Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) plays a key role in DNA repair and is highly expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We investigated the therapeutic impact of PARP inhibition in SCLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of veliparib, cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide singly and combined was determined by MTS in 9 SCLC cell lines (H69, H128, H146, H526, H187, H209, DMS53, DMS153, and DMS114). Subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nu/nu mice of H146 and H128 cells with relatively high and low platinum sensitivity, respectively, were employed for in vivo testing. Mechanisms of differential sensitivity of SCLC cell lines to PARP inhibition were investigated by comparing protein and gene expression profiles of the platinum sensitive and the less sensitive cell lines. Veliparib showed limited single-agent cytotoxicity but selectively potentiated (?50% reduction in IC50 ) cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide in vitro in five of nine SCLC cell lines. Veliparib with cisplatin or etoposide or with both cisplatin and etoposide showed greater delay in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone in H146 but not H128 xenografts. The potentiating effect of veliparib was associated with in vitro cell line sensitivity to cisplatin (CC = 0.672; P = 0.048) and DNA-PKcs protein modulation. Gene expression profiling identified differential expression of a 5-gene panel (GLS, UBEC2, HACL1, MSI2, and LOC100129585) in cell lines with relatively greater sensitivity to platinum and veliparib combination. Veliparib potentiates standard cytotoxic agents against SCLC in a cell-specific manner. This potentiation correlates with platinum sensitivity, DNA-PKcs expression and a 5-gene expression profile.
The role of molecular methods in the diagnosis of head and neck cancer is rapidly evolving and holds great potential for improving outcomes for all patients who suffer from this diverse group of malignancies . However, there is considerable debate as to the best clinical approaches, particularly for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The choices of NGS methods such as whole exome, whole genome, whole transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) or multiple gene resequencing panels, each have strengths and weakness based on data quality, the size of the data, the turnaround time for data analysis, and clinical actionability. There have also been a variety of gene expression signatures established from microarray studies that correlate with relapse and response to treatment, but none of these methods have been implemented as standard of care for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Because many genomic methodologies are still far from the capabilities of most clinical laboratories, we chose to explore the use of a combination of off the shelf targeted mutation analysis and gene expression analysis methods to complement standard anatomical pathology methods. Specifically, we have used the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq cancer panel in combination with the NanoString nCounter Human Cancer Reference Kit on 8 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) OPSCC tumor specimens, (4) HPV-positive and (4) HPV-negative. Differential expression analysis between HPV-positive and negative groups showed that expression of several genes was highly likely to correlate with HPV status. For example, WNT1, PDGFA and OGG1 were all over-expressed in the positive group. Our results show the utility of these methods with routine FFPE clinical specimens to identify potential therapeutic targets which could be readily applied in a clinical trial setting for clinical laboratories lacking the instrumentation or bioinformatics infrastructure to support comprehensive genomics workflows. To the best of our knowledge, these preliminary experiments are among the earliest to combine both mutational and gene expression profiles using Ion Torrent and NanoString technologies. This reports serves as a proof of principle methodology in OPSCC.
We present a pipeline to perform integrative analysis of mate-pair (MP) and paired-end (PE) genomic DNA sequencing data. Our pipeline detects structural variations (SVs) by taking aligned sequencing read pairs as input and classifying these reads into properly paired and discordantly paired categories based on their orientation and inferred insert sizes. Recurrent SV was identified from the discordant read pairs. Our pipeline takes into account genomic annotation and genome repetitive element information to increase detection specificity. Application of our pipeline to whole-genome MP and PE sequencing data from three multiple myeloma cell lines (KMS11, MM.1S, and RPMI8226) recovered known SVs, such as heterozygous TRAF3 deletion, as well as a novel experimentally validated SPI1 - ZNF287 inter-chromosomal rearrangement in the RPMI8226 cell line.
Depression is common during and after breast cancer treatment. However, the role of specific therapeutic modalities and related biologic mechanisms remains unclear. Radiation is an essential component of breast-conserving therapy and may contribute to depression in patients with breast cancer through the activation of inflammatory pathways.
T cell dysfunction is an important feature of many chronic viral infections. In particular, it was shown that programmed death-1 (PD-1) regulates T cell dysfunction during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice, and PD-1(hi) cells exhibit an intense exhausted gene signature. These findings were extended to human chronic infections such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus. However, it is not known if PD-1(hi) cells of healthy humans have the traits of exhausted cells. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of phenotype, function, and gene expression profiles of PD-1(hi) versus PD-1(lo) CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood of healthy human adults as follows: 1) the percentage of naive and memory CD8 T cells varied widely in the peripheral blood cells of healthy humans, and PD-1 was expressed by the memory CD8 T cells; 2) PD-1(hi) CD8 T cells in healthy humans did not significantly correlate with the PD-1(hi) exhausted gene signature of HIV-specific human CD8 T cells or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific CD8 T cells from mice; 3) PD-1 expression did not directly affect the ability of CD8 T cells to secrete cytokines in healthy adults; 4) PD-1 was expressed by the effector memory compared with terminally differentiated effector CD8 T cells; and 5) finally, an interesting inverse relationship between CD45RA and PD-1 expression was observed. In conclusion, our study shows that most PD-1(hi) CD8 T cells in healthy adult humans are effector memory cells rather than exhausted cells.
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