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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Downregulation of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Protein 3 in the Pathogenesis of Intracranial Aneurysm.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Evidence has shown that inflammation acts as a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm (IA), a potentially devastating clinical problem. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulatory molecule and plays important roles in the inflammation process. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Tim-3 and its correlation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in IA patients. Data showed that both messenger RNA (mRNA) level and protein level of Tim-3 were significantly decreased in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells from IA patients than from healthy controls (P?
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Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi is a member of genus Hymenolepis based on phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi is one of the important zoonotic cestodes causing economic significance and public health concern. In the present study, the phylogenetic position of P. crawfordi isolated from pigs was re-inferred using molecular markers of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) and partial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial DNA. The lengths of ITS1, ITS2 rDNA and pnad1 were 757?bp, 628?bp and 458?bp, respectively. Sequence differences in the ITS1, ITS2 rDNA and pnad1 between P. crawfordi and Hymenolepis species were smaller than that between cestodes within genus Hymenolepis. Phylogenetic analyses based on three gene fragments showed that P. crawfordi was grouped into cluster of Hymenolepis species. These results suggested that P. crawfordi would be one member of genus Hymenolepis but not in a new genus Pseudanoplocephala.
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Production of optically pure d-lactate from glycerol by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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In this study, glycerol was used to produce optically pure d-lactate by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. In the recombinant strain, d-lactate dehydrogenase LdhA was overexpressed, and two genes, dhaT and yqhD for biosynthesis of main byproduct 1,3-propanediol, were knocked out. To further improve d-lactate production, the culture condition was optimized and the results demonstrated that aeration rate played an important role in d-lactate production. In microaerobic fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain accumulated 142.1g/L optically pure d-lactate with a yield of 0.82g/g glycerol, which represented the highest d-lactate production from glycerol so far. This study showed that K. pneumoniae strain has high efficiency to convert glycerol into d-lactate and high potentiality in utilization of crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Cottus sibiricus altaicus (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete sequence of the 16,527 base pairs Cottus sibiricus altaicus mitochondrial genome was presented. The composition of the whole mitochondrial DNA was 26.93% for A, 26.30% for T, 29.70% for C, 17.07% for G. The genes found in C. sibiricus altaicus and other vertebrate mtDNA were the same, which contained the genes for 13 proteins, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 main non-coding genes (the control region (CR) and the origin of the light strand replication (OL). The sequence showed high economy of organization in that there were few nucleotides between individual genes except for the control region.
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Genome-wide screening and co-expression network analysis identify recurrence-specific biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery are the leading causes of death in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Next-generation sequencing techniques have improved our understanding of the genetic alterations underlying tumor initiation and progression. To explore recurrence-specific transcriptional profiles, functional properties, and gene co-expression networks in ESCC, samples from recurrence (n?=?4) and nonrecurrence (n?=?4) groups were analyzed by RNA sequencing. Patients included in the nonrecurrence group had five or more years of survival without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis, while those included in the recurrence group exhibited early recurrence and metastasis and died within 2 years. We identified 533 significantly differentially expressed protein-coding and noncoding genes. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that ESCC recurrence was related to dysregulated cell-cell adherence, microenvironment homeostasis, information processing, and the immune response. Co-expression networks demonstrated differences in the patterns of gene expression and co-expression between the recurrence and nonrecurrence groups. This study provided important insights into ESCC progression and the differentially expressed genes that may represent potential targets for ESCC diagnosis and therapy.
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[Comparison of the therapeutic effect on skeletal fluorosis and impact on urine fluoride value among fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To observe the impacts on skeletal fluorosis pain, joint motor dysfunction and urine fluoride excretion in the treatment with fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3.
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Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for poly(3-hydroxypropionate) production from glycerol and glucose.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A new poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) biosynthetic pathway employing ?-alanine as an intermediate from an inexpensive carbon source was developed in recombinant Escherichia coli. After a series of systematic optimization, the genes for L-aspartate decarboxylase and its maturation factor (panD and panM, from E. coli), ?-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (pp0596, from Pseudomonas putida), 3-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA synthase (ydfG and prpE respectively, from E. coli), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC1, from Cupriavidus necator) were cloned and expressed in E. coli. Under shake-flask conditions, the recombinant strain produced 0.5 g P3HP l(-1) from glycerol and glucose, up to 10.2 % of CDW. Though the content of P3HP was low, this pathway has some advantages over other reported pathways, such as being redox neutral, does not require any coenzyme, and can use a wide range of carbon sources.
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The overexpression of 14-3-3? and Hsp27 promotes non–small cell lung cancer progression.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The 14-3-3? protein has been identified as a putative oncoprotein in several cancers, including non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms underlying its functions have not been well defined.
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The expression dynamics of IL-17 and Th17 response relative cytokines in the trachea and spleen of chickens after infection with Cryptosporidium baileyi.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Cryptosporidium baileyi is the dominant Cryptosporidium species in birds causing emerging health problems in the poultry industry, and is also a model to study the biology of Cryptosporidium spp.. IL-17 (also called IL-17A) is a hallmark pro-inflammatory cytokine of Th17 cells that plays an important role in several human autoimmune diseases and microbial infection disease of many animals, and it may play a role in Cryptosporidium infection.
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First report of Cryptosporidium spp. in white yaks in China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Cryptosporidium is an enteric apicomplexan parasite, which can infect yaks, leading to reduction of milk production and poor weight gain. White yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique yak breed inhabiting only in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwestern China. The objective of the present study was to molecularly determine Cryptosporidium infection and species in white yaks.
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Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Nematodirus oiratianus and Nematodirus spathiger of small ruminants.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Nematodirus spp. are among the most common nematodes of ruminants worldwide. N. oiratianus and N. spathiger are distributed worldwide as highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes, which cause emerging health problems and economic losses. Accurate identification of Nematodirus species is essential to develop effective control strategies for Nematodirus infection in ruminants. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could provide powerful genetic markers for identifying these closely related species and resolving phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels.
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A B3LYP and MP2(full) theoretical investigation into cooperativity effects, aromaticity and thermodynamic properties in the Na(+)?benzonitrile?H2O ternary complex.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The cooperativity effects between H-bonding and Na(+)?? or Na(+)?? interactions in Na(+)?benzonitrile?H2O complexes were investigated using the B3LYP and MP2(full) methods with 6-311++G(2d,p) and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The thermodynamic cooperativity and the influence of this cooperativity on aromaticity was evaluated by nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). The results showed that the influence of the Na(+)?? or Na(+)?? interaction on the hydrogen bond is more pronounced than that of the latter on the former. The cooperativity effect appeared in the Na(+)?? interaction complex while the anti-cooperativity effect tended to be in the Na(+)?? system. The change in enthalpy is the major factor driving cooperativity. Thermodynamic cooperativity is not in accordance with the cooperativity effect evaluated by the change of interaction energy. The ring aromaticity of is weakened while the bond dissociation energy (BDE) of the C-CN bond increases upon ternary complex formation. The cooperativity effect (E coop) correlates with R c (NICS(1)ternary/NICS(1)binary) and ??? (?? ternary - ?? binary) involving the ring and C???N bond, as well as R BDE(C-CN) [BDE(C-CN)ternary/BDE(C-CN)binary], respectively. AIM (atoms in molecules) analysis confirms the existence of cooperativity.
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Whole-genome sequencing of tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) provides new insight into the macaque evolutionary history.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient introgression event between them. Moreover, demographic inferences revealed that TM exhibited a similar demographic history as other macaques until 0.5 Ma, but then it maintained a lower effective population size until present time. Our study has provided new insight into the macaque evolutionary history, confirming hybridization events between macaque species groups based on genome-wide data.
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Characterization of the intergenic spacer rDNAs of two pig nodule worms, Oesophagostomum dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The characteristics of the intergenic spacer rDNAs (IGS rDNAs) of Oesophagostomum dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum isolated from pigs in different geographical locations in Mainland China were determined, and the phylogenetic relationships of the two species were reconstructed using the IGS rDNA sequences. The organization of the IGS rDNA sequences was similar to their organization in other eukaryotes. The 28S-18S IGS rDNA sequences of both O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum were found to have variable lengths, that is, 759-762?bp and 937-1128?bp, respectively. All of the sequences contained direct repeats and inverted repeats. The length polymorphisms were related to the different numbers and organization of repetitive elements. Different types and numbers of repeats were found between the two pig nodule species, and two IGS structures were found within O. quadrispinulatum. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all O. dentatum isolates were clustered into one clade, but O. quadrispinulatum isolates from different origins were grouped into two distinct clusters. These results suggested independent species and the existence of genotypes or subspecies within pig nodule worms. Different types and numbers of repeats and IGS rDNA structures could serve as potential markers for differentiating these two species of pig nodule worms.
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Additive effect of heat on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis via ERK/p38/MITF pathway in human epidermal melanocytes.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 °C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB combined with heat resulted in much more significant tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis as compared with UVB alone in melanocytes from skin phototype III. Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation. Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.
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Septic shock due to community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa necrotizing fasciitis: A case report and literature review.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but fatal infection, characterized by the rapid progression of necrosis of the fascia, skin, soft tissue and muscle. The most common bacteria associated with necrotizing fasciitis is group A streptococcus, although other pathogens have also been implicated. In the present study, a case of community-acquired necrotizing fasciitis, complicated with septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is presented. Despite intensive medical treatment, the condition of the patient deteriorated rapidly and the patient subsequently succumbed to multiple organ failure. In view of the rapid progression and high mortality rate of this disease, early surgery, as well as novel therapeutic approaches for septic shock are required to improve the outcome for patients.
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Dicrocoelium chinensis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Trematoda: Digenea) are distinct lancet fluke species based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Lancet flukes parasitize the bile ducts and gall bladder of a range of mammals, including humans, causing dicrocoeliosis. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes as well as the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2=ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of two lancet flukes, Dicrocoelium chinensis and D. dendriticum. Sequence comparison of a conserved mt gene and nuclear rDNA sequences among multiple individual lancet flukes revealed substantial nucleotide differences between the species but limited sequence variation within each of them. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid and multiple mt rrnS sequences using Bayesian inference supported the separation of D. chinensis and D. dendriticum into two distinct species-specific clades. Results of the present study support the proposal that D. dendriticum and D. chinensis represent two distinct lancet flukes. While providing the first mt genomes from members of the superfamily Plagiorchioidea, the novel mt markers described herein will be useful for further studies of the diagnosis, epidemiology and systematics of the lancet flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance.
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Genetic analysis of riboswitch-mediated transcriptional regulation responding to Mn2+ in Salmonella.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Riboswitches are a class of cis-acting regulatory RNAs normally characterized from the 5'-UTR of bacterial transcripts that bind a specific ligand to regulate expression of associated genes by forming alternative conformations. Here, we present a riboswitch that contributes to transcriptional regulation through sensing Mn(2+) in Salmonella typhimurium. We characterized a 5'-UTR (UTR1) from the mntH locus encoding a Mn(2+) transporter, which forms a Rho-independent terminator to implement transcription termination with a high Mn(2+) selectivity both in vivo and in vitro. Nucleotide substitutions that cause disruption of the terminator interfere with the regulatory function of UTR1. RNA probing analyses outlined a specific UTR1 conformation that favors the terminator structure in Mn(2+)-replete condition. Switch sequence GCUAUG can alternatively base pair duplicated hexanucleotide CAUAGC to form either a pseudoknot or terminator stem. Mn(2+), but not Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), can enhance cleavage at specific nucleotides in UTR1. We conclude that UTR1 is a riboswitch that senses cytoplasmic Mn(2+) and therefore participates in Mn(2+)-responsive mntH regulation in Salmonella. This riboswitch domain is also conserved in several Gram-negative enteric bacteria, indicating that this Mn(2+)-responsive mechanism could have broader implications in bacterial gene expression. Additionally, a high level of cytoplasmic Mn(2+) can down-regulate transcription of the Salmonella Mg(2+) transporter mgtA locus in a Mg(2+) riboswitch-dependent manner. On the other hand, these two types of cation riboswitches do not share similarity at the primary or secondary structural levels. Taken together, characterization of Mn(2+)-responsive riboswitches should expand the scope of RNA regulatory elements in response to inorganic ions.
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Orthodontic decompensation and correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with gradual dentoalveolar remodeling in a growing patient.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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An 8-year-old girl with a skeletal Class III malocclusion was treated in 2 phases. Maxillary expansion and protraction were carried out as the early intervention. However, her maxillary hypoplasia and mandibular hyperplasia deteriorated with age. The phase 2 comprehensive treatment began with proper mechanics when she was 12 years old with growth potential. In the maxillary arch, an auxiliary rectangular wire was used with a round main wire and an opening spring to create space for the impacted teeth and to bodily move the anterior teeth forward. Decompensation of mandibular incisors and correction of the Class III malocclusion were achieved by short Class III elastics with light forces and a gentle interaction between the rectangular wires and the lingual root-torque slots. The phase 2 active treatment period was 4 years 8 months. The 2-year follow-up indicated that our treatment results were quite stable.
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Use of a tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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A tourniquet is commonly used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effectiveness and safety of tourniquets are debated. We performed this study to investigate whether patients benefit from the use of tourniquets in TKA.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Assamese Macaques (Macaca assamensis).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) was sequenced in this study. The genome is 16,542?bp long, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 non-coding areas. Eight PCGs (COI, COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, ND4, ND6, CYTB) initiate with the start codon ATG and another two genes (ND1, ATP8) use GTG, while ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATT, ATC and ATA, respectively. Five genes (COII, ATP8, ATP6, ND4L and ND5) use the complete stop codon TAA, whereas four genes have incomplete stop codons, TA- (COIII) and T-?- (ND3, ND4, CYTB), while others use standard canonical TAA as their termination codons. The largest non-coding control region with the length of 1091?bp is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes.
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Role of mitofusin-2 in high mobility group box-1 protein-mediated apoptosis of T cells in vitro.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Background: High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, which is recognized as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) triggering activation of the innate immune system. Previous studies have shown that HMGB1 also plays a role in T cell-mediated immunity, but the effect of HMGB1 on apoptosis of T cells and its precise mechanism remain to be determined. Methods: Two kinds of apoptosis assay techniques were used, i.e., Annexin V-FITC conjunction with PI to identify early apoptotic cells, Hoechst 33342 staining for double-stranded DNA to observe nuclear fragmentation or apoptotic body. The activation status of caspase-3, caspase-8, as well as caspase-9 was examined by colorimetric assay. The dynamic changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was monitored by flow cytometry. Overexpression of Mfn2 was preformed by lentiviral vector transfection. The mRNA and protein levels of Mfn2 were determined by RT-PCR and Western-blotting. Results: Treatment of Jurkat T cells with recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) causes a significant dose-dependent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells. When T cells are incubated with HMGB1 they express decreased mitochondria fusion-related protein mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) and activate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via elevation of [Ca(2+)]i, Bax insertion, and activation of caspase. Furthermore, overexpression of Mfn2 ameliorates the apoptosis of T cells induced by HMGB1. This occurs at least partly through Mfn2 keeps Ca(2+) homeostasis in T cells evidenced by monitoring [Ca(2+)]i dynamics. Conclusion: HMGB1 can trigger apoptosis of T lymphocytes through mitochondrial death pathway associated with [Ca(2+)]i elevation. Mfn2 plays a pivotal role in this process, and it might be a novel therapeutic target in T cell apoptosis related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Chabertia erschowi (Nematoda) is a distinct species based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock have major socio-economic importance worldwide. In small ruminants, Chabertia spp. are responsible for economic losses to the livestock industries globally. Although much attention has given us insights into epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control of this parasite, over the years, only one species (C. ovina) has been accepted to infect small ruminants, and it is not clear whether C. erschowi is valid as a separate species.
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Linking inter-individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect to spontaneous brain activity.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Conflict adaptation has been widely researched in normal and clinical populations. There are large individual differences in conflict adaptation, and it has been linked to the schizotypal trait. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in spontaneous brain activity are related to behavioral conflict adaptation (performance). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) is a promising tool to investigate this issue. The present study evaluated the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of RS-fMRI signals in order to explore the neural basis of individual differences in conflict adaptation across two independent samples comprising a total of 67 normal subjects. A partial correlation analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between ReHo and behavioral conflict adaptation, while controlling for reaction time, standard deviation and flanker interference effects. This analysis was conducted on 39 subjects' data (sample 1); the results showed significant positive correlations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We then conducted a test-validation procedure on the remaining 28 subjects' data (sample 2) to examine the reliability of the results. Regions of interest were defined based on the correlation results. Regression analysis showed that variability in ReHo values in the DLPFC accounted for 48% of the individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect in sample 2. The present findings provide further support for the importance of the DLPFC in the conflict adaptation process. More importantly, we demonstrated that ReHo of RS-fMRI signals in the DLPFC can predict behavioral performance in conflict adaptation, which provides potential biomarkers for the early detection of cognitive control deterioration.
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Investigation of the profile control mechanisms of dispersed particle gel.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dispersed particle gel (DPG) particles of nano- to micron- to mm-size have been prepared successfully and will be used for profile control treatment in mature oilfields. The profile control and enhanced oil recovery mechanisms of DPG particles have been investigated using core flow tests and visual simulation experiments. Core flow test results show that DPG particles can easily be injected into deep formations and can effectively plug the high permeability zones. The high profile improvement rate improves reservoir heterogeneity and diverts fluid into the low permeability zone. Both water and oil permeability were reduced when DPG particles were injected, but the disproportionate permeability reduction effect was significant. Water permeability decreases more than the oil permeability to ensure that oil flows in its own pathways and can easily be driven out. Visual simulation experiments demonstrate that DPG particles can pass directly or by deformation through porous media and enter deep formations. By retention, adsorption, trapping and bridging, DPG particles can effectively reduce the permeability of porous media in high permeability zones and divert fluid into a low permeability zone, thus improving formation profiles and enhancing oil recovery.
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Development of genetically stable Escherichia coli strains for poly(3-hydroxypropionate) production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. In our previous study, a pathway for P3HP production was constructed in recombinant Esecherichia coli. Seven exogenous genes in P3HP synthesis pathway were carried by two plasmid vectors. However, the P3HP production was severely suppressed by strain instability due to plasmid loss. In this paper, two strategies, chromosomal gene integration and plasmid addiction system (PAS) based on amino acid anabolism, were applied to construct a genetically stable strain. Finally, a combination of those two methods resulted in the best results. The resultant strain carried a portion of P3HP synthesis genes on chromosome and the others on plasmid, and also brought a tyrosine-auxotrophy based PAS. In aerobic fed-batch fermentation, this strain produced 25.7 g/L P3HP from glycerol, about 2.5-time higher than the previous strain with two plasmids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest P3HP production from inexpensive carbon sources.
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[Molecular characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibilities to ceftriaxone in Shenzhen from 2009 to 2011].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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To investigate the genotype and characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae) isolates with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone in Shenzhen from 2009 to 2011.
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Genetic differences between Chabertia ovina and C. erschowi revealed by sequence analysis of four mitochondrial genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Abstract This study examined sequence differences in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), large subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4) between Chabertia ovina and C. erschowi from yaks in Qinghai and goats in Shaanxi provinces, China. A part of the cox1 (pcox1), rrnL (prrnL), nad1 and nad4 genes (pnad1 and pnad4) were amplified separately from individual nematodes by PCR and sequenced. The length of the sequences of pcox1, prrnL, pnad1 and pnad4 was 441?bp, 450?bp, 526?bp and 914?bp for C. ovina, and 441?bp, 451?bp, 517?bp and 810?bp for C. erschowi, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations within C. ovina were 0.2-2.9% for pcox1, 0-0.9% for prrnL, 0.6-2.3% for pnad1, and 0.4-2.0% for pnad4, and were 0.5-1.6% for pcox1, 0-1.1% for prrnL, 0.2-1.7% for pnad1, and 0.4-1.1% for pnad4 within C. erschowi. Whereas, the inter-specific sequence differences between the two species were obviously higher, being 11.6-12.9% for pcox1, 9.8-11.1% for prrnL, 14.4-15.9% for pnad1, and 16.4-17.7% for pnad4. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference (BI), based on combined sequences of four genes, indicated that the C. ovina and C. erschowi represent distinct species. These results demonstrate that these mt gene sequences provide novel genetic markers for the identificaiton and differentiation C. ovina and C. erschowi, and have implications for studying the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of Chabertia spp.
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GSK3? negatively regulates HIF1? mRNA stability via nucleolin in the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) is a transcription factor involved in the growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) is a protein kinase involved in a variety of signaling pathways, such as the Wnt and NF-?B pathways; this kinase can affect tumor progress through the regulation of transcription factor expression and apoptosis. Recent studies showed that GSK3? was involved in the expression of HIF1?. However, the effect of GSK3? on HIF1? expression in osteosarcoma cells remains unknown. To understand the relationship between GSK3? and HIF1? comprehensively, small RNA interference techniques, Western blot analyses, quantitative real-time PCR analyses and luciferase assays were used in our study. Experimental data revealed that inhibition of GSK3? could increase HIF1? protein levels and expression of its target genes by increasing the stability of the HIF1? mRNA, not by affecting the HIF1? protein stability, and that this process could be mediated by nucleolin.
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[Functional polymorphism of NRF2 gene promoter -617C/A in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cellular inflammatory response in patients with alcoholic liver disease].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To investigate the influence of NRF2 gene polymorphism at locus -617 on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
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Dynesys dynamic stabilization system for the lumbar degenerative disease: a preliminary report from China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Dynesys dynamic stabilization system was first implanted in patients in 1994, and introduced to China in 2007. Therefore, it was a new technique for Chinese orthopedics and hence necessary to collect clinical data about Dynesys in China. The objective of this study was to report the preliminary results of Dynesys for the lumbar degenerative disease in China.
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[Application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray lens in measuring thickness].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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A confocal micro X-ray fluorescence thickness gauge based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens, a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens and a laboratory X-ray source was designed in order to analyze nondestructively the thickness of thin film and cladding material. The performances of this confocal thickness gauge were studied. Two Ni films with a thickness of about 25 and 15 microm respectively were measured. The relative errors corresponding to them were 3.5% and 7.1%, respectively. The thickness uniformity of a Ni films with a thickness of about 10 microm was analyzed. This confocal technology for measuring the thickness was both spatially resolved and elemental sensitive, and therefore, it could be used to measure the thickness of the multilayer sample and analyze the thickness uniformity of the sample. This confocal thickness gauge had potential applications in analyzing the thickness of sample.
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Relationship between human cord blood adropin levels and fetal growth.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2013
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Adropin is a recently identified peptide and participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis and vascular function. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between human cord blood adropin levels and fetal growth. A total of 159 newborns [preterm delivery (PTD), n=72; term delivery, n=87] were recruited. Adropin levels in cord blood were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Clinical information on fetal growth was collected. Adropin levels in PTD babies (median, 2028; 25th-75th, 1413-2484pg/ml) were lower than those in term delivery babies (median, 2305; 25th-75th, 1960-2684pg/ml, P=0.01). Birth weight and length z score, Ponderal index, placental length, breadth, thickness, surface area, volume and density were not significantly correlated to adropin concentrations in term delivery group. However, we found adropin concentrations were significantly correlated to gestational age at birth (Spearmans correlation coefficient=0.35, P<0.01) and placental weight (Spearmans correlation coefficient=0.24, P=0.04) in PTD group. We also found that boys had lower adropin levels than girls in PTD group (P=0.01). When the analysis was extended to the whole group (PTD and term deliveries combined), the results were similar to those for PTD group alone. After adjusting for maternal age and newborns sex, every 100pg/ml increase of adropin concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PTD (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.99). Our study showed that cord blood adropin levels were positively correlated with gestational age and placental weight but not with other fetal growth parameters.
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Ligand-dependent EphB1 signaling suppresses glioma invasion and correlates with patient survival.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Extensive evidence implicates the Eph receptor family of tyrosine kinases and its ligand, ephrin, in glioma invasion, but it remains incompletely understood how these receptors affect chemotactic behavior of glioma. We sought to identify the Eph family members that correlate with patients survival and to reveal the function of Eph in glioma invasion.
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[Change and significance of Th22 cells in patients with aplastic anemia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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To explore the proportion of Th22 cells in peripheral blood of patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and evaluate its significance.
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Preparation of N-doped TiO2 by oxidizing TiN and its application on phenol degradation.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride (TiN) to prepare nitrogen-doped TiO2 was verified by calcining TiN at different temperatures in air for 30 min. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirmed that oxidizing TiN incompletely is an effective and simple method to prepare nitrogen-doped TiO2. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol was conducted to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples. The results showed that phenol can be degraded efficiently by the as-prepared samples under visible light; low phenol concentration was conducive to degradation; the optimum calcination temperature and photocatalyst dosage are 650 °C and 0.5 g/L, respectively. The effects of different light sources on phenol degradation were compared. The reusability of nitrogen-doped TiO2 was tested and the results indicated a relatively good reusability under laboratory conditions.
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Fiber-based free-space optical coherent receiver with vibration compensation mechanism.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We propose a novel fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) coherent receiver for inter-satellite communication. The receiver takes advantage of established fiber-optic components and utilizes the fine-pointing subsystem installed in FSO terminals to minimize the influence of satellite platform vibrations. The received beam is coupled to a single-mode fiber, and the coupling efficiency of the system is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A receiving sensitivity of -38 dBm is obtained at the forward error correction limit with a transmission rate of 22.4 Gbit/s. The proposed receiver is shown to be a promising component for inter-satellite optical communication.
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[Effects of NF-E2-related factor-2 promoter polymorphism on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To explore the effects of NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2)-617C/A promoter polymorphism on NRF2 expression as well as lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages.
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Genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from the Philippines, Japan and China revealed by sequence analysis of three mitochondrial genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract The present study examined sequence variability in the mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes cytochrome b (cytb), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2 and 6 (nad2 and nad6) among 24 isolates of Schistosoma japonicum from different endemic regions in the Philippines, Japan and China. The complete cytb, nad2 and nad6 genes were amplified and sequenced separately from individual schistosome. Sequence variations for isolates from the Philippines were 0-0.5% for cytb, 0-0.6% for nad2, and 0-0.9% for nad6. Variation was 0-0.5%, 0.1-0.8%, 0-0.7% for corresponding genes for schistosome samples from mainland China. For worms in Japan, genetic variations were 0-0.2%, 0.1-0.2% and 0 for the three genes, respectively. Sequence variations were 0-1.0%, 0-1.8% and 0-1.1% for cytb, nad2 and nad6, respectively, among schistosome isolates from different geographical strains in the Philippines, Japan and China. Of the three countries, lowest sequence variations were found between isolates from mainland China and the Philippines and highest were detected between Japan and the Philippines in three mtDNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of cytb, nad2 and nad6 revealed that all isolates in the Philippines clustered together sistered to samples from Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces in China, while isolates from Yamanashi in Japan were in a solitary clade. These results demonstrated the usefulness of the combined three mtDNA sequences for studying genetic diversity and population structure among S. japonicum isolates from the Philippines, China and Japan.
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Poisoning by toxic animals in China--18 autopsy case studies and a comprehensive literature review.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Although exposure to animal venom and poison, such as snakebites, bee stings, and contact, with toads, is a common problem, reported deaths are rare. The present report discusses 18 fatal cases in China. Causes of death were grouped into 6 categories, including 1 case of tetrodotoxin poisoning, 1 case of gallbladder poisoning, 3 cases of snake venom toxicity, 4 cases of melittin toxicity, 4 cases of cantharidin poisoning and 5 cases of venenum bufonis poisoning. The epidemiology of each venom-induced death, the mechanism of exposure to venom, and the target organs and tissues affected by these toxic animals were here systematically reviewed. Such details are important to even suspected cases of venom damage. The associated problems related to forensic medicine, such as manner of death and possible attribution to the toxic effects of various animals, are also discussed herein.
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Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Abstract To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.
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Utility of serum peptidome patterns of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients for comprehensive treatment.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highest in China. Early diagnosis and effective monitoring are keys to comprehensive treatment and discovering tumor metastases and recurrence in time. The aim of this study was to confirm serum peptidome pattern utility for diagnosis of ESCC, and assessment of operation success, postoperative chemotherapy results, tumor metastasis and recurrence. Serum samples were collected from 61 patients treated with surgery and chemotherapy and 20 healthy individuals. Spectral data generated with weak cationic-exchanger magnetic beads (WCX-MB) and MALDI-TOF MS by a support vector machine (SVM), were used to construct diagnostic models and system training as potential biomarkers. A pattern consisting of 11 protein peaks, separated ESCC (m/z 650.75), operated (m/z 676.61, 786.1, 786.58), postoperative chemotherapy (m/z 622.77, 650.66, 676.46) and tumor metastasis and recurrence (m/z 622.63, 650.56, 690.77, 676.12) from the healthy individuals with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 100.0%. These results suggested that MALDI- TOF MS combined with MB separation yields significantly higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of serum protein in patients with EC patients treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
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Biocatalytic Performance of pH-Sensitive Magnetic Nanoparticles Derived from Layer-by-Layer Ionic Self-Assembly of Chitosan with Glucoamylase.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Based on the characteristics of polycations of chitosan and glucoamylase, which are oppositely charged, they were successfully alternatingly deposited onto the surface of aldehyde-modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles by using a layer-by-layer ion exchange method to form magnetic carriers to construct multilayer films (designated as Fe3 O4 @(CS/GA)n ). The (CS/GA)n film systems were endowed with the pH-dependent properties of chitosan as well as the catalytic activity of glucoamylase. The changes in weight loss and surface chemistry, morphology, and magnetic sensitivity were monitored and verified by UV/Vis spectroscopy, zeta potential, TEM, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Subsequently, the influence of the number of bilayers, storage stability, pH, temperature, and reusability of Fe3 O4 @(CS/GA)5 biocatalysts on catalytic activity were investigated. The results from characterization and determination remarkably indicate that Fe3 O4 @(CS/GA)5 presents excellent catalytic activity, storage stability, pH stability, and reusability in comparison with free enzyme. Fe3 O4 @(CS/GA)5 retained >60?% of its initial activity at 65?°C over 6?h; the optimum temperature and pH also increased to the ranges of 45-65?°C and 2.5-3.5, respectively, and only 27?% activity was lost after 10?cycles. This new strategy simplifies the reaction protocol and improves encapsulation efficiency and catalytic activity for new potential applications in biotechnology.
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Genetic variability in the three mitochondrial genes among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from different regions in Shaanxi and Hunan Provinces, China.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Abstract The present study examined sequence variations in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5), adenosine triphosphate subunit 6 (atp6) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (cox3), among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from different regions in Shaanxi and Hunan provinces, China. The lengths for partial sequences of nad5 (pnad5), atp6 (patp6) and cox3 (pcox3) were 427?bp, 381?bp and 337?bp, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations among all O. asperum samples were 0-2.11%, 0-1.84% and 0-1.48% for pnad5, patp6 and pcox3, respectively, while the inter-specific sequence differences among Oesophagostomum species in pig and small ruminants were 18-21.3% for pnad5, 18.3-24.5% for patp6 and 10.6-13.7% for pcox3. A phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of three mtDNA fragments indicated that all O. asperum isolates were grouped in one solid clade, and the Oesophagostomum spp. from pig were located in another clade. However, these mtDNA fragments could not reveal genetic relationships of geographical isolates of O. asperum in China. These results provided valuable information for studying population genetics of Oesophagostomum spp., and for controlling Oesophagostomum infection in animals as well as humans.
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The reversal of paraquat-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by cycloartenyl ferulate, the important role of Nrf2 pathway.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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In this study, we demonstrate the protective effects of Cycloartenyl ferulate (CF) against Paraquat (PQ)-induced cytotoxicity and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results show that, CF could reverse the PQ-induced growth inhibition and release of lactate dehydrogenase in HK-2 human proximal tubular cells. Treatment with PQ induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells, as evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell population, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of phosphatidylserine, which were significantly attenuated by co-incubation with CF. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ-induced apoptosis, as revealed by the activation of caspase-3/-9, cleavage of PARP, depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential regulated by Bcl-2 family members, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which were also effectively blocked by CF. Moreover, treatments of PQ strongly inhibited the expression of Nrf2 and the downstream effectors, HO1 and NQO1. However, co-treatment with CF effectively reversed this action of PQ. Furthermore, silencing of Nrf2 by the siRNA technique significantly blocked the cytoprotective effects of CF against PQ-induced apoptosis, which suggest the important role of Nrf2 signaling pathway an cell apoptosis induced by PQ. Taken together, this study provides a novel strategy for molecular intervention against PQ-induced nephrotoxicity by using phytochemicals.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Baylisascaris schroederi of the giant panda.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most significant threats to the giant pandas survival, responsible for half of the deaths reported from 2001 to 2005. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been identified as one of the key factors for gene regulations at the post-transcriptional level, and also considered as a potential control and treatment target against infectious diseases.
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[Comparison of sedative effects of propofol and midazolam on emergency critical patients on mechanical ventilation].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To compare the sedative effects of propofol and midazolam, or combination of them on emergency critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation.
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Overactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and suppression of mitofusin-2 expression are two independent events in high mobility group box 1 protein-mediated T cell immune dysfunction.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a critical proinflammatory cytokine, has recently been identified to be an immunostimulatory signal involved in sepsis-related immune dysfunction when released extracellularly, but the potential mechanism involved remains elusive. Here, we showed that the treatment with HMGB1 in vitro inhibited T lymphocyte immune response and expression of mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2; a member of the mitofusin family) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Upregulation of Mfn-2 expression attenuated the suppressive effect of HMGB1 on T cell immune function. The phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was markedly upregulated by treating with high amount of HMGB1, while pretreatment with ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK-specific inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) could attenuate suppression of T cell immune function and nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) activation induced by HMGB1, respectively. HMGB1-induced activity of ERK1/2 and p38 was not fully inhibited in the presence of U0126 or SB203580. Interestingly, overexpression of Mfn-2 had no marked effect on HMGB1-mediated activation of MAPK, but could attenuate the suppressive effect of HMGB1 on the activity of NFAT. Thus, the mechanisms involved in HMGB1-induced T cell immune dysfunction in vitro at least partly include suppression of Mfn-2 expression, overactivation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and intervention of NFAT activation, while the protective effect of Mfn-2 on T cell immune dysfunction induced by HMGB1 is dependent on other signaling pathway associated with NFAT, but not MAPK. Taken together, we conclude that overactivation of MAPK and suppression of Mfn-2 expression are two independent events in HMGB1-mediated T cell immune dysfunction.
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An LC-MS/MS method for determination of curculigoside with anti-osteoporotic activity in rat plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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A rapid, simple, selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of curculigoside in rat plasma. The analytical procedure involves extraction of curculigoside and syringin (internal standard, IS) from rat plasma with a one-step extraction method by protein precipitation. The chromatographic resolution was performed on an Agilent XDB-C18 column (4.6?×?50 mm, 5 µm) using an isocratic mobile phase of methanol with 0.1% formic acid and H2 O with 0.1% formic acid (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min with a total run time of 2.0 min. The assay was achieved under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionization. Method validation was performed according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The calibration curve was linear over 4.00-4000 ng/mL (R?=?0.9984) for curculigoside with a lower limit of quantification of 4.00 ng/mL in rat plasma. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracies were 3.5-4.6 and 0.7-9.1%, in rat plasma, respectively. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of curculigoside in rats after a single intravenous and oral administration of 3.2 and 32 mg/kg. The absolute bioavailability of curculigoside after oral administration was 1.27%. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the risk of intracranial aneurysm.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Intracranial aneurysm (IA) lingers as a potentially devastating clinical problem, in which inflammation acts as a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of this disease. Cytokines play a major role in regulating inflammation. The aim of this study was to gain insight in the inflammatory response in IA by assessing plasma cytokine profiles. Plasma levels of 10 cytokines were quantified by multiplex protein arrays in 66 patients with IA and 78 healthy controls. Results showed that plasma level of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) was 2.4-fold higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05). The level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was 2.8-fold higher in patient than in controls (p < 0.01). The level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) was 2.1-fold higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.001). When comparing the expression of cytokines in IA patients with different characteristics, cases with ruptured aneurysm revealed increased level of MCP-1 than those with unruptured aneurysm (p < 0.05), whereas cases with multiple numbers of aneurysms demonstrated higher levels of MCP-1 and TNF-? than those with single aneurysm (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). These data indicated that IL-1?, MCP-1, and TNF-? were associated with increased risk of IA and may affect the development of this disease.
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Genetic variability of Baylisascaris schroederi from the Qinling subspecies of the giant panda in China revealed by sequences of three mitochondrial genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Abstract The present study examined the variations in three mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences, namely cytochrome b (cytb), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (cox3) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5), among Baylisascaris schroederi isolates from the Qinling subspecies of the giant panda in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. No differences in length were detected in the three mt fragments from different isolates. The intra-specific sequence variations within all B. schroederi samples were 0-2.6% for pcytb, 0-1.8% for pcox3 and 0-2.1% for pnad5, while the inter-specific sequence differences among members of the genus Baylisascaris were 8.2-15.2%, 6.2-15.9% and 8.4-16.0% for pcytb, pcox3, pnad5, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of pcytb, pcox3 and pnad 5 showed that all B. schroederi samples in the present study were located in two large clusters, with one cluster containing samples from giant pandas in Sichuan province. These findings provide basic information for further study of molecular epidemiology and control of B. schroederi infection in the Qinling subspecies of the giant panda and throughout China.
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Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) with fully controllable structures from glycerol.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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As the most representative biodegradable thermoplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) has a limited range of applications because of its poor thermal and physical properties. To improve its properties, a novel biosynthetic system was designed to produce poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HP-co-3HB)) with fully controllable structures from inexpensive carbon source. In this system, two parallel synthetic pathways controlled by independent regulatory systems were used to produce the 3HP and 3HB monomers, respectively. Through tuning the expression level of appropriate genes, P(3HP-co-3HB) copolyesters were synthesized with a wide range of 3HP fraction from 11.5 mol% to 94.6 mol%. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated that the thermal properties of P(3HP-co-3HB) copolymer were totally dependent on its composition. The bioreactor cultivation was also performed and accumulated 9.8 g/L P(48.2 mol% 3HP-co-3HB) using glycerol as sole carbon source, which represented the highest production so far.
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Expression of lymphocyte coding genes in peripheral blood and lymphocyte infiltration in cardiac tissues influenced by cyclosporin A in heterotopic heart transplantation model in rats.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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To systematically compare the expression of coding genes with pathological changes of transplanted cardiac tissue and peripheral blood lymphocytes in an allo-heterotopic rat cardiac transplant model. Using SD rats as donors and Wistar rats as recipients, animals were divided into two groups, control and cyclosporine A intervention plus heart transplant groups. After transplant at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 12d, we assessed the ability of lymphocytes to infiltrate into cardiac tissues and levels of leukocyte coding genes in peripheral blood. Histopathological changes were monitored in cardiac tissue to determine the level of transplant rejection. Results: (1) 24h after transplant peripheral blood lymphocytes transcription and expression were temporarily reduced. (2) CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes infiltrate into cardiac tissue and Grade 1R pathological changes were observed 3d-7d after heart transplant. (3)Cyclosporine A was not able to completely block heart transplant rejection.(4) Although cyclosporine A was not able to effectively suppress CD4(+) T cell gene expression, it did suppress CD8(+) T cell gene transcription. (5) Cyclosporine A did not effectively reduce the rapid infiltration of CD4(+) or CD8(+) infiltration in 3d, but significantly reduced the degree of CD4(+) T cell infiltration in cardiac tissues between 3 and 7d. (6) Differential display (DD-PCR): Graft control group: there were differences in 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, ribosomal protein S25, 12S ribosomal, gig18, MHC-III and ATPase H(+), which occurred 24h before CD4/CD8 surface protein expression. Cyclosporine A group: there were differences in thrombospondin-1, TCR, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, sodium channel beta-1, gig18 and TCR. In the cyclosporine A group 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate positive expression was observed 24h after the control group, which indicates that cyclosporine A slowed down the 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate transcription rate in peripheral lymphocytes and delayed its expression time. Cyclosporine A also suppressed gig18 transcription in peripheral lymphocytes. After 24h, sodium channel beta-1 was positively expressed in the cyclosporine A group. The relationship between molecular surface receptor expression and coding genes in cardiac tissue and peripheral blood after transplant indicates that early detection of acute rejection and anti-rejection drugs curative effect can be assessed.
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An efficient and non-enzymatic method for isolation and culture of endothelial cells from the nidus of human cerebral arteriovenous malformations.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In this report, we describe an efficient and non-enzymatic method for isolating and culturing endothelial cells (ECs) from the nidus of surgically resected arteriovenous malformation (AVM) specimens. These cultured cells possessed typical phenotypic markers (i.e. von Willebrand factor and CD34), as well as morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of ECs. However, they had activated Notch-1 signaling, which plays a critical role in the development of AVM. The present study suggests that hypoxic endothelial cells from the nidus of human cerebral arteriovenous malformation (CAVMECs) have angiogenic potentials, as our data showed that VEGF gene expression and cell proliferation were more evident with prolonged hypoxia. In our study, we successfully used the vascular tissue explants adherent method to isolate and culture CAVMECs with high purity. This may prove to be a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms that mediate abnormal vessel development and maintenance in AVM.
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Overexpression of CD88 predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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CD88 (C5aR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, is well known as it functions in various inflammatory diseases, however, its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of CD88 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Five NSCLC cell lines and one normal bronchial epithelial cell line were used to analyze the CD88 expression at the mRNA level. Then, the expression of CD88 and E-cadherin were further examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 208 cases of NSCLSs. Data revealed that CD88 expression was significantly higher in NSCLC cells than that in normal bronchial epithelial cells, and compared with the adjacent non-tumorous lung tissues, the CD88 protein overexpressed in NSCLC tissues. Furthermore, high levels of CD88 were found to be correlated with lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients (p = 0.012). The 5-year overall survival of patients with CD88(high) was significantly lower than those in the CD88(low) group (p = 0.001), and multivariate analysis revealed that CD88 expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients overall survival (HR = 1.614, 95% CI 1.082-2.407, p = 0.019). Finally, we confirmed the CD88 expression negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (p < 0.001). Interference of CD88 expression impaired the migration of lung cancer cells and up-regulated the E-cadherin protein expression. Thus, our results indicate that CD88 is overexpressed in NSCLC. High levels of CD88 are associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC after resection and promote tumor metastasis via down-regulation of E-cadherin. CD88 can be a potential prognostic marker to screen patients for unfavorable prognosis.
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Temporizing surgical management improves outcome in patients with Vibrio necrotizing fasciitis complicated with septic shock on admission.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by Vibrio infection is one of the most fatal diseases, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and effective surgical intervention are the mainstays for better outcomes for affected patients. Currently, standard surgical management calls for prompt and aggressive debridement and amputation. However, due to its rapid progression and deterioration, 50-60% of Vibrio NF cases present with septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction on admission. These patients, who usually have many surgical contraindications, are unable to tolerate a prolonged aggressive surgical debridement. Therefore, determining the optimal surgical intervention for these particularly severe patients remains a formidable problem in emergency medicine.
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The cognitive advantage for ones own name is not simply familiarity: An eye-tracking study.
Psychon Bull Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Eye-tracking technique and visual search task were employed to examine the cognitive advantage for ones own name and the possible effect of familiarity on this advantage. The results showed that fewer saccades and an earlier start time of first fixations on the target were associated with trials in which participants were asked to search for their own name, as compared to search for personally familiar or famous names. In addition, the results also demonstrated faster response times and higher accuracy in the former kind of trials. Taken together, these findings provide important evidence that ones own name has the potential to capture attention and that familiarity cannot account for this advantage.
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Inducible cell lysis systems in microbial production of bio-based chemicals.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The release of products from microbial cells is an essential process for industrial scale production of bio-based chemicals. However, traditional methods of cell lysis, e.g., mechanical disruption, chemical solvent extraction, and immobilized enzyme degradation, account for a large share of the total production cost. Thus, an efficient cell lysis system is required to lower the cost. This review has focused on our current knowledge of two cell lysis systems, bacteriophage holin-endolysin system, and lipid enzyme hydrolysis system. These systems are controlled by conditionally inducible regulatory apparatus and applied in microbial production of fatty acids and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Moreover, toxin-antitoxin system is also suggested as alternative for its potential applications in cell lysis. Compared with traditional methods of cell disruption, the inducible cell lysis systems are more economically feasible and easier to control and show a promising perspective in industrial production of bio-based chemicals.
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Genetic variability among Dicrocoelium dendriticum isolates from different regions in Shaanxi Province, China revealed by sequences of three mitochondrial genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The genetic variations in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely portion of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (pnad1) and cytochrome b (pcytb), were examined for Dicrocoelium dendriticum samples isolated from different origins in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China. The intra-specific sequence differences within D. dendriticum samples were 0-0.52% for pcox1, 0-0.73% for pnad1 and 0-0.58% for pcytb. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of three mtDNA showed that all D. dendriticum samples were clustered together in same clade of Paragonimus westermani. But the phylogenetic trees could not reveal geographically genetic relationships of D. dendriticum isolates in this province. These findings will provide basic information for further study of molecular epidemiology and control of D. dendriticum infection in this province as well as in China.
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[Effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of paraquat-induced acute lung injury and the underlying mechanisms].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To investigate the intervention effect of thalidomide on paraquat-induced acute lung injury in mice and its mechanism.
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The complete mitochondrial genomes of Oesophagostomum asperum and Oesophagostomum columbianum in small ruminants.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Oesophagostomum spp., commonly known as nodule worms, is one of the important emerging nematode zoonoses worldwide. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two small ruminant nodule worms, Oesophagostomum asperum and Oesophagostomum columbianum, and compared them with that of pig nodule worms (Oesophagostomum dentatum and Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum). The complete mt genomes of O. asperum andO. columbianum were 13,672 and 13,561 bp, respectively. Both mt genomes were circular, and consisted of 36 genes, including 12 genes coding for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of pig nodule worms. The availability of full mtDNA sequences of O. asperum and O. columbianum provide useful information for studying population genetics of Oesophagostomum spp., molecular epidemiology and control of O. asperum and O. columbianum infection in small ruminants.
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MicroRNA-195 protects against dementia induced by chronic brain hypoperfusion via its anti-amyloidogenic effect in rats.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) causes A? aggregation by upregulating expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) protein, which is accompanied by cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of microRNA on memory impairment in rats induced by CBH. We show here that CBH generated by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) significantly decreased the learning and memory ability in rats, as assessed by Morris water maze, and upregulated expression of APP and BACE1 proteins in the hippocampus and cortex of rats, as evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In reciprocal, qRT-PCR analysis showed that microRNA-195 (miR-195) was downregulated in both the hippocampus and cortex of rats following CBH, and in the plasma of dementia patients. APP and BACE1 proteins were downregulated by miR-195 overexpression, upregulated by miR-195 inhibition, and unchanged by binding-site mutation or miR-masks, indicating that APP and BACE1 are two potential targets for miR-195. Knockdown of endogenous miR-195 by lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of its antisense molecule (lenti-pre-AMO-miR-195) elicited dementia in rats, whereas overexpression of miR-195 using lenti-pre-miR-195 reduced dementia vulnerability triggered by 2VO. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF?B was bound to the promoter region of miR-195 and inhibited its expression. We conclude that miR-195 may play a key role in determining dementia susceptibility in 2VO rats by regulating APP and BACE1 expression at the post-transcriptional level, and exogenous complement of miR-195 may be a potentially valuable anti-dementia approach.
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Dual infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in a Rattus norvegicus, China.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti were isolated from a Rattus norvegicus in the middle east of China through propagation in experimental mice. Their molecular biological characteristics were described. The public health and veterinary significance of the dual infection of the 2 tick-borne agents deserve further investigation.
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Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.
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Administration of MS-275 improves cognitive performance and reduces cell death following traumatic brain injury in rats.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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The MS-275 is a selective inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), which has been reported as a potential strategy in some central nervous system diseases associated with neurodegeneration and disturbed learning. However, its role in traumatic brain injury is not well defined. In this study, we examined the behavioral-cognitive performance as well as histology outcome in adult rats to evaluate whether postinjury administration of MS-275 (15 and 45 mg/kg) would provide neuroprotection benefits and ameliorate cognitive deficits following fluid percussion injury.
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Molecular characterization of Cyclospora-like organisms from golden snub-nosed monkeys in Qinling Mountain in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Cyclospora spp. have been identified as one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing protracted diarrhea in animals and human beings. To determine the Cyclospora species in the non-human primate Rhinopithecus roxellanae, a total of 71 fecal samples from 19 endangered snub-nosed monkeys in Shaanxi province were collected and examined using Sheaters sugar flotation technique and by sequencing the fragments of 18S rDNA. Only two Cyclospora isolates from 2 golden snub-nosed monkeys (R. roxellanae) were obtained and identified between July 2011 and August of 2012. The sequences of the 18S rDNA for the two Cyclospora isolates were 477 bp, with no nucleotide variation between them. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the two Cyclospora isolates were posited into the clade Cyclospora spp. and sistered to C. colobi. These results first showed that Cyclospora infection occurred in R. roxellanae in hot and rainy weather, which would provide useful information for further understanding the molecular epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. and the control of Cyclospora infection in non-human primates as well as in human beings.
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Comparison of Chinese and white Bolton standards at age 13.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To create a combined male-female Chinese Bolton standard for age 13 and to compare it to the combined Bolton standard for white 13 year olds.
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Transmission and maintenance cycle of Bartonella quintana among rhesus macaques, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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We detected Bartonella quintana in 48.6% of captive rhesus macaques from an animal facility in Beijing, China. Prevalence of infection increased over the period of observation. Our findings suggest that macaques may serve as reservoir hosts for B. quintana and that Pedicinus obtusus lice might act as efficient vectors.
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Live/Real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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This study assessed the ability of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) in measuring (1) atrial septal defect (ASD) maximum dimension, area, and adjacent rim size, (2) ASD occluder left and right atrial disk size, (3) length of contact between the left atrial (LA) disk and the aorta, and in (4) assessing device related complications such as residual shunt, device embolization, and device encroachment upon adjacent cardiac structures.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.