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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Detection of molecular binding via charge-induced mechanical response of optical fibers.
Chem Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We report a charge sensitive optical detection technique for label-free study of molecular interactions. Traditional label-free optical detection techniques largely rely on the detection of the mass of a molecule, which are insensitive to small molecules. In contrast, the present technique detects the charge of a molecule, where the signal does not diminish with the size of the molecule, thus capable for studying small molecules. In addition, the technique is compatible with the standard microplate platform, making it suitable for high-throughput screening of drug candidates. Using the technique, we have detected 0.2 nM anti-BSA and 15 ?M anti-cancer drug (imatinib) with an enzyme modified surface. The achieved effective charge detection limit is ~0.25 electron charge/?m(2), corresponding to ~0.3 fg/mm(2) for imatinib, which is orders of magnitude better than traditional label-free optical detection methods.
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Molecular charge transfer by adsorbing TCNQ/TTF molecules via ?-? interaction: a simple and effective strategy to modulate the electronic and magnetic behaviors of zigzag SiC nanoribbons.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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By means of first-principles computations, we first propose a simple and effective strategy through the molecular charge transfer via noncovalent ?-? interaction to modulate the electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag SiC nanoribbons (zSiCNRs). This charge transfer is induced by adsorbing the electron-withdrawing/donating tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecules on the surface of the pristine zSiCNR. It is revealed that all the TCNQ- and TTF-modified zSiCNR-systems can exhibit considerable adsorption energies in the range from -137.2 to -184.0 kJ mol(-1) and from -71.3 to -76.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively, indicating that these zSiCNR-complexes possess high structure stabilities. This kind of a molecular charge transfer via ?-? interaction can break the magnetic degeneracy of zSiCNRs, and the sole ferromagnetic (FM) metallicity and even antiferromagnetic (AFM) half-metallicity can be achieved. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting SiC-based nanomaterials in the application of spintronics and multifunctional nanodevices in the near future.
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Simultaneous Analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and Their Precursors Using UHPLC-MS/MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 ?g L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study.
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Correction: Rapidly improved determination of metabolites from biological data sets using the high-efficient TransOmics tool.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Correction for 'Rapidly improved determination of metabolites from biological data sets using the high-efficient TransOmics tool' by Aihua Zhang et al., Mol. BioSyst., 2014, 10, 2160-2165.
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Evaluation of a 2-Channel Portable Device and a Predictive Model to Screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Laboratory Environment.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Various portable monitors for identifying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been investigated and reported to enable accurate recording of OSA severity. However, more information is needed from different populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a portable 2-channel sleep apnea device (SleepView) for screening OSA in the Chinese population.
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[The significance of non invasive cardiac output monitoring system on evaluating circulatory and respiratory function in pig with acute respiratory distress syndrome].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To investigate the effect of non invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICO) system in pig model with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and to provide experimental basis for clinical application.
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A CryoEM study identifies the complete H16.V5 epitope and reveals global conformational changes initiated by binding of the neutralizing antibody fragment.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a worldwide health threat and an etiologic agent of cervical cancer. To understand the antigenic properties of HPV16 we pursued a structural study to elucidate HPV capsids and antibody interactions. The cryo-EM structures of HPV16 mature and an altered capsid particles were solved individually and as complexes with fragment of antibody (Fab) from the neutralizing antibody H16.V5. Fitted crystal structures provided a pseudo-atomic model of the virus-Fab complex, which identified a precise footprint of H16.V5, including previously unrecognized residues. The altered capsid-Fab complex map showed that binding of the Fab induced significant conformational changes than were seen in the altered capsid structure alone. These changes included more ordered surface loops, consolidated invading arm structures, and tighter inter-capsomeric connections at the capsid floor. The H16.V5 Fab preferentially bound hexavalent capsomers likely with a stabilizing effect that directly correlated with the number of bound Fabs. Additional cryoEM reconstructions of the virus-Fab complex for different incubation times and structural analysis provide a model for a hyper-stabilization of the capsomer by H16.V5 Fab and showed that the Fab distinguishes subtle differences between antigenic sites.
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Intra-arterial delivery of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is a safe and effective way to treat cerebral ischemia in rats.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Cerebral ischemic stroke is a very common condition that can cause death and disability. Studies have confirmed that stem cells have therapeutic effects if administered after stroke. There is still a great deal of debate regarding the best route for cell transplantation. Intravascular delivery is the most commonly used one. In this study, the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) delivered by intra-arterial (IA) and intravenous (IV) injection in a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) are compared. Histological analysis demonstrated that the IA route bypasses the pulmonary system and directs the cells to the ischemic parts of the brain more efficiently. The BMSCs delivered via the IA route promoted angiogenesis and improved functional recovery. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the rats was monitored during the IA injection process. No reduction in CBF or microstrokes was detected. Brain perfusion and metabolism, as evaluated by SPECT and PET, were better in rats treated with cells delivered via IA. Results showed that the IA route is a safe and effective way to transplant hBMSCs.This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
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[Impact of loop diuretics on blood sodium in patients hospitalized for heart failure].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To observe the level of blood sodium in patients hospitalized for heart failure with water-sodium retention treated with loop diuretics and risk factors of low blood sodium.
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Lysosomal dysfunction and impaired autophagy underlie the pathogenesis of amyloidogenic light chain-mediated cardiotoxicity.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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AL amyloidosis is the consequence of clonal production of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain (LC) proteins, often resulting in a rapidly progressive and fatal amyloid cardiomyopathy. Recent work has found that amyloidogenic LC directly initiate a cardio-toxic response underlying the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy; however, the mechanisms that contribute to this proteotoxicity remain unknown. Using human amyloidogenic LC isolated from patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy, we reveal that dysregulation of autophagic flux is critical for mediating amyloidogenic LC proteotoxicity. Restoration of autophagic flux by pharmacological intervention using rapamycin protected against amyloidogenic light chain protein-induced pathologies including contractile dysfunction and cell death at the cellular and organ level and also prolonged survival in an in vivo zebrafish model of amyloid cardiotoxicity. Mechanistically, we identify impaired lysosomal function to be the major cause of defective autophagy and amyloidogenic LC-induced proteotoxicity. Collectively, these findings detail the downstream molecular mechanisms underlying AL amyloid cardiomyopathy and highlight potential targeting of autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction in patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy.
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Probiotics' preventive effect on pediatric food allergy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the preventive effect of probiotics on pediatric food allergy.
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Study of ZHENG differentiation in hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis: a transcriptional profiling analysis.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical practice, ZHENG (also known as TCM syndrome) helps to understand the human homeostasis and guide individualized treatment. However, the scientific basis of ZHENG remains unclear due to limitations of current reductionist approaches.
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Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in high-risk smokers and smoking-related COPD: correlations with pulmonary function tests and quantitative computed tomography.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The study aimed to prospectively evaluate correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion imaging, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and volume quantitative CT in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine the value of DCE-MR perfusion imaging and CT volumetric imaging on the assessment of smokers. According to the ATS/ERS guidelines, 51 male smokers were categorized into five groups: At risk for COPD (n = 8), mild COPD (n = 9), moderate COPD (n = 12), severe COPD (n = 10), and very severe COPD (n = 12). Maximum slope of increase (MSI), positive enhancement integral (PEI), etc. were obtained from MR perfusion data. The signal intensity ratio (RSI) of the PDs and normal lung was calculated (RSI = SIPD/SInormal). Total lung volume (TLV), total emphysema volume (TEV) and emphysema index (EI) were obtained from volumetric CT data. For "at risk for COPD," the positive rate of PDs on MR perfusion images was higher than that of abnormal changes on non-enhanced CT images (p < 0.05). Moderate-to-strong positive correlations were found between all the PFT parameters and SIPD, or RSI (r range 0.445?0.683, p ? 0.001). TEV and EI were negatively correlated better with FEV1/FVC than other PFT parameters (r range -0.48 --0.63, p < 0.001). There were significant differences in RSI and SIPD between "at risk for COPD" and "very severe COPD," and between "mild COPD" and "very severe COPD". Thus, MR perfusion imaging may be a good approach to identify early evidence of COPD and may have potential to assist in classification of COPD.
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Assessing the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. 5. Improved docking performance using high solute dielectric constant MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA rescoring.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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With the rapid development of computational techniques and hardware, more rigorous and precise theoretical models have been used to predict the binding affinities of a large number of small molecules to biomolecules. By employing continuum solvation models, the MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA methodologies achieve a good balance between low computational cost and reasonable prediction accuracy. In this study, we have thoroughly investigated the effects of interior dielectric constant, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the number of top-scored docking poses on the performance of the MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA rescoring of docking poses for three tyrosine kinases, including ABL, ALK, and BRAF. Overall, the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA rescoring achieved comparative accuracies based on a relatively higher solute (or interior) dielectric constant (i.e. ? = 2, or 4), and could markedly improve the 'screening power' and 'ranking power' given by Autodock. Moreover, with a relatively higher solute dielectric constant, the MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA rescoring based on the best scored docking poses and the multiple top-scored docking poses gave similar predictions, implying that much computational cost can be saved by considering the best scored docking poses only. Besides, compared with the rescoring based on the minimized structures, the rescoring based on the MD simulations might not be completely necessary due to its negligible impact on the docking performance. Considering the much higher computational demand of MM/PBSA, MM/GBSA with a high solute dielectric constant (? = 2 or 4) is recommended for the virtual screening of tyrosine kinases.
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Cigarette smoke extract-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis and anti-oxidative Nrf-2 up-regulation are mediated by ROS-stimulated p38 activation.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Abstract Cigarette smoke contains reactive oxygen (ROS) that can cause oxidative stress. It increases the number of apoptotic and necrotic lung cells and further induces the development of chronic airway disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). CSE exposure induced ROS generation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that are associated with the activation of apoptosis-regulating signal kinase 1 (ASK-1). N-acetylcysteine (a general antioxidant) attenuated the CSE-induced ASK-1 and p38 MAPK activation and cell apoptosis, suggesting a triggering role of ROS in ASK-1/p38 MAPK activation during apoptotic progression. In contrast, the inhibition and knockdown of p38 attenuated the expression of anti-oxidant master NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and CSE-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p38 MAPK modulates Nrf-2 expression and presumably prevents cell apoptosis. Taken together, the data presented in this manuscript demonstrate that the ROS-dependent ASK-1/p38 signaling cascade regulates CSE-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis. In addition, anti-oxidative Nrf-2 is also up-regulated by the ROS/p38 signaling cascade in this progression.
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Spirometric reference values for healthy Han children aged 5-15 years in Guangzhou, southern China.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Reliable interpretation of spirometry rests on appropriate reference values, but there are few published reference values for healthy children in China.
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Responsiveness to methacholine, but not leukotriene D4 , correlates with fractional exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Correlation between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and responsiveness to inhaled leukotriene D4 (LTD4 ) and methacholine (MCh) might be different. This study aims to determine the correlation between FeNO and airway responsiveness to LTD4 and MCh, and to compare the airway responsiveness to inhaled LTD4 and MCh and FeNO in non-smokers, patients without rhinitis and non-smokers without rhinitis.
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A systematic review and meta-analysis of the accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI in the detection of malignant pulmonary nodules and masses.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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To perform a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) technique in discrimination of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules or masses.
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Optimal timing of radiotherapy with alternating/sequential radio-chemotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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To investigate the optimal timing of radiotherapy with alternating/sequential radio-chemotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC).
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Enhanced Levels of Interleukin-8 Are Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Resistance to Interferon-Alpha Therapy.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The objective of this study was to analyze the expression levels of IL-8 in serum and liver tissues from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and to investigate whether IL-8 may antagonize interferon-alpha (IFN-?) antiviral activity against HBV. IL-8 expression in serum was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to measure IL-8 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with CHB. IL-8 protein expression was detected in liver biopsy tissues by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the differences in serum IL-8 and PBMCs mRNA levels were also observed in patients with different anti-viral responses to IFN-?. Compared to normal controls, serum IL-8 protein and mRNA levels were increased in CHB patients, IL-8 levels were positively correlated with the severity of liver inflammation/fibrosis. Moreover, serum IL-8 protein and mRNA levels were positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and negatively correlated with serum prealbumin (PA) level. IL-8 expression was mainly located in portal area of liver tissues and was increased with the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis stage. The expression serum and mRNA levels of IL-8 in the CHB patients with a complete response to IFN-? are significantly lower than that of the patients with non-response to IFN-? treatment. It is suggested that IL-8 might play important roles in the pathogenesis of CHB. Moreover, interferon resistance may be related to the up-regulation of IL-8 expression in the patients did not respond to IFN-? treatment.
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[Clinical analysis of 29 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To study the experience of clinical features and treatment of deep cervical necrotizing fasciitis.
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pH-responsive inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecular hydrogels with jellyfish-like switchable chromic luminescence.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A unique type of novel supramolecular hybrid hydrogel based on the co-assembly of the anionic polyoxometalate and the cationic ABA triblock copolymer via electrostatic interaction was reported to show jellyfish-like switchable chromic luminescence. The hydrogel undergoes reversible sol-gel transition in response to pH changes, and simultaneously exhibits an unprecedented luminescent chromism from weak green to strong white.
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Detection of charges and molecules with self-assembled nano-oscillators.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Detection of a single or small amount of charges and molecules in biologically relevant aqueous solutions is a long-standing goal in analytical science and detection technology. Here we report on self-assembled nano-oscillators for charge and molecular binding detections in aqueous solutions. Each nano-oscillator consists of a nanoparticle linked to a solid surface via a molecular tether. By applying an oscillating electric field normal to the surface, the nanoparticles oscillate, which is detected individually with ?0.1 nm accuracy by a plasmonic imaging technique. From the oscillation amplitude and phase, the charge of the nanoparticles is determined with a detection limit of ?0.18 electron charges along with the charge polarity. We further demonstrate the detection of molecular binding with the self-assembled nano-oscillators.
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Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery by Collagen-Binding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in an Intracerebral Hemorrhage Model.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts therapeutic effects following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, it is difficult to maintain sufficient concentrations in the hemorrhage hemisphere. We demonstrated previously that BDNF fused to a collagen-binding domain (CBD) could bind to collagen in the ventricular ependyma and stimulate cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). In this study, we verified the therapeutic effects of CBD-BDNF in the rat ICH model induced by bacterial collagenase by injecting CBD-BDNF into the lateral ventricle of ICH rats. The results demonstrated that CBD-BDNF was retained at high levels in the hemorrhage hemisphere, where it promoted neural regeneration and angiogenesis, reduced tissue loss, and improved functional recovery.
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Quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: correlations with pulmonary function test and CT volumetric parameters.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Pulmonary function test (PFT) is commonly used to help diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other lung diseases. However, it cannot be used to evaluate regional function and morphological abnormalities.
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Rapidly improved determination of metabolites from biological data sets using the high-efficient TransOmics tool.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Metabolomics is a new approach based on the systematic study of the full complement of metabolites in a biological sample. Extracting biomedical information from large datasets is of considerable complexity. Furthermore, the traditional method of assessing metabolomics data is not only time-consuming but it is often subjective work. Here we used sensitive ultra-performance LC-ESI/Q-TOF high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) in positive ion mode coupled with a new developed software program TransOmics for widely untargeted metabolomics, which incorporates novel nonlinear alignment, deconvolution, matched filtration, peak detection, and peak matching to characterize metabolites as a case study. The TransOmics method can facilitate prioritization of the data and greatly increase the probability of identifying metabolites related to the phenotype of interest. By this means, 17 urinary differential metabolites were identified (less than 10 min) involving the key metabolic pathways including tyrosine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and so forth. Metabolite identification has also been significantly improved, using the correlation peak patterns in contrast to a reference metabolite panel. It can detect and identify metabolites automatically and remove background noise, and also provides a user-friendly graphical interface to apply principal component analyses, correlation analysis and compound statistics. This investigation illustrates that metabolomics combined with the proposed bioinformatic approach (based on TransOmics) is important to elucidate the developing biomarkers and the physiological mechanism of disease, and has opened the door for the development of a new genre of metabolite identification methods.
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Cyclosporine A combined with medium/low dose prednisone in progressive IgA nephropathy.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyclosporine A (CsA) combined with medium/low dose prednisone in the treatment of progressive immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Ninety-six patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective controlled clinical study. They were assigned into two groups and initially given either 0.6-0.8 mg/kg/day prednisone (maximum 40 mg/day) plus 3 mg/kg/day CsA (CsA group), or 1 mg/kg/day prednisone (maximum 60 mg/day) alone (steroid group). During therapy, the dose of prednisone was reduced in both groups and the dose of CsA was gradually tailed off over the first 3 months and maintained at 2 mg/kg/day in the CsA group. Urinary protein excretion, serum biochemical indexes, clinical efficacy and side effects of CsA were assayed. A significant decline in mean 24-hour urinary protein excretion (p < 0.05) was observed 1 month after treatment in patients in the CsA group, which was observed 2 months after treatment in the steroid group. The decline in mean 24-hour urinary protein excretion in the CsA group was more significant than in the steroid group. Serum albumin level increased significantly in the CsA group 2 months after therapy (p < 0.05). Moreover, at the end of the course, a higher remission rate was observed in patients with Lee's Grade III IgAN after combined treatment with prednisone and CsA (p < 0.05). No significant difference in clinical efficacy was observed in patients with Lee's Grade IV and Grade V IgAN between the two groups (p > 0.05). CsA at a dose of 2-3 mg/kg/day in combination with medium/low dose prednisone was effective in inducing remission of IgAN, especially for patients with Lee's Grade III IgAN, and is a safe and effective choice for short-term treatment of patients with progressive IgAN.
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Curcumin prevents diabetic nephropathy against inflammatory response via reversing caveolin-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation influenced TLR4 activation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Inflammation is involved in the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Curcumin has been reported for its anti-inflammation activity in DN. However, the mechanisms involved in the renoprotective effects of curcumin have not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we hypothesized that curcumin affected high glucose (HG)-induced inflammation profiles in vivo and in vitro and then prevented renal injury in diabetic rats via reversing cav-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation that influenced TLR4 activation. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats received vehicle or curcumin for twelve weeks and podocytes were treated with HG in the presence or absence of curcumin in vitro. To further evaluate the effect of cav-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(14) on HG-induced podocyte inflammation response and TLR4 activation, a recombinant plasmid GFP-Cav-1 Y14F with a mutated phosphorylation site of cav-1, was transfected into cultured podocytes. In vivo, curcumin improved histological abnormalities and fibrosis of a diabetic kidney, inhibited renal inflammatory gene expression and reduced cav-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(14) and the expression of TLR4. Pretreatment of podocytes with curcumin reduced HG-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines, TLR4 and the phosphorylation of cav-1. But immunohistochemistry in rat kidney showed that the elevation of TLR4 expression is more evident in the renal interstitum than in the glomerulus where podocytes are located, and the possibility that the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on other cells in the kidney may be mediated through the same molecular pathways as in podocytes. Our study suggests that curcumin treatment ameliorates DN via inhibition of inflammatory gene expression by reversing caveolin-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation that influenced TLR4 activation.
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Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Combined with Oxiracetam Influences the Expression of B-cell Lymphoma 2 in Rats with Ischemic Stroke.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the combination effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and oxiracetam for ischemic stroke. Forty Sprague Dawley female rats (220 ± 20 g) were subjected to a 2-hour ischemic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-24 hours reperfusion model. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Rats from BMSCs group, oxiracetam group, and BMSCs + oxiracetam group accepted injection of BMSCs (3 × 10(6) cells), oxiracetam (800 mg/kg), and BMSCs + oxiracetam, respectively. Rats from control group did not receive any interventions after ischemia reperfusion. The neurologic function was examined by modified neurological severity scores (mNSS). B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression and apoptosis were detected by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The mNSS was decreased in all treatment groups and that in BMSCs + oxiracetam group was lower than BMSCs group and oxiracetam group (P < .05). The expression of Bcl-2 was unregulated in all treatment groups (P < .05), and similarly, the expression of Bcl-2 in BMSCs + oxiracetam group was higher than BMSCs group and oxiracetam group (P < .05). Control group displayed more TUNEL-positive cells than the treatment groups, and BMSCs + oxiracetam group displayed less apoptotic cells than BMSCs group or oxiracetam group (P < .05). Transplantation of BMSCs can promote the recovery of neurologic function in MCAO rats, and the effect of BMSCs combined with oxiracetam was better than the either one. Upregulation of Bcl-2 resulting in a decrease of apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms of BMSCs treatment for cerebral ischemic stroke.
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Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27) induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells.
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Putting a terbium-monometallic cyanide cluster into the C82 fullerene cage: TbCN@C2(5)-C82.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The first terbium (Tb)-monometallic cyanide clusterfullerene (CYCF), TbCN@C82, has been successfully synthesized and isolated, whose molecular structure was determined unambiguously as TbCN@C2(5)-C82 by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The C2(5)-C82 isomeric cage represents a new cage capable of encapsulating a monometallic cyanide cluster. The C-N bond length within the encaged TbCN cluster is determined to be 0.94(5) Å, which is smaller by at least 0.17 Å than those of the reported C-N triplet bonds in traditional cyanide/nitrile compounds and cyano coordination complexes. An electronic configuration of [Tb(3+)(CN)(-)](2+)@[C82](2-) was proposed for TbCN@C82.
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Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The phylogeny of Allotheria, including Multituberculata and Haramiyida, remains unsolved and has generated contentious views on the origin and earliest evolution of mammals. Here we report three new species of a new clade, Euharamiyida, based on six well-preserved fossils from the Jurassic period of China. These fossils reveal many craniodental and postcranial features of euharamiyidans and clarify several ambiguous structures that are currently the topic of debate. Our phylogenetic analyses recognize Euharamiyida as the sister group of Multituberculata, and place Allotheria within the Mammalia. The phylogeny suggests that allotherian mammals evolved from a Late Triassic (approximately 208 million years ago) Haramiyavia-like ancestor and diversified into euharamiyidans and multituberculates with a cosmopolitan distribution, implying homologous acquisition of many craniodental and postcranial features in the two groups. Our findings also favour a Late Triassic origin of mammals in Laurasia and two independent detachment events of the middle ear bones during mammalian evolution.
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Liposomes as delivery systems for carotenoids: comparative studies of loading ability, storage stability and in vitro release.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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This study compared the loading ability of various carotenoids into liposomal membrane, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, storage stability and in vitro release behavior in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media. It was found that carotenoids exhibited various incorporating abilities into liposomes ranging from the strongest to the weakest: lutein > ?-carotene > lycopene > canthaxanthin. A similar trend was also observed in their antioxidant activities against lipid peroxidation during preparation. Storage measurements demonstrated that a liposomal membrane can strongly retain ?-carotene and lutein, whereas this effect was not pronounced for lycopene and canthaxanthin. In vitro release experiments showed that lutein and ?-carotene were hardly released in a simulated gastric fluid, while displaying a slow and sustained release in a simulated intestinal fluid. By contrast, lycopene and canthaxanthin underwent fast and considerable release in GI media. Dynamic light scattering indicated that carotenoid incorporation strongly affected the particle stability and dispersion during preparation and GI incubation. The differences in molecular release may be attributed to the different modulating effects of carotenoids. Our results may guide the potential application of liposomes as carriers for the controlled delivery of carotenoids in nutraceutical and functional foods.
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Preparation and solidification of redispersible nanosuspensions.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To test the feasibility of preparing redispersible powders from nanosuspensions without further addition of drying protectants, Lovastatin was processed into nanosuspensions and subsequently converted into a powder form using a spray-drying process. The effects of spray-drying process parameters and stabilizers on the properties of the spray-dried powders were evaluated. The inlet air temperature was found to have the most pronounced impact; a low-inlet air temperature consistently yielded dried powders with improved redispersibility. This was attributed to the low Peclet number associated with a low-inlet air temperature, making nanoparticles less prone to aggregation and coalescence during spray drying, as evidenced by the well-defined boundary shown between nanoparticles in the SEM photomicrographs of the spray-dried microparticles. The influence of atomization pressure is significant particularly at a low-inlet air temperature. The redispersibility index value of the powder is dependent on the type of stabilizers used in the nanosuspension formulation. Spray-dried powders with acceptable redispersibility were prepared with drug concentration as high as 3%. In conclusion, with optimized process parameters and selected stabilizers, spray drying is a feasible process in the solidification of nanosuspensions with high drug loading and acceptable redispersibility.
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Genes involved in the WNT and vesicular trafficking pathways are associated with melanoma predisposition.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Multifactorial predisposition to melanoma includes genes involved in pigmentation, immunity and DNA repair. Nonetheless, missing heritability in melanoma is still important. We studied the role of 335 candidate SNPs in melanoma susceptibility by using a dedicated chip and investigating 110 genes involved in different pathways. A discovery set was comprised of 1069 melanoma patients and 925 controls from France. Data were replicated using validation phases II (1085 cases and 801 controls from Spain) and III (1808 cases and 1894 controls from Germany and a second set of Spanish samples). In addition, an exome sequencing study was performed in three high-risk French melanoma families. Nineteen SNPs in 17 genes were initially associated with melanoma in the French population. Six SNPs were replicated in phase II, including two new SNPs in the WNT3 (rs199524) and VPS41 (rs11773094) genes. The role of VPS41 and WNT3 was confirmed in a meta-analysis (3940 melanoma cases and 3620 controls) with two-side p values of 0.002, (OR?=?0.86) and 4.07?×?10(-10) (OR?=?0.80), respectively. Exome sequencing revealed a non-synonymous VPS41 variant in one family that was shown to be strongly associated with familial melanoma (OR?=?4.46, p?=?0.001) in an independent sample of 178 melanoma families. WNT3 belongs to WNT pathway known to play a crucial role in melanoma, whereas VPS41 regulates vesicular trafficking and is thought to play a role in pigmentation. Our work identified two new pathways involved in melanoma predisposition. These results may be useful in the future for identifying individuals highly predisposed to melanoma.
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[Comprehensive application of CT and PET/CT in diagnosing colorectal mucinous and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To explore the value of comprehensive application of CT and PET/CT in differential diagnosing mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.
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Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on lipid profile in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for OSAS. However, it is unclear whether CPAP improves lipid metabolism.
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Antifungal Activity of Citrus Essential Oils.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are a mixture of volatile compounds consisting mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their antifungal activities. To face the challenge of growing public awareness and concern about food and health safety, studies concerning natural biopreservatives have become the focus of multidisciplinary research efforts. In the past decades, a large amount of literature has been published on the antifungal activity of CEOs. This paper reviews the advances of research on CEOs and focuses on their in vitro and food antifungal activities, chemical compositions of CEOs, and the methods used in antifungal assessment. Furthermore, the antifungal bioactive components in CEOs and their potential mechanism of action are summarized. Finally, the applications of CEOs in the food industry are discussed in an attempt to provide new information for future utilization of CEOs in modern industries.
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Response--dose ratio is a surrogate of cumulative provocative dosage for bronchial provocation tests in asthma.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Response-dose ratio (RDR) and cumulative provocative dosage (PD) are useful indices reflecting airway responsiveness in asthma.
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Microstructural impact of ischemia and bone marrow-derived cell therapy revealed with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography of the heart in vivo.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The arrangement of myofibers in the heart is highly complex and must be replicated by injected cells to produce functional myocardium. A novel approach to characterize the microstructural response of the myocardium to ischemia and cell therapy, with the use of serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography of the heart in vivo, is presented.
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Transcriptional profiling and co-expression network analysis identifies potential biomarkers to differentiate chronic hepatitis B and the caused cirrhosis.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common non-neoplastic causes of mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in China. To find biomarkers for the diagnosis of CHB caused cirrhosis (HBC), we examined the transcriptional profiling of CHB and HBC. The leukocyte samples of CHB (n = 5) and HBC (n = 5) were analyzed by microarray. The results showed that 2128 mapped genes were differentially expressed between CHB and HBC (fold change ? 2.0, p < 0.05). Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that these 2128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched for immune response and cell formation functions mostly. Moreover, co-expression networks using the k-core algorithm were established to determine the core genes, which may play important roles in the progression of CHB to HBC. There were markedly different gene co-expression patterns in CHB and HBC. We validated the five core genes, CASP1, TGFBI, IFI30, HLA-DMA and PAG1 in CHB (n = 60) and HBC (n = 60) by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of the five genes were consistent with microarray, and there were statistically significant co-expression patterns of TGF?1, PAG1 and HLA-DMA mRNA (Pearson correlation coefficient >0.6). Furthermore, we constructed an mRNA panel of TGFBI, IFI30, HLA-DMA and PAG1 (TIPH HBCtest) by means of a logistic regression model, and evaluated the TIPH HBCtest for HBC diagnosis by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis, which showed a higher accuracy (AUC = 0.903). This study suggested that there are particular transcriptional profiles, gene co-expression patterns and core genes in CHB and HBC. The TIPH HBC test may be useful in the diagnosis of HBC from CHB.
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Cyclic glycine-proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for metabolism, development and survival. Insufficient IGF-1 is associated with poor recovery from wounds whereas excessive IGF-1 contributes to growth of tumours. We have shown that cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, can normalise IGF-1 function by showing its efficacy in improving the recovery from ischemic brain injury in rats and inhibiting the growth of lymphomic tumours in mice. Further investigation in cell culture suggested that cGP promoted the activity of IGF-1 when it was insufficient, but inhibited the activity of IGF-1 when it was excessive. Mathematical modelling revealed that the efficacy of cGP was a modulated IGF-1 effect via changing the binding of IGF-1 to its binding proteins, which dynamically regulates the balance between bioavailable and non-bioavailable IGF-1. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of auto-regulation of IGF-1, which has physiological and pathophysiological consequences and potential pharmacological utility.
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Urinary levels of bisphenol analogues in residents living near a manufacturing plant in south China.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The use of bisphenol A (BPA) has been restricted in many countries because of its potential health effects. As a result of these restrictions, a group of bisphenol analogues that are structurally similar to BPA have been developed as the alternatives for industrial applications. However, latest researches indicated that these chemicals have similar endocrine-disrupting effects as BPA in humans. Moreover, only a limited number of studies have attempted to monitor the exposure level in humans of other bisphenol analogues. In the present study, the concentrations of seven bisphenols, including bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), in human urine samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronidase/arylsulfatase and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Under the optimised conditions, high recoveries (81.6-116.8%) were obtained for all the analytes, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, %) were less than 16.4% (n=6). The isotopic internal standard calibration curves for each of the target compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r(2)>0.99) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the analytes in urine ranged from 0.024 to 0.310 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to investigate the urinary levels of these seven bisphenols in a cohort of residents living near a BPAF manufacturing plant in south China. BPS, BPF, BPA and BPAF were detected in urine samples at concentrations ranging from
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PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 heterostructured nanobelts with enhanced photocatalytic activity.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Heterostructures play an important role not only in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, but also in the field of catalysis. Herein, we report the synthesis of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 heterostructured nanobelts by means of a simple co-precipitation method, followed by a reduction process using surface-modified TiO2 nanobelts as templates. The as-obtained heterostructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PdO and Pd nanoparticles with a size of about 1.3 and 1.6?nm were assembled uniformly on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts, respectively. Compared with TiO2 nanobelts, PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 hybrid nanobelts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity upon UV and visible-light irradiation. Photoelectrochemical technology was used to study the heterostructure effect on enhanced photocatalytic activity. Our mechanistic investigation revealed that energy-band matching is the major factor in the observed enhancement of photocatalytic activity.
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Association Between Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Helicobacter pylori: A Meta-Analysis.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), including chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has increased significantly over the past decades. Several studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection may be related to the development of CRDs, but the results were not consistent. We carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the potential association of H.pylori infection with CRDs.
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Efficacy and safety of Abelmoschus manihot for primary glomerular disease: a prospective, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Abelmoschus manihot, a single medicament of traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat kidney disease. This is the first randomized controlled clinical trial to assess its efficacy and safety in patients with primary glomerular disease.
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Uptake, transport and peroral absorption of fatty glyceride grafted chitosan copolymer-enoxaparin nanocomplexes: influence of glyceride chain length.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The objective of this paper is to elucidate the influence of fatty glyceride chain length in chitosan copolymers on the peroral absorption of enoxaparin. First of all, a series of chitosan copolymers with glyceryl monocaprylate (GM8), glyceryl monolaurate (GM12) and glyceryl monostearate (GM18) as the hydrophobic part were synthesized. The structure of the copolymers was characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay demonstrated that all the copolymers were non-toxic. Enoxaparin nanocomplexes were prepared by self-assembly. Mucoadhesion of the nanocomplexes was characterized using the mucin particle method. Nanocomplex uptake and transport were quantified in Caco-2 cells and cellular localization was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Enoxaparin uptake was enhanced by nanocomplex formation, and was dependent on incubation time, concentration, temperature and glyceride chain length. The GM8 grafted chitosan-enoxaparin nanocomplex exhibited the strongest bioadhesion and the best uptake and transport in both cell culture and in vivo absorption in rats. The uptake mechanism was assumed to be adsorptive endocytosis via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes. In conclusion, oral absorption of enoxaparin can be further enhanced by using GM8 grafted chitosan copolymer as the carrier to form nanocomplexes.
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Chain conformation and immunomodulatory activity of a hyperbranched polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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A polysaccharide, named as cordysinan, extracted from natural Cordyceps sinensis, was identified as a hyperbranched heteropolysaccharide from the results of FT-IR, GC-MS, and carbohydrate analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis, as well as the degree of branching of cordysinan was 43.3%. The solution properties of cordysinan were investigated by using size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and triple detector array, respectively. The molecular weights, the radius of gyration and the intrinsic viscosity of cordysinan were determined as 22.45±0.26 kDa and 22.37 kDa, 15.4±2.4 nm and 1.41 mL/g, respectively. By applying the polymer solution theory, the exponent (? and ?) values of g1/2=kMwv and [?]=kMw? were calculated as 0.28 and 0.42, respectively, which firstly revealed that cordysinan existed as a globular shape in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the results showed that cordysinan could obviously stimulate macrophages functions.
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Cigarette smoke-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition is mediated by Rac1 activation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the major pathophysiological process in lung fibrosis observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for developing EMT, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Rac1 in cigarette smoke (CS) induced EMT.
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The competitive binding between inhibitors and substrates of HCV NS3/4A protease: a general mechanism of drug resistance.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem throughout the world. Great success has been achieved in developing inhibitors targeting the HCV NS3/4A protease over the past decade, but the rapid emergence of drug resistant mutations greatly compromises the efficacy of antiviral drugs or drug candidates. According to the substrate envelope hypothesis (Romano et al., 2010), severe drug resistant mutations would always occur where the inhibitors protrude from the substrate envelope, defined as a consensus volume occupied by the viral substrates in the active site of the NS3/4A protease. However, the substrate envelope hypothesis just qualitatively assesses the impact of mutations to a specific inhibitor, but no quantitative data is obtained. To remedy the weakness, the dynamic binding patterns of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors or substrates were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and continuum solvation binding affinity predictions in this study. By comparing the quantitative binding profiles between the substrates and inhibitors, derived from the free energy decomposition analysis, we observed most residues involved in drug resistance form stronger interactions with the inhibitors than with the substrates, which is roughly coincident with the substrate envelope hypothesis and supports the general mechanism of drug resistance: the critical resistant mutations impair more to the binding of inhibitors than that of substrates. Furthermore, our predictions illustrate that the natural substrates of NS3/4A form balanced interactions with the strands 135-139 and 154-160 whereas the inhibitors cannot. Therefore, to overcome drug resistance, it may be necessary to restore the interaction balance between the two strands and the drug candidates. To our disappointment, the underlying resistant mechanisms of some mutations could not be well captured by just comparing the binding profiles of inhibitors and substrates, and more studies should be proceeded to propose a general drug resistance mechanism.
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Leukotriene D4 inhalation challenge for predicting short-term efficacy of montelukast: a pilot study.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The convenient measure to predict efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist is lacking.
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Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.
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Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
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Intracranial hypotension as a complication of lumbar puncture prior to elective aneurysm clipping.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lumbar dural defects are an uncommon but important cause of persistent intracranial hypotension in the neurosurgical population. We present a case of intracranial hypotension after elective craniotomy due to a lumbar puncture performed 3 weeks earlier.
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Mapping the feel of the arm with the sight of the object: on the embodied origins of infant reaching.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For decades, the emergence and progression of infant reaching was assumed to be largely under the control of vision. More recently, however, the guiding role of vision in the emergence of reaching has been downplayed. Studies found that young infants can reach in the dark without seeing their hand and that corrections in infants' initial hand trajectories are not the result of visual guidance of the hand, but rather the product of poor movement speed calibration to the goal. As a result, it has been proposed that learning to reach is an embodied process requiring infants to explore proprioceptively different movement solutions, before they can accurately map their actions onto the intended goal. Such an account, however, could still assume a preponderant (or prospective) role of vision, where the movement is being monitored with the scope of approximating a future goal-location defined visually. At reach onset, it is unknown if infants map their action onto their vision, vision onto their action, or both. To examine how infants learn to map the feel of their hand with the sight of the object, we tracked the object-directed looking behavior (via eye-tracking) of three infants followed weekly over an 11-week period throughout the transition to reaching. We also examined where they contacted the object. We find that with some objects, infants do not learn to align their reach to where they look, but rather learn to align their look to where they reach. We propose that the emergence of reaching is the product of a deeply embodied process, in which infants first learn how to direct their movement in space using proprioceptive and haptic feedback from self-produced movement contingencies with the environment. As they do so, they learn to map visual attention onto these bodily centered experiences, not the reverse. We suggest that this early visuo-motor mapping is critical for the formation of visually-elicited, prospective movement control.
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Macrolide therapy in adults and children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolide therapy in adults and children with bronchiectasis.
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[Single-breath and rebreathing methods for measurement of pulmonary diffusing function: a comparative study].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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To compare the difference of pulmonary diffusing capacity measured by single-breath (SB) and re-breathing (RB) in normal subjects, patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Supplementation of complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) improved the memory of aged rats.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The socio-economic impact from age-related mental decline is escalating. Supplementation of functional foods for sustaining mental health is desirable. We examined the effect of long-term supplementation of complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc), mixed dairy phospholipids, on memory and associated vascular and neuronal changes in aged rats.
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A stable bimetallic Au-Ag/TiO2 nanopaper for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Well-dispersed small Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (sub-3 nm) on one dimensional TiO2 nanobelts were synthesized by a facile successive photodeposition-galvanic replacement method. Based on these Au-Ag/TiO2-NB nanostructures, a porous paper-like monolithic catalyst was fabricated and exhibited synergistically enhanced activity and stability for catalyzing aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
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Identification of Elaiophylin Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 7-145 Using PCR-Based Screening.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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A PCR-based genetic screening experiment targeting the dTDP-glucose-4,6-dehydratase gene revealed that a marine sediment-derived strain, Streptomyces sp. 7-145, had the potential to produce glycosidic antibiotics. Chemical investigation of culture extracts of this strain yielded two new 6-deoxyhexose-containing antibiotics, 11,12-dehydroelaiophylin (1) and 11,11-O-dimethyl-14-deethyl-14-methylelaiophylin (2), together with four known elaiophylin analogues (3-6). Their structures were determined by extensive NMR, MS, and CD analyses. Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 showed good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci pathogens.
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Tuning solid-state blue and red luminescence by the formation of solvate crystals.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Tuning and controlling the solid-state luminescence of molecular solids play a key role in developing multi-color displays and tunable dye laser. In this work, we report the tunable blue and red luminescence by the formation of solvate crystals of 1,4-bis(5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene (POPOP) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). Upon introduction of guest solvents (chloroform and dichloromethane) into the POPOP and DCM host matrices, the obtained solvate crystals exhibit an alternated stacking arrangement, interaction fashion, and crystal symmetry compared with the pristine chromophore solids. Furthermore, the solvates of POPOP (CCl3H) and DCM (CCl2H2) present changeable luminescent properties (such as one-/two-photon emissive wavelength, fluorescence lifetime and photoluminescent quantum yield) in the blue/red regions relative to the pristine POPOP and DCM. In addition, the second harmonic generation can also be obtained for the DCM (CCl2H2) due to the transformation of the centrosymmetric to a non-centrosymmetric structure from pristine DCM. Periodic density functional theoretical calculations suggest that the guest solvents do not participate in the frontier orbital distribution within the solvate crystals. Therefore, by the combination of experimental and theoretical studies on the solvate crystals, this work not only reports the supramolecular assembly of new types of host-guest photoactive systems, but also provides a detailed understanding of the electronic structures of the solid-state luminescent materials.
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Vibration response imaging in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a pilot study.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Although vibration response imaging (VRI) is a novel imaging technique, little is known about its characteristics and diagnostic value in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
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Retinoic acid inhibits pancreatic cancer cell migration and EMT through the downregulation of IL-6 in cancer associated fibroblast cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Retinoic acid (RA) is a small molecular derivative of vitamin A that is stored in quiescent stellate cells in pancreas stroma. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblast cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor microenvironment. We treated CAFs with RA and found that these cells became static due to the low expression of ?-SMA, FAP, and IL-6 and decreased production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Furthermore, we verified that the low secretion of IL-6 from CAFs was related to RA-induced inhibition of migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. However, RA could not inhibit the migration and EMT of tumor cells directly. Therefore, our study showed that one of the therapeutic effects of RA on tumor cells is through its modulation of CAFs in tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in promoting tumor migration and might be a promising target of biological treatment.
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Identification of apolipoprotein D as a cardioprotective gene using a mouse model of lethal atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Mice with homozygous null mutations in the HDL receptor (scavenger receptor class B, type I, or SR-BI) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) genes [SR-BI/apoE double KO (SR-BI(-/-)/apoE(-/-) or dKO) mice] spontaneously develop occlusive, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) and die prematurely (50% mortality at 42 d of age). Using microarray mRNA expression profiling, we identified genes whose expression in the hearts of dKO mice changed substantially during disease progression [at 21 d of age (no CAD), 31 d of age (small myocardial infarctions), and 43 d of age (extensive myocardial infarctions) vs. CAD-free SR-BI(+/-)/apoE(-/-) controls]. Expression of most genes that increased >sixfold in dKO hearts at 43 d also increased after coronary artery ligation. We examined the influence and potential mechanism of action of apolipoprotein D (apoD) whose expression in dKO hearts increased 80-fold by 43 d. Analysis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial infarction in both apoD KO mice and wild-type mice with abnormally high plasma levels of apoD (adenovirus-mediated hepatic overexpression) established that apoD reduces myocardial infarction. There was a correlation of apoDs ability to protect primary cultured rat cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury with its potent ability to inhibit oxidation in a standard antioxidation assay in vitro. We conclude that dKO mice represent a useful mouse model of CAD and apoD may be part of an intrinsic cardioprotective system, possibly as a consequence of its antioxidation activity.
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MiR-92b regulates the cell growth, cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line and target PTEN.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged to play important roles in tumorigenesis and drug resistance of human cancer. Fewer studies were explored the roles of miR-92b on human lung cancer cell growth and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP). In this paper, we utilized real-time PCR to verify miR-92b was significantly up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues. In vitro assay demonstrated that knock-down of miR-92b inhabits cell growth and sensitized the A549/CDDP cells to CDDP. Furthermore, we found miR-92b could directly target PTEN, a unique tumor suppressor gene, which was downregulated in lung cancer tissues compared to the matched adjacent normal tissues. These data indicate that the miR-92b play an oncogene roles by regulates cell growth, cisplatin chemosensitivity phenotype, and could serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy.
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Polyketides with New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase 1 inhibitory activity from Penicillium sp.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Three new polyketide compounds (1-3), a new quinolone alkaloid (4), and seven known polyketide derivatives were identified from the cultures of Penicillium sp. I09F 484, a strain isolated from the rhizosphere soil of the plant Picea asperata from Kanas Lake, Xinjiang, China. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were established by quantum chemical time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism calculation and Marfeys method, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed inhibitory activity against New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase 1 with IC?? values of 94.9 and 87.9 ?M, respectively.
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An inherited variant in the gene coding for vitamin D-binding protein and survival from cutaneous melanoma: a BioGenoMEL study.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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An association between low serum vitamin D levels and poorer melanoma survival has been reported. We have studied inheritance of a polymorphism of the GC gene, rs2282679, coding for the vitamin D-binding protein, which is associated with lower serum levels of vitamin D, in a meta-analysis of 3137 melanoma patients. The aim was to investigate evidence for a causal relationship between vitamin D and outcome (Mendelian randomization). The variant was not associated with reduced overall survival (OS) in the UK cohort, per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for death 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93, 1.64). In the smaller cohorts, HR in OS analysis was 1.07 (95% CI 0.88, 1.3) and for all cohorts combined, HR for OS was 1.09 (95% CI 0.93, 1.29). There was evidence of increased melanoma-specific deaths in the seven cohorts for which these data were available. The lack of unequivocal findings despite the large sample size illustrates the difficulties of implementing Mendelian randomization.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.