JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Determination of serotyping antigens, clonal analysis and genetic characterization of the 4CMenB vaccine antigen genes in invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Western Canada, 2009 to 2013.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined invasive Neisseria meningitidis recovered from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases in Western Canada between 2009 and 2013. A total of 161 isolates from individual IMD cases were analysed for serogroup, serotype, serosubtype, PorA genotype, multi-locus sequence type and nucleotide sequence of their 4CMenB vaccine antigen genes. Sixty-nine isolates were serogroup B (MenB), 47 were serogroup Y (MenY), 22 were serogroup C (MenC), 19 were serogroup W (MenW), three were serogroup E and one was non-encapsulated. MenC, MenY and MenW were mainly clonal, represented primarily by clonal complex (cc) 11, cc23 or cc167, and cc22, respectively. In contrast, MenB were composed of eight different ccs together with 11 isolates not assigned to any known cc. Antigenic analysis and PorA genotyping confirmed the heterogeneity of MenB isolates, while such results supported the clonal nature of most MenC, MenY and MenW isolates. Thirty-four (21.1?%) isolates had at least one gene that encoded one matching vaccine protein component of the 4CMenB vaccine (i.e. PorA P1.4; fHbp variant 1.1; NHBA peptide 2; and NadA-1, -2, or -3). An additional 18 isolates had genes that encoded variant 1 or subfamily B factor H binding proteins of this same vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
Serotype distribution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 2010-2012.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in Canada was very effective in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children; however, increases of non-PCV7 serotypes have subsequently offset some of these reductions. A 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) targeting additional serotypes was implemented between 2010 and 2011, and in 2012 changes in the incidence of disease and the distribution of IPD serotypes began to emerge. The incidence of IPD in children <5 years of age declined from 18.0 to 14.2 cases per 100?000 population between 2010 and 2012; however, the incidence in ages ?5 years remained relatively unchanged over the 3-year period, at about 9.7 cases per 100?000 population. From 2010 to 2012, PCV13 serotypes declined significantly from 66% (224/339) to 41% (101/244, p < 0.001) in children <5 years of age, and from 54% (1262/2360) to 43% (1006/2353, p < 0.001) in children ?5 years of age. Serotypes 19A, 7F, 3, and 22F were the most common serotypes in 2012, with 19A decreasing from 19% (521/2727) to 14% (364/2620, p < 0.001), 7F decreasing from 14% (389/2727) to 12% (323/2620, p = 0.04), and 22F increasing from 7% (185/2727) to 11% (279/2620, p < 0.001) since 2010. Serotype 3 increased from 7% (23/339) to 10% (24/244) in <5-year-olds (p = 0.22) over the 3-year period. The highest rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed with clarithromycin (23%), penicillin using meningitis breakpoints (12%), clindamycin (8%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (6%). Shifts in the distribution of IPD serotypes and reductions in the incidence of disease suggest that current immunization programs in Canada are effective in reducing the burden of IPD in children. While we acknowledge the limited data on the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine, to our knowledge, this study represents one of the first descriptions of the potential impact of the PCV13 vaccine in the Canadian population. Continued surveillance will be important to recognize replacement serotypes, to determine the extent of herd immunity effects in nonpaediatric populations, and to assess the overall effectiveness of PCV13 in reducing IPD in Canada.
Related JoVE Video
Pneumococcal vaccination programs and the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 1995-2011.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 1995, a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccination program for 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was introduced in Ontario. Conjugate vaccines were authorized in 2001 (PCV7), 2009 (PCV10) and 2010 (PCV13).
Related JoVE Video
Canadian multicenter laboratory study for standardized second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in Canadian laboratories. Four Canadian public health laboratories compared the susceptibility testing results of 9 second-line antimicrobials between the Bactec 460 and Bactec MGIT 960 systems. Based on the data generated, we have established that the Bactec MGIT 960 system provides results comparable to those obtained with the previous Bactec 460 method. The critical concentrations established for the testing of the antimicrobials used are as follows: amikacin, 1 ?g/ml; capreomycin, 2.5 ?g/ml; ethionamide, 5 ?g/ml; kanamycin, 2.5 ?g/ml; linezolid, 1 ?g/ml; moxifloxacin, 0.25 ?g/ml; ofloxacin, 2 ?g/ml; p-aminosalicylic acid, 4 ?g/ml; rifabutin, 0.5 ?g/ml.
Related JoVE Video
Binding of group B streptococcal phosphoglycerate kinase to plasminogen and actin.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The glycolytic enzyme, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) of group B streptococci (GBS), has previously been identified as expressed on the GBS cell surface. The data presented describes the ability of group B streptococcal phosphoglycerate kinase (GBS-PGK) to bind to plasminogen and to bind actin. GBS-PGK binding to plasminogen was inhibited by the lysine analogue, 6-aminocaproic acid, suggesting plasminogen binding is achieved through GBS-PGK lysine residues. In addition to GBS-PGK surface expression, GBS-PGK was also found to be released from the bacterial cell suggesting GBS-PGK may affect its environment independent of GBS. To determine the effect of GBS-PGK on the actin cytoskeleton within a host cell, GBS-PGK attached to green fluorescent protein was transfected into and expressed in HeLa cells. Transfected GBS-PGK disrupted the actin cytoskeleton resulting in a compact or ovoid shaped HeLa cell rather than a typical epithelioid appearance. In conclusion, we have shown GBS-PGK binds to plasminogen and actin. We have also shown that GBS-PGK can be released from the bacterial cell and that transfected GBS-PGK can alter the epithelial cell cytoskeleton.
Related JoVE Video
Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usage, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, and mutations in the genes that encode the major target sites for the fluoroquinolones (gyrA and parC) in pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada-wide surveillance. A total of 26,081 isolates were collected between 1998 and 2009. During this time period, total per capita outpatient use of fluoroquinolones increased from 64 to 96 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year. The proportion of prescriptions for respiratory tract infection that were for fluoroquinolones increased from 5.9% to 10.7%, but the distribution changed: the proportion of prescriptions for ciprofloxacin decreased from 5.3% to 0.5%, and those for levofloxacin or moxifloxacin increased from 1.5% in 1999 to 5.9% in 2009. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC ? 4 ?g/ml), levofloxacin resistance, and moxifloxacin resistance remained unchanged at <2%. Multivariable analyses showed that prevalence of mutations known to be associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones did not change during the surveillance period. If fluoroquinolone therapy is required, the preferential use of fluoroquinolones with enhanced pneumococcal activity to treat pneumococcal infections may slow the emergence of resistance in S. pneumoniae.
Related JoVE Video
Factors predicting mortality in invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Alberta.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To define the factors associated with 30-day mortality among adult patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), we conducted a retrospective review of all cases of IPD in Alberta from 2000 to 2004. We hypothesized that multiple factors would be predictive of such mortality. We also examined the factors predictive of early (within 5 days of admission) mortality. We identified 1154 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 163 (14.1%) of whom died within 30 days. Over half (62.6%) of the deaths occurred within 5 days of admission. Ten factors were independently associated with increased 30-day mortality: 3 comorbidity factors-cancer within 5 years of diagnosis of IPD, diabetes, and cirrhosis; 4 complications-requirement for supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, alteration of mental status, and cardiac arrest; 2 microorganism-related factors-infection with high- or infection with intermediate-mortality serotypes; and 1 treatment-related factor-treatment with a single antibiotic. Age 18-40 years and treatment with 2 antibiotics concurrently were associated with lower 30-day mortality. Comorbid illnesses were not contributory to early mortality (within 5 days of admission); instead, complications (alteration of mental status, requirement for supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and cardiac arrest) as well as infection with high-mortality serotypes and treatment with a single antibiotic were important. Age 18-40 years, infection with serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine, and treatment with 2 or more than 2 antibiotics were associated with decreased early mortality. Early mortality accounted for 62.6% of the deaths. In conclusion, we found that mortality in IPD is multifactorial, the factors differ for 5- and 30-day mortality, and mortality is associated with host (age and complications), microorganism (pneumococcal serotypes), and therapeutic factors. Our data indicate that treatment with 2 or more antibiotics effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae should be used to treat IPD.
Related JoVE Video
The tuberculin skin test is unreliable in school children BCG-vaccinated in infancy and at low risk of tuberculosis infection.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used to screen for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in school children, many of whom were bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated in infancy. The reliability of the TST in such children is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Mycobacterium senegalense tissue infection in a child after fish tank exposure.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present report describes the first known case of an otherwise healthy child who developed a soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium senegalense - a pathogen usually found in east Africa that is responsible for infecting various animals. The patient presented with nonhealing wounds after sustaining facial lacerations from the shattered glass of a fish tank. The patient responded well to scar revision and antibiotics, with no subsequent relapse.
Related JoVE Video
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in Alberta pre- and postintroduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology and outcomes of patients of all ages with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis two years pre- and postintroduction of a S pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine program in Alberta in children <2 years of age.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemic of group A Streptococcus M/emm59 causing invasive disease in Canada.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) disease can vary over time and geographic region, possibly reflecting the populations susceptibility to particular strains but also variation in the predominant M/emm types. Canadian surveillance documented an epidemic of an uncommon M/emm59 type from 2006 to 2009.
Related JoVE Video
Induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: Is it useful in clinical practice?
Can. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is challenging in patients who are unable to spontaneously expectorate. Published evidence suggests that induced sputum (IS) is the least invasive and most cost-effective method of diagnosis, and should be used before fibre-optic bronchoscopy (FOB).
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are three different pneumococcal vaccines available for infants, each oriented to a specific set of serotypes. The vaccination of newborns will prevent pneumococcal disease in this vaccinated group via direct effects, and will also affect the non-vaccinated population through indirect or "herd" immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Welders are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Welders are at increased risk of pulmonary infection and lobar pneumonia, likely due to significant occupational exposure to metal fumes. We hypothesized that welders would be at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared to the general population.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular complexity of successive bacterial epidemics deconvoluted by comparative pathogenomics.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the fine-structure molecular architecture of bacterial epidemics has been a long-sought goal of infectious disease research. We used short-read-length DNA sequencing coupled with mass spectroscopy analysis of SNPs to study the molecular pathogenomics of three successive epidemics of invasive infections involving 344 serotype M3 group A Streptococcus in Ontario, Canada. Sequencing the genome of 95 strains from the three epidemics, coupled with analysis of 280 biallelic SNPs in all 344 strains, revealed an unexpectedly complex population structure composed of a dynamic mixture of distinct clonally related complexes. We discovered that each epidemic is dominated by micro- and macrobursts of multiple emergent clones, some with distinct strain genotype-patient phenotype relationships. On average, strains were differentiated from one another by only 49 SNPs and 11 insertion-deletion events (indels) in the core genome. Ten percent of SNPs are strain specific; that is, each strain has a unique genome sequence. We identified nonrandom temporal-spatial patterns of strain distribution within and between the epidemic peaks. The extensive full-genome data permitted us to identify genes with significantly increased rates of nonsynonymous (amino acid-altering) nucleotide polymorphisms, thereby providing clues about selective forces operative in the host. Comparative expression microarray analysis revealed that closely related strains differentiated by seemingly modest genetic changes can have significantly divergent transcriptomes. We conclude that enhanced understanding of bacterial epidemics requires a deep-sequencing, geographically centric, comparative pathogenomics strategy.
Related JoVE Video
Pneumococcal peritonitis: Still with us and likely to increase in importance.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pneumococcal peritonitis is uncommon and poorly understood.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of routine vaccination on invasive pneumococcal infections in Canadian children, Immunization Monitoring Program, Active 2000-2007.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Active surveillance was conducted by the 12 centers of the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active from 2000-2007 in children 16 years of age and younger to determine the influence of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate immunization programs on the prevalence, serotype and antibiotic resistance patterns of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The absolute number of reported IPD cases decreased 48% (p<0.01) over the 8-year period and 56% (p<0.01) in children 0-4 years of age. The absolute number of reported IPD cases caused by serotypes in the conjugate vaccine decreased 87.5% (p<0.01) overall and 92% (p<0.01) in children 0-4 years. Although 6 non-vaccine serotypes increased over time, only serotype 19A increased significantly (p<0.01). Overall, the proportion of penicillin resistant isolates remained unchanged at 17%. Cefotaxime/ceftriaxone resistance remained unchanged at 2% of isolates annually. Universal pneumococcal conjugate infant immunization programs have dramatically decreased cases of invasive pneumococcal disease.
Related JoVE Video
Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Canada, 1998-2007: update from the Calgary-area Streptococcus pneumoniae research (CASPER) study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Routine infant vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) began in the Calgary Health Region (Alberta, Canada) in 2002. We measured the impact of this vaccine program on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).
Related JoVE Video
Production of Shiga-like toxins in viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7, a causative agent of hemolytic uremic syndrome, can enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state when under stress. To date, it is unknown whether VBNC cells produce Shiga-like toxins (Stx). To address this question, we confirmed the expression of the stx1 and stx2 genes and the production of Stx in VBNC E. coli O157:H7 cells. To quantitatively assess the production of Stx in VBNC cells, we developed a Vero-cell microplate cytotoxicity assay based on the correspondence of the cytotoxicity of VBNC cells on Vero cells to the number of inoculated VBNC cells. Using this method, we found that all VBNC cells induced by river water, PBS buffer, deionized water, or chloraminated water retained the ability to produce Stx, and that they had differing levels of Stx. Both aged (19-month-old) VBNC cells induced by river water and fresh VBNC cells induced by chloraminated water showed very low half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50; 6.6 x 10(4) and 7.1 x 10(4) respectively), corresponding to higher levels of toxins produced than VBNC cells induced by deionized water and PBS buffer. VBNC cells originating from different isolates may vary in Stx production, and the VBNC cells from bovine isolates produced higher levels of Stx than those from clinical isolates. These results demonstrate a potential health risk of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 in environmental water and the importance of monitoring VBNC E. coli O157:H7.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology and genotype analysis of sapovirus associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta, Canada: 2004-2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study describes the epidemiology and circulating strains of sapovirus associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta, Canada, from 2004 to 2007. Sapovirus was an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, accounting for 43 (17.6%) of 244 outbreaks in which all samples tested were negative for norovirus. All 4 human sapovirus genotypes, GI, GII, GIV, and GV, were found in samples during these outbreaks. The greatest amount of sapovirus-associated outbreak activity occurred in 2007, after the emergence of genotype GIV in December 2006. The majority of sapovirus-associated outbreaks in Alberta during this period (27 [62.8%] of 43) occurred in hospitals, community long-term care facilities, and senior lodges. Adults>65 years of age were the age group most commonly affected.
Related JoVE Video
Utility of the pneumoslide test in identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures and its relation to capsular serotype.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The performance of the Pneumoslide test for rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae was evaluated when used directly on positive blood culture specimens. The sensitivity was 75.3%, and the specificity was 98.6%. Pneumoslide test performance accuracy varied depending on the pneumococcal serotype.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the viable but non-culturable state by chloraminated water and river water, and subsequent resuscitation.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induction of culturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state by chloraminated tap water was carefully investigated; as many as 90% of initial cells entered into a VBNC state within 15?min, compared with 14% in river water within 14 weeks. To understand what specific stresses may induce E. coli O157:H7 into a VBNC state, chloraminated tap water, autoclaved river water, and media with known ingredients (PBS buffer and deionized water) at 4°C or 25°C were used to examine induction efficiency. Chloramination alone, or the combination of starvation with either low temperature or osmotic pressure, induced E. coli O157:H7 into a VBNC state, while starvation alone did not induce the bacteria into a VBNC state within 1.5 years. The mRNA of the rfbE and fliC genes was detected in the 10-month-old VBNC cells induced by river water, confirming the viability of E. coli O157:H7 VBNC cells. The VBNC cells induced by chloraminated water and the 10-month-old VBNC cells induced by river water were first resuscitated using autoinducers produced by E. coli O157:H7 itself in a serum-based medium; the VBNC cells of bovine isolates recovered more efficiently compared with those of clinical isolates. These results demonstrate a potential health risk of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 in environmental water and the utility of monitoring viable E. coli O157:H7 including VBNC cells based on the mRNA of the rfbE and fliC genes.
Related JoVE Video
Population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults in Toronto.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identification of high-risk populations for serious infection due to S. pneumoniae will permit appropriately targeted prevention programs.
Related JoVE Video
Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae pre- and post-seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Alberta, Canada, 2000-2006.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alberta, Canada introduced the Streptococcus pneumoniae seven valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) program for children less than 2 years of age in September 2002. We determined the rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in Alberta, Canada 2 years pre- and 4 years post-PCV7 introduction (2000-2006) as well as the rates of antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution in this same time period. Overall, PCV7 serotypes decreased 61% from 2000 to 2006. The greatest decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease occurred in children less than 2 years of age declining from a high of 96.7/100,000 (2000) to 25.8/100,000 (2006) (P<0.0001). Non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates to penicillin dropped significantly from 14% in 2000 to 4.6% in 2006 (P<0.0001). Non-susceptible erythromycin isolates also decreased from 8.8% (2000) to 5.8% (2006) (P=0.13). The introduction of PCV7 in Alberta, Canada has decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in Alberta as well as resulting in a decrease in antibiotic resistance over this same time frame, principally for penicillin resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Serotype distribution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada during the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 2010.
Can. J. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A baseline serotype distribution was established by age and region for 2058 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected during the implementation period of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) program in many parts of Canada in 2010. Serotypes 19A, 7F, and 3 were the most prevalent in all age groups, accounting for 57% in <2 year olds, 62% in 2-4 year olds, 45% in 5-14 year olds, 44% in 15-49 year olds, 41% in 50-64 year olds, and 36% in ?65 year olds. Serotype 19A was most predominant in Western and Central Canada representing 15% and 22%, respectively, of the isolates from those regions, whereas 7F was most common in Eastern Canada with 20% of the isolates. Other prevalent serotypes include 15A, 23B, 12F, 22F, and 6C. PCV13 serotypes represented 65% of the pneumococci isolated from <2 year olds, 71% of 2-4 year olds, 61% of 5-14 year olds, 60% of 15-49 year olds, 53% of 50-64 year olds, and 49% of the ?65 year olds. Continued monitoring of invasive pneumococcal serotypes in Canada is important to identify epidemiological trends and assess the impact of the newly introduced PCV13 vaccine on public health.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of the actin and plasminogen binding regions of group B streptococcal phosphoglycerate kinase.
J. Biol. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), present on the surface of group B streptococcus (GBS), has previously been demonstrated to bind the host proteins actin and plasminogen. The actin and plasminogen binding sites of GBS-PGK were identified using truncated GBS-PGK molecules, followed by peptide mapping. These experiments identified two actin and plasminogen binding sites located between amino acids 126-134 and 204-208 of the 398-amino acid-long GBS-PGK molecule. Substitution of the lysine residues within these regions with alanine resulted in significantly reduced binding to both actin and plasminogen. In addition, conversion of the glutamic acid residue at amino acid 133 to proline, the amino acid found at this position for the PGK protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae, also resulted in significantly reduced binding to actin and plasminogen. These results demonstrate that the lysine residues at amino acid positions 126, 127, 130, 204, and 208 along with the glutamic acid residue at amino acid position 133 are necessary for actin and plasminogen binding by GBS-PGK.
Related JoVE Video
Eradication of invasive pneumococcal disease due to the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes in Calgary, Alberta.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in Canada in 2001. Routine infant vaccination programs in Alberta began in 2002. Several years after PCV7 introduction, the routine use of PCV7 in infants and high-risk children has led to near elimination of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by vaccine serotypes.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemic of invasive pneumococcal disease, western Canada, 2005-2009.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Canada before 2005, large outbreaks of pneumococcal disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 5, were rare. Since then, an epidemic of serotype 5 invasive pneumococcal disease was reported: 52 cases during 2005, 393 during 2006, 457 during 2007, 104 during 2008, and 42 during in 2009. Of these 1,048 cases, 1,043 (99.5%) occurred in the western provinces of Canada. Median patient age was 41 years, and most (659 [59.3%]) patients were male. Most frequently representing serotype 5 cases (compared with a subset of persons with non-serotype 5 cases) were persons who were of First Nations heritage or homeless. Restriction fragment-length polymorphism typing indicated that the epidemic was caused by a single clone, which multilocus sequence typing identified as sequence type 289. Large pneumococcal epidemics might go unrecognized without surveillance programs to document fluctuations in serotype prevalence.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of genes affecting expression of phosphoglycerate kinase on the surface of group B streptococcus.
Can. J. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Group B streptococcal phosphoglycerate kinase (GBS-PGK), a glycolytic enzyme, has previously been identified on the surface of group B streptococcus (GBS). To identify genes involved in surface expression of GBS-PGK, we performed Tn917 mutagenesis followed by quantification of PGK expressed on the GBS surface. Tn917 mutagenesis identified 4 genes (sag0966, sag0979, sag0980, and sag1003) that when disrupted, alter expression of GBS-PGK on the bacterial surface. Three of the identified genes were localized to a region of the GBS genome containing genes (sag0973-sag0977) predicted to be involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides. One mutant isolate, designated NCS13sag1003::Tn917, was found to have increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial peptides bacitracin and nisin. In addition, all of the mutant strains assayed were found to have decreased ?-hemolysis. In conclusion, we have identified genes involved in surface expression of GBS-PGK. These genes also appear to be involved in antimicrobial peptide resistance and regulate expression of the ?-hemolysin.
Related JoVE Video
The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in British Columbia following implementation of an infant immunization program: increases in herd immunity and replacement disease.
Can J Public Health
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2003, British Columbia (BC) introduced a universal heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) program for infants, and in 2007 revised the recommended schedule from four doses to three doses. We describe trends in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in association with these program changes.
Related JoVE Video
Full-genome dissection of an epidemic of severe invasive disease caused by a hypervirulent, recently emerged clone of group A Streptococcus.
Am. J. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes an exceptionally broad range of infections in humans, from relatively mild pharyngitis and skin infections to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. An epidemic of severe invasive human infections caused by type emm59 GAS, heretofore an exceedingly rare cause of disease, spread west to east across Canada over a 3-year period (2006 to 2008). By sequencing the genomes of 601 epidemic, historic, and other emm59 organisms, we discovered that a recently emerged, genetically distinct emm59 clone is responsible for the Canadian epidemic. Using near-real-time genome sequencing, we were able to show spread of the Canadian epidemic clone into the United States. The extensive genome data permitted us to identify patterns of geographic dissemination as well as links between emm59 subclonal lineages that cause infections. Mouse and nonhuman primate models of infection demonstrated that the emerged clone is unusually virulent. Transmission of epidemic emm59 strains may have occurred primarily by skin contact, as suggested by an experimental model of skin transmission. In addition, the emm59 strains had a significantly impaired ability to persist in human saliva and to colonize the oropharynx of mice, and seldom caused human pharyngitis. Our study contributes new information to the rapidly emerging field of molecular pathogenomics of bacterial epidemics and illustrates how full-genome data can be used to precisely illuminate the landscape of strain dissemination during a bacterial epidemic.
Related JoVE Video
Polymorphisms in regulator of protease B (RopB) alter disease phenotype and strain virulence of serotype M3 group A Streptococcus.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whole-genome sequencing of serotype M3 group A streptococci (GAS) from oropharyngeal and invasive infections in Ontario recently showed that the gene encoding regulator of protease B (RopB) is highly polymorphic in this population. To test the hypothesis that ropB is under diversifying selective pressure among all serotype M3 GAS strains, we sequenced this gene in 1178 strains collected from different infection types, geographic regions, and time periods. The results confirmed our hypothesis and discovered a significant association between mutant ropB alleles, decreased activity of its major regulatory target SpeB, and pharyngitis. Additionally, isoallelic strains with ropB polymorphisms were significantly less virulent in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. These studies provide a model strategy for applying whole-genome sequencing followed by deep single-gene sequencing to generate new insight to the rapid evolution and virulence regulation of human pathogens.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.