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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antipyretic and anti-asthmatic activities of traditional Chinese herb-pairs, Ephedra and Gypsum.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Mahuang-Shigao herb-pair is a famous formula composed of Ephedra and Gypsum. The herb-pair is frequently used for treating cold symptoms and bronchial asthma in the clinical practice of Chinese medicine (CM). In the present study, we evaluated evidence for the benefit of combined use of Ephedra and Gypsum by analyzing the antipyretic and anti-asthmatic activities of Ephedra-Gypsum.
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Adenosine Deaminase Biosensor Combining Cationic Conjugated Polymer-Based FRET with Deoxyguanosine-Based Photoinduced Electron Transfer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We demonstrated a sensitive and selective adenosine deaminase (ADA) detection by modulating the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between cationic conjugated poly(9,9-bis(6'-N,N,N-trimethylammonium) hexyl)fluorine phenylene) (PFP) and the deoxyguanosine-tailored hairpin aptamer. The hairpin aptamer was labeled with a fluorophore FAM at one end and three deoxyguanosines (Gs) at the other end as a quencher. In the absence of ADA, aptamer forms hairpin-like conformation with adenosines making close affinity of Gs and FAM, which results in the weak FRET from PFP to FAM because of FAM fluorescence being quenched by Gs via photoinduced electron transfer (PET). After addition of ADA, adenosine was hydrolyzed by ADA, followed by the release of free aptamer. In this case, FAM being far away from Gs, the strong FRET thus was obtained due to the quenching process being blocked. Therefore, the new strategy based on the FRET ratio enhancement is reasonably used to detect the ADA sensitively, combining the fluorescence signal amplification of conjugated polymers with the initiative signal decreasing by Gs. The detection limit of the ADA assay is 0.3 U/L in both buffer solution and human serum, which is more sensitive than most of those previously documented methods. Importantly, the assay is rapid, homogeneous, and simple without a complicated treating process. The ADA inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride (EHNA), was also studied based on this assay, and the detection limit of EHNA is 10 pM. This strategy provides a new platform for the detection of other biomolecules and enzymes.
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An Acentric Calcium Borate Ca2[B5O9]·(OH)·H2O: Synthesis, Structure, and Nonliner Optical Property.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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A novel noncentrosymmetric calcium borate, Ca2[B5O9]·(OH)·H2O (1), was synthesized under solvothermal condition using mixed solvents of pyridine and H2O. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cc. Its structure contains [B5O12] units and features a three-dimensional (3D) pcu net with nine-membered ring (9-MR) channels along the b-axis, where the Ca(2+) cations, OH(-) ions, and H2O molecules are located. Each Ca polyhedron shares three edges and one vertex with four neighbors to form a 3D dia Ca-O network. The pcu B-O net and dia Ca-O net are further interpenetrated to give the final denser net. The second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement shows that compound 1 is a type I phase-matchable material with a strong SHG response of ?3 times that of KH2PO4. In addition, it exhibits a wide transparency range with a short UV cutoff edge below 200 nm. These results reveal that the compound is a potential deep-UV nonlinear optical material. The Vienna ab initio theoretical studies indicate the good SHG response is derived from the synergistic effect of the ?-conjugated systems of BO3 groups and distorted CaO9 polyhedra.
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The Effects of a Semi-constrained Integrated Artificial Disc on Zygapophyseal Joint Pressure and Displacement.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Study Design. Measurement of zygapophyseal joint pressure and displacement were performed after placement of a semiconstrained integrated artificial disc in a cadaver model.Objective. To understand the likelihood of accelerated zygapophyseal joints degeneration as a result of the implant.Summary of Background Data. A semiconstrained integrated artificial disc (SIAD) has been developed to treat lumbar spondylosis secondary to segmental disc degeneration and spinal stenosis. The SIAD replaces the stenotic segment's disc. Previous studies have demonstrated that non-constrained artificial disc (NAD) replacements fail to achieve their optimal long-term outcomes likely because of significantly increased zygapophyseal joint pressure and displacement at the implanted level. Moreover, clinical studies have reported an increased incidence of zygapophyseal joint degeneration after lumbar disc replacement.Methods. Eight cadaver lumbar specimens (L2-L5) were loaded in flexion, neutral, extension, left bend (LB), and right rotation (RR). Zygapophyseal joint pressure and displacement were measured during each of the five positions at each of the three levels with the ratio of deformation (RD) calculated under the different loads. An artificial disc was placed at the L3-4 level, and the measurements were repeated.Results. Following L3-4 segment implantation, the pressure in the zygapophyseal joint at operative segment were not significant changed by SIAD and NAD implantation in AC and flexion, compared to physiological disc. Notable differences in zygapophyseal joint pressure between the SIAD and NAD were identified at the operative level in extension, LB, and RR. The adjacent-level effect of NAD was significantly greater than SIAD. The RD difference between the two discs was increased by load experienced in extension, flexion, LB, and RR.Conclusions. The SIAD provided a superior biomechanical milieu for zygapophyseal joints at the implanted and adjacent levels compared to NAD, which may avoid the acceleration of post-operative zygapophyseal joint degeneration.
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Antigen-loaded Dendritic Cell Migration: MR Imaging in a Pancreatic Carcinoma Model.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Purpose To test the following hypotheses in a murine model of pancreatic cancer: (a) Vaccination with antigen-loaded iron-labeled dendritic cells reduces T2-weighted signal intensity at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within peripheral draining lymph nodes (LNs) and (b) such signal intensity reductions are associated with tumor size changes after dendritic cell vaccination. Materials and Methods The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Panc02 cells were implanted into the flanks of 27 C57BL/6 mice bilaterally. After tumors reached 10 mm, cell viability was evaluated, and iron-labeled dendritic cell vaccines were injected into the left hind footpad. The mice were randomly separated into the following three groups (n = 9 in each): Group 1 was injected with 1 million iron-labeled dendritic cells; group 2, with 2 million cells; and control mice, with 200 mL of phosphate-buffered saline. T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging of labeled dendritic cell migration to draining LNs was performed before cell injection and 6 and 24 hours after injection. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the draining LNs was measured. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare Prussian blue-positive dendritic cell measurements in LNs. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare in vivo T2-weighted SNR LN measurements between groups over the observation time points. Results Trypan blue assays showed no significant difference in mean viability indexes (unlabeled vs labeled dendritic cells, 4.32% ± 0.69 [standard deviation] vs 4.83% ± 0.76; P = .385). Thirty-five days after injection, the mean left and right flank tumor sizes, respectively, were 112.7 mm(2) ± 16.4 and 109 mm(2) ± 24.3 for the 1-million dendritic cell group, 92.2 mm(2) ± 9.9 and 90.4 mm(2) ± 12.8 for the 2-million dendritic cell group, and 193.7 mm(2) ± 20.9 and 189.4 mm(2) ± 17.8 for the control group (P = .0001 for control group vs 1-million cell group; P = .00007 for control group vs 2-million cell group). There was a correlation between postinjection T2-weighted SNR decreases in the left popliteal LN 24 hours after injection and size changes at follow-up for tumors in both flanks (R = 0.81 and R = 0.76 for left and right tumors, respectively). Conclusion MR imaging approaches can be used for quantitative measurement of accumulated iron-labeled dendritic cell-based vaccines in draining LNs. The amount of dendritic cell-based vaccine in draining LNs correlates well with observed protective effects. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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The epidemiology of alcohol consumption and multiple sclerosis: a review.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Alcohol consumption is accounted for a large proportion in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may be a modifiable lifestyle factor that affects the risk of developing the disease. The epidemiological studies about the association between MS and alcohol consumption have got corresponding studies during the last decade. It has been suggested that alcohol consumption was associated with mood disorders, disability and even onset of MS, but a common theme is lacking. To make an understanding of the effect of alcohol consumption on MS, the related epidemiological evidence and potential mechanisms are reviewed.
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Safety and Efficacy Study of an Ozone Laser Combined Therapy Using Puncture Needle in the Treatment of Patients with Cervical Spondylosis.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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58 patients with cervical spondylosis were treated with patented technology of ozone laser combined therapy via puncture needle between August 2008 and February 2010. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score changes before and 6 months after surgery and MacNab score criteria 6 months after surgery were analyzed.
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The association between vibration and vascular injury in rheumatic diseases: A review of the literature.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Abstract Vascular manifestations can be seen early in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Animal experiments, laboratory and clinical findings indicated that acute or long-term vibration exposure can induce vascular abnormalities. Recent years, in addition to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), vibration as a risk factor for other rheumatic diseases has also received corresponding considered. This review is concentrated upon the role of vibration in the disease of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this review, we are going to discuss the main mechanisms which are thought to be important in pathophysiology of vascular injury under the three broad headings of "vascular", "neural" and "intravascular". Aspects on the vibration and vascular inflammation are briefly discussed. And the epidemiological studies related to vibration studies in SSc and other rheumatic diseases are taken into account.
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Post-Transcriptional Up-Regulation of PDGF-C by HuR in Advanced and Stressed Breast Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple genetic alterations leading to the activation of growth factor signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation. Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is overexpressed in various malignancies; however, the involvement of PDGF-C in breast cancers and the mechanisms underlying PDGF-C deregulation remain unclear. Here, we show that PDGF-C is overexpressed in clinical breast cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. PDGF-C up-regulation was mediated by the human embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR, which stabilizes the PDGF-C transcript by binding to two predicted AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). HuR is up-regulated in hydrogen peroxide-treated or ultraviolet-irradiated breast cancer cells. Clinically, HuR levels are correlated with PDGF-C expression and histological grade or pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying HuR-mediated breast cancer progression, and suggest that HuR and PDGF-C are potential molecular candidates for targeted therapy of breast cancers.
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Soluble a?proliferation?inducing ligand (sAPRIL), a novel serum biomarker predicting the recurrence and metastasis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma after surgery.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is a leading cause of adult cancer mortality, and surgery is still the best available treatment strategy. However, PA can recur at any time and has limited prognosis. It is therefore necessary to explore novel serum biomarkers of PA to allow the early diagnosis of PA. Soluble a-proliferation-inducing ligand (sAPRIL), a promising inducer of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is often found overexpressed in a variety of autoimmune diseases. To determine whether serum sAPRIL can constitute a PA biomarker, the protein level of sAPRIL was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot, and the mRNA level was quantified by RT-qPCR. The PA cell line PanC-1 was transfected with vectors bearing the sAPRIL gene and sAPRIL short hairpin RNA (shRNA) oligos. Increased expression of serum sAPRIL was observed in patients with PA recurrence or metastasis after five-year surgery compared to subjects without PA recurrence or metastasis. The growth rate of PanC-1 cells transfected with the sAPRIL expression vector was increased by 23% (P<0.01, vs. control group), and was reduced by 17% (P<0.01, vs. control group) in the sAPRIL shRNA-silenced cell line. Thus, sAPRIL is highly expressed in PA, and serum levels of sAPRIL can serve as a useful indicator for the recurrence or metastasis of PA after surgery. Additional validation studies on the use of serum sAPRIL as a diagnostic marker in PA are however needed.
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A new non-destructive readout by using photo-recovered surface potential contrast.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Ferroelectric random access memory is still challenging in the feature of combination of room temperature stability, non-destructive readout and high intensity storage. As a non-contact and non-destructive information readout method, surface potential has never been paid enough attention because of the unavoidable decay of the surface potential contrast between oppositely polarized domains. That is mainly due to the recombination of the surface movable charges around the domain walls. Here, by introducing a laser beam into the combination of piezoresponse force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, we demonstrate that the surface potential contrast of BiFeO3 films can be recovered under light illumination. The recovering mechanism is understood based on the redistribution of the photo-induced charges driven by the internal electric field. Furthermore, we have created a 12-cell memory pattern based on BiFeO3 films to show the feasibility of such photo-assisted non-volatile and non-destructive readout of the ferroelectric memory.
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[Association between thyroid dysfunction and incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with stable angina pectoris].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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To explore the correlation between incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and thyroid dysfunction.
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[Monitoring and control of pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection in a medical intensive care unit].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To describe the monitoring and control of pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRABA) colonization and infection in a medical intensive care unit (ICU), and to summarize the effective measures of surveillance of nosocomial infection and control.
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Hydrothermal Combination of Trilacunary Dawson Phosphotungstates and Hexanickel Clusters: From an Isolated Cluster to a 3D Framework.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Three novel hexa-Ni-substituted Dawson phosphortungstates [Ni6 (en)3 (H2 O)6 (?3 -OH)3 (H3 P2 W15 O56 )]?14?H2 O (1), [Ni(enMe)2 (H2 O)][Ni6 (enMe)3 (?3 -OH)3 (H2 O)6 (HP2 W15 O56 )]? 10?H2 O (2), and [Ni(enMe)2 ]3 [Ni(enMe)2 (H2 O)][Ni(enMe)(H2 O)2 ][Ni6 (enMe)3 (?3 -OH)3 (Ac)2 (H2 O)(P2 W15 O56 )]2 ?6?H2 O (3) (en=ethylenediamine, enMe=1, 2-diaminopropane, Ac=CH3 COO(-) ) have been made under hydrothermal conditions and were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The common structural features of compounds 1-3 contain the similar hexa-Ni-substituted Dawson polyoxometalate (POM) units that can be viewed as a [Ni6 (?3 -OH)3 ](9+) cluster capping on a [P2 W15 O56 ](12-) fragment. Compounds 1 and 2 are two isolated clusters, whereas compound 3 is the first 3D POM framework constructed from hexa-Ni-substituted Dawson POM units and Ni(enMe) complex bridges. The preparations of compounds 1-3 not only indicate that triangle coplanar Ni6 clusters are very stable fragments in both trivacant Keggin and trivacant Dawson POM systems, but also offer that the hydrothermal technique can act as an effective strategy for making novel Dawson-type high-nuclear transition-metal cluster substituted POMs by combination of lacunary Dawson precusors with transition-metal cations in the tunable role of organic ligands. In addition, magnetic measurements illustrate that there exist overall ferromagnetic interactions in compound 3.
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Role of NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes signaling pathways in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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To investigate the role of NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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90d Exposure to Nonylphenol has Adverse Effects on the Spermatogenesis and Sperm Maturation of Adult Male Rats.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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This study was conducted to elucidate the reproductive effect of NP on testis, epididymis and epididymal sperm in vivo. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with NP at 0, 40, 100, or 250 mg/kg body weight (bw) on alternate days for 90 d. The results showed that oral administration of NP may damage the structure and function of testis, induce apoptosis and oxidative stress in epididymis or even have cytotoxic effects on epididymal sperm.
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Improved cluster-in-molecule local correlation approach for electron correlation calculation of large systems.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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An improved cluster-in-molecule (CIM) local correlation approach is developed to allow electron correlation calculations of large systems more accurate and faster. We have proposed a refined strategy of constructing virtual LMOs of various clusters, which is suitable for basis sets of various types. To recover medium-range electron correlation, which is important for quantitative descriptions of large systems, we find that a larger distance threshold (?) is necessary for highly accurate results. Our illustrative calculations show that the present CIM-MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesser perturbation theory, MP2) or CIM-CCSD (coupled cluster singles and doubles, CCSD) scheme with a suitable ? value is capable of recovering more than 99.8% correlation energies for a wide range of systems at different basis sets. Furthermore, the present CIM-MP2 scheme can provide reliable relative energy differences as the conventional MP2 method for secondary structures of polypeptides.
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Facile synthesis of Co?O?@CNT with high catalytic activity for CO oxidation under moisture-rich conditions.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The catalytic oxidation reaction of CO has recently attracted much attention because of its potential applications in the treatment of air pollutants. The development of inexpensive transition metal oxide catalysts that exhibit high catalytic activities for CO oxidation is in high demand. However, these metal oxide catalysts are susceptible to moisture, as they can be quickly deactivated in the presence of trace amounts of moisture. This article reports a facile synthesis of highly active Co3O4@CNT catalysts for CO oxidation under moisture-rich conditions. Our synthetic routes are based on the in situ growth of ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (?2.5 nm) on pristine multiwalled CNTs in the presence of polymer surfactant. Using a 1% CO and 2% O2 balanced in N2 (normal) feed gas (3-10 ppm moisture), a 100% CO conversion with Co3O4@CNT catalysts was achieved at various temperatures ranging from 25 to 200 °C at a low O2 concentration. The modulation of surface hydrophobicity of CNT substrates, other than direct surface modification on the Co3O4 catalytic centers, is an efficient method to enhance the moisture resistance of metal oxide catalysts for CO oxidation. After introducing fluorinated alkyl chains on CNT surfaces, the superhydrophobic Co3O4@CNT exhibited outstanding activity and durability at 150 °C in the presence of moisture-saturated feed gas. These materials may ultimately present new opportunities to improve the moisture resistance of metal oxide catalysts for CO oxidation.
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Unveiling cell surface and type IV secretion proteins responsible for archaeal rudivirus entry.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Sulfolobus mutants resistant to archaeal lytic virus Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) were isolated, and mutations were identified in two gene clusters, cluster sso3138 to sso3141 and cluster sso2386 and sso2387, encoding cell surface and type IV secretion proteins, respectively. The involvement of the mutations in the resistance was confirmed by genetic complementation. Blocking of virus entry into the mutants was demonstrated by the lack of early gene transcription, strongly supporting the idea of a role of the proteins in SIRV2 entry.
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Water-soluble conjugated polymer as a platform for adenosine deaminase sensing based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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We report a new biosensor for adenosine deaminase (ADA) sensing based on water-soluble conjugated poly(9,9-bis(6'-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)fluorine phenylene (PFP) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique. In this biosensor, PFP, DNAc-FI labeled with fluorescein (FAM), and ethidium bromide (EB) were used as the fluorescence energy donor, resonance gate, and the final fluorescence energy acceptor, respectively. In the absence of ADA, the adenosine aptamer forms a hairpin-like conformation with adenosine, which is far from its complementary single-stranded DNA (DNAc-FI). When PFP is excited at 380 nm, fluorescein emits strong green fluorescence via one-step FRET while EB has no fluorescence. After addition of ADA, adenosine is hydrolyzed to inosine and then double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is formed between the aptamer and DNAc-FI, followed by EB intercalating into dsDNA. Once PFP is excited, EB will emit strong yellow fluorescence after two-step FRET from PFP to fluorescein and from fluorescein to EB. The sensitive ADA detection then is realized with a low detection limit of 0.5 U/L by measuring the FRET ratio of EB to fluorescein. Most importantly, the assay is accomplished homogeneously in 25 min without further treatments, which is much more simple and rapid than that reported in literature. Hence, this method demonstrates the sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid detection of ADA activity. It also opens an opportunity for designing promising sensors for other enzymes.
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Two novel metal borates with three-dimensional open-framework layers constructed from [M2B8O20(OH)2] (M = Al, Ga) cluster units.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Two novel metal borates, Ba[MB4O8(OH)]·H2O (M = Al/Ga), with a three-dimensional open-framework layer have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions, in which the Al(3+)/Ga(3+) ions have been successfully introduced into the oxoboron cluster backbone and further linked together to form the open-framework layer composed of the [M2B8O20(OH)2] cluster units. The half-unit [MB4O11(OH)] can be viewed as analogous to the known [B5O9(OH)] cluster. Interestingly, the rare M-O-M linkages play a crucial role in forming the open-framework layer.
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Synergistic combination of multi-Zr(IV) cations and lacunary Keggin germanotungstates leading to a gigantic Zr24-cluster-substituted polyoxometalate.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Synergistic directing roles of six lacunary fragments resulted in an unprecedented Zr24-cluster substituted poly(polyoxotungstate) Na10K22[Zr24O22(OH)10(H2O)2(W2O10H)2(GeW9O34)4(GeW8O31)2]·85H2O (Na10K22·1·85H2O), which contains the largest [Zr24O22(OH)10(H2O)2] (Zr24) cluster in all the Zr-based poly(polyoxometalate)s to date. The most remarkable feature is that the centrosymmetric Zr24-cluster-based hexamer contains two symmetry-related [Zr12O11(OH)5(H2O)(W2O10H)(GeW9O34)2(GeW8O31)](16-) trimers via six ?3-oxo bridges and was simultaneously trapped by three types of different segments of B-?-GeW9O34, B-?-GeW8O31, and W2O10. The other interesting characteristic is that there are two pairs of intriguing triangular atom alignments: one is composed of the Zr(2,4,6,8,11) and W21 atoms and the other contains the Ge(1-3), Zr(3,5,7,9,10,12) and W26 atoms, and the Zr5 atom is inside the triangle; a linking mode is unobserved. The oxygenation reactions of thioethers by H2O2 were evaluated when Na10K22·1·85H2O served as a catalyst. Results show that it is an effective catalyst for oxygenation of thioethers by H2O2. The unique redox property of oxygen-enriched polyoxotungstate fragments and Lewis acidity of the Zr cluster imbedded in Na10K22·1·85H2O provide a sufficient driving force for the catalytic conversion from thioethers to sulfoxides/sulfones.
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[Comparison of GIMMS and MODIS normalized vegetation index composite data for Qing-Hai-Tibet Plateau].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Consistent NDVI time series are basic and prerequisite in long-term monitoring of land surface properties. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) measurements provide the longest records of continuous global satellite measurements sensitive to live green vegetation, and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) is more recent typical with high spatial and temporal resolution. Understanding the relationship between the AVHRR-derived NDVI and MODIS NDVI is critical to continued long-term monitoring of ecological resources. NDVI time series acquired by the global inventory modeling and mapping studies (GIMMS) and Terra MODIS were compared over the same time periods from 2000 to 2006 at four scales of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (whole region, sub-region, biome and pixel) to assess the level of agreement in terms of absolute values and dynamic change by independently assessing the performance of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI and using 495 Landsat samples of 20 km x20 km covering major land cover type. High correlations existed between the two datasets at the four scales, indicating their mostly equal capability of capturing seasonal and monthly phenological variations (mostly at 0. 001 significance level). Simi- larities of the two datasets differed significantly among different vegetation types. The relative low correlation coefficients and large difference of NDVI value between the two datasets were found among dense vegetation types including broadleaf forest and needleleaf forest, yet the correlations were strong and the deviations were small in more homogeneous vegetation types, such as meadow, steppe and crop. 82% of study area was characterized by strong consistency between GIMMS and MODIS NDVI at pixel scale. In the Landsat NDVI vs. GIMMS and MODIS NDVI comparison of absolute values, the MODIS NDVI performed slightly better than GIMMS NDVI, whereas in the comparison of temporal change values, the GIMMS data set performed best. Similar with comparison results of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI, the consistency across the three datasets was clearly different among various vegetation types. In dynamic changes, differences between Landsat and MODIS NDVI were smaller than Landsat NDVI vs. GIMMS NDVI for forest, but Landsat and GIMMS NDVI agreed better for grass and crop. The results suggested that spatial patterns and dynamic trends of GIMMS NDVI were found to be in overall acceptable agreement with MODIS NDVI. It might be feasible to successfully integrate historical GIMMS and more recent MODIS NDVI to provide continuity of NDVI products. The accuracy of merging AVHRR historical data recorded with more modern MODIS NDVI data strongly depends on vegetation type, season and phenological period, and spatial scale. The integration of the two datasets for needleleaf forest, broadleaf forest, and for all vegetation types in the phenological transition periods in spring and autumn should be treated with caution.
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Pillared-layer cluster organic frameworks constructed from nanoscale Ln10 and Cu16 clusters.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Two pillared-layer cluster organic frameworks, [Ln5(?3-OH)4(?-H2O)Cu8I8L11]·H2O (L = 4-pyridin-4-yl-benzoate; Ln = Dy(1), Eu(2)), have been made by employing lanthanide oxide and copper(I) halide as the source of lanthanide and transitional metal under hydrothermal condition. Compared to the pillared-layer frameworks constructed from heterometallic layers and organic pillars, these two compounds are derived from lanthanide cluster organic layers and copper(I) halide cluster motifs. Thus, there are two distinct types of inorganic metal connectors in the structure, one is hydroxo lanthanide [Ln10(?3-OH)8](22+) (Ln10) cluster, and the other is copper(I) halide [Cu16I16] (Cu16) cluster. The rational assembly of these two inorganic connectors and organic linear linkers leads to the formation of the two complexes here. To the best of our knowledge, they appear to be the first 3D frameworks constructed from decanuclear hydroxo lanthanide clusters. From the topological point of view, these compounds represent an intriguing example of a binodal (8,14)-connected net considering the Ln10 and Cu16 connectors as the nodes, revealing that they are typical high dimensional frameworks with high connected net based on high nuclearity nodes. Furthermore, elemental analysis, IR, TGA, PXRD, and UV-vis properties are also studied.
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Surface folding in metals: a mechanism for delamination wear in sliding.
Proc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Using high-resolution, in situ imaging of a hard, wedge-shaped model asperity sliding against a metal surface, we demonstrate a new mechanism for particle formation and delamination wear. Damage to the residual surface is caused by the occurrence of folds on the free surface of the prow-shaped region ahead of the wedge. This damage manifests itself as shallow crack-like features and surface tears, which are inclined at very acute angles to the surface. The transformation of folds into cracks, tears and particles is directly captured. Notably, a single sliding pass is sufficient to damage the surface, and subsequent passes result in the generation of platelet-like wear particles. Tracking the folding process at every stage from surface bumps to folds to cracks/tears/particles ensures that there is no ambiguity in capturing the mechanism of wear. Because fold formation and consequent delamination are quite general, our findings have broad applicability beyond wear itself, including implications for design of surface generation and conditioning processes.
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Magnetic resonance elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse for staging hepatic fibrosis: a meta-analysis.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Elastography is a non-invasive method to quantify fibrosis based on tissue mechanical properties. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of two such techniques: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) or Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis.
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Two Cu-complex directed aluminoborates: from 2D layers to 3D frameworks.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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With transition metal complexes as the structure-directing agents, two novel aluminoborates with a 2D layer [Cu(enMe)2]3{Al2[B5O8(OH)2]4}·H2O (1, enMe = 1,2-diaminopropane) and a 3D open-framework [Cu(en)2][Al-B5O10] (2, en = ethylenediamine) have been solvothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, UV/Vis spectroscopy, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 is a 2D {Al[B5O8(OH)2]2}(3-) layer constructed by the alternate linkages of AlO4 groups and B5O8(OH)2 clusters. The 2D layer contains 16-member rings (MRs), showing a unique sql net topology. In 2, the AlO4 groups and B5O10 clusters alternately link together to form a 3D framework, in which the stacking of building layers is different. The copper centres are chelated by two amine ligands to form a square planar, which have weak axial interactions with the aluminoborate frameworks.
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Two series of sandwich frameworks based on two different kinds of nanosized lanthanide(III) and copper(I) wheel cluster units.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Two series of sandwich frameworks, [La6(?3-OH)2(ox)3L12Cu11(?3-X)6(?2-X)3]·8H2O (X=Br/Cl, FJ-21 a/b; L=4-pyridin-4-yl-benzonate; ox=oxalate) and [Ln4(OAc)3-(H2O)4L9][Cu(?3-I)]@[Cu10(?3-I)(?4-I)6(?5-I)3]·7H2O (Ln=Pr/Nd/Sm/Eu, FJ-22 a/b/c/d; OAc=acetate) have been hydrothermally prepared. These sandwich frameworks are assembled by two different kinds of nanosized lanthanide-(III) and copper(I) wheel cluster units, La18 and 3Cu@Cu24 in FJ-21, Ln24 and Cu2@Cu24 in FJ-22. The synergistic coordination between organic ligands, L and oxalate/acetate, leads to the formation of La18 and Ln24 wheels, while the synergistic coordination between organic L and inorganic Br/I ligands results in 3Cu@Cu24 and Cu2@Cu24 wheels for FJ-21 and FJ-22, respectively. Thus, two types of synergistic coordination between two different organic ligands, as well as inorganic and organic ligands are simultaneously observed in FJ-21 and FJ-22.
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Effects of one month treatment with propranolol and metoprolol on the relaxant and contractile function of isolated trachea from rats exposed to cigarette smoke for four months.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The effects of one-month treatment of ?-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockers on the relaxant function of airway in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. A passive cigarette smoking rat model was used to investigate the effect of ?-AR blockers.
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Mutations of EGFR or KRAS and expression of chemotherapy-related genes based on small biopsy samples in stage IIIB and IV inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations may predict the outcome of targeted drug therapy and also may be associated with the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report investigated the relation of EGFR or KRAS mutation and expression of chemotherapy-related genes, including excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) and class III ?-tubulin (TUBB3), as a potential explanation for these observations.
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[Advances in hypoxia microenvironment and chemotherapy-resistant of lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with highest incidence recently in our country. Tumor hypoxia phenomenon was first discovered in lung cancer. It plays important roles in tumor cell drug-resistance, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis. Chemotherapy-resistant is one of the core reasons of treatment failure and disease progress, and many works on the study of chemotherapy-resistant have been done. This article reviewed the research progress of those mechanisms by which lung cancer hypoxia microenvironment could induce chemotherapy-resistance.
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Two tetra-Cd(II)-substituted vanadogermanate frameworks.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Two new tetra-Cd(II)-substituted vanadogermanate frameworks {(CdX)4Ge8V(IV)10O46(H2O)[V(III)(H2O)2]4(GeO2)4}·8H2O (X = ethylenediamine (en, 1) and 1,2-diaminopropane (dap, 2)) were hydrothermally prepared and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Both are isomorphic, and their 3-D frameworks are made up of tetra-Cd(II)-substituted {(CdX)4Ge8V(IV)10O46(H2O)}(12-) fundamental building units interconnected through planar tetra-V(III) [V(III)4O2(H2O)8](8-) clusters and tetrahedral GeO4 bridges. In the unique {(CdX)4Ge8V(IV)10O46(H2O)}(12-) cage, four [Ge2O7] dimers and four CdO4N2 trigonal prisms are alternately concatenated by ?3-O bridges to create a round {Ge8Cd4O28(X)4}(16-) fragment, five VO5 groups are linked by sharing edges to generate a pentanuclear [V5O17] subunit, and then the {Ge8Cd4O28(X)4}(16-) fragment is sandwiched by two V5O17 subunits via sharing O-atoms producing a D4h-symmetric {(CdX)4Ge8V(IV)10O46(H2O)}(12-) cage with a free water molecule located at the center. As we know, both display unprecedented 3-D organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks built up from the largest number of transition-metal-substituted vanadogermanate {(CdX)4Ge8V(IV)10O46}(12-) cluster shells linked by both GeO4 tetrahedra and rare [V(III)4O2(H2O)8](8-) clusters. Magnetic measurements reveal the antiferromagnetic couplings within the magnetic vanadium centers.
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Effects of long-term application of metoprolol and propranolol in a rat model of smoking.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Beta-blockers, especially selective ?1 -adrenoceptor antagonists, are often used to treat cardiovascular disease, even when complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The association of beta-blocker selectivity and treatment effects is disputed, and the curative effects and side-effects of various antagonists may differ. Herein we investigated the effects of 1 months treatment with the selective ?1 -adrenoceptor antagonist metoprolol and the non-selective ?-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol on pulmonary function and pathology in a 4-month rat model of passive cigarette smoke exposure and explored potential mechanisms of action. Lung function and general pathological changes were evaluated after 4 months exposure to cigarette smoke, with metoprolol and propranolol treatment (50 and 25 mg/kg per day, respectively; intragastrically) during the last month. Cytokine and mucin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined by ELISA, whereas ?1 - and ?2 -adrenoceptor expression in the lungs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Chronic treatment with metoprolol and propranolol did not exacerbate peak expiratory flow or intra-airway pressure in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Propranolol significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine levels (tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-8) in BALF or mucus secretion, whereas metoprolol reduced only smooth muscle proliferation. Moreover, propranolol treatment was associated (albeit not significantly) with restoring ?2 -adrenoceptor expression in airway epithelia. Propranolol had a more beneficial effect on cigarette smoking-induced lung damage than metoprolol in a smoking rat model that may be associated with restoration of endogenous ?2 -adrenoceptor density in the airway epithelial cells.
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Input-output finite-time stabilization of linear systems with finite-time boundedness.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS) method under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB) constraint. A state feedback controller is designed, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), to guarantee the system both IO-FTS and FTB. The proposed methods are applied to the guidance design of a class of terminal guidance systems to suppress disturbances with IO-FTS method and FTB constraints simultaneously satisfied. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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Endoscopic versus microscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery: a meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has gradually come to be regarded as a preferred option in the treatment of pituitary adenomas because of its advantages of improved visualization and its minimal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
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HuR: a promising therapeutic target for angiogenesis.
Gland Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Multiple angiogenic factors and inhibitors are becoming potential therapeutic targets for ischemia diseases and cancer. Posttranscriptional regulation through the untranslated region of mRNA is emerging as a critical regulating level in nearly all the biological processes. As a kind of RNA binding proteins, HuR plays important role in augmenting the hypoxic or inflammatory signal, stabilizing the resultant angiogenic factors and promoting the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. These implicate HuR in the proangiogenic factors mediated angiogenesis in the hypoxia and inflammatory. We consider hypotheses that a more effective angiogenesis can be acquired through strengthened and prolonged effects of angiogenic factors, and that progresses in therapeutic angiogensis might also shed light on the implication of HuR in blocking tumor angiogensis. These considerations may help us to explain HuR as a promising therapeutic target for angiogenesis related disease. It may be a candidate in hypoxia therapy and cancer management.
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[Impact of cerebral microbleeds on outcomes of acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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To assess the impact of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated by intravenous thrombolysis.
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Temperature-sensitive magnetic drug carriers for concurrent gemcitabine chemohyperthermia.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To improve the efficacy of gemcitabine (GEM) for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer via local hyperthermia potentiated via a multi-functional nanoplatform permitting both in vivo heating and drug delivery is the goal of this study. Here, a chemohyperthermia approach to synergistically achieve high intra-tumoral drug concentrations, while permitting concurrent hyperthermia for more effective tumor cell kill and growth inhibition, is proposed. Drug delivery and hyperthermia are achieved using a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-grafted porous magnetic drug carrier that is MRI visible to permit in vivo visualization of the biodistribution. These synthesized magnetic drug carriers produce strong T2 -weighted image contrast and permit efficient heating using low-magnetic-field intensities. The thermomechanical response of HPC permits triggered GEM release confirmed during in vitro drug release studies. During in vitro studies, pancreatic cancer cell growth is significantly inhibited (?82% reduction) with chemohyperthermia compared to chemotherapy or hyperthermia alone. Using PANC-1 xenografts in nude mice, the delivery of injected GEM-loaded magnetic carriers (GEM-magnetic carriers) is visualized with both MRI and fluorescent imaging techniques. Chemohyperthermia with intra-tumoral injections of GEM-magnetic carriers (followed by heating) results in significant increases in apoptotic cell death compared to tumors treated with GEM-magnetic carriers injections alone. Chemohyperthermia with GEM-magnetic carriers offers the potential to significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of GEM for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In vivo delivery confirmation with non-invasive imaging techniques could permit patient-specific adjustments therapeutic regimens for improve longitudinal outcomes.
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The mechanisms of 5-FU-PLA-O-CMC-NPS-mediated inhibition of the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell line SW480.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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We aimed to investigate how 5-FU-PLA-O-CMC-NP (5-FPOCN) inhibits the proliferation of the SW480 colon cancer cell line. Following the treatment of cell line SW480 with 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 ?g/ml 5-FPOCN or 5-fluorouracil (fluorouracil, 5-Fu) for 0, 24, 48, or 72, the rate of cell was tested by the tetrazolium assay (MTT). After the SW480 cells were treated with 5-FPOCN or 5-FU for 72 h, the growth rate and apoptosis were detected. After the SW480 cells were treated with 5-FPOCN or 5-FU for 24, 48, 72, or 120, flow cytometry (FCM) was used to determine the cell cycle distribution. The changes in the expression of P21, CyclinD1 and Rb were detected by Western blotting and real-time PCR. We found that different doses of 5-FPOCN can significantly inhibit the growth rate of SW480 cells, and this effect is dose and time dependent. However, there is no significant difference from 72 to 120 h (P>0.05). After 5-FPOCN treatment for 72 h, there is a negative correlation between the concentration of 5-FPOCN and the activity of SW480 cells and a positive correlation between the concentration of 5-FPOCN and SW480 cell apoptosis. G1 phase was significantly increased, and S phase was significantly decreased in 5-FPOCN-treated SW480 cells at 72 h compared to the control group (P<0.05); there was a positive correlation between the concentration of 5-FPOCN and the above changes. It was suggested that 5-FPOCN can delay G1/S phase and that this is a dose-dependent effect. The expression of P21 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) and Rb protein and mRNA was significantly increased in 5-FPOCN-treated SW480 cells at 72 h compared to the control group, and this was a dose- and time-dependent effect. CyclinD1 protein and mRNA expression was reduced as the dose increased, and its expression was negatively associated with the increased expression of P21. We concluded that 5-FPOCN can significantly inhibit the growth of colon cancer SW480 cells. 5-FPOCN increased P21 expression and decreased cyclin family and pRb expression to promote cell cycle delay and apoptosis.
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A 3D aluminoborate open framework interpenetrated by 2D zinc-amine coordination-polymer networks in its 11-ring channels.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A new inorganic-organic hybrid solid, [Zn(dap)2 ][AlB5 O10 ], combining the structural features of 3D open-framework inorganic solids and 2D metal-organic coordination polymers has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The compound displays extensive luminescence and moderate second-harmonic-generation efficiency.
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Acute cerebral infarction in watershed distribution in a patient with hypereosinophilic syndrome without cardiac lesion.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We here in describe a case of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) with acute cerebral infarction in a watershed distribution with lesions of the carotid artery but no damage to the endocardium or myocardium. A 62-year-old Chinese man complained of left-sided hemiparesis. Brain MR showed multiple areas of acute ischemia. The eosinophil count was 4.84 × 10(9)/L, or 41.7 % of all white blood cells. Doppler ultrasound showed multiple medium-high echo plaques in the bilateral carotid bifurcation with reduction in diameter of 10-15 %. Transthoracic echocardiography was normal. A short course of glucocorticoids and aspirin were administered to the patient, and he was discharged with significant improvement of his neurological symptoms and eosinophil count. The patient refused to take prednisone thereafter; however, 6 months later, his eosinophil count was 1.57 × 10(9)/L, or 15.3 % of all white blood cells. Transthoracic echocardiography continued to be normal, but vascular ultrasound demonstrated many bilateral carotid low-medium echo plaques. This case describes a patient HES with acute cerebral infarction in a watershed distribution with lesions of the carotid artery but no cardiac damage. HES should be considered to be a cause of multiple cerebral infarctions.
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A pillared-layered zincoborate with an anionic network containing unprecedented zinc oxide chains.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A semiconducting zincoborate with a pillared-layered structure, has been prepared under solvothermal conditions, showing the first example of an inorganic-organic hybrid zincoborate with an anionic network based on the interesting zinc oxide chains linked by boron atoms and B3O7H2 clusters, which are further pillared by diamine molecules to form the 3-D framework.
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Syntheses, structures and electrochemical properties of a class of 1-D double chain polyoxotungstate hybrids [H(2)dap][Cu(dap)(2)](0.5)[Cu(dap)(2)(H2O)][Ln(H(2)O)3(?-GeW(11)O(39))]·3H(2)O.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid 1-D double chain germanotungstates [H2dap][Cu(dap)2]0.5[Cu(dap)2(H2O)][Ln(H2O)3(?-GeW11O39)]·3H2O [Ln = La(III) (1), Pr(III) (2), Nd(III) (3), Sm(III) (4), Eu(III) (5), Tb(III) (6), Er(III) (7)] (dap = 1,2-diaminopropane) have been hydrothermally prepared and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), IR spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The most prominent structural feature of 1-7 is that the [Ln(H2O)3(?-GeW11O39)](5-) moieties are firstly connected with each other via the W-O-Ln-O-W bridges creating a 1-D {[Cu(dap)2(H2O)][Ln(H2O)3(?-GeW11O39)]}n(3n-) polymeric chain and then two adjacent antiparallel 1-D polymeric chains are linked together through [Cu(dap)2](2+) linkages giving rise to the rare organic-inorganic hybrid 1-D Cu(II)-Ln(III) heterometallic double-chain architectures. To the best of our knowledge, 1-7 represent the first 1-D double-chain Cu(II)-Ln(III) heterometallic germanotungstates. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities of 2, 4 and 7 have been investigated. Furthermore, the solid-state electrochemical and electro-catalytic properties of 3 and 4 have been measured in 0.5 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 + H2SO4 aqueous solution by entrapping them in a carbon paste electrode. 3 and 4 display apparent electro-catalytic activities for nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide reduction.
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Association of interleukin 1 family with systemic sclerosis.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized with fibrosis of skin and/or internal organs, and its specific pathological mechanism remains incompletely understood. IL-1 family, whose biological properties are typically pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrosis, has been associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Interleukin (IL)-1 family has 11 members, IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-1Ra, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36Ra, IL-37, and IL-38. With the exception of IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, each member has its own receptor signal. Abnormal expression of IL-1 and its potential role in the fibrosis process have been probed earliest, as well as its gene polymorphisms with SSc. IL-33 and IL-18 have also been discussed in the recent years, and IL-33 may contribute to the fibrosis of SSc, while IL-18 remains to be researched to confirm its role in fibrosis process. There is a lack of studies on the association of the other members of the IL-1 family, which might provide us the future study area; much more efforts need to be put on this matter.
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Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) increases gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells through S-phase arrest and apoptosis.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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We previously established a role for HSP27 as a predictive marker for therapeutic response towards gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer. Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms of HSP27-mediated gemcitabine sensitivity. Utilizing a pancreatic cancer cell model with stable HSP27 overexpression, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction were analysed by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, immunoblotting and mitochondrial staining. Drug sensitivity studies were performed by proliferation assays. Hyperthermia was simulated using mild heat shock at 41.8°C. Upon gemcitabine treatment, HSP27-overexpressing cells displayed an early S-phase arrest subsequently followed by a strongly increased sub-G1 fraction. Apoptosis was characterized by PARP-, CASPASE 3-, CASPASE 8-, CASPASE 9- and BIM- activation along with a mitochondrial membrane potential loss. It was reversible through chemical caspase inhibition. Importantly, gemcitabine sensitivity and PARP cleavage were also elicited by heat shock-induced HSP27 overexpression, although to a smaller extent, in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Finally, HSP27-overexpressing pancreatic cancer cells displayed an increased sensitivity also towards death receptor-targeting agents, suggesting another pro-apoptotic role of HSP27 along the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Taken together, in contrast to the well-established anti-apoptotic properties of HSP27 in cancer, our study reveals novel pro-apoptotic functions of HSP27-mediated through both the intrinsic and the extrinsic apoptotic pathways-at least in pancreatic cancer cells. HSP27 could represent a predictive marker of therapeutic response towards specific drug classes in pancreatic cancer and provides a novel molecular rationale for current clinical trials applying the combination of gemcitabine with regional hyperthermia in pancreatic cancer patients.
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Juxta-vascular nodule segmentation based on flow entropy and geodesic distance.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Computed aided diagnosis of lung CT data is a new quantitative analysis technique to distinguish malignant nodules from benign ones. Nodule growth rate is a key indicator to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules. Accurate nodule segmentation is the essential for calculating the nodule growth rate. However, it is difficult to segment juxta-vascular nodules, due to the similar gray levels in nodule and attached blood vessels. To distinguish the nodule region from the adjacent vessel region, a flowing direction feature, referred to as the direction of the normal vector for a pixel, is introduced. Since blood is flowing in one single direction through a vessel, the normal vectors of pixels in the vessel region typically point in similar orientations while the directions of those in the nodule region can be viewed as disorganized. The entropy value of the flowing direction features in a neighboring region for a vessel pixel is smaller than that for a nodule pixel. Moreover, vessel pixels typically have a larger geodesic distance to the nodule center than nodule pixels. Based on k -means clustering method, the flow entropy, combined with the geodesic distance, is used to segment vessel attached nodules. The validation of the proposed segmentation algorithm was carried out on juxta-vascular nodules, identified in the Chinalung-CT screening trial and on Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. In fully automated mode, accuracies of 92.9% (26/28), 87.5%(7/8), and 94.9% (149/157) are reached for the outlining of juxta-vascular nodules in the Chinalung-CT, and the first and second datasets of LIDC, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed method has low time complexity and high accuracies.
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Fragile X mental retardation protein stimulates ribonucleoprotein assembly of influenza A virus.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of the influenza A virus is responsible for the transcription and replication of viral RNA in the nucleus. These processes require interplay between host factors and RNP components. Here, we report that the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) targets influenza virus RNA synthesis machinery and facilitates virus replication both in cell culture and in mice. We demonstrate that FMRP transiently associates with viral RNP and stimulates viral RNP assembly through RNA-mediated interaction with the nucleoprotein. Furthermore, the KH2 domain of FMRP mediates its association with the nucleoprotein. A point mutation (I304N) in the KH2 domain, identified from a Fragile X syndrome patient, disrupts the FMRP-nucleoprotein association and abolishes the ability of FMRP to participate in viral RNP assembly. We conclude that FMRP is a critical host factor used by influenza viruses to facilitate viral RNP assembly. Our observation reveals a mechanism of influenza virus RNA synthesis and provides insights into FMRP functions.
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Unveiling the mechanism by which microsporidian parasites prevent locust swarm behavior.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Locusts are infamous for their ability to aggregate into gregarious migratory swarms that pose a major threat to food security. Aggregation is elicited by an interplay of visual, tactile, and chemical stimuli, but the aggregation pheromone in feces is particularly important. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Paranosema (Nosema) locustae is known to inhibit aggregation of solitary Locusta migratoria manilensis and to induce gregarious locusts to shift back to solitary behavior. Here we suggest that P. locustae achieves this effect by acidifying the hindgut and modulating the locust immune response, which suppresses the growth of the hindgut bacteria that produce aggregation pheromones. This in turn reduces production of the neurotransmitter serotonin that initiates gregarious behavior. Healthy L. migratoria manilensis exposed to olfactory stimuli from parasite-infected locusts also produced significantly less serotonin, reducing gregarization. P. locustae also suppresses biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine that maintains gregarization. Our findings reveal the mechanisms by which P. locustae reduces production of aggregation pheromone and blocks the initiation and maintainence of gregarious behavior.
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Hyperglycemia promotes vasculogenesis in choroidal neovascularization in diabetic mice by stimulating VEGF and SDF-1 expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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To investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on the severity of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in diabetic mice, especially the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) and underlying molecular mechanisms. The mice were randomly divided into control group, diabetes group and diabetes treated with insulin group, which were laser treated to induce CNV. The CNV severity was evaluated by fundus fluorescein angiography, HE staining and choroidal flatmount. The BMCs recruitment and differentiation in CNV were examined in GFP chimeric mice by choroidal flatmount and immunofluorescence. The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) recruitment and migration were tested in vivo and in vitro. VEGF and SDF-1 production in vivo and in vitro were tested by realtime PCR and ELISA. The CNV severity and expression of VEGF and SDF-1 were enhanced in DM mice compared with control mice and that insulin treatment decreased CNV severity in DM mice. The DM mice demonstrated more BMCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) recruited and incorporated into CNV, increased ratio of BMCs expressing endothelial cell marker or macrophage marker, and up-regulated expression of VEGF and SDF-1 in CNV. Human BMSCs migration and expression of VEGF and SDF-1 in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells increased when cultured under high glucose. This study suggested that hyperglycemia enhanced the expression of VEGF and SDF-1 in RPE cells, and promoted recruitment and incorporation of BMCs and affected differentiation of BMCs in CNV, which led to more severe CNV in diabetic mice.
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Variation in the ovine hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) and its association with growth and carcass traits in New Zealand Suffolk sheep.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) plays an important role in the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissues, by catalysing a rate-limiting step in triglyceride hydrolysis. Variation within the human HSL gene (HSL) has been associated with an increased risk of obesity. In this study, variation within three regions (exon 3-4, exon 5-6 and exon 9) of ovine HSL was investigated in 538 Suffolk lambs bred from 13 independent sires using PCR-SSCP. Four sequence variants of intron 5 (designated A-D) and two variants of exon 9 (designated a and b) of ovine HSL were detected. No variation was found in exon 3-4 of the gene. The associations of the variation within ovine HSL with post-weaning growth and carcass traits including eye muscle depth (EMD), eye muscle width (EMW) and fat depth above the eye muscle (FDM) were assessed in 262 of the above 538 lambs using general linear mixed-effects models. In the single variant models, the presence of intron 5 A in a lamb's genotype was associated with reduced EMD (P = 0.036) and EMW (P = 0.018), whereas the presence of intron 5 C was associated with increased EMD (P < 0.001), EMW (P < 0.001) and FDM (P = 0.017). The association of C with increased EMD (P = 0.002) and EMW (P = 0.002) persisted in the multi-variant model. No association between HSL intron 5 variants and post-weaning growth, or between HSL exon 9 variants, post-weaning growth or carcass traits, were found.
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Intramedullary conus medullaris metastasis from prostate carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCMs) are rare and account for 4-8.5% of central nervous system metastases. Only one case of biopsy-proven ISCM due to prostate cancer has previously been reported. The current study presents an additional unique case of a 74-year-old male who developed symptoms from an intramedullary conus medullaris metastasis as the first manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this scenario is even more rare and has not previously been reported. The tumor was radically resected, followed by androgen blockade treatment. The patient's neurological deficit significantly improved, with no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. In addition, the present study provides an overview of the previous literature concerning ISCMs from prostate cancer, and discusses the treatment options.
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Effects of resveratrol on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells in vitro.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Resveratrol has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resveratrol on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line KB cell in vitro.
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Mild degenerative changes of hip cartilage in elderly patients: an available sample representative of early osteoarthritis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA.
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Soluble LRIG2 Ectodomain Is Released from Glioblastoma Cells and Promotes the Proliferation and Inhibits the Apoptosis of Glioblastoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo in a Similar Manner to the Full-Length LRIG2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The human leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) gene family contains LRIG1, 2 and 3, encoding integral membrane proteins with an ectodomain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail. LRIG1 negatively regulates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases signaling including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is a proposed tumor suppressor. The soluble LRIG1 ectodomain is demonstrated to be shed naturally and inhibit the progression of glioma. However, little is known regarding the functions of LRIG2. In oligodendroglioma, LRIG2 expression is associated with poor survival, suggesting that LRIG2 might have different functions compared with LRIG1. Since soluble LRIG1 ectodomain has a similar function to the full-length LRIG1, we hypothesize that the different roles exerted by LRIG2 and LRIG1 result from the difference of their ectodomains. Here, we addressed the functions of LRIG2 and LRIG2 ectodomain in the proliferation and apoptosis of glioma and the possible underlying mechanisms. Firstly, we found that LRIG2 expression levels positively correlated with the grade of glioma. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that soluble LRIG2 ectodomain was capable of being released from glioblastoma cells and exerted a pro-proliferative effect. Overexpression of LRIG2 ectodomain promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo in a similar manner to the full-length LRIG2. Both full-length LRIG2 and LRIG2 ectodomain were found to physically interact with EGFR, enhance the activation of EGFR and its downstream PI3 K/Akt pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that soluble LRIG2 ectodomain is capable of being released from glioblastoma cells and exerts a similar role to the full-length LRIG2 in the regulation of EGFR signaling in the progression of glioblastoma. LRIG2 ectodomain, with potent pro-tumor effects, holds promise for providing a new therapeutic target for the treatment of glioblastoma.
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Electrospun vancomycin-loaded coating on titanium implants for the prevention of implant-associated infections.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objectives of this work were to develop an antibiotic coating on the surface of a titanium plate to determine its antibacterial properties in vitro and in vivo. To prepare vancomycin-coated titanium implants, we adopted the electrospinning nanotechnique. The surface structure of the coating implants was observed using a scanning electron microscope. An elution method and a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay were used to characterize the release behavior of vancomycin from the coating. The antibacterial efficacy and the cytotoxicity of the coated titanium implants on osteoblasts were investigated in vitro. In addition, X-ray, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and pathological examination were performed to validate its antimicrobial efficacy in vivo. The antibiotic coating released 82.7% (approximately 528.2 ?g) of total vancomycin loading in the coating in vitro. The release behavior of vancomycin from nanofiber coatings exhibited a biphasic release pattern with an initial burst on day 1, followed by a slow and controlled release over 28 days. There was no cytotoxicity observed in vitro for the vancomycin-loaded coating. The vancomycin-coated titanium implants were active in treating implant-associated infection in vivo. Thus, vancomycin-coated titanium implants may be a promising approach to prevent and treat implant-associated infections.
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?2-Adrenoceptor involved in smoking-induced airway mucus hypersecretion through ?-arrestin-dependent signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with small airway obstruction by accumulation of inflammatory mucous exudates. However, the mechanism of mucin hypersecretion after exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is still not clear. In this study, we explored the contribution of ?2-adrenoceptor (?2-AR) signaling to CS extract (CSE)-induced mucus hypersecretion in vitro and examined the effect of a ?-blocker on airway mucin hypersecretion in vivo. NCI-H292 epithelial cell line was used to determine the contribution of ?2-AR signaling to CSE-induced MUC5AC production by treatment with ?2-AR antagonists propranolol and ICI118551 and ?2-AR-targeted small interfering RNA. The effect of propranolol on airway mucus hypersecretion was examined in a rat model exposed to CS. MUC5AC expression was assayed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. ?2-AR and its downstream signaling were detected by western blot analysis. We found that pretreating NCI-H292 cells with propranolol, ICI118551 for 30 min or ?2AR-targeted siRNA for 48 h reduced MUC5AC mRNA and protein levels stimulated by CSE. However,inhibiting the classical ?2AR-cAMP-PKA pathway didn't attenuate CSE-induced MUC5AC production, while silencing ?-arretin2 expression significantly decreased ERK and p38MAPK phosphorylation, thus reduced the CSE-stimulated MUC5AC production. In vivo, we found that administration of propranolol (25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) for 28 days significantly attenuated the airway goblet cell metaplasia, mucus hypersecretion and MUC5AC expression of rats exposed to CS. From the study, ?2-AR-?-arrestin2-ERK1/2 signaling was required for CS-induced airway MUC5AC expression. Chronic propranolol administration ameliorated airway mucus hypersecretion and MUC5AC expression in smoking rats. The exploration of these mechanisms may contribute to the optimization of ?2-AR target therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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Association between IL-10 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of tuberculosis: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A number of observational studies have been conducted to investigate the association of IL-10 gene polymorphisms with tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility. However, the results of different studies were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IL-10 -1082G/A, -819T/C, and -592A/C polymorphisms and TB risk by meta-analysis.
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Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.
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A novel aluminoborate open-framework [In(dien)2][Al2B7O16H2] with large chiral cavities templated by chiral main group metal complexes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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A novel aluminoborate open-framework [In(dien)2][Al2B7O16H2] (1, dien = diethylenetriamine) with large chiral cavities has been constructed under solvothermal conditions, in which AlO4 and chainlike B4O8 units are alternately linked to form a network with 20-membered ring windows and then further joined by XO4 (X = 0.5 Al + 0.5 B) units to give a three-dimensional framework.
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[Effect of allogeneic chondrocytes-calcium alginate gel composite under intervention of low intensive pulsed ultrasound for repairing rabbit knee articular cartilage defect].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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To investigate the effect of allogeneic chondrocytes-calcium alginate gel composite under the intervention of low intensive pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for repairing rabbit articular cartilage defects.
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Effect of non-esterified Fatty acids on Fatty Acid metabolism-related genes in calf hepatocytes cultured in vitro.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Background: NEFA plays numerous roles in the metabolism of glucose, lipids, and proteins. A number of experimental studies have shown that NEFA may have an important role in fatty acid metabolism in the liver, especially in dairy cows that experience negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation. Methods: In this study, using fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and primary hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we examined the effect of NEFA (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mmol/L) on fatty acid metabolism by monitoring the mRNA and protein expression of the following key enzymes: long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT IA), long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Results: The mRNA and protein expression levels of ACSL and ACADL markedly increased as the concentration of NEFA in the media was increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CPT IA were enhanced significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 0 to 1.6 mmol/L and decreased significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 1.6 to 3.2 mmol/L. The mRNA and protein expression of ACC decreased gradually with increasing concentrations of NEFA. Conclusion: These findings indicate that increased NEFA significantly promote the activation and ?-oxidation of fatty acids, but very high NEFA concentrations may inhibit the translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria of hepatocytes. This may explain the development of ketosis or liver lipidosis in dairy cows. CPT IA might be the key control enzyme of the fatty acid oxidation process in hepatocytes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Therapeutic potential of interleukin-17 in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Introduction: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mainly produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells. In this article, we discussed the role of IL-17 in inflammation and autoimmune diseases, and the therapeutic strategies targeting IL-17. Areas covered: In this article, we discussed the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 and IL-17 receptors signals, and their regulation. IL-17 expression was abnormal in the bacterium, virus and fungus infection, and its higher level caused the tissue inflammation. IL-17 was involved in the pathological process of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and IL-17 has been put as a therapeutic target in the clinic. Expert opinion: IL-17/IL-17R signals and their application in inflammation process still need to be explored. Therapeutic strategies targeting IL-17 in autoimmune diseases ameliorated the inadequate response to anti-TNF-? therapy.
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Hexa-substituted polyoxometalates made of trivacant Dawson {P2W15} fragments and {Ni6} clusters under hydrothermal conditions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Three novel polyoxometalates (POMs) containing [Ni6(?3-OH)3](9-) and [P2W15O56](12-) units were first made, showing the first hexa-nuclearity transition-metal substituted POMs (TMSPs) based on monomeric lacunary Dawson fragments, which further indicates that the hydrothermal technique can offer an effective way for making new TMSPs through lacunary POM fragments incorporated with high-nuclear TM clusters.
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[Central placement of screw fixation for scaphoid fracture: a biomechanical study].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To evaluate the effect to the fixation stability of central screw placement during scaphoid fracture surgery.
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Two Organic-Inorganic Hybrid 3D {P5 W30 }-Based Heteropolyoxotungstates with Transition-Metal/Ln-Carboxylate-Ln Connectors.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Two unique organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxometalates constructed from Preyssler-type [Na(H2 O)P5 W30 O110 ](14-) ({P5 W30 }) subunits and TM/Ln-carboxylate-Ln connectors (TM=transition metal, Ln=lanthanide), KNa7 [{Sm6 Mn(?-H2 O)2 (OCH2 COO)7 (H2 O)18 }{Na(H2 O)P5 W30 O110 }]?22?H2 O (1) and K4 [{Sm4 Cu2 (gly)2 (ox)(H2 O)24 }{NaP5 W30 O110 }]Cl2 ?25?H2 O (2; gly=glycine, ox=oxalate) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, UV/Vis-NIR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses, power X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 displays one interesting 3D framework built by three types of subunits, {P5 W30 }, [Sm2 Mn(?-H2 O)2 (OCH2 COO)2 (H2 O)5 ](4+) , and [Sm4 (OCH2 COO)5 (H2 O)13 ](2+) , whereas 2 also manifests the other intriguing 3D architecture created by three types of subunits, {P5 W30 }, [SmCu(gly)(H2 O)8 ](4+) , and [Sm2 (ox)(H2 O)8 ](4+) . To our knowledge, 1 and 2 are the first 3D frameworks that contain {P5 W30 } units and TM/Ln-carboxylate-Ln connectors. The fluorescent properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated.
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[Impact of ethane dimethane sulfonate on the histological structures of seminal vesicles in adult rats].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To study the effect of ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) injection on the volumes of different histological structures in the seminal vesicles of adult rats.
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Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.
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Three new mixed-alkali- and alkaline-earth-metal borates: from 1D chain to 2D layer to 3D framework.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Three new mixed-metal borates, K4Ba2[B14O20(OH)10]·3H2O (1), LiSr2[B10O16(OH)3] (2), and LiBa[B9O15] (3), have been made under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions and characterized by means of IR, UV-vis-near-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. 1 is a 1D chain constructed from B14O21(OH)10(10-) cluster units, 2 is of a 2D layer with nine-membered-ring windows built up of B10O19(OH)3(9-) cluster units, while 3 exhibits a 3D framework with 12-membered-ring channels composed of B3O7 cluster units.
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Image-Guided Local Delivery Strategies Enhance Therapeutic Nanoparticle Uptake in Solid Tumors.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Nanoparticles (NP) have emerged as a novel class of therapeutic agents that overcome many of the limitations of current cancer chemotherapeutics. However, a major challenge to many current NP platforms is unfavorable biodistribution, and limited tumor uptake, upon systemic delivery. Delivery, therefore, remains a critical barrier to widespread clinical adoption of NP therapeutics. To overcome these limitations, we have adapted the techniques of image-guided local drug delivery to develop nanoablation and nanoembolization. Nanoablation is a tumor ablative strategy that employs image-guided placement of electrodes into tumor tissue to electroporate tumor cells, resulting in a rapid influx of NPs that is not dependent on cellular uptake machinery or stage of the cell cycle. Nanoembolization involves the image-guided delivery of NPs and embolic agents directly into the blood supply of tumors. We describe the design and testing of our innovative local delivery strategies using doxorubicin-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (DOX-SPIOs) in cell culture, and the N1S1 hepatoma and VX2 tumor models, imaged by high resolution 7T MRI. We demonstrate that local delivery techniques result in significantly increased intratumoral DOX-SPIO uptake, with limited off-target delivery in tumor-bearing animal models. The techniques described are versatile enough to be extended to any NP platform, targeting any solid organ malignancy that can be accessed via imaging guidance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.