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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Defective RAGE activity in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells results in high PAX7 levels that sustain migration and invasiveness.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Rhabdomyosarcoma is a muscle-derived malignant tumor mainly affecting children. The most frequent variant, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is characterized by overexpression of the transcription factor, PAX7 which prevents ERMS cells from exiting the cell cycle and terminally differentiating. However, a role for PAX7 in the invasive properties of ERMS cells has not been investigated in detail thus far. Here we show that ectopic expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in human ERMS cells results in the activation of a RAGE/myogenin axis which downregulates PAX7 by transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms, as in normal myoblasts, and reduces metastasis formation. High PAX7 sustains migration and invasiveness in ERMS cells by upregulating EPHA3 and EFNA1 and downregulating NCAM1 thus decreasing the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)/polysialylated-NCAM ratio. Microarray gene expression analysis shows that compared with the RAGE(-ve) TE671/WT cells and similarly to primary human myoblasts, TE671/RAGE cells show upregulation of genes involved in muscle differentiation and cell adhesion, and downregulation of cell migration related and major histocompatibility complex class I genes. Our data reveal a link between PAX7 and metastasis occurrence in ERMSs, and support a role for the RAGE/myogenin axis in metastasis suppression. Thus, low RAGE expression in ERMS primary tumors may be predictive of metastatic behavior.
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RAGE signaling deficiency in rhabdomyosarcoma cells causes upregulation of PAX7 and uncontrolled proliferation.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMSs) show elevated levels of PAX7, a transcription factor that marks quiescent adult muscle stem (satellite) cells and is important for proliferation and survival of activated satellite cells and whose timely repression is required for myogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism of PAX7 accumulation in ERMSs and whether high PAX7 causes uncontrolled proliferation in ERMS remains to be elucidated. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, encoded by AGER) transduces a myogenic and anti-proliferative signal in myoblasts, and stable transfection of the ERMS cell line TE671, which does not express RAGE, with AGER results in reduced proliferation and formation of tumor masses in vivo, and enhanced apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. Herein, we show that RAGE expression is low or absent in human ERMSs. We also show that in ERMS cells (1) PAX7 accumulates owing to absent or low RAGE signaling; (2) elevated PAX7 levels reduce RAGE expression and levels of MyoD and myogenin, muscle-specific transcription factors required for myoblast proliferation arrest and differentiation, respectively; (3) PAX7 supports myoblast proliferation by reducing the levels of MyoD, primarily by promoting its degradation; and (4), when ectopically expressed in ERMS cells, that RAGE upregulates myogenin which upregulates MyoD and downregulates PAX7, with consequent inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation. Thus, failure to express RAGE and, hence, MyoD and myogenin above a critical level in ERMS cells might result in deregulated PAX7 expression leading to uncontrolled proliferation and, potentially, to rhabdomyosarcomagenesis.
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Phosphocaveolin-1 enforces tumor growth and chemoresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can ambiguously behave as either tumor suppressor or oncogene depending on its phosphorylation state and the type of cancer. In this study we show that Cav-1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 14 (pCav-1) by Src-kinase family members in various human cell lines and primary mouse cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. Cav-1 overexpression in the human embryonal RD or alveolar RH30 cells yielded increased pCav-1 levels and reinforced the phosphorylation state of either ERK or AKT kinase, respectively, in turn enhancing in vitro cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and chemoresistance. In contrast, reducing the pCav-1 levels by administration of a Src-kinase inhibitor or through targeted Cav-1 silencing counteracted the malignant in vitro phenotype of RMS cells. Consistent with these results, xenotransplantation of Cav-1 overexpressing RD cells into nude mice resulted in substantial tumor growth in comparison to control cells. Taken together, these data point to pCav-1 as an important and therapeutically valuable target for overcoming the progression and multidrug resistance of RMS.
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Hypoxia Promotes Danger-mediated Inflammation via Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Cystic Fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Rationale: Hypoxia regulates the inflammatory-antiinflammatory balance by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a versatile sensor of damage-associated molecular patterns. The multiligand nature of RAGE places this receptor in the midst of chronic inflammatory diseases. Objectives: To characterize the impact of the hypoxia-RAGE pathway on pathogenic airway inflammation preventing effective pathogen clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF) and elucidate the potential role of this danger signal in pathogenesis and therapy of lung inflammation. Methods: We used in vivo and in vitro models to study the impact of hypoxia on RAGE expression and activity in human and murine CF, the nature of the RAGE ligand, and the impact of RAGE on lung inflammation and antimicrobial resistance in fungal and bacterial pneumonia. Measurements and Main Results: Sustained expression of RAGE and its ligand S100B was observed in murine lung and human epithelial cells and exerted a proximal role in promoting inflammation in murine and human CF, as revealed by functional studies and analysis of the genetic variability of AGER in patients with CF. Both hypoxia and infections contributed to the sustained activation of the S100B-RAGE pathway, being RAGE up-regulated by hypoxia and S100B by infection by Toll-like receptors. Inhibiting the RAGE pathway in vivo with soluble (s) RAGE reduced pathogen load and inflammation in experimental CF, whereas sRAGE production was defective in patients with CF. Conclusions: A causal link between hyperactivation of RAGE and inflammation in CF has been observed, such that targeting pathogenic inflammation alleviated inflammation in CF and measurement of sRAGE levels could be a useful biomarker for RAGE-dependent inflammation in patients with CF.
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Muscular dystrophies share pathogenetic mechanisms with muscle sarcomas.
Trends Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Several lines of recent evidence have opened a new debate on the mechanisms underlying the genesis of rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft tissue tumor with a widespread expression of muscle-specific markers. In particular, it is increasingly evident that the loss of skeletal muscle integrity observed in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy can favor rhabdomyosarcoma formation. This is especially true in old age. Here, we review these experimental findings and focus on the main molecular and cellular events that can dictate the tumorigenic process in dystrophic muscle, such as the loss of structural or regulatory proteins with tumor suppressor activity, the impaired DNA damage response due to oxidative stress, the chronic inflammation and the conflicting signals arising within the degenerated muscle niche.
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HuR and miR-1192 regulate myogenesis by modulating the translation of HMGB1 mRNA.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Upon muscle injury, the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is upregulated and secreted to initiate reparative responses. Here we show that HMGB1 controls myogenesis both in vitro and in vivo during development and after adult muscle injury. HMGB1 expression in muscle cells is regulated at the translational level: the miRNA miR-1192 inhibits HMGB1 translation and the RNA-binding protein HuR promotes it. HuR binds to a cis-element, HuR binding sites (HuRBS), located in the 3UTR of the HMGB1 transcript, and at the same time miR-1192 is recruited to an adjacent seed element. The binding of HuR to the HuRBS prevents the recruitment of Argonaute 2 (Ago2), overriding miR-1192-mediated translation inhibition. Depleting HuR reduces myoblast fusion and silencing miR-1192 re-establishes the fusion potential of HuR-depleted cells. We propose that HuR promotes the commitment of myoblasts to myogenesis by enhancing the translation of HMGB1 and suppressing the translation inhibition mediated by miR-1192.
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S100B protein in tissue development, repair and regeneration.
World J Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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The Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, S100B, exerts both intracellular and extracellular regulatory activities. As an intracellular regulator, S100B is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, transcription, protein phosphorylation, cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and motility, and Ca(2+) homeostasis, by interacting with a wide array of proteins (i.e., enzymes, enzyme substrates, cytoskeletal subunits, scaffold/adaptor proteins, transcription factors, ubiquitin E3 ligases, ion channels) in a restricted number of cell types. As an extracellular signal, S100B engages the pattern recognition receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), on immune cells as well as on neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, skeletal myoblasts and cardiomyocytes. However, RAGE may not be the sole receptor activated by S100B, the protein being able to enhance bFGF-FGFR1 signaling by interacting with FGFR1-bound bFGF in particular cell types. Moreover, extracellular effects of S100B vary depending on its local concentration. Increasing evidence suggests that at the concentration found in extracellular fluids in normal physiological conditions and locally upon acute tissue injury, which is up to a few nM levels, S100B exerts trophic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system and in skeletal muscle tissue thus participating in tissue homeostasis. The present commentary summarizes results implicating intracellular and extracellular S100B in tissue development, repair and regeneration.
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Genetically-determined hyperfunction of the S100B/RAGE axis is a risk factor for aspergillosis in stem cell transplant recipients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major threat to the successful outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), although individual risk varies considerably. Recent evidence has established a pivotal role for a danger sensing mechanism implicating the S100B/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) axis in antifungal immunity. The association of selected genetic variants in the S100B/RAGE axis with susceptibility to IA was investigated in 223 consecutive patients undergoing HSCT. Furthermore, studies addressing the functional consequences of these variants were performed. Susceptibility to IA was significantly associated with two distinct polymorphisms in RAGE (-374T/A) and S100B (+427C/T) genes, the relative contribution of each depended on their presence in both transplantation counterparts [patient SNP(RAGE), adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.97; P?=?0.042 and donor SNP(RAGE), HR, 2.03; P?=?0.047] or in donors (SNP(S100B), HR, 3.15; P?=?7.8e-(4)) only, respectively. Functional assays demonstrated a gain-of-function phenotype of both variants, as shown by the enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in RAGE polymorphic cells and increased S100B secretion in vitro and in vivo in the presence of the S100B polymorphism. These findings point to a relevant role of the danger sensing signaling in human antifungal immunity and highlight a possible contribution of a genetically-determined hyperfunction of the S100B/RAGE axis to susceptibility to IA in the HSCT setting.
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S100B protein regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation by activating FGFR1 in a bFGF-dependent manner.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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S100B protein has been shown to exert anti-myogenic and mitogenic effects in myoblast cultures through inhibition of the myogenic p38 MAPK and activation of the mitogenic ERK1/2. However, the receptor mediating these effects had not been identified. Here, we show that S100B increases and/or stabilizes the binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to bFGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) by interacting with bFGF, thereby enhancing FGFR1 activation and the mitogenic and anti-myogenic effects of FGFR1. S100B also binds to its canonical receptor RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products), a multi-ligand receptor previously shown to transduce a pro-myogenic signal when activated by HMGB1, and recruits RAGE into a RAGE-S100B-bFGF-FGFR1 complex. However, when bound to S100B-bFGF-FGFR1, RAGE can no longer stimulate myogenic differentiation, whereas in the absence of either bFGF or FGFR1, binding of S100B to RAGE results in stimulation of RAGE anti-mitogenic and promyogenic signaling. An S100B-bFGF-FGFR1 complex also forms in Rage(-/-) myoblasts, leading to enhanced proliferation and reduced differentiation, which points to a dispensability of RAGE for the inhibitory effects of S100B on myoblasts under the present experimental conditions. These results reveal a new S100B-interacting protein - bFGF - in the extracellular milieu and suggest that S100B stimulates myoblast proliferation and inhibits myogenic differentiation by activating FGFR1 in a bFGF-dependent manner.
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The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.
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The many faces of S100B protein: when an extracellular factor inactivates its own receptor and activates another one.
Ital J Anat Embryol
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
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The Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, S100B, is an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal. Within cells S100B interacts with several proteins thereby regulating energy metabolism, Ca2+ homeostasis, protein phosphorylation and degradation, and cell locomotion, proliferation and differentiation. Once secreted/released, S100B exerts autocrine and paracrine effects on responsive cells by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products. However, recent evidence suggests that S100B might also activate basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 via prior binding to basic fibroblast growth factor.
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Human muscle satellite cells show age-related differential expression of S100B protein and RAGE.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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During aging, skeletal muscles show reduced mass and functional capacity largely due to loss of the regenerative ability of satellite cells (SCs), the quiescent stem cells located beneath the basal lamina surrounding each myofiber. While both the external environment and intrinsic properties of SCs appear to contribute to the age-related SC deficiency, the latter ones have been poorly investigated especially in humans. In the present work, we analyzed several parameters of SCs derived from biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle from healthy non-trained young (28.7 ± 5.9 years; n = 10) and aged (77.3 ± 6.4 years; n = 11) people. Compared with young SCs, aged SCs showed impaired differentiation when cultured in differentiation medium, and exhibited the following: (1) reduced proliferation; (2) higher expression levels of S100B, a negative regulator of myoblast differentiation; (3) undetectable levels in growth medium of full-length RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the engagement of which enhances myoblast differentiation; and (4) lower expression levels of the transcription factors, MyoD and Pax7. Also, either overexpression of full-length RAGE or knockdown of S100B in aged SCs resulted in enhanced differentiation, while overexpression of either a non-transducing mutant of RAGE (RAGE?cyto) or S100B in young SCs resulted in reduced differentiation compared with controls. Moreover, while aged SCs maintained the ability to respond to mitogenic factors (e.g., bFGF and S100B), they were no longer able to secrete these factors, unlike young SCs. These data support a role for intrinsic factors, besides the extracellular environment in the defective SC function in aged skeletal muscles.
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S100B Protein, A Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Protein in the Brain and Heart, and Beyond.
Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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S100B belongs to a multigenic family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the EF-hand type and is expressed in high abundance in the brain. S100B interacts with target proteins within cells thereby altering their functions once secreted/released with the multiligand receptor RAGE. As an intracellular regulator, S100B affects protein phosphorylation, energy metabolism, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents (and hence, of cell shape and migration), Ca(2+) homeostasis, and cell proliferation and differentiation. As an extracellular signal, at low, physiological concentrations, S100B protects neurons against apoptosis, stimulates neurite outgrowth and astrocyte proliferation, and negatively regulates astrocytic and microglial responses to neurotoxic agents, while at high doses S100B causes neuronal death and exhibits properties of a damage-associated molecular pattern protein. S100B also exerts effects outside the brain; as an intracellular regulator, S100B inhibits the postinfarction hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes, while as an extracellular signal, (high) S100B causes cardiomyocyte death, activates endothelial cells, and stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
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Sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling is involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid known to control cell growth that was recently shown to act as a trophic factor for skeletal muscle, reducing the progress of denervation atrophy. The aim of this work was to investigate whether S1P is involved in skeletal muscle fiber recovery (regeneration) after myotoxic injury induced by bupivacaine. The postnatal ability of skeletal muscle to grow and regenerate is dependent on resident stem cells called satellite cells. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that S1P-specific receptors S1P(1) and S1P(3) are expressed by quiescent satellite cells. Soleus muscles undergoing regeneration following injury induced by intramuscular injection of bupivacaine exhibited enhanced expression of S1P(1) receptor, while S1P(3) expression progressively decreased to adult levels. S1P(2) receptor was absent in quiescent cells but was transiently expressed in the early regenerating phases only. Administration of S1P (50 microM) at the moment of myotoxic injury caused a significant increase of the mean cross-sectional area of regenerating fibers in both rat and mouse. In separate experiments designed to test the trophic effects of S1P, neutralization of endogenous circulating S1P by intraperitoneal administration of anti-S1P antibody attenuated fiber growth. Use of selective modulators of S1P receptors indicated that S1P(1) receptor negatively and S1P(3) receptor positively modulate the early phases of regeneration, whereas S1P(2) receptor appears to be less important. The present results show that S1P signaling participates in the regenerative processes of skeletal muscle.
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S100Bs double life: intracellular regulator and extracellular signal.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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The Ca2+-binding protein of the EF-hand type, S100B, exerts both intracellular and extracellular functions. Recent studies have provided more detailed information concerning the mechanism(s) of action of S100B as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal. Indeed, intracellular S100B acts as a stimulator of cell proliferation and migration and an inhibitor of apoptosis and differentiation, which might have important implications during brain, cartilage and skeletal muscle development and repair, activation of astrocytes in the course of brain damage and neurodegenerative processes, and of cardiomyocyte remodeling after infarction, as well as in melanomagenesis and gliomagenesis. As an extracellular factor, S100B engages RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in a variety of cell types with different outcomes (i.e. beneficial or detrimental, pro-proliferative or pro-differentiative) depending on the concentration attained by the protein, the cell type and the microenvironment. Yet, RAGE might not be the sole S100B receptor, and S100Bs ability to engage RAGE might be regulated by its interaction with other extracellular factors. Future studies using S100B transgenic and S100B null mice might shed more light on the functional role(s) of the protein.
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RAGE in tissue homeostasis, repair and regeneration.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) is a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in inflammation, diabetes, atherosclerosis, nephropathy, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Advanced glycation end-products, high mobility group box-1 (amphoterin), ?-amyloid fibrils, certain S100 proteins, and DNA and RNA are RAGE ligands. Upon RAGE ligation, adaptor proteins (i.e., diaphanous-1, TIRAP, MyD88 and/or other as yet unidentified adaptors) associate with RAGE cytoplasmic domain resulting in signaling. However, RAGE activation may not be restricted to pathological statuses, the receptor being involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration/repair upon acute injury, and in resolution of inflammation. RAGE effects are strongly dependent on the cell type and the context, which may condition therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing RAGE signaling.
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HMGB1-RAGE regulates muscle satellite cell homeostasis through p38-MAPK- and myogenin-dependent repression of Pax7 transcription.
J. Cell. Sci.
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Expression of the paired-box 7 (PAX7) transcription factor is regulated during both myoblast proliferation and differentiation: high levels of PAX7 compromise myogenic differentiation because of excess and prolonged proliferation, whereas low levels of PAX7 result in precocious differentiation. We showed that myogenin repressed Pax7 transcription in differentiating myoblasts by binding to specific recognition sites in the Pax7 promoter, and that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) signaling was required for myogenin induction and myogenin-dependent repression of Pax7 transcription. In addition, PAX7 negatively and myogenin positively regulated RAGE expression. RAGE, a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, was not expressed in adult skeletal muscles, and was transiently expressed in activated, proliferating and differentiating satellite cells (SCs) in injured muscles. Compared with wild-type muscles, Rage(-/-) muscles exhibited increased numbers of basal SCs that were further increased in injured Rage(-/-) muscles following elevated myoblast asymmetric division; complete regeneration of injured Rage(-/-) muscles was found to be delayed by ~1 week. Thus, RAGE signaling physiologically repressed Pax7 transcription in SCs by upregulating myogenin, thereby accelerating muscle regeneration and limiting SC self-renewal.
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S100B engages RAGE or bFGF/FGFR1 in myoblasts depending on its own concentration and myoblast density. Implications for muscle regeneration.
PLoS ONE
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In high-density myoblast cultures S100B enhances basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling via binding to bFGF and blocks its canonical receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), thereby stimulating proliferation and inhibiting differentiation. Here we show that upon skeletal muscle injury S100B is released from myofibers with maximum release at day 1 post-injury in coincidence with satellite cell activation and the beginning of the myoblast proliferation phase, and declining release thereafter in coincidence with reduced myoblast proliferation and enhanced differentiation. By contrast, levels of released bFGF are remarkably low at day 1 post-injury, peak around day 5 and decline thereafter. We also show that in low-density myoblast cultures S100B binds RAGE, but not bFGF/FGFR1 thereby simultaneously stimulating proliferation via ERK1/2 and activating the myogenic program via p38 MAPK. Clearance of S100B after a 24-h treatment of low-density myoblasts results in enhanced myotube formation compared with controls as a result of increased cell numbers and activated myogenic program, whereas chronic treatment with S100B results in stimulation of proliferation and inhibition of differentiation due to a switch of the initial low-density culture to a high-density culture. However, at relatively high doses, S100B stimulates the mitogenic bFGF/FGFR1 signaling in low-density myoblasts, provided bFGF is present. We propose that S100B is a danger signal released from injured muscles that participates in skeletal muscle regeneration by activating the promyogenic RAGE or the mitogenic bFGF/FGFR1 depending on its own concentration, the absence or presence of bFGF, and myoblast density.
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