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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Anti-viral effect of a compound isolated from Liriope platyphylla against hepatitis B virus in vitro.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The compound LPRP-Et-97543 was isolated from Liriope platyphylla roots and was observed to have potential anti-viral effects in HepG2.2.15 cells against hepatitis B virus (HBV). The antiviral mode was further clarified, and the HBV-transfected Huh7 cells were used as the platform. During viral gene expression, LPRP-Et-97543 treatment had apparent effects on the viral precore/pregenomic and S/preS RNA. Promoter activity analysis demonstrated that LPRP-Et-97543 significantly reduced Core, S, and preS but not X promoter activities. Further examination showed that putative signaling pathways were involved in this inhibitory effect, indicating that NF-?B may serve a putative mediator of HBV gene regulation with LPRP-Et-97543. In addition, the nuclear expression of p65/p50 NF-?B member proteins was attenuated with LPRP-Et-97543 and augmented cytoplasmic I?B? protein levels but without affecting the expression of these proteins in HBV non-transfected cells during treatment. Moreover, LPRP-Et-97543 reduced the binding activity of NF-?B protein to CS1 element of HBV surface gene in a gel retardation analysis and inhibited CS1 containing promoter activity in HBV expressed cells. However, HBV transfection significantly enhances CS1 containing promoter activity without compound treatment in cells. Finally, transfection of the p65 expression plasmid significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of LPRP-Et-97543 on the replicated HBV DNA level in HBV positive cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that the mechanism of HBV inhibition by LPRP-Et-97543 may involve the feedback regulation of viral gene expression and viral DNA replication by HBV viral proteins, which interferes with the NF-?B signaling pathway.
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Diterpene glycosides and polyketides from Xylotumulus gibbisporus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Four new tetracyclic diterpene glycosides, namely, sordarins C-F (1-4), and three new ?-lactone polyketides, namely, xylogiblactones A-C (5-7), along with sordarin were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fermented broths of Xylotumulus gibbisporus YMJ863. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. The configurations of 1-4 were deduced by NOESY, molecular modeling, and comparison with the literature. The relative configurations of 5-7 were deduced by X-ray crystallographic analysis of 5. Compounds 1-5 and sordarin were evaluated in an antifungal assay using Candida albicans ATCC 18804, C. albicans ATCC MYA-2876, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2345, and only sordarin exhibited significant antifungal activities against these fungal strains, with MIC values of 64.0, 32.0, and 32.0 ?g/mL, respectively. The effect of compounds 1-7 and sordarin on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages was also evaluated. Compounds 2 and sordarin inhibited NO production with IC50 values of 327.2±46.6 and 157.1±24.1 ?M, respectively.
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Effect of swimming on the production of aldosterone in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been demonstrated that exercise is one of the stresses known to increase the aldosterone secretion. Both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are shown to be correlated with aldosterone production during exercise, but the mechanism is still unclear. In an in vivo study, male rats were catheterized via right jugular vein (RJV), and divided into four groups namely water immersion, swimming, lactate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) and pyruvate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) groups. Each group was treated for 10 min. Blood samples were collected at 0, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min from RJV after administration. In an in vitro study, rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were challenged by lactate (1-10 mM) in the presence or absence of Ang II (10-8 M) for 60 min. The levels of aldosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting assay. After exercise and lactate infusion, plasma levels of aldosterone and lactate were significantly higher than those in the control group. Swimming for 10 min significantly increased the plasma Ang II levels in male rats. Administration of lactate plus Ang II significantly increased aldosterone production and enhanced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in ZG cells. These results demonstrated that acute exercise led to the increase of both aldosterone and Ang II secretion, which is associated with lactate action on ZG cells and might be dependent on the activity of renin-angiotensin system.
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Biochemical and functional characterization of charge-defined subfractions of high-density lipoprotein from normal adults.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into five subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1, and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease.
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Anti-Inflammatory Components from the Root of Solanum erianthum.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Two new norsesquiterpenoids, solanerianones A and B (1-2), together with nine known compounds, including four sesquiterpenoids, (-)-solavetivone (3), (+)-anhydro-?-rotunol (4), solafuranone (5), lycifuranone A (6); one alkaloid, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7); one fatty acid, palmitic acid (8); one phenylalkanoid, acetovanillone (9), and two steroids, ?-sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11) were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble part of the roots of Solanum erianthum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical and spectroscopic data analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of these isolates was monitored by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity towards human lung squamous carcinoma (CH27), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B), human oral squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) and human melanoma (M21) cell lines was also screened by using an MTT assay. Of the compounds tested, 3 exhibited the strongest NO inhibition with the average maximum inhibition (Emax) at 100 ?M and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 98.23% ± 0.08% and 65.54 ± 0.18 ?M, respectively. None of compounds (1-9) was found to possess cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 30 ?M.
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Secondary metabolites from the roots of Neolitsea daibuensis and their anti-inflammatory activity.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots of Neolitsea daibuensis afforded three new ?-carboline alkaloids, daibucarbolines A-C (1-3), three new sesquiterpenoids, daibulactones A and B (4 and 5) and daibuoxide (6), and 20 known compounds. The structures of 1-6 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Daibucarboline A (1), isolinderalactone (7), 7-O-methylnaringenin (8), and prunetin (9) exhibited moderate iNOS inhibitory activity, with IC?? values of 18.41, 0.30, 19.55, and 10.50 ?M, respectively.
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Anti-inflammatory endiandric acid analogues from the roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii led to the isolation of six new endiandric acid analogues: tsangibeilin A (1), tsangibeilin B (2), endiandramide A (3), endiandric acid K (4), endiandric acid L (5), and endiandramide B (6). Also isolated were two new lignans, beilschminol A (7) and tsangin C (8), and six known compounds. The structures of 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3 and 6 exhibited potent iNOS inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 9.59 and 16.40 ?M, respectively.
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Sesquiterpene glycosides from Cosmospora joca.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Five novel sesquiterpene glycosides, namely, cosmosporasides A-E (1-5), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fermented broth of Cosmospora joca. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, monosaccharide composition analyses, and monosaccharide chirality analyses. The relative configuration of the sesquiterpene moiety of 3-5 was determined by J-based configuration analyses and supported by NOESY assignments. The inhibitory effects of 1-5 on the nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were evaluated; all except 3 inhibited NO production at 100 ?M. 4 was the most potent, with an average maximum inhibition and a median inhibitory concentration value of 71.70 ± 1.23% and 65.98 ± 0.53 ?M, respectively.
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Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.
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Anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects of Evodia rutaecarpa (Wuzhuyu) and its major bioactive components.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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This article reviews the anti-inflammatory relative and anti-infectious effects of Evodia rutaecarpa and its major bioactive components and the involvement of the nitric oxide synthases, cyclooxygenase, NADPH oxidase, nuclear factor kappa B, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor, LIGHT, amyloid protein and orexigenic neuropeptides. Their potential applications for the treatment of endotoxaemia, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimers disease and their uses as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal protective agents, analgesics, anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerosis agents, dermatological agents and anti-infectious agents are highlighted. Stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide release may partially explain the analgesic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal protective, anti-obese activities of Evodia rutaecarpa and its major bioactive components.
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InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded conical air-voids structure.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The conical air-void structure of an InGaN light-emitting diode (LEDs) was formed at the GaN/sapphire interface to increase the light extraction efficiency. The fabrication process of the conical air-void structure consisted of a dry process and a crystallographic wet etching process on an undoped GaN layer, followed by a re-growth process for the InGaN LED structure. A higher light output power (1.54 times) and a small divergent angle (120°) were observed, at a 20 mA operation current, on the treated LED structure when compared to a standard LED without the conical air-void structure. In this electroluminescence spectrum, the emission intensity and the peak wavelength varied periodically by corresponding to the conical air-void patterns that were measured through a 100 nm-optical-aperture fiber probe. The conical air-void structure reduced the compressed strain at the GaN/sapphire interface by inducing the wavelength blueshift phenomenon and the higher internal quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence spectra for the treated LED structure.
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Secondary metabolites from the leaves of Neolitsea hiiranensis and the anti-inflammatory activity of some of them.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Seven sesquiterpenoids, hiiranlactones A-D (1-4), (-)-ent-6?-methoxyeudesm-4(15)-en-1?-ol (5), (+)-villosine (6), hiiranepoxide (7), and one triterpenoid, hiiranterpenone (8), together with 22 known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Neolitsea hiiranensis (Lauraceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Among the isolates, hiiranlactone B (2) and hiiranlactone D (4) exhibited inhibitory activity against fMLP-induced superoxide production by human neutrophils with IC(50) values of 21.86±3.97 and 25.78±4.77?M, respectively.
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Chemical composition-oriented receptor selectivity of L5, a naturally occurring atherogenic low-density lipoprotein.
Pure Appl. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Anion-exchange chromatography resolves human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into 5 subfractions, with increasing negative surface charge in the direction of L1 to L5. Unlike the harmless L1 to L4, the exclusively atherogenic L5 is rejected by the normal LDL receptor (LDLR) but endocytosed into vascular endothelial cells through the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). Analysis with SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the protein framework of L1 was composed mainly of apolipoprotein (apo) B100, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.620. There was a progressively increased association of additional proteins, including apoE (pI 5.5), apoAI (pI 5.4), apoCIII (pI 5.1), and apo(a) (pI 5.5), from L1 to L5. LC/MS(E) was used to quantify protein distribution in all subfractions. On the basis of weight percentages, L1 contained 99% apoB-100 and trace amounts of other proteins. In contrast, L5 contained 60% apoB100 and substantially increased amounts of apo(a), apoE, apoAI, and apoCIII. The compositional characteristics contribute to L5s electronegativity, rendering it unrecognizable by LDLR. LOX-1, which has a high affinity for negatively charged ligands, is known to mediate the signaling of proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, the chemical composition-oriented receptor selectivity hinders normal metabolism of L5, enhancing its atherogenicity through abnormal receptors, such as LOX-1.
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Knockdown of TSPAN1 by RNA silencing and antisense technique inhibits proliferation and infiltration of human skin squamous carcinoma cells.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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To explore the function ofTSPAN1 in squamous cell skin carcinoma by means of TSPAN1-specific siRNA and antisense oligonucleotide techniques.
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Sepsis worsening vascular hyporeactivity of the superior mesenteric artery in portal vein-ligated rats.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Vascular hyporeactivity is observed in portal hypertensive animals and septic rats. The objective of this study was to investigate whether impairment of superior mesenteric artery vascular contractility in the portal hypertensive rat was further impaired after sepsis.
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Bioactive ?-lactones from the fermented broth of Neosartorya sp.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Two ?-lactone derivatives, namely neosartolactone (1) and its 7-methyl ester analogue (2), have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fermented broth of Neosartorya sp. isolated in Taiwan. Structural elucidations of compounds 1 and 2 were achieved on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Although they had been obtained via the chemical modification of avenaciolide isolated from Aspergillus avenaceus several decades ago, this is the first report to describe them from a natural resource with detailed spectroscopic interpretations. The effects of 1 and 2 on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages were further evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 significantly inhibited NO production with the IC(50) values of 12.2 ± 1.5 and 11.4 ± 1.0?µM, respectively; but displayed cytotoxicity at considerably higher concentrations than 50?µM.
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Cellular calcium regulatory machinery of vasorelaxation elicited by petasin.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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1. The present study examined the cytosolic Ca(2+) regulatory machinery involved in the vasorelaxation produced by petasin, a sesquiterpene isolated from Petasites formosanus. 2. Aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to petasin (0.01-100 micromol/L) to elucidate its vascular effects on isometric contraction elicited by vasoconstrictors, as well as the contribution of the endothelium and Ca(2+) to the responses observed. In addition, L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) activity and [Ca(2+)](i) were determined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence of 1-100 micromol/L petasin using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and the fluorescent probe fura-2/AM. The effects of petasin on vascular responses were compared between aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 3. Petasin reduced isometric contraction elicited by KCl or the L-type Ca(2+) channel opener BayK 8644 (IC(50) 3.0 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.1 micromol/L, respectively) in aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, independent of the endothelium. In addition, petasin triggered a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve to KCl while reducing the maximal response by 82%. In Ca(2+)-depleted and high K(+)-depolarized aortic rings, 1-100 micromol/L petasin pretreatment attenuated the Ca(2+)-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. 4. In cultured VSMCs, whole-cell patch-clamp recording revealed that petasin inhibited VDCC activity. Measurement of [Ca(2+)](i) using fura-2/AM fluorescence indicated that petasin suppressed the KCl-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). However, receptor binding assays failed to identify any significant interaction between petasin and the dihydropyridine binding sites of the L-type VDCC. 5. In aortic rings from SHR and WKY rats, petasin inhibited Ca(2+)-induced contractions in Ca(2+)-depleted and high K(+)-depolarized solution with a more pronounced effect in rings from SHR. 6. Together, the results suggest that direct Ca(2+) antagonism of L-type VDCC in vascular smooth muscle may account, at least in part, for petasin-induced vasorelaxation. The more pronounced effect of the sesquiterpene in blood vessels from SHR suggests its possible therapeutic potential in the mangement of hypertension.
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Lanostanes from Phellinus igniarius and their iNOS inhibitory activities.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Four new lanostanol-type triterpenoids, igniarens A - D ( 1- 4), were isolated from the fruit body of Phellinus igniarius together with two known triterpenoids, and two known ergostanes. These four new compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis as 22 R-hydroxy-24-methylene-29-norlanost-7, 9(11)-dien-3-one (1), 3alpha,22 R-dihydroxy-24-methylene-29-norlanost-7, 9(11)-diene (2), 3alpha,22 R-dihydroxy-24-methylene-29-norlanost-8-ene ( 3), and 3alpha,22 R-dihydroxy-24-methylenelanost-8-ene ( 4). Their effects on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were assessed. Compounds 1- 8 inhibited NO production in activated RAW 264.7 cells to various degrees. The most potent compound 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxy-22 E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol ( 7) significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the cellular viability, with an IC (50) of 37.57 +/- 1.38 microM.
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Ganoderma lucidum extract attenuates the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells by blocking the PDGF receptor.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Hepatic fibrosis is an outcome of chronic liver diseases. The activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event in liver injury. The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum has long been a popular oriental medicine for treating liver diseases. The aim of this present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects of the triterpenoid-rich extract (GLT) of G. lucidum in a cell line of rat HSCs (HSC-T6) stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. DNA synthesis was investigated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) labeling was carried out to analyse the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) was used to evaluate extracellular matrix deposition, and western blotting was performed to measure cyclins D1 and D2, and phosphorylation of the PDGFbeta-receptor (PDGFbetaR), Akt and JNK. The results indicated that the GLT attenuated BrdU incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 8.52 +/- 0.33 microg/mL. The inhibitory effect of the GLT was associated with downregulation of cyclins D1 and D2, and PDGFbetaR and Akt phosphorylation, upregulation of JNK phosphorylation, and a reduction in alpha-SMA expression. These results indicated that G. lucidum inhibits PDGF-BB-activated HSC proliferation possibly through blocking PDGFbetaR phosphorylation, thereby indicating its efficacy for preventing and treating hepatic fibrosis.
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Cardiovascular protective flavonolignans and flavonoids from Calamus quiquesetinervius.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Tricin-type flavonolignans, (2S)-dihydrotricin 4-O-(erythro-beta-guaiacylglyceryl) ether, (2S)-dihydrotricin 4-O-(threo-beta-guaiacylglyceryl) ether, (2S)-dihydrotricin 4-O-(threo-beta-4-hydroxyphenylglyceryl) ether, tricin 4-O-(erythro-beta-4-hydroxyphenylglyceryl) ether, tricin 4-O-(threo-beta-4-hydroxylphenylglyceryl) ether, and (2S)-dihydrotricin 4-O-(beta-6-methoxy-4-oxo-chroman-3-yloxy) ether namely calquiquelignan A-F, respectively, were isolated and characterized from the EtOAc extract of Calamus quiquesetinervius. Additionally, six known phenolic compounds, including dihydrotricin, tricin, salcolin A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, (2S, 3S)-trans-dihydrokapempferol and (2S)-naringenin, were also obtained and identified from the extract. Structures of the flavonolignans were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses that included 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, such as HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Bioassay results showed that calquiquelignan A, dihydrotricin and (2S)-naringenin exhibited significant vasodilatory potencies, as indicated by 60.3%, 80.3% and 60.9% relaxations, respectively, at 100 microM. Salcolin A showed potent platelet aggregation inhibition, compared with aspirin. Most of the tricin-type derivatives (calquiquelignan A-B, dihydrotricin and tricin) also exhibited more potent hydroxyl radical ((.)OH) scavenging activity than trolox as characterized by the ultraweak chemiluminescence assay.
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Ligusticum chuanxiong as a potential neuroprotectant for preventing serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma cells: functional roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) as a common component in many traditional Chinese medicinal formulas and decoctions has been used to treat different central nervous diseases, suggesting a neuroprotective function.
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New constituents with iNOS inhibitory activity from mycelium of Antrodia camphorata.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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In continuing our investigation on the bioactive constituents of mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, antroquinonol B (1), 4-acetyl-antroquinonol B (2), 2,3-(methylenedioxy)-6-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-diol (4) along with antrodin D (5) were isolated by the guidance of an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory assay and identified on the basis of their spectroscopic analysis. The effect of these compounds on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages was further evaluated. Compounds 4 and 5 significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, the IC(50) values being 32.2 +/- 0.1 and 26.3 +/- 1.6 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 possessed greater effects on NO inhibition, with IC(50) values of 16.2 +/- 0.8 and 14.7 +/- 2.8 microg/mL, respectively, but displayed cytotoxicity at considerably higher concentrations. Compound 3 showed the lowest percent cell viability of 45.5 +/- 1.8 % as observed in treated cells at a concentration of 16.8 microg/mL.
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Secondary metabolites from the roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii and their anti-inflammatory activities.
Int J Mol Sci
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Four new endiandric acid analogues, tsangibeilin C (1), tsangibeilin D (2), tricyclotsangibeilin (3) and endiandric acid M (4), one new lignan, beilschminol B (5) and two new sesquiterpenes, (+)-5-hydroxybarbatenal (6) and (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycaryophyll-8(13)-ene (7), together with four known compounds (8-11), were isolated from the roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii (Lauraceae). The structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among the isolates, endiandric acid M (4) exhibited moderate iNOS inhibitory activity, with an IC(50) value of 31.70 ?M.
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Isolation and characterization of sesquiterpenes from Arecophila saccharicola YMJ96022401 with NO production inhibitory activity.
Phytochemistry
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Sesquiterpenes, arecoic acids A-F and arecolactone, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fermented broth of Arecophila saccharicola YMJ96022401 along with two known analogues 1,7?,10?-trihydroxyeremophil-11(13)-en-12,8-olide and 1,10?,13-trihydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8-olide. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. The inhibitory effects of all of these compounds on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 ?g/mL)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were also evaluated. Among these compounds, 1,7?,10?-trihydroxyeremophil-11(13)-en-12,8-olide significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, and its average maximum inhibition (E(max)) at 100 ?M and median inhibitory concentration (IC??) were 85.7%±0.8% and 16.5±1.0 ?M, respectively. Arecolactone was the most potent, with the E(max) at 12.5 ?M and IC?? being 94.7%±0.8% and 1.32±0.1 ?M, respectively, but displayed cytotoxicity at considerable higher concentrations than 25 ?M. Analyses of Western blotting indicated that arecolactone (0.8-12.5 ?M) inhibited induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by LPS, which involved suppression of NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH?-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in activated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, arecolactone concentration-dependently prevented the vascular hyporeactivity to phenylephrine induced by LPS (300 ng/mL) through iNOS pathway in isolated rat thoracic aortic rings. These results indicated that both of these naturally occurring iNOS inhibitors may provide a rationale for the potential anti-inflammatory effect of A. saccharicola YMJ96022401.
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Ethanolic Extracts and Isolated Compounds from Small-Leaf Grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana) with Antihypertensive Activities.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 ?g/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-?-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure.
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Electronegative low-density lipoprotein induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis indirectly through endothelial cell-released chemokines.
Apoptosis
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Cardiomyocyte apoptosis has a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. L5, the most negatively charged subfraction of human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces several atherogenic responses in endothelial cells (ECs), including apoptosis. We hypothesized that L5 also contributes to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and studied whether it does so indirectly by inducing the secretion of factors from ECs. We examined apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes treated with culture-conditioned medium (CCM) of rat ECs that were exposed to L5 or L1 (the least negatively charged LDL subfraction). Apoptosis at early and late time points was twofold greater in cardiomyocytes treated with L5 CCM than in those treated with L1 CCM. The indirect effect of L5 on cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating ECs with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or CXC receptor 2 (CXCR2). Studies with cytokine protein arrays revealed that L5 CCM, but not L1 CCM, contained high levels of ELR(+) CXC chemokines, including lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine (LIX) and interleukin (IL)-8. The L5-induced release of these chemokines from ECs was abolished by inhibiting the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). Addition of recombinant LIX or IL-8 to CCM-free cardiomyocyte cultures increased apoptosis and enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-1? by increasing the translocation of NF-?B into the nucleus; these effects were attenuated by inhibiting PI3K and CXCR2. In conclusion, L5 may indirectly induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis by enhancing secretion of ELR(+) CXC chemokines from ECs, which in turn activate CXCR2/PI3K/NF-?B signaling to increase the release of TNF-? and IL-1?.
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Chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease in Taiwanese men: a case-control study.
BMC Public Health
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Areca nut chewing has been reported to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Taiwanese men.
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Inhibitory effects of terpenoids from the fermented broth of the ascomycete Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola YMJ173 on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages.
Chem. Biodivers.
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A series of six isopimarane-type diterpene glycosides, along with an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, i.e., elaeicolasides A-C (1-3, resp.), 16-(?-D-mannopyranosyloxy)isopimar-7-en-19-oic acid (4), hymatoxin K (5), hymatoxin L (6), and elaeicolalactone (7), were isolated from the AcOEt extract of the fermented broth of Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola YMJ173. Among these, 1-3 and 7 are new compounds based on their spectroscopic data and sugar composition analysis. The effects of 1-7 on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. All these compounds inhibited NO production, detected as nitrite in the culture medium, in activated macrophages without any cytotoxicity at a concentration of 100??M. Among these compounds, 2 showed a significant activity with the average maximum inhibition (E(max)) and median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 93.3±0.5% and 79.3±0.4??M, respectively.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.