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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[A comparison of methods for identifying mast cells of Cyprinus carpio].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To compare different identifying methods of the mast cells of red crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio).
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Src is required for mechanical stretch-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-dependent ?-arrestin2 pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1-R) can be activated by mechanical stress (MS) without the involvement of AngII during the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in which G protein-independent pathways are critically involved. Although ?-arrestin2-biased signaling has been speculated, little is known about how AT1-R/?-arrestin2 leads to ERK1/2 activation. Here, we present a novel mechanism by which Src kinase mediates AT1-R/?-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to MS. Differing from stimulation by AngII, MS-triggered ERK1/2 phosphorylation is neither suppressed by overexpression of RGS4 (the negative regulator of the G-protein coupling signal) nor by inhibition of G?q downstream protein kinase C (PKC) with GF109203X. The release of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) is increased by AngII but not by MS. These results collectively suggest that MS-induced ERK1/2 activation through AT1-R might be independent of G-protein coupling. Moreover, either knockdown of ?-arrestin2 or overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ?-arrestin2 prevents MS-induced activation of ERK1/2. We further identifies a relationship between Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and ?-arrestin2 using analyses of co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence after MS stimulation. Furthermore, MS-, but not AngII-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is attenuated by Src inhibition, which also significantly improves pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice lacking AngII. Finally, MS-induced Src activation and hypertrophic response are abolished by candesartan but not by valsartan whereas AngII-induced responses can be abrogated by both blockers. Our results suggest that Src plays a critical role in MS-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through ?-arrestin2-associated angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling.
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Olmesartan attenuates cardiac remodeling through DLL4/Notch1 pathway activation in pressure overload mice.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Notch1 signaling controls the cardiac adaptation to stress. We therefore aimed to validate whether olmesartan, a widely used angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, ameliorates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction via delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4)/Notch1 pathway in mice with chronic pressure overload.
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Betaine acts on a ligand-gated ion channel in the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Prior to the advent of synthetic nematocides, natural products such as seaweed were used to control nematode infestations. The nematocidal agent in seaweed is betaine, an amino acid that functions as an osmolyte and methyl donor. However, the molecular mechanisms of betaine toxicity are unknown. We identified the betaine transporter SNF-3 and the betaine receptor ACR-23 in the nematode C. elegans. Mutating snf-3 in a sensitized background caused the worms to be hypercontracted and paralyzed, presumably as a result of excess extracellular betaine. These behavioral defects were suppressed by mutations in acr-23, which encodes a ligand-gated cation channel of the cys-loop family. ACR-23 was activated by betaine and functioned in the mechanosensory neurons to maintain basal levels of locomotion. However, overactivation of the receptor by excess betaine or by the allosteric modulator monepantel resulted in hypercontraction and death of the nematode. Thus, monepantel targets a betaine signaling pathway in nematodes.
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A NEIL1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4462560) predicts the risk of radiation-induced toxicities in esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of base-excision repair genes and clinical outcomes, the roles of genetic variants of 3 selected genes-flap structure-specific endonuclease 1 (FEN1), 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1), and nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1)--were investigated in radiation-induced esophageal toxicity (RIET), radiation pneumonitis (RP), and overall survival (OS) after radio(chemo)therapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Rapid Characterization of Wheat Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), as important seed storage proteins, together with HMW-GS significantly define unique dough viscoelastic properties. In this study, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the separation and characterization of LMW-GS in wheat was optimized and established. The fast, reproducible, and high-resolution UPLC separation of LMW-GS could be obtained by gradually increasing eluting gradient from 21 to 47% in 30 min at flow rate of 0.55 mL/min and 60 °C for separation temperature. By this method, analysis of one sample could be completed in <20 min, significantly less time than the traditional reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Under the optimized conditions, the genetic features of LMW-GS and genotype × environmental interaction were successfully analyzed, leading to a fast identification of 17 main LMW-GS alleles that were related to different quality properties in wheat. The results demonstrated that UPLC could be a powerful and alternative tool for genetic and proteomic studies of wheat grain proteins and fast identification or screening of desirable LMW-GS alleles in wheat quality improvement.
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Identification of common variants in BRCA2 and MAP2K4 for susceptibility to sporadic pancreatic cancer.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Germline mutations in genes that cause hereditary syndromes are highly predisposed to familial pancreatic cancer. However, genetic susceptibility to sporadic pancreatic cancer is largely uncovered. We conducted a two-stage association study on pancreatic cancer that included 981 cases and 1991 controls in the first stage followed by a second stage (2603 cases and 2877 controls). Using an approach based on candidate genes whose roles in pancreatic cancer have been well known, we identified two new susceptibility loci. rs11571836 located in the BRCA2 3-untranslated region was significantly associated with lower expression of BRCA2 transcript and increased pancreatic cancer risk [odds ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-1.47, P = 7.64 × 10(-5)] in a recessive manner. rs12939944 located in the MAP2K4 intron was associated with decreased risk (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-0.91, P = 0.0001) in a dominant manner. Our results demonstrate for the first time that common variants in BRCA2 and MAP2K4 are susceptibility to sporadic pancreatic cancer.
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Copy number variation at 6q13 functions as a long-range regulator and is associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Copy number variations (CNVs) have been recognized to contribute to phenotypic variations and to be associated with susceptibility to certain complex diseases. This study examined the functional significance of CNVR2966.1 at 6q13 and its association with pancreatic cancer susceptibility. The CNVR2966.1 was found to be a 10,379 bp nucleotides deletion/insertion within the uniform boundaries chromosome 6: 74?648?791-74?659?169. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed an active regulator in CNVR2966.1, which was demonstrated by circular chromosome conformation capture assays to physically interact with the upstream functional sequence of CDKN2B. CDKN2B transcription levels in pancreatic tissues were therefore significantly higher in individuals with two copies of CNVR2966.1 than in those with low copy number of CNVR2966.1. The risk of pancreatic cancer observed in 1027 cases and 1031 controls was significantly associated with copy number of CNVR2966.1, with the odds ratio being 1.31 (95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.60; P = 0.007) for one copy genotype compared with two copies genotype. These results suggest that CNVR2966.1 is associated with pancreatic cancer risk probably owing to its effect on long-range regulation of CDKN2B.
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Putatively functional PLCE1 variants and susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC): a case-control study in eastern Chinese populations.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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A novel variant rs2274223 located in the phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) gene was found to be associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by 2 large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Chinese populations. In this study, we aimed to assess such an association in an eastern Chinese population and to address its possibly functional role in the etiology of ESCC.
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Genome-wide association study identifies five loci associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in Chinese populations.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Pancreatic cancer has the lowest survival rate among human cancers, and there are no effective markers for its screening and early diagnosis. To identify genetic susceptibility markers for this cancer, we carried out a genome-wide association study on 981 individuals with pancreatic cancer (cases) and 1,991 cancer-free controls of Chinese descent using 666,141 autosomal SNPs. Promising associations were replicated in an additional 2,603 pancreatic cancer cases and 2,877 controls recruited from 25 hospitals in 16 provinces or cities in China. We identified five new susceptibility loci at chromosomes 21q21.3, 5p13.1, 21q22.3, 22q13.32 and 10q26.11 (P = 2.24 × 10(-13) to P = 4.18 × 10(-10)) in addition to 13q22.1 previously reported in populations of European ancestry. These results advance our understanding of the development of pancreatic cancer and highlight potential targets for the prevention or treatment of this cancer.
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Urotensin II inhibits the proliferation but not the differentiation of cardiac side population cells.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Urotensin II (UII) induces the development of cardiac remodeling and atherosclerosis by promoting hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and mitogenesis of fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. But its effect on cardiac side population cells (CSPs), one of somatic stem cells, is unclear. The present study examined the influences of UII on the differentiation and proliferation of CSPs. CSPs were isolated from neonatal rat hearts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and cultured with or without the presence of UII (10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6)mol/l). The expressions of ?-cardiac myosin heavy chain (?-MHC), ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and Von Willebrand factor (vWF) mRNAs and proteins were analyzed by reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence to evaluate the differentiation of CSPs into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, respectively. The proliferation of CSPs was assessed by Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. The influence of UII on the proliferation of CSPs in vivo was also evaluated by FACS. Our results revealed that UII did inhibit the proliferation of CSPs through up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), although it didnt affect the differentiation of cultured CSPs. Experiments in vivo also showed that UII reduced the number of CSPs in mice compared with control group. These data indicate that UII reduces the number of CSPs by inhibiting the proliferation of CSPs possibly through increase of JNK phosphorylation.
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Effects of heart rate and anesthetic timing on high-resolution echocardiographic assessment under isoflurane anesthesia in mice.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Anesthesia provides sedation and immobility, facilitating echocardiography in mice, but it influences cardiovascular function and therefore outcomes of measurement. This study aimed to determine the effect of the optimal heart rate (HR) and anesthetic timing on echocardiographic reproducibility under isoflurane anesthesia.
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High density lipoprotein downregulates angiotensin II type 1 receptor and inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Angiotensin II (AngII) and its type receptor (AT1-R) play important roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is also an independent risk factor for cardiac hypertrophy. We therefore investigated in the present study whether HDL inhibits cardiac hypertrophy relatively to inhibition of AngII and AT1-R in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Stimulation of cultured cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats with AngII for 24 h and infusion of AngII in mice for 2 weeks resulted in marked cardiac hypertrophic responses including increased protein synthesis, enlarged sizes of cardiomyocytes and hearts, upregulated phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and reprogrammed expression of specific genes, all of which were significantly attenuated by the treatment with HDL. Furthermore, AngII-treatment induced upregulation of AT-R expression either in cultured cardiomyocytes or in hearts of mice and HDL significantly suppressed the upregulation of AT1-R. Our results suggest that HDL may abrogate AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy through downregulation of AT1-R expression.
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Design and validation of a low cost surface plasmon resonance bioanalyzer using microprocessors and a touch-screen monitor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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An economical and high-performance bioanalyzer, with no use of laptop computer, based on the use of TSPR1k23 biosensors was systematically designed, and validated experimentally for its high performance. The analyzer is composed of a micro-flow cell, a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), a clamp, a touch-screen monitor, and an electronic control unit (ECU) incorporated with photoelectric conversion device. The micro-flow cell is made of stainless steel with high thermal conductivity, and the micro-flow system is based on PID temperature-controlled algorithm to keep the constant temperature (25 degrees C) of the liquid sample via thermal exchange with the clamp. With a peristaltic pump implemented by an injection loop flow system, the bioanalyzer allows the core sensor to be completely exposed to samples. The touch-screen monitor displays the normalized response signal values updated every 0.25s, with a typical noise level less than 5RU (response unit) within 2h. The bioanalyzer was validated using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as an example. Anti-HBsAg monoclonal antibody is adhered to the surface of the sensor chip by a bifunctional cross-linker with the technology of self-assembly. The duration of the HBsAg measurement only lasts 5min with a dilution factor ranging from 200 to 1200, optimized with a R-squared value 0.998. The results suggested that the bioanalyzer has higher selectivity, lower cost, expanded detection limit, and shorter measuring time as compared with the HBsAg ELISA kit, especially for low concentrations of analyte.
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Noninvasive estimation of infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial infarction by echocardiographic coronary perfusion.
J Ultrasound Med
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Animal models of myocardial infarction (MI) are widely used not only in analyses of the mechanisms but also in testing the efficacy of therapeutic strategies for the disease. It is therefore critically important but almost impossible to exactly evaluate the validity of coronary artery ligation in a mouse model of MI except by anatomic and histologic analyses. We explored a noninvasive method to estimate MI through analyses of coronary perfusion by transthoracic echocardiography in mice before and 1 day after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery.
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[A study on the long-term non-small cell lung cancer survivors in the Expand Access Program of gefitinib in China].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
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The Expand Access Program (EAP) of Iressa(gefitinib, ZD1839) in China was initiated in 2001 with the aim of providing gefitinib to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who failed to respond to standard treatment or who could not tolerate chemotherapy. The primary objective was to describe the quality of life (QoL), tumor control status, drug safety, and clinical/genomic features of active long-term survivors enrolled in the EAP. The secondary objective was to determine the clinical characteristics of long-term survivors in the EAP program.
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Early estimation of left ventricular systolic pressure and prediction of successful aortic constriction in a mouse model of pressure overload by ultrasound biomicroscopy.
Ultrasound Med Biol
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Elevation of left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) and hypertrophic response in mice varies after transverse aorta constriction (TAC). Micromanometric catheterization, conventionally used to select mice with successful TAC, is invasive and nonreusable. We aimed to establish noninvasive imaging protocols for early estimation of successful TAC by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Out of 55 C57BL/6J mice, we randomly selected 45 as TAC group and 10 as controls. UMB was performed before TAC and, at day 3 and day 14, after TAC. In all mice, LVESP was measured with a Millar conductance catheter at day 14. With LVESP ? 150 mm Hg set as indicator of successful TAC (TAC+) and LVESP < 150 mm Hg as unsuccessful (TAC-), receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that postoperative inner diameter at aortic banding site (IDb), peak flow velocity at aortic banding site (PVb) and peak flow velocity of right/left common carotid artery (PVr/l) at day 3 served as most effective predictors for LVESP at day 14 (area under curve = 0.9016, 0.9143, 0.8254, respectively. p < 0.01 for all). Among all UBM parameters at day 3, IDb, PVb, right common carotid artery peak flow velocity (PVr) and PVr/l correlated best with LVESP at day 14 (R(2) = 0.5740, 0.6549, 0.5208, 0.2274, respectively. p < 0.01 for all). Furthermore, IDb, PVb, and PVr/l at day 3 most effectively predict long-term cardiac hypertrophy, using the cut-off values of 0.45 mm, 2698.00 mm/s, 3.08, respectively. UBM can be a noninvasive and effective option for early prediction of successful TAC.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.