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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sensitive impedimetric biosensor based on duplex-like DNA scaffolds and ordered mesoporous carbon nitride for silver(i) ion detection.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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This study demonstrates a new, unlabeled immobilized DNA-based biosensor with ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) for the detection of Ag(+) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) as the redox couple. The unlabeled immobilized DNA initially formed the hairpin-like structure through hybridization with the probe, and then changed to duplex-like structure upon interaction with Ag(+) in solution to form a C-Ag(+)-C complex at electrode surface. As a result, the interfacial charge-transfer resistance of the electrode towards the [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) redox couple was changed. Thus, a declined charge transfer resistance (Rct) was obtained, corresponding to Ag(+) concentration. MCN provide an excellent platform for DNA immobilization and faster electron transfer. Impedance data were analyzed with the help of Randles equivalent circuit. The lower detection limit of the biosensor for Ag(+) is 5 × 10(-11) M with good specificity. All results showed that this novel approach provides a reliable method for Ag(+) detection with sensitivity and specificity, potentially useful for practical applications. Moreover, other DNA detection methods for more heavy metals may be obtained from this idea and applied in the environmental field.
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The Effect of Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress on the Enzymes in White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 ?M cadmium and 25 ?M lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 ?M cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 ?M; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 ?M taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 ?M cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 ?M cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.
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Mechanism of Cr(VI) reduction by Aspergillus niger: enzymatic characteristic, oxidative stress response, and reduction product.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by Aspergillus niger was attributed to the reduction product (trivalent chromium) that could be removed in precipitation and immobilized inside the fungal cells and on the surface of mycelium. The site location of reduction was conducted with assays of the permeabilized cells, cell-free extracts, and cell debris, which confirmed that the chromate reductase was mainly located in the soluble fraction of cells. The oxidation-reduction process was accompanied by the increase of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant levels after hexavalent chromium treatment. Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) and maximum reaction rate (V max), obtained from the Lineweaver-Burk plot were 14.68 ?M and 434 ?M min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra analyses manifested that both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species were present on the mycelium. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis suggested that carboxyl, hydroxide, amine, amide, cyano-group, and phosphate groups from the fungal cell wall were involved in chromium binding by the complexation with the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. A Cr(VI) removal mechanism of Cr(VI) reduction followed by the surface immobilization and intracellular accumulation of Cr(III) in living A. niger was present.
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Recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge in combination with the supercritical water process.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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In this paper, the fraction transformation and recovering of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS) residues, derived from supercritical water process, was investigated by extraction and precipitation processes. In addition, the form of heavy metals existing during the recovery process is also discussed. First, P in the solid residues was recovered by acid leaching with HCl, and then the derived P was adsorbed by activated alumina (Al(2)O(3)). Finally, the Al2O3 was desorbed with low concentration of NaOH. Results showed that 80% organic P was converted into HCl-P. The total P (the chief ingredient of HCl-P) in solid residue increased from 86.1 to 95.6% as temperature increased from 350 to 400 °C. The amount of P in the solid residue that was dissolved by 1 M HCl was 97.8%, and over 95% of P in the leaching solution (15 mg/L for P concentration) was adsorbed after 5.0 g of Al(2)O(3) powder was added. The amount of P desorbed from Al(2)O(3) with 0.1 M NaOH was 98.7%. Ultimately, over 85% of TP in SS was recovered. Moreover, the proportion of Cu, Zn and Pb in the extracted P products was lower than 5%.
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Soil organic carbon loss and selective transportation under field simulated rainfall events.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The study on the lateral movement of soil organic carbon (SOC) during soil erosion can improve the understanding of global carbon budget. Simulated rainfall experiments on small field plots were conducted to investigate the SOC lateral movement under different rainfall intensities and tillage practices. Two rainfall intensities (High intensity (HI) and Low intensity (LI)) and two tillage practices (No tillage (NT) and Conventional tillage (CT)) were maintained on three plots (2 m width × 5 m length): HI-NT, LI-NT and LI-CT. The rainfall lasted 60 minutes after the runoff generated, the sediment yield and runoff volume were measured and sampled at 6-min intervals. SOC concentration of sediment and runoff as well as the sediment particle size distribution were measured. The results showed that most of the eroded organic carbon (OC) was lost in form of sediment-bound organic carbon in all events. The amount of lost SOC in LI-NT event was 12.76 times greater than that in LI-CT event, whereas this measure in HI-NT event was 3.25 times greater than that in LI-NT event. These results suggest that conventional tillage as well as lower rainfall intensity can reduce the amount of lost SOC during short-term soil erosion. Meanwhile, the eroded sediment in all events was enriched in OC, and higher enrichment ratio of OC (ERoc) in sediment was observed in LI events than that in HI event, whereas similar ERoc curves were found in LI-CT and LI-NT events. Furthermore, significant correlations between ERoc and different size sediment particles were only observed in HI-NT event. This indicates that the enrichment of OC is dependent on the erosion process, and the specific enrichment mechanisms with respect to different erosion processes should be studied in future.
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Cadmium induced oxalic acid secretion and its role in metal uptake and detoxification mechanisms in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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This study examines the role of oxalic acid in the uptake of Cd and participation in detoxification process in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Cd-induced oxalic acid secretion was observed with growth inhibition and enzyme inactivation (LiP and MnP) of P. chrysosporium. The peak value of oxalic acid concentration was 16.6 mM at initial Cd concentration of 100 mg L(-1). During the short-term uptake experiments, the uptake of Cd was enhanced and accelerated in the presence of oxalic acid and resulted in alleviated growth and enzyme inhibition ratios. The formation of a metal-oxalate complex therefore may provide a detoxification mechanism via effect on metal bioavailability, whereby many fungi can survive and grow in environments containing high concentrations of toxic metals. The present findings will advance the understanding of fungal resistance to metal stress, which could show promise for a more useful application of microbial technology in the treatment of metal-polluted waste.
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Fast adsorption of Cd²? and Pb²? by EGTA dianhydride (EGTAD) modified ramie fiber.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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In this study, the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions was investigated using a novel chelating material. The first part described the synthesis of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid dianhydride (EGTAD), mercerization treatment of ramie fiber (MRF), and the MRF was then reacted with EGTAD to prepare the new material (ERF). The obtained material was characterized by weight gain, SEM, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The results of FTIR and elemental analysis confirmed that ester bond, carboxyl and amine groups were introduced onto ERF. The adsorption capacity of metals on ERF was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, initial metal concentrations, and temperatures in the second part. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 5 min for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Adsorption isotherm could be well fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 159.11 and 273.78 mg g(-1) for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at 298 K, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The molar ratio of adsorbed cation to grafted EGTA is close to 1.8:1, which confirmed that the adsorption was chemical process involving both surface chelation reaction and ion exchange. In addition, the absorbent was successfully regenerated using HCl and ultrasonic treatment.
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A restoration-promoting integrated floating bed and its experimental performance in eutrophication remediation.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Numerous studies on eutrophication remediation have mainly focused on purifying water first, then restoring submerged macrophytes. A restoration-promoting integrated floating bed (RPIFB) was designed to combine the processes of water purification and macrophyte restoration simultaneously. Two outdoor experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological functions of the RPIFB. Trial 1 was conducted to compare the eutrophication purification among floating bed, gradual-submerging bed (GSB) and RPIFB technologies. The results illustrated that RPIFB has the best purification capacity. Removal efficiencies of RPIFB for TN, TP, NH(+)4-N, NO(-)3-N, CODCr, Chlorophyll-a and turbidity were 74.45%, 98.31%, 74.71%, 88.81%, 71.42%, 90.17% and 85%, respectively. In trial 2, influences of depth of GSB and photic area in RPIFB on biota were investigated. When the depth of GSB decreased and the photic area of RPIFB grew, the height of Potamogeton crispus Linn. increased, but the biomass of Canna indica Linn. was reduced. The mortalities of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Bellamya aeruginosa in each group were all less than 7%. All results indicated that when the RPIFB was embedded into the eutrophic water, the regime shift from phytoplankton-dominated to macrophyte-dominated state could be promoted. Thus, the RPIFB is a promising remediation technology for eutrophication and submerged macrophyte restoration.
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[Purification and characterization of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Biosurfactant rhamnolipid is a metabolic intermediate produced by microorganisms under a certain condition. There are the polar hydrophilic group and the non-polar hydrophobic group in rhamnolipid molecule which always exhibits high surface or interfacial activity. A reliable separation and purification method as well as component identification technique is essential for success of production process. The rhamnolipid was produced by aerobic fermentation using Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 in this study. It was separated from the culture by acid precipitation and purified by column chromatography until two groups of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid were obtained. High performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) examination showed that either the monorhamnolipid or the dirhamnolipid contained three major species. They were RhaC10C10, RhaC10C12-H2, RhaC10C12 for monorhamnolipid and Rha2C10 C10, Rha2C10 C12-H2, Rha2 C10 C12 for dirhamnolipid. The results of the study suggested that Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 is a good strain for rhamnolipid production. Acid precipitation-column chromatography technique is good for purification of rhamnolipid. Meanwhile, HPLC-MS is a reliable method for identifying components of rhamnolipid with high sensitivity and accuracy.
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Effect of exogenous nitric oxide on antioxidative system and S-nitrosylation in leaves of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud under cadmium stress.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Cadmium (Cd)-induced growth inhibition is one of the primary factors limiting phytoremediation effect of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud in contaminated soil. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO), has been evidenced to alleviate Cd toxicity in many plants. However, as an important mechanism of NO in orchestrating cellular functions, S-nitrosylation is still poorly understood in its relation with Cd tolerance of plants. In this study, higher exogenous NO levels were found to coincide with higher S-nitrosylation level expressed as content of S-nitrosothiols (SNO). The addition of low concentration (100 ?M) SNP increased the SNO content, and it simultaneously induced an alleviating effect against Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced the accumulation of H2O2 as compared with Cd alone. Application of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) inhibitors dodecanoic acid (DA) in 100 ?M SNP group brought in an extra elevation in S-nitrosylation level and further reinforced the effect of SNP. While the additions of 400 ?M SNP and 400 ?M SNP?+?50 ?M DA further elevated the S-nitrosylation level, it markedly weakened the alleviating effect against Cd toxicity as compared with the addition of 100 ?M SNP. This phenomenon could be owing to excess consumption of glutathione (GSH) to form SNO under high S-nitrosylation level. Therefore, the present study indicates that S-nitrosylation is involved in the ameliorating effect of SNP against Cd toxicity. This involvement exhibited a concentration-dependent property.
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Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections.
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Study on biodegradation process of lignin by FTIR and DSC.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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The biodegradation process of lignin by Penicillium simplicissimum was studied to reveal the lignin biodegradation mechanisms. The biodegradation products of lignin were detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, different scanning calorimeter (DSC), and stereoscopic microscope. The analysis of FTIR spectrum showed the cleavage of various ether linkages (1,365 and 1,110 cm(-1)), oxidation, and demethylation (2,847 cm(-1)) by comparing the different peak values in the corresponding curve of each sample. Moreover, the differences (Tm and ?Hm values) between the DSC curves indirectly verified the FTIR analysis of biodegradation process. In addition, the effects of adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to lignin biodegradation process were analyzed, which indicated that H2O2 could accelerate the secretion of the MnP and LiP and improve the enzymes activity. What is more, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase catalyzed the lignin degradation effectively only when H2O2 was presented.
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Fate and risk assessment of heavy metals in residue from co-liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake and sewage sludge in supercritical ethanol.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The fate and risk assessment of heavy metals (HMs) in solid residue from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge (SS) and Camellia oleifera cake (COC) in supercritical ethanol (SCE) were investigated. SCE effectively stabilized HMs in solid residues and a better stabilization was presented on Zn than Cd. Moreover, SCE significantly transformed Cd, Cu and Zn into F4, which reduced the risk to the environment. Furthermore, risk assessments of Igeo, Er(i), RI and RAC demonstrated that the addition of COC was beneficial to the contamination decrement of HMs since pollution levels of HMs all decreased after treatment, and the lowest pollution level was obtained with SC-350. Therefore, SS treated by SCE with the addition of COC could be a promising technology for disposal of SS, especially considering the safety of COC as regards HMs problem.
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Quantum dots and p-phenylenediamine based method for the sensitive determination of glucose.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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By introducing p-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the hybrid system of Mn-doped CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and glucose oxidase (GOD), a sensitive label-free method was proposed for direct detection of glucose. With glucose and PPD as substrates, 2,5-diamino-N,N'-di-(4-aminophenyl)-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diimine (DDACD) that intensively quenches the fluorescence of QDs can be produced by the catalysis of GOD. A detection limit as low as 3.2 ?M was obtained with the high-efficient fluorescence quencher. Two linear ranges, from 5.0 ?M to 1000 ?M and from 1.0 mM to 10.0 mM, were identified between time-gated fluorescence intensity and the concentration of glucose. It is shown that the newly proposed methods have high selectivity for glucose over other saccharides and coexisting biological species in serum. The method can be used directly to determine glucose in normal adult human serum without any complicated sample pretreatments. The recovery rate and repeatability of the method were also shown to be satisfactory.
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Role of low-concentration monorhamnolipid in cell surface hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: adsorption or lipopolysaccharide content variation.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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A role of rhamnolipid biosurfactant to enhance the biodegradation of hydrocarbons is known to be enhancing bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and adhesion of cells to hydrocarbons. Assumptions regarding the mechanism for rhamnolipid in changing CSH of Gram-negative bacteria are rhamnolipid-induced release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell's outer membrane and adsorption/orientation of rhamnolipid on the cell surface. In this study, the relation between cell-wall LPS or rhamnolipid content and CSH of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium subjected to rhamnolipid treatment was investigated to add insights to the mechanism. Results showed that the initial CSH was determined by the type of substrate the cells grow on and the stage of growth. For glucose-grown cells with low initial CSH and high LPS content, rhamnolipid sorption in cell wall had no discernable effect on CSH. For cells grown on glycerol with medium initial CSH and low LPS content, rhamnolipid sorption increased CSH of exponential-phase cells but decreased that of stationary-phase cells. For hexadecane-grown cells with high initial CSH and high LPS content, rhamnolipid sorption decreased CSH of both exponential-phase and stationary-phase cells. The results indicated that CSH has a better correlation to the content of rhamnolipid in the cell wall than to the content of LPS in the presence of rhamnolipid treatment and that rhamnolipid adsorption may be an important mechanism for rhamnolipid to alter CSH of P. aeruginosa.
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Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by rhamnolipid-functionalized graphene oxide from wastewater.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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In this article, a rhamnolipid-functionalized graphene oxide (RL-GO) hybrid was prepared by one-step ultrasonication and adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) from both artificial and real wastewater by the RL-GO was investigated. The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) area and Zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the adsorbent. The results showed that RL-GO had abundant functional groups and a mesopores feature. MB adsorption by the RL-GO increased with increase in adsorbent dose, pH, temperature and initial MB concentration, while it was insensitive to ionic strength variation. The adsorption kinetics fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The Intra-particle diffusion and Boyd's film-diffusion models showed that the rate-controlled step was dominated by film-diffusion in the beginning and then followed by intra-particle diffusion. The adsorption isotherm was fitted by adsorption models with the suitability in order of BET > Freundlich > Langmuir > Temkin, based on comparison between correlation coefficients. Thermodynamic analysis of equilibriums suggested that the adsorption MB on RL-GO was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption mechanism was also proposed to be electrostatic attraction, ?-? interaction and hydrogen bond. In addition, the real wastewater experiment, the regeneration study and the comparative cost analysis showed that the RL-GO composites could be a cost-effective and promising sorbent for MB wastewater treatment owing to its high efficiency and excellent reusability.
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The migration and transformation behavior of heavy metals during the liquefaction process of sewage sludge.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Bio-oils and bio-chars were obtained from sewage sludge (SS) by liquefaction with ethanol (or acetone) as the solvent at the temperature of 280, 320 and 360°C. The migration and transformation of HMs as Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni during liquefaction were thoroughly investigated. Meanwhile, the environmental risk of HMs in the bio-oils and bio-chars was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC). The results showed that the liquefaction solvent and temperature significantly affected the redistribution of HMs. HMs distributed mainly into the bio-chars, with less than 10% into the bio-oils. Increasing liquefaction temperature would promote a higher HM content in bio-oils. The environmental risk of HMs in bio-chars was mitigated compared to SS, especially for Ni. However, the environmental risk of Zn and Ni in bio-oils was undesirably high in comparison with bio-chars. It was suggested that the bio-oil should be pretreated before utilization.
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Pyrolysis Oil-Based Lipid Production as Biodiesel Feedstock by Rhodococcus opacus.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Light oil from pyrolysis, which accounts for ?10 % carbon yield of the starting biomass, is a complex aqueous product that is difficult to utilize and usually discarded. This work presents the feasibility of light oil as a sole carbon source to support the growth of Rhodococcus opacus (R. opacus) that in turn accumulate triacylglycerols as biodiesel feedstock. Two types of bacteria (R. opacus PD630 and DSM 1069) were selected in this study. Research results showed that after short adaption periods both strains can grow well on this complex carbon source, as proved by the consumption of oligomers and monomers in light oil. Lipid content by R. opacus PD630 and DSM 1069 was observed up to 25.8 % and 22.0 % of cell dry weight, respectively. Palmitic and stearic acids were found to be the predominant fatty acids in these bacterial cells. In addition, the light oil-based lipid production can be enhanced by reducing the pH value from 7 to 4, especially in case of DSM 1069.
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Effects of d-menthol stress on the growth of and microcystin release by the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The effects of d-menthol on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 and microcystin (MCY) concentration were evaluated by batch culture experiments. The algal biomass and the intracellular and extracellular MCY concentrations were evaluated during 5d incubation. After the d-menthol exposure, the dry weight of the cells gradually decreased; the decrease in the dry weight after 5d exposure was 29, 12, and 2mgL(-1) when the initial cell densities were 1.4×10(7), 1.2×10(6), and 2.9×10(5)cellmL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the d-menthol exposure inhibited the cellular growth, thus also inhibiting the increase of the total MCY concentration. In the presence of d-menthol, the intracellular MCY was gradually released into the medium after the cell lysis. The extracellular MCY concentration in the medium was significantly higher in the d-menthol-exposed samples than in the control samples, confirming that d-menthol cannot decompose the extracellular MCY.
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Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation shapes the indigenous fungal communities during agricultural waste composting.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Inoculation with exogenous white-rot fungi has been proven to be an efficient method to promote lignocellulose biodegradation during agricultural waste composting. Indigenous fungal communities, the most important organisms responsible for mineralization and decomposition of lignocellulosic materials in composts, can be affected by sample properties and other biotic factors. This research was conducted to determine the effects of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation on the indigenous fungal communities during agricultural waste composting. Fungal communities in samples with different inoculation regimes were investigated by sequencing and quantitative PCR. Results showed that P. chrysosporium inoculants produced significant negative effects on the indigenous fungal community abundance during the thermophilic stage. Samples inoculated during Phase II contained higher proportion of Acremonium chrysogenum and Galactomyces geotrichum, while those non-inoculated samples were dominated by Coprinopsis cinerea and Scytalidium thermophilum. Moreover, the indigenous fungal community abundance was significantly correlated with the C/N ratio, water soluble carbon and moisture content (P < 0.05). Redundancy analysis indicated that the most variation in distribution of indigenous fungal community structure was statistically explained by nitrate, C/N ratio, and moisture content, factors which solely explained 29.6 % (F = 30.316, P = 0.002), 25.6 % (F = 26.191, P = 0.002) and 10.0 % (F = 10.249, P = 0.002) of the variation in the indigenous fungal community structure, respectively.
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Diversity of two-domain laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes in Streptomyces spp.: identification of genes potentially involved in extracellular activities and lignocellulose degradation during composting of agricultural waste.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Traditional three-domain fungal and bacterial laccases have been extensively studied for their significance in various biotechnological applications. Growing molecular evidence points to a wide occurrence of more recently recognized two-domain laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes in Streptomyces spp. However, the current knowledge about their ecological role and distribution in natural or artificial ecosystems is insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and composition of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes in agricultural waste composting, which will contribute to the understanding of the ecological function of Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs with potential extracellular activity and ligninolytic capacity. A new specific PCR primer pair was designed to target the two conserved copper binding regions of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. The obtained sequences mainly clustered with Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces violaceusniger, and Streptomyces griseus. Gene libraries retrieved from six composting samples revealed high diversity and a rapid succession of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes during composting. The obtained sequence types cluster in 8 distinct clades, most of which are homologous with Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes, but the sequences of clades III and VIII do not match with any reference sequence of known streptomycetes. Both lignocellulose degradation rates and phenol oxidase activity at pH 8.0 in the composting process were found to be positively associated with the abundance of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. These observations provide important clues that Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs are potentially involved in bacterial extracellular phenol oxidase activities and lignocellulose breakdown during agricultural waste composting.
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Mesoporous carbon nitride based biosensor for highly sensitive and selective analysis of phenol and catechol in compost bioremediation.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Herein, we reported here a promising biosensor by taking advantage of the unique ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) to convert the recognition information into a detectable signal with enzyme firstly, which could realize the sensitive, especially, selective detection of catechol and phenol in compost bioremediation samples. The mechanism including the MCN based on electrochemical, biosensor assembly, enzyme immobilization, and enzyme kinetics (elucidating the lower detection limit, different linear range and sensitivity) was discussed in detail. Under optimal conditions, GCE/MCN/Tyr biosensor was evaluated by chronoamperometry measurements and the reduction current of phenol and catechol was proportional to their concentration in the range of 5.00 × 10(-8)-9.50 × 10(-6)M and 5.00 × 10(-8)-1.25 × 10(-5)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and 0.9881, respectively. The detection limits of catechol and phenol were 10.24 nM and 15.00 nM (S/N=3), respectively. Besides, the data obtained from interference experiments indicated that the biosensor had good specificity. All the results showed that this material is suitable for load enzyme and applied to the biosensor due to the proposed biosensor exhibited improved analytical performances in terms of the detection limit and specificity, provided a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, especially, selective monitoring of catechol and phenol simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained results may open the way to other MCN-enzyme applications in the environmental field.
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Source identification and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in PM2.5 from Changsha.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The probable sources and potential ecological risks of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 in Changsha were analyzed. The intelligent medium-flow total suspended particle sampler was used to collect the PM2.5 samples from Yuelu (YL), Kaifu (KF), and Yuhua (YH) districts of Changsha in March-April of 2013. The total concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in PM2.5 was used for source identification by correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA). Otherwise the potential ecological risks indices (RIs) were calculated based on the bioavailable fractions of HMs which were obtained through BCR sequential extraction. Almost 50% of Cu, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 of all sites were accumulated in soluble and reducible fractions by speciation analysis. The correlation coefficients and PCA analysis showed that HMs in PM2.5 of Changsha in spring were mainly from vehicular emissions, fuel combustion, resuspension of dust and other pollution sources. The average potential ecological RIs of HMs in PM2.5 of Changsha were 6193.80 which suggests that HMs in PM2.5 was extremely serious. These results would be a good reference for health studies and formulation of environmental regulations.
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Co-pelletization of sewage sludge and biomass: the density and hardness of pellet.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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In the present study, the effects of process parameters on pellet properties were investigated for the co-pelletization of sludge and biomass materials. The relaxed pellet density and Meyer hardness of pellets were identified. Scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectra and chemical analysis were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of inter-particular adhesion bonding. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the combustion characteristics. Results showed that the pellet density was increased with the parameters increasing, such as pressure, sludge ratio and temperature. High hardness pellets could be obtained at low pressure, temperature and biomass size. The optimal moisture content for co-pelletization was 10-15%. Moreover, the addition of sludge can reduce the diversity of pellet hardness caused by the heterogeneity of biomass. Increasing ratio of sludge in the pellet would slow down the release of volatile. Synergistic effects of protein and lignin can be the mechanism in the co-pelletization of sludge and biomass.
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Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Natural adsorbent (Cinnamomum camphora sawdust) modified by organic acid (oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye in aqueous media in a batch process. The extent of MG adsorption onto modified sawdust increased with increasing organic acid concentrations, pH, contact time, and temperature but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. Kinetic study indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could best describe the adsorption kinetics of MG. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the three kinds of organic acid-modified sawdust was 280.3, 222.8, and 157.5 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of MG was an endothermic process. The adsorption mechanism, the application of adsorbents in practical wastewater, the prediction of single-stage batch adsorption system, and the disposal of depleted adsorbents were also discussed.
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Influence of sewage sludge-based activated carbon and temperature on the liquefaction of sewage sludge: yield and composition of bio-oil, immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The influence of sewage sludge-based activated carbons (SSAC) on sewage sludge liquefaction has been carried out at 350 and 400°C. SSAC increased the yield and energy density of bio-oil at 350°C. The metallic compounds were the catalytic factor of SSAC obtained at 550°C (SSAC-550), while carbon was the catalytic factor of SSAC obtained at 650°C. Liquefaction with SSAC redistributed the species of heavy metals in solid residue (SR). With the addition of SSAC, the risk of Cu, Zn and Pb decreased at 350°C, while at 400°C the risk of Cd, Cu, and Zn were decreased. Ecological risk index indicated that 400°C was preferable for the toxicity decrement of SR, while risk assessment code indicated that SR obtained at 350°C contained lower risk. Considering the bio-oil yield, liquefaction at 350°C with SSAC-550 was preferable.
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Characterization and application of bioflocculant prepared by Rhodococcus erythropolis using sludge and livestock wastewater as cheap culture media.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A new bioflocculant was produced by culturing Rhodococcus erythropolis in a cheap medium. When culture pH was 7.0, inoculum size was 2 % (v/v), Na2HPO4 concentration was 0.5 g L(-1), and the ratio of sludge/livestock wastewater was 7:1 (v/v), a maximum flocculating rate of 87.6 % could be achieved. Among 13 different kinds of pretreatments for sludge, the optimal one was the thermal-alkaline pretreatment. Different from a bioflocculant produced in a standard medium, this bioflocculant was effective over a wide pH range from 2 to 12 with flocculating rates higher than 98 %. Approximately, 1.6 g L(-1) of crude bioflocculant could be harvested using cold ethanol for extraction. This bioflocculant showed color removal rates up to 80 % when applied to direct and disperse dye solutions, but only 23.0 % for reactive dye solutions. Infrared spectrum showed that the bioflocculant contained functional groups such as -OH, -NH2, and -CONH2. Components in the bioflocculant consisted of 91.2 % of polysaccharides, 7.6 % of proteins, and 1.2 % of DNA. When the bioflocculant and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were used together for decolorization in actual dye wastewater, the optimum decolorization conditions were specified by the response surface methodology as pH 11, bioflocculant dosage of 40 mg/L, and CuSO4 80 mg/L, under which a decolorization rate of 93.9 % could be reached.
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Hydrogen sulfide alleviates 2,4-dichlorophenol toxicity and promotes its degradation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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In this study, the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used to pretreat Phanerochaete chrysosporium in order to improve its ability to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). When pretreated with 100?M NaHS, P. chrysosporium was able to degrade 2,4-DCP completely in 24h, whereas the degradation efficiency of the untreated control was only 57%. The 2,4-DCP-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by NaHS, and the percentage of surviving cells increased by 32%. H2S or HS(-), rather than other compounds derived from NaHS, were responsible for promoting 2,4-DCP degradation by P. chrysosporium. The results of this study suggest that H2S treatment is a potential strategy to alleviate environmental stress and improve the efficiency of the biological removal of pollutants from wastewater.
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Nitrite reductase genes as functional markers to investigate diversity of denitrifying bacteria during agricultural waste composting.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of denitrifier community during agricultural waste composting. The diversity and dynamics of the denitrifying genes (nirK and nirS) were determined using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Relationships between physico-chemical parameters and denitrifying genes structures were simultaneously evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that nirK clones grouped into six clusters and nirS clones into two major clusters, respectively. The results showed a very high diversity of nir gene sequences within composting samples. RDA showed that the nirK and nirS gene structures were significantly related to pH and pile temperature (P?
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Facile green extracellular biosynthesis of CdS quantum dots by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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This study details a novel method for the extracellular microbial synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium was incubated in a solution containing cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate, which became yellow from 12h onwards, indicating the formation of CdS nanocrystals. The purified solution showed a maximum absorbance peak between 296 and 298 nm due to CdS particles in the quantum size regime. The fluorescence emission at 458 nm showed the blue fluorescence of the nanoparticles. X-ray analysis of the nanoparticles confirmed the production of CdS with a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. The average grain size of the nanoparticles was approximately 2.56 nm, as determined from the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) measurement of the most intense peak using Scherer's equation. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed the nanoparticles to be of a uniform size with good crystallinity. The changes to the functional groups on the biomass surface were investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the secretion of cysteine and proteins was found to play an important role in the formation and stabilization of CdS QDs. In conclusion, our study outlines a chemical process for the molecular synthesis of CdS nanoparticles.
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Effects of limonene stress on the growth of and microcystin release by the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The effects of limonene exposure on the growth of Microcystisaeruginosa and the release of toxic intracellular microcystin (MCY) were tested by evaluating the results obtained from the batch culture experiments with M. aeruginosa FACHB-905. The time series of cell as well as intracellular and extracellular MCY concentrations were evaluated during 5d of the incubation. After exposure to limonene, the number of cells gradually diminished; the net log cell reduction after 5d of the exposure was 3.0, 3.6, and 3.8log when the initial cell densities were set at 1.6×10(7), 1.1×10(6) and 4.1×10(5)cell/mL, respectively. Limonene was found to significantly influence the production and release of MCY. As the limonene exposure could inhibit the increase in the number of cells, the increase in the total MCY concentration in the medium was also inhibited. In the presence of limonene, the intracellular MCY was gradually released into the medium through a gradual reduction in the number of cells. The extracellular MCY concentration in the medium was significantly higher in the limonene-exposed samples than in the control samples, which confirmed that limonene cannot decompose the extracellular MCY.
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Heavy metal-induced glutathione accumulation and its role in heavy metal detoxification in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Phanerochaete chrysosporium are known to be vital hyperaccumulation species for heavy metal removal with admirable intracellular bioaccumulation capacity. This study analyzes the heavy metal-induced glutathione (GSH) accumulation and the regulation at the intracellular heavy metal level in P. chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium accumulated high levels of GSH, accompanied with high intracellular concentrations of Pb and Cd. Pb bioaccumulation lead to a narrow range of fluctuation in GSH accumulation (0.72-0.84 ?mol), while GSH plummeted under Cd exposure at the maximum value of 0.37 ?mol. Good correlations between time-course GSH depletion and Cd bioaccumulation were determined (R (2) > 0.87), while no significant correlations have been found between GSH variation and Pb bioaccumulation (R (2) < 0.38). Significantly, concentration-dependent molar ratios of Pb/GSH ranging from 0.10 to 0.18 were observed, while molar ratios of Cd/GSH were at the scope of 1.53-3.32, confirming the dominant role of GSH in Cd chelation. The study also demonstrated that P. chrysosporium showed considerable hypertolerance to Pb ions, accompanied with demand-driven stimulation in GSH synthesis and unconspicuous generation of reactive oxygen stress. GSH plummeted dramatically response to Cd exposure, due to the strong affinity of GSH to Cd and the involvement of GSH in Cd detoxification mechanism mainly as Cd chelators. Investigations into GSH metabolism and its role in ameliorating metal toxicity can offer important information on the application of the microorganism for wastewater treatment.
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Adsorption characteristics of Cu and Zn onto various size fractions of aggregates from red paddy soil.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Soil aggregate is the basic structure unit of soils and the ability of various size fractions are different in the aspect of adsorbing and transferring heavy metals in the environment. In this study, bulk soil from red paddy field was partitioned into four aggregate-size fractions and their adsorption characteristics for Cu and Zn were studied. Our results showed that: Pseudo-second order model was more successful to fit the adsorption process in the kinetic experiments and the isothermal experiments data can be described well with the Freundlich model as a whole. Due to higher contents in organic matter, CEC and free iron oxide, the <0.002mm fraction was found to have the highest initial sorption rate and maximum adsorption capacity. The adsorption amount of metals increased as the increasing of pH and the percentage of adsorbed metal susceptible to desorption into 0.01M NaNO3 was greater for Zn than for Cu, while their variation trends were quite opposite. More specific adsorption sites in the <0.002mm fraction lead to more desorption amount for this particle size of soil at low pH condition. After 60 days of incubation, Cu and Zn were observed to enrich in the clay-size aggregates with fractions more stable than other particles.
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Experimental study on a room temperature urea-SCR of NO over activated carbon fibre-supported CeO2-CuO.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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In order to establish a desirable method for NO reduction, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by urea-CeO2/ACF and urea-CeO2-CuO/ACF was carried out at room temperature. The experimental results showed that 10% urea-9% CeO2/ACF could yield the highest NO conversion of 85% among the series of urea-CeO2/ACF prepared. When urea-CeO2-CuO/ACF was compared with urea-CeO2/ACF, it achieved higher NO conversion to a certain degree with the addition of CuO, which was attributed to the synergistic effect between cerium and copper. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 and CuO was also observed. The desirable mass ratio of CeO2 and CuO was 1:1, which yielded about 90% NO conversion when ACF was loaded with 10% urea. Furthermore, the influence of O2 concentration and NO concentration was also observed. In this study, NO conversion increased with increasing O2 concentration. In addition, some samples were further characterized by BET, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared methods.
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The adsorption behavior and mechanism investigation of Pb(II) removal by flocculation using microbial flocculant GA1.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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In this work, microbial flocculant GA1 (MBFGA1) was used to remove Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. A series of experimental parameters including initial pH, MBFGA1 dose, temperature and initial calcium ions concentration on Pb(II) uptake was evaluated. Meanwhile, the flocculation mechanism of MBFGA1 was investigated. The removal efficiency of Pb(II) reached up to 99.85% when MBFGA1 was added in two stages, separately. The results indicated that Pb(II) adsorption could be described by the Langmuir adsorption model, and being the monolayer capacity negatively affected with an increase in temperature. The adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and environmental scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that MBFGA1 had a large number of functional groups, which had strong capacity for removing Pb(II). The main mechanisms of Pb(II) removal by MBFGA1 could be charge neutralization and adsorption bridging.
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Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions.
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Effects of surfactant and Zn (II) at various concentrations on microbial activity and ethylbenzene removal in biotricking filter.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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The effects of Tween-20, a non-ionic surfactant, and Zn (II) on microbial activity and removal performance for ethylbenzene in a biotrickling filter (BTF) were evaluated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the surfactant and Zn (II) at various concentrations for their toxicity to microorganisms, and results indicated that Tween-20 was beneficial to microbial activity at all the tested concentration, while Zn (II) affected adversely when the concentration overpassed 5.0mgL(-1). Then effects of the two additives on removal efficiency of ethylbenzene were evaluated in a BTF at an empty-bed retention time of 30s and an ethylbenzene concentration of 1100mgm(-3). Results showed that the optimal concentrations of Tween-20 and Zn (II) were about 12 and 1.0mgL(-1), respectively. Compared to the results when neither of the two additives was added, Tween-20 improved ethylbenzene removal efficiency from 67% to 86% at the optimal condition, while on that basis, Zn (II) just increased the removal efficiency from 86% to 90%. The promoting effects of the two additives on recovering microbial activity and removing excessive biomass were also observed in this article.
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A tyrosinase biosensor based on ordered mesoporous carbon-Au/L-lysine/Au nanoparticles for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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A novel biosensor was developed based on tyrosinase immobilization with ordered mesoporous carbon-Au (OMC-Au), L-lysine membrane and Au nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It was applied for the simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The tyrosinase/OMC-Au/L-lysine/Au film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectra. Under optimized conditions, the DPV study results for two isomers, hydroquinone (HQ, 1,4-dihydroxybenzene) and catechol (CC, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) showed low peak potentials, and the peak-to-peak difference was about 135.85 mV, which ensured the anti-interference ability of the biosensor and made simultaneous detection of dihydroxybenzene isomers possible in real samples. DPV peak currents increased linearly with concentration over the range of 4.0 × 10(-7) to 8.0 × 10(-5) M, and the detection limits of hydroquinone and catechol were 5 × 10(-8) M and 2.5 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3), respectively. The tyrosinase biosensor exhibited good repeatability and stability. In addition, the response mechanism of enzyme catalysed redox on the OMC-Au/L-lysine/Au film modified electrode based on electrochemical study was discussed. The proposed method could be extended for the development of other enzyme-based biosensors.
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Highly sensitive strategy for Hg2+ detection in environmental water samples using long lifetime fluorescence quantum dots and gold nanoparticles.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The authors herein described a time-gated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TGFRET) sensing strategy employing water-soluble long lifetime fluorescence quantum dots and gold nanoparticles to detect trace Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solution. The water-soluble long lifetime fluorescence quantum dots and gold nanoparticles were functionalized by two complementary ssDNA, except for four deliberately designed T-T mismatches. The quantum dot acted as the energy-transfer donor, and the gold nanoparticle acted as the energy-transfer acceptor. When Hg(2+) ions were present in the aqueous solution, DNA hybridization will occur because of the formation of T-Hg(2+)-T complexes. As a result, the quantum dots and gold nanoparticles are brought into close proximity, which made the energy transfer occur from quantum dots to gold nanoparticles, leading to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots to decrease obviously. The decrement fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of Hg(2+) ions. Under the optimum conditions, the sensing system exhibits the same liner range from 1 × 10(-9) to 1 × 10(-8) M for Hg(2+) ions, with the detection limits of 0.49 nM in buffer and 0.87 nM in tap water samples. This sensor was also used to detect Hg(2+) ions from samples of tap water, river water, and lake water spiked with Hg(2+) ions, and the results showed good agreement with the found values determined by an atomic fluorescence spectrometer. In comparison to some reported colorimetric and fluorescent sensors, the proposed method displays the advantage of higher sensitivity. The TGFRET sensor also exhibits excellent selectivity and can provide promising potential for Hg(2+) ion detection.
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Feasibility of bioleaching combined with Fenton-like reaction to remove heavy metals from sewage sludge.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Feasibility of bioleaching combining with Fenton-like reaction to remove heavy metals from sewage sludge was investigated. After 5-day bioleaching, the sludge pH decreased from 6.95 to 2.50, which satisfied the acidic conditions for Fenton-like reaction. Meanwhile, more than 50% of sludge-borne heavy metals were dissolved except for Pb. The bioleached sludge was further oxidized with Fenton-like reaction, with an optimal H2O2 dosage of 5 g/L, the Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd removal reached up to 75.3%, 72.6%, 34.5% and 65.4%, respectively, and the residual content of heavy metals in treated sludge meets the requirement of Disposal of Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant - Control Standards for Agricultural Use (CJ/T 309-2009) of China for A grade sludge. Bioleaching combined with Fenton-like reaction was the most effective method for heavy metal removal, compared with 15-day bioleaching and inorganic acid leaching with 10% H2SO4, 10% HCl and 10% HNO3.
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Adsorption mechanism of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on carbon blacks by adsorption isotherm and zeta potential determinations.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Surfactant solutions were propounded to remove fine and hydrophobic carbon black particles from coal-fired flue gas. The adsorption mechanisms between sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant) and carbon black particles in suspension were investigated. The influence of inorganic salt (NaCl) was also considered. As results showed, hydrophobic interactions contributed to the strong adsorption between SDBS and carbon black particles in the absence of NaCl, and adding NaCl affected the adsorption process. The adsorption amount of SDBS significantly increased when NaCl was added into the SDBS solution; however, when SDBS was in low concentration, the amount of adsorbed SDBS, which was responsible for the shift of zeta potentials, varied little under different concentrations of NaCl. This indicated that the adsorption of SDBS was mainly caused by hydrophobic interaction and Na+ could not change the adsorption of SDBS on adsorption site when SDBS was in low concentration. Moreover, the adsorbed SDBS and Na+ were retained in the Stern layer.
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Removal of black carbon particles from experimental flue gas by surfactant solution in a new type of umbrella plate scrubber.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Black carbon (BC) particles were removed from experimental flue gas by the surfactant solutions of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether-9 (AEO-9) and polyoxy ethrlene nonyl phinyl ether-10 (TX-10), as well as AEO-9-SDBS, AEO-9-CTAB and SDBS-CTAB, in a new type of umbrella plate scrubber. Among the four independent surfactants, AEO-9 has the lowest surface tension, 35.9 mN/m, which resulted in the highest BC removal ratio among the alone surfactants. The experimental conditions were as follows: dust concentration = 3000 mg/m3; gas velocity = 14 m/s; liquid-gas ratio = 0.80 l/m3; and gas flow = 400 m3/h. When the mole ratio of the mixed surfactants was 1:1, the lowest surface tension could be detected among the studied mixed surfactants. According to the molecular interaction parameters (beta) and the mole ratio of surfactant 1 in the mixture (x1), the synergistic effects of AEO-9-SDBS and SDBS-CTAB solutions were obviously higher than those of AEO-9-TX-10 and AEO-9-CTAB. Therefore, AEO-9-SDBS solution had the lowest surface tension among the mixtures due to its beta < 0 and x1 = 0.85. The mixture solution of AEO-9-SDBS (1:1 mole ratio, 0.2 mmol/l) yielded the highest BC removal ratio, about 99.8%, and it was about 12% higher than that of only water, which was about 87.9%. The calculated critical micelle concentration was almost the same as that of the experimental concentration when the related equation was corrected by beta.
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Enhanced biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors operated as static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) process.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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An innovative static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) activated sludge process characterized by static phase as a substitute for conventional anaerobic stage was developed to enhance biological nutrient removal (BNR) with influent ammonia of 20 and 40 mg/L in R1 and R2 reactors, respectively. The results demonstrated that static phase could function as conventional anaerobic stage. In R1 lower influent ammonia concentration facilitated more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) growth, but secondary phosphorus release occurred due to NOx(-) depletion during post-anoxic period. In R2, however, denitrifying phosphorus removal proceeded with sufficient NOx(-). Both R1 and R2 saw simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. Glycogen was utilized to drive post-denitrification with denitrification rates in excess of typical endogenous decay rates. The anoxic stirring duration could be shortened from 3 to 1.5h to avoid secondary phosphorus release in R1 and little adverse impact was found on nutrients removal in R2.
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Treatment of swine wastewater using chemically modified zeolite and bioflocculant from activated sludge.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Sterilization, alkaline-thermal and acid-thermal treatments were applied to activated sludge and the pre-treated sludge was used as raw material for Rhodococcus R3 to produce polymeric substances. After 60 h of fermentation, bioflocculant of 2.7 and 4.2 g L(-1) were produced in sterilized and alkaline-thermal treated sludge as compared to that of 0.9 g L(-1) in acid-thermal treated sludge. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the treatment process of swine wastewater using the composite of bioflocculant and zeolite modified by calcining with MgO. The optimal flocculating conditions were bioflocculant of 24 mg L(-1), modified zeolite of 12 g L(-1), CaCl2 of 16 mg L(-1), pH of 8.3 and contact time of 55 min, and the corresponding removal rates of COD, ammonium and turbidity were 87.9%, 86.9%, and 94.8%. The use of the composite by RSM provides a feasible way to improve the pollutant removal efficiencies and recycle high-level of ammonium from wastewater.
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Enzyme-substrate binding landscapes in the process of nitrile biodegradation mediated by nitrile hydratase and amidase.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The continuing discharge of nitriles in various industrial processes has caused serious environmental consequences of nitrile pollution. Microorganisms possess several nitrile-degrading pathways by direct interactions of nitriles with nitrile-degrading enzymes. However, these interactions are largely unknown and difficult to experimentally determine but important for interpretation of nitrile metabolisms and design of nitrile-degrading enzymes with better nitrile-converting activity. Here, we undertook a molecular modeling study of enzyme-substrate binding modes in the bi-enzyme pathway for degradation of nitrile to acid. Docking results showed that the top substrates having favorable interactions with nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus erythropolis AJ270 (ReNHase), nitrile hydratase from Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM 3095 (PtNHase), and amidase from Rhodococcus sp. N-771 (RhAmidase) were benzonitrile, 3-cyanopyridine, and L-methioninamide, respectively. We further analyzed the interactional profiles of these top poses with corresponding enzymes, showing that specific residues within the enzymes binding pockets formed diverse contacts with substrates. This information on binding landscapes and interactional profiles is of great importance for the design of nitrile-degrading enzyme mutants with better oxidation activity toward nitriles or amides in the process of pollutant treatments.
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Graphene-based materials: fabrication, characterization and application for the decontamination of wastewater and wastegas and hydrogen storage/generation.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Graphene, as an ideal two-dimensional material and single-atom layer of graphite, has attracted exploding interests in multidisciplinary research because of its unique structure and exceptional physicochemical properties. Especially, graphene-based materials offer a wide range of potentialities for environmental remediation and energy applications. This review shows an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent synthetic technologies about designing and fabricating various innovative graphene-based materials. Furthermore, an extensive list of graphene-based sorbents and catalysts from vast literature has been compiled. The adsorptive and catalytic properties of graphene-based materials for the removal of various pollutants and hydrogen storage/production as available in the literature are presented. Tremendous adsorption capacity, excellent catalytic performance and abundant availability are the significant factors making these materials suitable alternatives for environmental pollutant control and energy-related system, especially in terms of the removal of pollutants in water, gas cleanup and purification, and hydrogen generation and storage. Meanwhile, a brief discussion is also included on the influence of graphene materials on the environment, and its toxicological effects. Lastly, some unsolved subjects together with major challenges in this germinating area of research are highlighted and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of graphene-based materials in the field of adsorption and catalysis science represents a viable and powerful tool, resulting in the superior improvement of environmental pollution control and energy development.
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Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.
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Fe(II)-Al(III) layered double hydroxides prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method for the reduction of bromate.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Bromate is recognized as an oxyhalide disinfection byproduct in drinking water. In this paper, Fe(II)-Al(III) layered double hydroxides (Fe-Al LDHs) prepared by the ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method were used for the reduction of bromate in solution. The Fe-Al LDHs particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ultrasound irradiation assistance promoted the formation of the hydrotalcite-like phase and then improved the removal efficiency of bromate. In addition, the effects of solid-to-solution ratio, contact time, initial bromate concentration, initial pH, coexisting anions on the bromate removal were investigated. The results showed the bromate with an initial concentration of 1.56 ?mol/L could be completely removed from solution by Fe-Al LDHs within 120 min. When the initial bromate concentration was 7.81 ?mol/L, the Fe-Al LDHs with irradiation time of 30 min exhibited the optimum removal efficiency and the bromate removal capacity (qe) was 6.80 ?mol/g. In addition, the appearance of sulfate and production of bromide were observed simultaneously in this process, which suggested that ion-exchange between sulfate and bromate, and the reduction of bromate to bromide by Fe(2+) were the main mechanisms responsible for the bromate removal by Fe-Al LDHs.
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"Turn-on" fluorescent sensor for Hg2+ based on single-stranded DNA functionalized Mn:CdS/ZnS quantum dots and gold nanoparticles by time-gated mode.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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An ultrasensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor was presented for determination of Hg(2+). This method is mainly based on Hg(2+)-induced conformational change of a thymine-rich single-stranded DNA. The water-soluble long-lifetime fluorescence quantum dot (Mn:CdS/ZnS) acted as the fluorophore, which was labeled on a 33-mer thymine-rich single-stranded DNA (strand A). The gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalized 10-mer single-stranded DNA (strand B) is selected as the quencher to quench the fluorescence of Mn:CdS/ZnS. Without Hg(2+) in the sample solution, strands A and B could form hybrid structures, resulting in the fluorescence of Mn:CdS/ZnS being decreased sharply. When Hg(2+) is present in the sample solution, Hg(2+)-mediated base pairs induced the folding of strand A into a hairpin structure, leading to the release of GNPs-tagged strand B from the hybrid structures. The fluorescence signal is then increased obviously compared with that without Hg(2+). The sensor exhibits two linear response ranges between fluorescence intensity and Hg(2+) concentration. Meanwhile, a detection limit of 0.18 nM is estimated based on 3?/slope. Selectivity experiments reveal that the fluorescent sensor is specific for Hg(2+) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. This sensor is successfully applied to determination of Hg(2+) in tap water and lake water samples. This sensor offers additional advantage to efficiently reduce background noise using long-lifetime fluorescence quantum dots by a time-gated mode. With excellent sensitivity and selectivity, this sensor is potentially suitable for monitoring of Hg(2+) in environmental applications.
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Effect of erosion on productivity in subtropical red soil hilly region: a multi-scale spatio-temporal study by simulated rainfall.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The effects of water erosion (including long-term historical erosion and single erosion event) on soil properties and productivity in different farming systems were investigated. A typical sloping cropland with homogeneous soil properties was designed in 2009 and then protected from other external disturbances except natural water erosion. In 2012, this cropland was divided in three equally sized blocks. Three treatments were performed on these blocks with different simulated rainfall intensities and farming methods: (1) high rainfall intensity (1.5-1.7 mm min(-1)), no-tillage operation; (2) low rainfall intensity (0.5-0.7 mm min(-1)), no-tillage operation; and (3) low rainfall intensity, tillage operation. All of the blocks were divided in five equally sized subplots along the slope to characterize the three-year effects of historical erosion quantitatively. Redundancy analysis showed that the effects of long-term historical erosion significantly caused most of the variations in soil productivity in no-tillage and low rainfall erosion intensity systems. The intensities of the simulated rainfall did not exhibit significant effects on soil productivity in no-tillage systems. By contrast, different farming operations induced a statistical difference in soil productivity at the same single erosion intensity. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was the major limiting variable that influenced soil productivity. Most explanations of long-term historical erosion for the variation in soil productivity arose from its sharing with SOC. SOC, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were found as the regressors of soil productivity because of tillage operation. In general, this study provided strong evidence that single erosion event could also impose significant constraints on soil productivity by integrating with tillage operation, although single erosion is not the dominant effect relative to the long-term historical erosion. Our study demonstrated that an effective management of organic carbon pool should be the preferred option to maintain soil productivity in subtropical red soil hilly region.
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Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding soils and surface sediments in Xiawangang River, Qingshuitang District.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Xiawanggang River region is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to its huge amount discharge of pollutants and accumulation for years. As it is one branch of Xiang River and the area downstream is Changsha city, the capital of Hunan Province, the ecological niche of Xiawangang River is very important. The pollution treatment in this area was emphasized in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of Chinese government for Xiang River Water Environmental Pollution Control. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide the base information in this region for The Twelfth Five-Year Plan, contents and fractions of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) covering both sediments and soils were analyzed to study their contamination state. Three different indexes were applied to assess the pollution extent. The results showed this area was severely polluted by the four heavy metals, and the total concentrations exceeded the Chinese environmental quality standard for soil, grade III, especially for Cd. Moreover, Cd, rated as being in high risk, had a high mobility as its great contents of exchangeable and carbonates fractions in spite of its relative low content. Regression analysis revealed clay could well explain the regression equation for Cd, Cu and Zn while pH and sand could significantly interpret the regression equation for Pb. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between Non-residual fraction and I(geo) for all the four metals. Correlation analysis showed four metals maybe had similar pollution sources.
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Removal and recovery of Zn2+ and Pb2+ by imine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with tunable selectivity.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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This research investigated the adsorption of zinc and lead from binary metal solution with tunable selectivity. A nano adsorbent was prepared by introducing imine groups onto the surface of stability enhanced magnetic nanoparticles and then characterized by TEM and FTIR. Binary metal components adsorption was carried out in different concentration of metal and EDTA solution. Due to the interaction between metals and adsorbent in the presence of EDTA, the selective adsorption of zinc and lead could be achieved with 100% selectivity. To only remove zinc from binary metals, the solution condition was [EDTA]/[M(2+)] = 0.7 with pH of 6, and its saturated adsorption capacity was 1.25 mmol/g. For selective adsorption of lead, an equilibrium adsorption capacity of 0.81 mmol/g was obtained under the condition of [EDTA]/[M(2+)] = 0.7 and pH of 2. The exhausted adsorbent could be regenerated by simple acid or alkali wash, and high purity lead and zinc salt solutions were recovered and concentrated.
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Performance of biotrickling filters packed with structured or cubic polyurethane sponges for VOC removal.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Two identical bench-scale biotrickling filters (BTFs), BTF 1 and BTF 2, were evaluated for toluene removal at various gas empty bed contact times (EBCTs) and organic loadings. BTF 1 and BTF 2 were packed with structured and cubic synthetic polyurethane sponges, respectively. At a constant toluene loading of 16 g/(m3.hr), toluene removal efficiencies decreased from 98.8% to 64.3% for BTF 1 and from 98.4% to 74.1% for BTF 2 as gas EBCT decreased from 30 to 5 sec. When the toluene loading increased from 35 to 140 g/(m3.hr) at a gas EBCT of 30 sec, the removal efficiencies decreased from 99.1% to 77.4% for BTF 1 and from 99.0% to 81.5% for BTF 2. The pressure drop for both BTFs increased with increased air flow rate, and did not significantly vary while the toluene loading was increased under similar operation conditions. BTF 1 and BTF 2 could start up successfully within 19 and 27 days, respectively, when packed with fresh sponge media, and the performances could be restored in 3-7 days after biomass was removed and wasted from the media. BTF 2 displayed higher removal efficiency even under shorter EBCT or higher loading rate than BTF1 when other operation conditions were similar, while it showed lower pressure drop than BTF 1 during the whole period of operation. These results demonstrated that both BTFs could treat waste gas containing toluene effectively.
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Characteristic, composition, and sources of TSP investigated by HRTEM/EDS and ESEM/EDS.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Total suspended particle (TSP) collected at the fifth floor of House Dust in Hunan University, China, was analyzed in terms of microscopic morphology and chemical composition. The fine particles (50 nm-2 ?m) in the TSP were analyzed by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (HRTEM/EDS). Results showed that the particles were in shapes of plate, irregular and agglomerate. Based on EDS results, these fine particulate matter was primarily composed of Fe-rich (35.82-61.29%), Ca-rich (30.18-36.77%) and Si-rich (18.95-32.28%) particles. Other elements mainly including Mg (0.47-4.97%), Al (0.45-14.57%), S (0.45-4.73%), K (1.13-2.13%) and Zn (0.67-3.85%) were also observed. The sources analysis indicated that the HRTEM particles mainly originated from coal combustion, traffic emission, vehicles exhaust emission and fugitive soil or cement particulate matter. The coarse particles (4-50 ?m) were detected by environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray detector (ESEM/EDS). Based on a simple algorithm, ESEM particles were categorized into five groups: C-bearing (46.15%, 67% and 86.98%), Si + Ca-bearing (21.48 + 11.80%, 16.51 + 10.81% and 16.32 + 10.62%), Si + Al-bearing (20.06 + 12.40%, 20.16 + 11.22% and 15.31 + 11.25%), Si-bearing (34.40%, 26.92% and 27.15%) particles and aggregates, most of which exhibit obvious crystalline structure, and these ESEM particles mainly derived from vehicles exhaust emission, coal combustion, soil, and biomass burning, while the aggregates are indicative of atmospheric reaction progress. HRTEM/EDS and ESEM/EDS are mutual complementary in analyzing the characteristic and determining the sources of TSP.
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Determination of dissolved oxygen in water based on its quenching effect on the fluorescent intensity of bis(2,2-bipyridine)-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline ruthenium complex.
Anal Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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A water-soluble fluorescence dye, bis(2,2-bipyridine)-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline ruthenium complex (Ru(bpy)(2)(5-NH(2)-1,10-phen)), was synthesized and used as a fluorescence probe for detecting dissolved oxygen in water. The fluorescence intensity of the probe in different dissolved-oxygen concentrations was investigated. The sensitivity of the probe was evaluated in terms of the ratio I(N(2))/I(O(2)), where I(N(2)) and I(O(2)) correspond to the detected fluorescence intensity of nitrogen and oxygen-saturated solutions, respectively. The experimental results showed that the probe yielded a linear Stern-Volmer plot, and had a I(N(2))/I(O(2)) ratio of about 5.2. The detection limit, defined as three-times the standard deviation, was 8.6 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) after eleven determinations of nitrogen-saturated blank solutions. Additionally, the probe was pH-insensitive and ionic strength-independent with good characteristics of practicality and selectivity.
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Study on binding modes between cellobiose and ?-glucosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 1.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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The hydrolysis of cellobiose by ?-glucodisases is an important step of cellulose biodegradation. However, the interactive mechanism between cellobiose and ?-glucosidases is still unclear until now. Thus, in this study, we explored the binding modes between cellobiose and three ?-glucosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 1 by means of molecular docking. The three ?-glucosidases were named as TmGH1 (from bacterium Thermotoga), SsGH1 (from archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus) and TrGH1 (from fungus Trichoderma reesei) respectively, according to the monophyletic groups they belong to. Molecular dockings were performed between cellobiose and the three ?-glucosidases, resulting in three optimum docking complexes, that is TmGH1-cellobiose, SsGH1-cellobiose and TrGh1-cellobiose complexes. Our docking results indicated that there were non-bonded interactions between cellobiose and the three ?-glucosidases. The binding affinities of the three complexes were -13.6669kJ/mol, -13.2973kJ/mol and -18.6492kJ/mol, respectively. Then the detailed interactions were investigated, which revealed the key amino acid residues interacted with cellobiose by hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) or hydrophobic interactions. It was observed that most of the key residues involved in the non-bonded interactions were equivalent and conserved for the three complexes, and these residues were a glutamine, a histidine, a tyrosine, a phenylalanine, three glutamics, and four tryptophans. This information is of great importance for designing ?-glucosidase with higher cellobiose-hydrolyzing efficiency.
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Immobilization of laccase on magnetic bimodal mesoporous carbon and the application in the removal of phenolic compounds.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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A novel magnetically separable laccase immobilized system was constructed by adsorbing laccase into bimodal carbon-based mesoporous magnetic composites (CMMC). A large adsorption capacity (491.7 mg g(-1)), excellent activity recovery (91.0%) and broader pH and temperature profiles than free laccase have been exhibited by the immobilized laccase. Thermal stability was enhanced to a great extent and operational stability was increased to a certain extent. The shift of kinetic parameters indicated affinity change between enzyme and substrate. Application of the immobilized system in phenol and p-chlorophenol removal was investigated in a batch system. Adsorption effects of the support were responsible for the quick removal rate in the first hour, and up to 78% and 84% of phenol and p-chlorophenol were removed in the end of the reaction, respectively, indicating that the magnetic bimodal mesoporous carbon is a promising carrier for both immobilization of laccase and further application in phenol removal.
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Understanding lignin-degrading reactions of ligninolytic enzymes: binding affinity and interactional profile.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Previous works have demonstrated that ligninolytic enzymes mediated effective degradation of lignin wastes. The degrading ability greatly relied on the interactions of ligninolytic enzymes with lignin. Ligninolytic enzymes mainly contain laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). In the present study, the binding modes of lignin to Lac, LiP and MnP were systematically determined, respectively. Robustness of these modes was further verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Residues GLU460, PRO346 and SER113 in Lac, residues ARG43, ALA180 and ASP183 in LiP and residues ARG42, HIS173 and ARG177 in MnP were most crucial in binding of lignin, respectively. Interactional analyses showed hydrophobic contacts were most abundant, playing an important role in the determination of substrate specificity. This information is an important contribution to the details of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the process of lignin biodegradation, which can be used as references for designing enzyme mutants with a better lignin-degrading activity.
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Quantitative evaluation of heavy metals pollution hazards in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Liquefaction residues (LR) are the main by-products of sewage sludge (SS) liquefaction. This study quantitatively evaluates the potential ecological risk and pollution degrees of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in LR versus SS. The leaching rates (R1) of heavy metals in LR were much lower than those in SS, revealing that the mobility/leachability of heavy metals was well suppressed after liquefaction. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated that the liquefaction process significantly weakened the contamination degrees of heavy metals. Potential ecological risk index (RI) demonstrated that overall risks caused by heavy metals were obviously lowered from 1093.56 (very high risk) in SS to 4.72 and 1.51 (low risk) in LR1 and LR2, respectively. According to the risk assessment code (RAC), each tested heavy metal had no or low risk to the environments after liquefaction. In a word, the pollution hazards of heavy metals in LR were markedly mitigated.
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Research on soot of black smoke from ceramic furnace flue gas: characterization of soot.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2011
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In this study, the characterizations of soot from ceramic furnace flue gas were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle size distribution, specific surface area measurements, crystal characterizations and organic pollutant analysis. Soot particles were mainly spherical nanoparticles with diameters less than 100 nm. However, the particles could be aggregated into larger ones with a median diameter of 3.66 ?m. Nanometer pores with diameters ranging 2-4 nm were also detected in the soot particles. Because of their large surface areas and pore volumes, other pollutants in the environment can be adsorbed to soot particles potentially making them more hazardous. Several elements, including C, O and Pb, were detected in the soot, but only small amounts of crystalline materials were observed. This is because most of the detected carbon and metals/metal oxides/metal salts were amorphous. Approximately 90 different organic pollutants were detected in the soot, including aromatic compounds and other hydrocarbons. Because of the carcinogenic properties of aromatic compounds and the photochemical effects of hydrocarbons, soot could have serious health and environmental impacts. The results suggest that soot particles are hazardous material and urgently need to be controlled.
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Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; P<0.001), indicating that archaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages.
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Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops.
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MfSAT: Detect simple sequence repeats in viral genomes.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous short tandem repeats, which are associated with various regulatory mechanisms and have been found in viral genomes. Herein, we develop MfSAT (Multi-functional SSRs Analytical Tool), a new powerful tool which can fast identify SSRs in multiple short viral genomes and then automatically calculate the numbers and proportions of various SSR types (mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats). Furthermore, it also can detect codon repeats and report the corresponding amino acid.
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Enhancement of cadmium bioremediation by endophytic bacterium Bacillus sp. L14 using industrially used metabolic inhibitors (DCC or DNP).
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Bioremediations of cadmium by endophytic bacterium (EB) L14 (Bacillus sp.) in the presence of industrially used metabolic inhibitors (DCC or DNP) were investigated. In the presence of DCC or DNP, the biomass population of EB L14 was greatly inhibited. However, the cadmium removal of EB L14 increased from 73.6% (in the absence of DCC or DNP) to 93.7% and 80.8%, respectively. The analysis of total and intracellular cadmium concentrations during 24h of incubation indicated that this enhanced cadmium removal was the inhibition effect of DCC or DNP on the cations export resistance system of EB L14. This unique property strongly indicated the superiority of this endophyte for practical application in cadmium bioremediation in the presence of industrially used metabolic inhibitors.
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Simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation from aqueous solutions by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been recognised as an effective bioremediation agent due to its unique degradation to xenobiotic and biosorption ability to heavy metals. However, few studies have focused on the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in P. chrysosporium liquid cultures. The removal efficiencies were pH dependent and the maximum removal efficiencies were observed at pH 6.5 under an initial cadmium concentration of 5 mg/L and an initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiencies for cadmium and 2,4-DCP reached 63.62% and 83.90%, respectively, under the optimum conditions. The high production levels of lignin peroxidase (7.35 U/mL) and manganese peroxidase (8.30 U/mL) resulted in an increase in 2,4-DCP degradation. The protein content decreased with increasing cadmium concentration. The surface characteristics and functional groups of the biomass were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the use of P. chrysosporium is promising for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and 2,4-DCP from liquid media.
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Response of compost maturity and microbial community composition to pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil during composting.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Two composting piles were prepared by adding to a mixture of rice straw, vegetables and bran: (i) raw soil free from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination (pile A) and (ii) PCP-contaminated soil (pile B). It was shown by the results that compost maturity characterized by water soluble carbon (WSC), TOC/TN ratio, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) was significantly affected by PCP exposure, which resulted in an inferior degree of maturity for pile B. DGGE analysis revealed an inhibited effect of PCP on compost microbial abundance. The bacteria community shifts were mainly consistent with composting factors such as temperature, pH, moisture content and substrates. By contrast, the fungal communities were more sensitive to PCP contamination due to the significant correlation between fungal community shifts and PCP removal. Therefore, the different microbial community compositions for properly evaluating the degree of maturity and PCP contamination were suggested.
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Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCAs internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH?+-N concentration>Moisture content>Ash Content>Mean Temperature>Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes.
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Microsatellite is an important component of complete hepatitis C virus genomes.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Microsatellites are common and play diverse roles in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. However, to our knowledge, microsatellite distribution remains largely enigmatic in viruses yet is crucial for understanding instability of viral genomes. We have therefore, examined microsatellite distribution in 54 complete genomes of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) from six genotypes, showing microsatellites were an important component of HCV genomes. Our results showed, in all analyzed HCV genomes, genome size and GC content had a weak influence on number, relative abundance and relative density of microsatellites, respectively. For each HCV genome, mono-, di- and trinucleotide repeats were very predominant, whereas other types of repeats rarely occurred. Our results revealed that the occurrence of microsatellites was significantly less than higher prokaryotes and eukaryotes and that all identified microsatellites were very short. The discovery of microsatellites in HCV genomes may become useful for population genetic, evolutionary analysis and strain (isolate) identification.
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Effect of monorhamnolipid on the degradation of n-hexadecane by Candida tropicalis and the association with cell surface properties.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The effect of monorhamnolipid (monoRL) on the degradation of n-hexadecane by Candida tropicalis was investigated in this study. The concentration of hexadecane, cell growth, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), cell surface zeta potential (CSZP), and FT-IR spectra of cellular envelope were tested to determine the mechanisms. MonoRL at the initial concentrations of 11.4, 19, and 38 mg/l improved the degradation of hexadecane, and 19 mg/l was the best concentration. However, 114 mg/l monoRL suppressed the biodegradation probably because of the reduced bioavailability of hexadecane caused by the micelles. The presence of monoRL changed the cell surface properties, which was demonstrated by the increased CSH, the increased CSZP, and the changed FT-IR spectra of cellular envelope at 680 and 620 cm(-1). The changes of cell surface properties may be a reason for the enhanced biodegradation of hexadecane by the yeast. The results indicate the potential application of monoRL in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons.
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