JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epilepsy surgery in children and adolescents with malformations of cortical development-Outcome and impact of the new ILAE classification on focal cortical dysplasia.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine long-term efficacy and safety of epilepsy surgery in children and adolescents with malformations of cortical development (MCD) and to identify differences in seizure outcome of the various MCD subgroups. Special focus was set on the newly introduced International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).
Related JoVE Video
Prenatal Imaging of Occipital Encephaloceles.
Fetal. Diagn. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction: This retrospective study aims to describe systematically the fetal cerebral MR morphology in cases with occipital meningoencephaloceles using standard and advanced fetal MRI techniques. Material and Methods: The 1.5-tesla MR examinations (T1- and T2-weighted imaging, echo planar imaging, EPI, diffusion-weighted imaging, DWI) of 14 fetuses with occipital/parietal meningoencephaloceles were retrospectively analyzed for the classification of anatomic characteristics. A diffusion tensor sequence was performed in 5 cases. Results: In 9/14 cases the occipital lobes were entirely or partially included in the encephalocele sac. Typical features of Chiari III malformation were seen in 6/14 cases. The displaced brain appeared grossly disorganized in 6/14. The brainstem displayed abnormal 'kinking'/rotation (3/14), a z-shape (1/14) and/or a molar tooth-like configuration of the midbrain (3/14). Tractography revealed the presence and position of sensorimotor tracts in 5/5 and the corpus callosum in 3/5. DWI was helpful in the identification of a displaced brain (in 8/9). EPI visualized the anatomy of draining cerebral veins in 7/9 cases. Clinical (9/14) and MRI (7/14) follow-up data are presented. Discussion: Encephaloceles show a wide range of morphological heterogeneity. Fetal MRI serves as an accurate tool in the visualization of brainstem, white matter pathway and cerebral venous involvement and facilitates the detection of specific underlying syndromes such as ciliopathies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Peripheral Nerve Tractography in Soft Tissue Tumors: A preliminary 3 Tesla DTI study.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction: This diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) study aimed to clarify the relationship of peripheral nerves and soft tissue tumors (STT) in 3D to optimize subsequent treatment. Methods: 26 consecutive STT patients (histologically malignant n=10, intermediate n=3, and benign n=13) underwent 3 Tesla MRI using an echoplanar DTI sequence. Deterministic tractography was performed. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values were measured within peritumoral and distant ROIs. Results: Tractography depicted the 3D course of the sciatic (n=12), femoral (n=2), tibial (n=7), fibular (n=2), median (n=1), musculocutaneous (n=1), and ulnar (n=1) nerves in a regular (n=8/18, 44.4%) or thinned (n=7/18, 38.9%) fashion. The lowest peritumoral FA values, abrupt thinning, and/or complete discontinuity of trajectories were found in 2 cases with histologically proven tumoral nerve infiltration. Discussion: DTI clarifies the 3D topography between major peripheral nerves and STT and may be helpful in the assessment of peripheral nerve infiltration by malignant tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal cardiac disease and fetal lung volume: an in utero MRI investigation.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, noninvasive tool to study fetal lung volumes after 18 weeks of gestation in vivo. In neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD), proper lung function is essential for postnatal survival. Antenatal detection of abnormal pulmonary development may help to optimize prenatal and perinatal management of at-risk fetuses. We aimed to investigate lung volumes in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed heart disease.
Related JoVE Video
MR-Based Morphometry of the Posterior Fossa in Fetuses with Neural Tube Defects of the Spine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In cases of "spina bifida," a detailed prenatal imaging assessment of the exact morphology of neural tube defects (NTD) is often limited. Due to the diverse clinical prognosis and prenatal treatment options, imaging parameters that support the prenatal differentiation between open and closed neural tube defects (ONTDs and CNTDs) are required. This fetal MR study aims to evaluate the clivus-supraocciput angle (CSA) and the maximum transverse diameter of the posterior fossa (TDPF) as morphometric parameters to aid in the reliable diagnosis of either ONTDs or CNTDs.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphological abnormalities. After adapting functional magnetic resonance acquisition, motion correction, and nuisance signal reduction procedures of resting-state functional data analysis to fetuses, we extracted neural activity information for major cortical and subcortical structures. Resting fMRI networks were observed for increasing regional functional connectivity from 21st to 38th gestational weeks (GWs) with a network-based statistical inference approach. The overall connectivity network, short range, and interhemispheric connections showed sigmoid expansion curve peaking at the 26-29 GW. In contrast, long-range connections exhibited linear increase with no periods of peaking development. Region-specific increase of functional signal synchrony followed a sequence of occipital (peak: 24.8 GW), temporal (peak: 26 GW), frontal (peak: 26.4 GW), and parietal expansion (peak: 27.5 GW). We successfully adapted functional neuroimaging and image post-processing approaches to correlate macroscopical scale activations in the fetal brain with gestational age. This in vivo study reflects the fact that the mid-fetal period hosts events that cause the architecture of the brain circuitry to mature, which presumably manifests in increasing strength of intra- and interhemispheric functional macro connectivity.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between eye movement and vision develops before birth.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While the visuomotor system is known to develop rapidly after birth, studies have observed spontaneous activity in vertebrates in visually excitable cortical areas already before extrinsic stimuli are present. Resting state networks and fetal eye movements were observed independently in utero, but no functional brain activity coupled with visual stimuli could be detected using fetal fMRI. This study closes this gap and links in utero eye movement with corresponding functional networks. BOLD resting-state fMRI data were acquired from seven singleton fetuses between gestational weeks 30-36 with normal brain development. During the scan time, fetal eye movements were detected and tracked in the functional MRI data. We show that already in utero spontaneous fetal eye movements are linked to simultaneous networks in visual- and frontal cerebral areas. In our small but in terms of gestational age homogenous sample, evidence across the population suggests that the preparation of the human visuomotor system links visual and motor areas already prior to birth.
Related JoVE Video
A spatio-temporal latent atlas for semi-supervised learning of fetal brain segmentations and morphological age estimation.
Med Image Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prenatal neuroimaging requires reference models that reflect the normal spectrum of fetal brain development, and summarize observations from a representative sample of individuals. Collecting a sufficiently large data set of manually annotated data to construct a comprehensive in vivo atlas of rapidly developing structures is challenging but necessary for large population studies and clinical application. We propose a method for the semi-supervised learning of a spatio-temporal latent atlas of fetal brain development, and corresponding segmentations of emerging cerebral structures, such as the ventricles or cortex. The atlas is based on the annotation of a few examples, and a large number of imaging data without annotation. It models the morphological and developmental variability across the population. Furthermore, it serves as basis for the estimation of a structures morphological age, and its deviation from the nominal gestational age during the assessment of pathologies. Experimental results covering the gestational period of 20-30 gestational weeks demonstrate segmentation accuracy achievable with minimal annotation, and precision of morphological age estimation. Age estimation results on fetuses suffering from lissencephaly demonstrate that they detect significant differences in the age offset compared to a control group.
Related JoVE Video
Signal intensity changes of the fetal liver on MRI in-phase and out-of-phase sequence.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study signal intensity (SI) of the fetal liver by MRI in-phase and out-of-phase over gestational age (GA).
Related JoVE Video
Human long bone development in vivo: analysis of the distal femoral epimetaphysis on MR images of fetuses.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate human long bone development in vivo by analyzing distal femoral epimetaphyseal structures and bone morphometrics on magnetic resonance (MR) images of fetuses.
Related JoVE Video
Assessing prenatal white matter connectivity in commissural agenesis.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum are rather common developmental abnormalities, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical neurodevelopmental deficits. Currently, a significant number of these cases are detected by prenatal sonography during second trimester screening examinations. However, major uncertainties about a detailed morphological diagnosis and the clinical significance do not allow accurate prenatal counselling. Here, we were able to demonstrate the 3D connectivity of aberrant commissural tracts in 16 cases with complete and four cases with partial callosal agenesis using the foetal magnetic resonance imaging techniques of diffusion tensor imaging and tractography in utero and in vivo between gestational weeks 20 and 37. The misguided pre-myelinated callosal axons that represent the bundle of Probst were non-invasively visualized, and they showed a degree of structural integrity similar to that of the callosal pathways of age-matched foetuses without cerebral pathologies. In two foetuses, we were able to prove, by post-mortem histology, that diffusion tensor imaging allows the depiction of the bundle of Probst, even during early stages of pre-myelination at 20 and 22 gestational weeks. In cases with partial callosal agenesis, an aberrant sigmoid-shaped bundle was prenatally depicted, confirming the findings of heterotopic interhemispheric connectivity in adults with partial callosal agenesis. In addition to the corpus callosum, other white matter pathways were also involved, including somatosensory and motor pathways that showed significantly higher fractional anisotropy values in cases with callosal agenesis compared with control subjects. A detailed prenatal assessment of abnormal white matter connectivity in cases of midline anomalies will help to explain and understand the clinical heterogeneity in these cases, taking future foetal neurological counselling strategies to a new level.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Abnormalities of the penis in utero--hypospadias on fetal MRI.
J Perinat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To demonstrate the visualization of penile abnormalities on fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Related JoVE Video
Functional imaging in the fetus.
Top Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review focuses on the application of magnetic resonance imaging methods in utero studying functional brain development of spontaneous brain activity generated under resting conditions and of task-evoked activity using stimulation. These imaging approaches have been useful to explore the brains functional organization during development, as already shown in different substantial resting-state studies in preterms. We also discuss emerging future directions regarding analyzing methods and combination of functional and structural connectivity approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Atlas learning in fetal brain development.
Top Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging has become an important noninvasive technique to gain insight into fetal brain development. Its capabilities go beyond ultrasound when diagnosing high-risk pregnancies. To summarize observations across a population in magnetic resonance imaging studies, reference systems such as atlases that establish correspondences across a cohort are key. In this article, we review the evolution of atlas-building methods in light of their relevance, limitations, and benefits for the modeling of human brain development. Starting with single anatomical templates to which brain scans where mapped to such as Talairach and Montreal Neurological Institute space, we explore the uses of atlases as a means to establish correspondences across a cohort and as a model that captures the population characteristics of the cases the atlas is built from. We discuss methods that capture features of increasingly heterogeneous populations and approaches that are able to generalize with only minimal annotation. The main focus of this review are methods that explicitly model the variability in the population with regard to time, such as in the modeling of disease progression and brain development. We highlight the applicability and limitations of state-of-the art approaches, how insights from the study of disease progression are helpful in developmental studies, and point to the directions of future research that is still necessary.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM).
Related JoVE Video
Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US.
Related JoVE Video
3T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: structural and microstructural evaluation.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus.
Related JoVE Video
Tumor disease and associated congenital abnormalities on prenatal MRI.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI.
Related JoVE Video
Giant solid-cystic hypothalamic hamartoma. Case report.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare lesions for which different classification schemes have been proposed. The authors report on an exceptionally large solid-cystic hamartoma that led to hydrocephalus, precocious puberty, and intractable gelastic seizures. They discuss potential mechanisms of the development of hypothalamic hamartomas.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal smoking and fetal lung volume-an in utero MRI investigation.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether fetal lung volume and fetal lung volume growth over gestation are different in mothers who reported smoking during pregnancy compared to non-smoking controls.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal akinesia and associated abnormalities on prenatal MRI.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In view of the increasing role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal akinesia and associated abnormalities on MRI.
Related JoVE Video
The prenatal origin of hemispheric asymmetry: an in utero neuroimaging study.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anatomical and functional hemispheric lateralization originates from differential gene expression and leads to asymmetric structural brain development, which initially appears in the perisylvian regions by 26 gestational weeks (GWs). In this in vivo neuroimaging study, we demonstrated a predominant pattern of temporal lobe (TL) asymmetry in a large cohort of human fetuses between 18 and 37 GWs. Over two-thirds of fetuses showed a larger, left-sided TL, combined with the earlier appearance of the right superior temporal sulcus by 23 GWs (vs. 25 GWs on the left side), which was also deeper than its left counterpart in the majority of cases (94.2%). Shape analysis detected highly significant differences in the contour of the right and left TLs by 20 GWs. Thus, fetal hemispheric asymmetry can be detected in utero, opening new diagnostic possibilities for the assessment of diseases that are believed to be linked to atypical hemispheric lateralization.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal diffusion imaging: pearls and solutions.
Top Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus has evolved from a basic research application to an important diagnostic imaging tool in fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Although technically challenging and still plagued with several sources of artifacts, DWI can add clinically important information, which cannot be provided by any other prenatal imaging modality. Its potential to noninvasively probe tissue structures on the basis of Brownian molecular motion enables the detection of early changes associated with acute fetal diseases, as well as structural alterations of functionally diverse compartments of different fetal organs. In this article, the current clinical applications of fetal brain and body DWI are outlined, as well as its current limitations.
Related JoVE Video
Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27.
Related JoVE Video
Type 1 diabetes and epilepsy: efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes type 1 seems to be more prevalent in epilepsy, and low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control in diabetes type 2, but data on the use of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) in epilepsy and diabetes are scarce. We present 15 months of follow-up of a 3 years and 6 months old girl with diabetes type 1 (on the KD), right-sided hemiparesis, and focal epilepsy due to a malformation of cortical development. Although epileptiform activity on electroencephalography (EEG) persisted (especially during sleep), clinically overt seizures have not been reported since the KD. An improved activity level and significant developmental achievements were noticed. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels improved, and glycemic control was excellent, without severe side effects. Our experience indicates that diabetes does not preclude the use of the KD.
Related JoVE Video
The current state and future of fetal imaging.
Clin Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add important diagnostic information to prenatal sonography and has the power to confirm or change decisions at critical points in clinical care. Recent studies have shown MRI to be a critical clinical adjunct in the evaluation of the developing central nervous system (CNS), especially at early gestational ages, and MRI has been used in three significant ways: (1) for the quantification of brain growth and structural abnormalities using biometry, (2) for the qualitative evaluation of CNS microstructure, and (3) for the qualitative assessment of dynamic fetal movements in utero.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic pitfalls in fetal brain MRI.
Semin. Perinatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent technological advances in fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and increased reliability of MRI in depicting abnormalities and lesions, especially in the central nervous system, are increasingly bringing up challenging issues with regard to accurate diagnosis. There are also pitfalls not only attributable to image acquisition but also in clinical interpretation. The misinterpretation of findings because of insufficient knowledge about fetal brain development as visualized by MRI may also be regarded as an important limitation of fetal MRI. We provide an overview of the most common pitfalls experienced in fetal MRI in routine practice, demonstrate how to identify some of the factors that lead to imaging misinterpretation, and suggest ways to tackle these problems, with an emphasis on MR techniques and image calibration.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome.
Related JoVE Video
[Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain--a systematic review].
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the treatment of phantom limb pain with mirror therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Brain tumor surgery with 3-dimensional surface navigation.
Neurosurgery
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Precise lesion localization is necessary for neurosurgical procedures not only during the operative approach, but also during the preoperative planning phase.
Related JoVE Video
MRI of the placenta - a short review.
Wien Med Wochenschr
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While ultrasound is still the gold standard method of placental investigation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has certain benefits. In advanced gestational age, obese women, and posterior placental location, MRI is advantageous due to the larger field of view and its multiplanar capabilities. Some pathologies are seen more clearly in MRI, such as infarctions and placental invasive disorders. The future development is towards functional placental MRI. Placental MRI has become an important complementary method for evaluation of placental anatomy and pathologies contributing to fetal problems such as intrauterine growth restriction.
Related JoVE Video
Clubfeet and associated abnormalities on fetal magnetic resonance imaging.
Prenat. Diagn.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clubfoot, or talipes equinovarus (TEV), is commonly diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound. This study sought to visualize TEV and associated abnormalities on fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with ultrasound.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal smoking and fetal lung signals--an in utero MRI investigation.
Prenat. Diagn.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether fetal lung signals and fetal lung signal progression over gestation observed on magnetic resonance imaging are different in mothers who reported smoking during pregnancy compared with nonsmoking controls.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of inferior vena cava compression syndrome during fetal MRI in the supine position - a retrospective analysis.
J Perinat Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objectives: Inferior vena cava compression syndrome (VCCS) is a serious complication of supine fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, particularly during late gestation. This morphologic study correlated the occurrence of VCCS with the grade of inferior vena cava (IVC) compression. Materials and methods: There were 56 fetal MRI in the supine position [median gestational weeks (GW) 27+4] and 16 fetal MRI in the lateral position (median GW 30+6) retrospectively analyzed. The grade of maternal IVC compression was determined by the maximal anterior-posterior diameter (DAP) at the level of L4/L5. Fetal head position and right-sided uterus volume were analyzed. Clinical VCCS-related symptoms during fetal MRI were assessed. Results: A noncompressed IVC was present in 1.8% (n=1) and a DAP of 5 to <10 mm in 33.3% (n=19) and 1 to <5 mm in 64.9% (n=36). The DAP was independent of fetal head position (P=0.99) and showed no significant correlation with gestational age (r=0.33). IVC compression increased with right-sided uterus volume (r=-0.328; P=0.014). There was a significant difference in DAP in the lateral position compared with the supine position (P<0.001). Clinical assessment revealed no symptoms of VCCS in any woman. Conclusions: The presented data support the concept of physiologic compensation for significantly reduced venous backflow in the supine position during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.