzyme B by steroid-resistant peripheral blood CD28nullCD137+ T cells and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells. We hypothesized that we could target these steroid-resistant lymphocytes by inhibiting costimulation through CD137.
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The drug efflux pump Pgp1 in pro-inflammatory lymphocytes is a target for novel treatment strategies in COPD.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic T cells (IFNgamma, TNFalpha, granzyme B+) are increased in the peripheral circulation in COPD. NKT-like and NK cells are effector lymphocytes that we have also shown to be major sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzymes. P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp1) is a transmembrane efflux pump well characterised in drug resistant cancer cells. We hypothesized that Pgp1 would be increased in peripheral blood T, NKT-like and NK cells in patients with COPD, and that this would be accompanied by increased expression of IFNgamma, TNFalpha and granzyme B. We further hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A, a Pgp1 inhibitor, would render cells more sensitive to treatment with corticosteroids. METHODS: Pgp1, granzyme B, IFNgamma and TNFalpha expression were measured in peripheral blood T, NK and NKT-like cells from COPD patients and control subjects (+/- cyclosporine A and prednisolone) following in vitro stimulation and results correlated with uptake of efflux dye Calcein-AM using flow cytometry. RESULTS: There was increased Pgp1 expression by peripheral blood T, NKT-like and NK cells co-expressing IFNgamma, TNFalpha and granzyme B in COPD patients compared with controls (eg %IFNgamma/Pgp1 T, NKT-like, NK for COPD (Control): 25(6), 54(27), 39(23)). There was an inverse correlation between Pgp1 expression and Calcein-AM uptake. Treatment with 2.5 ng/ml cylosporin A and10-6 M prednisolone resulted in synergistic inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Pgp1 + cells (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment strategies that target Pgp1 in T, NKT-like and NK cells may reduce systemic inflammatory mediators in COPD and improve patient morbidity.
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Lectins offer new perspectives in the development of macrophage-targeted therapies for COPD/emphysema.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using ?-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with ?-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies.
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Defective lung macrophage function in lung cancer ± chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema)-mediated by cancer cell production of PGE2?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema) we have shown a reduced ability of lung and alveolar (AM) macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic cells (defective efferocytosis), associated with evidence of secondary cellular necrosis and a resultant inflammatory response in the airway. It is unknown whether this defect is present in cancer (no COPD) and if so, whether this results from soluble mediators produced by cancer cells. We investigated efferocytosis in AM (26 controls, 15 healthy smokers, 37 COPD, 20 COPD+ non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 8 patients with NSCLC without COPD) and tumor and tumor-free lung tissue macrophages (21 NSCLC with/13 without COPD). To investigate the effects of soluble mediators produced by lung cancer cells we then treated AM or U937 macrophages with cancer cell line supernatant and assessed their efferocytosis ability. We qualitatively identified Arachidonic Acid (AA) metabolites in cancer cells by LC-ESI-MSMS, and assessed the effects of COX inhibition (using indomethacin) on efferocytosis. Decreased efferocytosis was noted in all cancer/COPD groups in all compartments. Conditioned media from cancer cell cultures decreased the efferocytosis ability of both AM and U937 macrophages with the most pronounced effects occurring with supernatant from SCLC (an aggressive lung cancer type). AA metabolites identified in cancer cells included PGE2. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on efferocytosis, and the involvement of the COX-2 pathway were shown. Efferocytosis is decreased in COPD/emphysema and lung cancer; the latter at least partially a result of inhibition by soluble mediators produced by cancer cells that include PGE2.
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Decreased efferocytosis and mannose binding lectin in the airway in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a key mediator of both innate immunity and efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) in the airway. Defective efferocytosis results in a net increase in apoptotic material that can undergo secondary necrosis, leading to tissue damage and chronic inflammation. We have shown reduced MBL and efferocytosis in other chronic inflammatory lung diseases; we therefore hypothesized that reduced MBL and efferocytosis in the airways may be a determinant of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation.
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A novel approach to the assessment of lymphocytic bronchiolitis after lung transplantation--transbronchial brush.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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Lymphocytic bronchiolitis (LB) is the strongest risk factor for subsequent allograft loss due to bronchiolitis obliterative syndrome (BOS); however, it is poorly assessed by transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) because of sampling error, interpretation error and the presence of non-alloimmune airway inflammation. We hypothesized that flow cytometric evaluation of bronchiolar brushings (transbronchial brush, TBBr) may be a better approach.
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Cigarette smoke-induced changes to alveolar macrophage phenotype and function are improved by treatment with procysteine.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Defective efferocytosis may perpetuate inflammation in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrophages may phenotypically polarize to classically activated M1 (proinflammatory; regulation of antigen presentation) or alternatively activated M2 (poor antigen presentation; improved efferocytosis) markers. In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived macrophages from control subjects and smoker/ex-smoker COPD subjects, we investigated M1 markers (antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex [MHC] Classes I and II), complement receptors (CRs), the high-affinity Fc receptor involved with immunoglobulin binding for phagocytosis (Fc-gamma receptor, Fc?R1), M2 markers (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin [DC-SIGN] and arginase), and macrophage function (efferocytosis and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS). The availability of glutathione (GSH) in BAL was assessed, because GSH is essential for both M1 function and efferocytosis. We used a murine model to investigate macrophage phenotype/function further in response to cigarette smoke. In lung tissue (disaggregated) and BAL, we investigated CRs, the available GSH, arginase, and efferocytosis. We further investigated the therapeutic effects of an oral administration of a GSH precursor, cysteine l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (procysteine). Significantly decreased efferocytosis, available GSH, and M1 antigen-presenting molecules were evident in both COPD groups, with increased DC-SIGN and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Increased CR-3 was evident in the current-smoker COPD group. In smoke-exposed mice, we found decreased efferocytosis (BAL and tissue) and available GSH, and increased arginase, CR-3, and CR-4. Treatment with procysteine significantly increased GSH, efferocytosis (BAL: control group, 26.2%; smoke-exposed group, 17.66%; procysteine + smoke-exposed group, 27.8%; tissue: control group, 35.9%; smoke-exposed group, 21.6%; procysteine + smoke-exposed group, 34.5%), and decreased CR-4 in lung tissue. Macrophages in COPD are of a mixed phenotype and function. The increased efferocytosis and availability of GSH in response to procysteine indicates that this treatment may be useful as adjunct therapy for improving macrophage function in COPD and in susceptible smokers.
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Lymphocytic bronchiolitis is associated with inadequate suppression of blood T-cell granzyme B, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Lymphocytic bronchiolitis (LB) has been shown to be an important factor for the subsequent development of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). We have previously shown that OB, which limits long-term survival after lung transplantation, is associated with lack of suppression of peripheral blood T-cell granzyme B, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. However, the role of these proinflammatory mediators in LB is unknown. We hypothesized that these proinflammatory mediators may also be increased during LB episodes despite standard immunosuppression regimens.
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is associated with absence of suppression of peripheral blood Th1 proinflammatory cytokines.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the single most important factor that limits long-term survival after lung transplantation. T cells are a major cell type involved in acute graft rejection; however, the role of these cells in BOS is unknown. There have been no previous studies of cytokine production by T cells from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and by intraepithelial T cells from bronchial brushings during BOS, and we hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines may be increased during BOS despite standard immunosuppression regimes.
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Therapeutic role for mannose-binding lectin in cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation? Evidence from a murine model.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Defective efferocytosis in the airway may perpetuate inflammation in smokers with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) improves efferocytosis in vitro; however, the effects of in vivo administration are unknown. MBL circulates in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs), and efferocytosis involves activation of cytoskeletal-remodeling molecules, including Rac1/2/3. We hypothesized that MBL would improve efferocytosis in vivo, and that possible mechanisms for this effect would include up-regulation of Rac1/2/3 or MASPs. We used a smoking mouse model to investigate the effects of MBL on efferocytosis. MBL (20 microg/20 g mouse) was administered via nebulizer to smoke-exposed mice. In lung tissue (disaggregated) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), we investigated leukocyte counts, apoptosis, and the ability of alveolar and tissue macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic murine epithelial cells. In human studies, flow cytometry, ELISA, and RT-PCR were used to investigate the effects of MBL on efferocytosis, Rac1/2/3, and MASPs. Smoke-exposed mice showed significantly reduced efferocytosis in BAL and tissue. Efferocytosis was significantly improved by MBL (BAL: control, 26.2%; smoke-exposed, 17.66%; MBL + smoke-exposed, 27.8%; tissue: control, 35.9%; smoke-exposed, 21.6%; MBL + smoke-exposed, 34.5%). Leukocyte/macrophage counts were normalized in smoke-exposed mice treated with MBL. In human studies, MBL was reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in smokers, and was significantly correlated with reduced efferocytosis ex vivo. MASPs were not detected in BAL, and were not produced by alveolar or tissue macrophages. MBL significantly increased macrophage expression of Rac1/2/3. We provide evidence for Rac1/2/3 involvement in the MBL-mediated improvement in efferocytosis, and a rationale for investigating MBL as a supplement to existing therapies in smoking-related lung inflammation.
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Chemotactic mediators of Th1 T-cell trafficking in smokers and COPD patients.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is smoking-related and associated with increased cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells in the airway. There is a wide range of susceptibility to the damaging effects of cigarette smoke with only a small proportion of smokers progressing to COPD. We have previously reported increased intracellular Th1 cytokines in blood, BAL and intraepithelial CD8+T cells in current and ex-smokers with COPD, whereas healthy smokers showed localized Th1 response in the lung only. We thus hypothesised that Th1-associated chemokines or their receptors on CD8+T-cells may be differentially expressed in the blood of healthy smokers, current smoker COPD subjects and those who had ceased smoking. We investigated chemokines, chemokine receptors and Th1 and cytotoxic T-cell markers in blood and BAL using flow cytometry, ELISA and cytometric bead array. In blood, CXCR3, CCR4, intracellular CCR3 and the Th1 marker 62L(-)CD45RO(+) were increased in both COPD groups and healthy smokers. In contrast, cytotoxic T-cells, ITAC, MIG, IFN-gamma and CCR5 were increased in both COPD groups but not smokers. In BAL, the Th1 marker 62L(-)CD45RO(+), CCR5, CXCR3, IFN-gamma, RANTES, IL-8, MCP-1, MIG and ITAC were increased in both COPD groups and smokers versus controls. Our findings are consistent with systemic inflammation in COPD associated with an increased influx of cytotoxic and Th1 cells into the airway. The differential expression of specific chemokines and their receptors in blood from COPD subjects and healthy smokers suggests that inclusion of these markers in any panel designed for the non-invasive investigation of smokers with a disposition to COPD would be clinically relevant.
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Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intra-epithelial T cells between trachea and bronchi distinguishes severity of COPD.
Cytokine
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Measuring T-cell production of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry enables specific monitoring of airway inflammation and response to therapies in chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have previously shown that T cells in the airways of ex- and current- smoker COPD patients and healthy smokers produce increased T-cell pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN? and TNF? versus healthy controls. However, we could not differentiate between COPD groups and smokers due to a high degree of inter-patient variability. To address this limitation, we hypothesized that intraepithelial T cells obtained from brushings of trachea may serve as an ideal intra-patient control compared with cells obtained from left and right bronchi. Production of intracellular cytokines by intraepithelial T-cells obtained from trachea and right and left bronchi from 26 individuals with COPD (16 with GOLD I and 10 with GOLD II-III disease), 11 healthy controls and 8 smokers was measured by flow cytometry. There was a significant increase in intraepithelial T-cell IFN? and TNF? in both right and left bronchi of GOLD II-III COPD patients compared to cells obtained from the trachea. There were no changes in T cell pro-inflammatory cytokines between the bronchi and trachea from control subjects, GOLD I COPD patients or healthy smokers. There was a significant negative correlation between increased intraepithelial IFN? and TNF? in bronchial brushing T-cells compared with tracheal T-cells, and compared with FEV1. Monitoring intracellular intra-epithelial T-cell cytokine production in bronchial brushings using autologous tracheal brushings as controls provides improves the sensitivity of the technique. Therapeutic targeting of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and assessing the effects of drugs on immune reactivity has the potential to reduce lung inflammation caused by intra-epithelial T cells in COPD.
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is associated with increased peripheral blood natural killer and natural killer T-like granzymes, perforin, and T-helper-type 1 pro-inflammatory cytokines.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
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We previously showed that bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is associated with lack of immunosuppression of T-cell pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzyme B. We recently showed that natural killer (NK) T (NKT)-like cells are a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzymes in the blood of stable lung transplant patients. NK cells also produce these pro-inflammatory mediators, and we hypothesized that BOS may be associated with lack of immunosuppression of these pro-inflammatory mediators in NK and NKT-like cells.
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Increased expression of graft intraepithelial T-cell pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with native lung during episodes of acute rejection.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
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We have previously reported that T-cell pro-inflammatory cytokines in the airways are associated with acute lung transplant rejection. However, during acute rejection episodes, we found no significant differences in airway intraepithelial T cell pro-inflammatory cytokines from stable and rejecting patients due to broad cytokine variability between patient groups. To overcome this limitation, we hypothesized that there would be an increase in pro-inflammatory intraepithelial T-cells in the graft compared with native airway during acute rejection.
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Increased proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and reduced granzyme B in lung cancer: mechanism for immune evasion?
Lung Cancer
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Cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells mount immune responses to cancer via cytotoxic pathways including granzyme B. Cancer cells are also known to develop immune evasion mechanisms. We hypothesised that lung cancer cells would over-express the granzyme B-inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and down-regulate granzyme B expression by neighbouring CD8(+) T-cells. We investigated PI-9 expression in lung cancer cell lines, and primary lung cancer cells obtained at curative lung resection from cancer patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Granzyme B and PI-9 expression was also determined in CD8(+) T-cells from the cancer and non-cancer areas of resected lung tissue and from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). We then evaluated the effects of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines on granzyme B expression and the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T-cells. PI-9 was highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines. Increased PI-9 expression was also observed in primary cancer cells vs. epithelial cells from non-cancer tissue or bronchial brushing-derived normal primary large airway epithelial cells. Expression significantly correlated with cancer stage. Significantly reduced granzyme B was noted in CD8(+) T-cells from cancer vs. non-cancer tissue. Granzyme B production by CD8(+) T-cells was reduced in the presence of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that lung cancer cells utilise their increased PI-9 expression to protect from granzyme B-mediated cytotoxicity as an immune evasion mechanism, a function that increases with lung cancer stage.
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