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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transcriptomic and physiological insights into the robustness of UASB granule-prevalent long filamentous cells of Methanosaeta harundinacea.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Methanosaeta spp. are widely distributed in natural environments, their filamentous cells contribute significantly to sludge granulation and good performance of anaerobic reactors. A previous study indicated that Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac displays quorum sensing-regulated morphological transition from short to long filaments, and more acetate is channeled into methane production in long filaments, whereas more is channeled into biomass synthesis in short filaments. Here, we performed transcriptomic and physiological analysis to gain insights into active methanogenesis in long filaments of M. harundinacea 6Ac. Both RNA-seq and quantitative reverse transcription PCR indicated that transcription of the genes involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and energy metabolism was upregulated 1.2- to 10.3-fold in long filaments, while those for the methyl-oxidative shunt were upregulated in short filaments. [2-(13)C]Acetate trace experiments demonstrated that a relatively higher portion of the acetate methyl group was oxidized to CO2 in short than in long filaments. The long filaments exhibited higher catalase activity and oxygen tolerance than the short ones, which is consistent with increased transcription of the oxidant-scavenging genes. Moreover, transcription of genes for cell surface structures was upregulated in the long filaments, and transmission electron microscopy revealed a thicker cell envelope in the filaments. RNA-seq determined a >2-fold upregulation of a variety of anti-stress genes in short filaments, like those encoding chaperones and DNA repair systems, this implies that the short filaments can be stressed. This study reveals the genetic basis for the prevalence of the long filamentous morphology of M. harundinacea in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket granules.
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Fabrication and bioactivity evaluation of porous anodised TiO2 films in vitro.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study aims to find an optimal method for modifying the neck of dental implants for gingival attachment through in vitro investigations of the biological features of various anodised TiO2 films. The titanium sheets were divided into four groups: a control group and three test groups classified according to the anodisation voltage (Group 150 V, Group 180 V or Group 200 V).The surface microstructure and crystal structure were observed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The protein adsorption ability, antibacterial activity and cell adhesion ability were tested to examine the biological properties of the materials in vitro. Microscopic grooves were observed in the control group, whereas the test groups contained numerous pores. Group 180 V and Group 200 V showed higher protein adsorption ability (p < 0.05), whereas Group 150 V and Group 180 V exhibited better antibacterial activity (p < 0.05). Higher cell concentrations of L929 were observed in Group 180V and Group 200 V than in the other two groups (p < 0.05), which indicated that the TiO2 films formed at 180 V promote protein adsorption and enhance fibroblast growth while inhibiting bacterial adhesion. These results indicate that anodisation positively affects the formation of a biological seal in the neck region of dental implants.
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Developmental Origin of the Posterior Pigmented Epithelium of Iris.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.
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Computer aided quantification for retinal lesions in patients with moderate and severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a retrospective cohort study.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Detection of retinal lesions like micro-aneurysms and exudates are important for the clinical diagnosis of diabetes retinopathy. The traditional subjective judgments by clinicians are dependent on their experience and can be subject to lack of consistency and therefore a quantification method is worthwhile.
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[Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol.
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[Simultaneous determination of 16 organophosphorous pesticides in vegetables, fruits and tea by gas chromatography coupled with clean-up by mesoporous alumina as solid-phase extraction adsorbent].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A gas chromatographic method based on solid-phase extraction was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 organophosphorous pesticides in vegetables, fruits and tea, including cabbage, lettuce, pumpkin, onion, tomato, turnip, apple, pear and tea. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, and clean-up with mesoporous alumina as solid-phase extraction adsorbent. The separation of target compounds was performed on a DB-1701 capillary column, and the quantitative analysis of the organophosphorous pesticides was carried out by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The results showed that the calibration curves of the 16 organophosphorous pesticides were linear in the range of 10-2 000 microg/L with good correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.997). The recoveries of the pesticides in different samples at three spiked levels ranged from 83.2% to 103.8% with the relative standard deviations of 2.0%-9.9%. This method has high sensitivity, high accuracy and good repeatability, and can be applied to the determination of the organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables, fruits and tea.
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[Reprogramming mechanism and genetic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were reprogrammed from somatic cells using specific transcription factors. Bypassing the ethical issue caused by embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs can be successfully induced from a variety of cells, which makes iPSCs a powerful research tool for developmental biology. iPSCs have also become indispensable to the research of life science due to their broad potential applications. However, it's a big challenge to obtain iPSCs with high quality and genetic stability. Here, we review the research progress of increasing the reprogramming mechanism and genetic stability of iPSCs in order to provide references of reprogramming efficiency of iPSCs, reducing the cost, and addressing key points of iPSCs quality control, further promoting clinical application of the iPSCs.
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Clinical outcomes of dental implant therapy in alveolar cleft patients: a systematic review.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The purpose of this report was to evaluate data from published articles to determine the success and effectiveness of advanced bone grafting and dental implant therapy in alveolar cleft patients.
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[Optimized sample preparation for metabolome studies on Streptomyces coelicolor].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Streptomycetes produce many antibiotics and are important model microorgansims for scientific research and antibiotic production. Metabolomics is an emerging technological platform to analyze low molecular weight metabolites in a given organism qualitatively and quantitatively. Compared to other Omics platform, metabolomics has greater advantage in monitoring metabolic flux distribution and thus identifying key metabolites related to target metabolic pathway. The present work aims at establishing a rapid, accurate sample preparation protocol for metabolomics analysis in streptomycetes. In the present work, several sample preparation steps, including cell quenching time, cell separation method, conditions for metabolite extraction and metabolite derivatization were optimized. Then, the metabolic profiles of Streptomyces coelicolor during different growth stages were analyzed by GC-MS. The optimal sample preparation conditions were as follows: time of low-temperature quenching 4 min, cell separation by fast filtration, time of freeze-thaw 45 s/3 min and the conditions of metabolite derivatization at 40 degrees C for 90 min. By using this optimized protocol, 103 metabolites were finally identified from a sample of S. coelicolor, which distribute in central metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and citrate cycle), amino acid, fatty acid, nucleotide metabolic pathways, etc. By comparing the temporal profiles of these metabolites, the amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways were found to stay at a high level during stationary phase, therefore, these pathways may play an important role during the transition between the primary and secondary metabolism. An optimized protocol of sample preparation was established and applied for metabolomics analysis of S. coelicolor, 103 metabolites were identified. The temporal profiles of metabolites reveal amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways may play an important role in the transition from primary to secondary metabolism in S. coelicolor.
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[Determination of biurea in flour and its products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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A novel method was established for the determination and identification of biurea in flour and its products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The biurea was extracted with water and oxidized to azodicarbonamide by potassium permanganate. The azodicarbonamide was then derivatized using sodium p-toluene sulfinate solution. The separation was performed on a Shimpak XR-ODS II column (150 mm x 2.0 mm, 2.2 microm) using the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (containing 0.2% (v/v) formic acid) with a gradient elution program. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode with a positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) source. The method used stable isotope internal standard quantitation. The calibration curve showed good linearity over the range of 1-20 000 microg/kg (R2 = 0.999 9). The limit of quantification was 5 microg/kg for biurea spiked in flour and its products. At the spiking levels of 5.0, 10.0 and 50.0 microg/kg in different matrices, the average recovery o biurea was 78.3%-108.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) < or = 5.73%. The method developed is novel, reliable and sensitive with wide linear range, and can be used to determine the biurea in flour and its products.
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Simultaneous determination of 30 hormones illegally added to anti-ageing functional foods using UPLC-MS/MS coupled with SPE clean-up.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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A novel analytical method employing solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 30 hormones in anti-ageing functional foods (capsules, powders and tablets). The analytes were extracted with acetic acid-acetonitrile (1-99 v/v), methanol and acetone, respectively. The extract was purified using a combined column, followed by analyte detection with electrospray ionisation in positive- or negative-ion modes. The results indicated that the 30 compounds had good linear correlations in the range of 1-1000 ?g kg(-1), and the correlation coefficients were above 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.03-2 and 0.1-5 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The average recovery of 30 compounds at the three spiked levels varied from 74.7% to 124.1%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4-15.0%. This method was applied to the analysis of hormones in 14 real samples of which seven hormones (such as estrone, dienestrol) were detected in four samples, but the remainder of the hormones were not detected. The developed method is sensitive, efficient, reliable and applicable to real samples.
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Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We conducted a field manipulation experiment from 2008 to 2009. Understory removal reduced soil respiration in both plantations, whereas tree girdling decreased soil respiration only in the 2-year-old plantations. The net ecosystem production was approximately three times greater in the 2-year-old plantations (13.4 t C ha(-1) yr(-1)) than in the 24-year-old plantations (4.2 t C h(-1) yr(-1)). The biomass increase of understory plants was 12.6 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the 2-year-old plantations and 2.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the 24-year-old plantations, accounting for 33.9% nd 14.1% of the net primary production, respectively. Our findings confirm the ecological importance of understory plants in subtropical plantations based on the 2 years of data. These results also indicate that Eucalyptus plantations in China may be an important carbon sink due to the large plantation area.
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Coordination of Swarming Motility, Biosurfactant Synthesis, and Biofilm Matrix Exopolysaccharide Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Biofilm formation is a complex process in which many factors are involved. Bacterial swarming motility and exopolysaccharides both contribute to biofilm formation, yet it is unclear how bacteria coordinate swarming motility and exopolysaccharide production. Psl and Pel are two key biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This opportunistic pathogen has three types of motility, swimming, twitching, and swarming. In this study, we found that elevated Psl and/or Pel production reduced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa but had little effect on swimming and twitching. The reduction was due to decreased rhamnolipid production with no relation to the transcription of rhlAB, two key genes involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids. Rhamnolipid-negative rhlR and rhlAB mutants synthesized more Psl, whereas exopolysaccharide-deficient strains exhibited a hyperswarming phenotype. These results suggest that competition for common sugar precursors catalyzed by AlgC could be a tactic for P. aeruginosa to balance the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids and to control bacterial motility and biofilm formation inversely because the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids, Psl, and Pel requires AlgC to provide the sugar precursors and an additional algC gene enhances the biosynthesis of Psl and rhamnolipids. In addition, our data indicate that the increase in RhlI/RhlR expression attenuated Psl production. This implied that the quorum-sensing signals could regulate exopolysaccharide biosynthesis indirectly in bacterial communities. In summary, this study represents a mechanism that bacteria utilize to coordinate swarming motility, biosurfactant synthesis, and biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide production, which is critical for biofilm formation and bacterial survival in the environment.
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Pilot study of amitriptyline in the prophylactic treatment of medication-overuse headache: a 1-year follow-up.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the long-term efficacy of low-dose amitriptyline combined with abrupt withdrawal in outpatients of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in an open-label design.
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Medium screening and optimization for photoautotrophic culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with high lipid productivity indoors and outdoors.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Medium screening and optimization is one of the most important preconditions for photoautotrophic cultivation of microalgae. Although, it has been widely conducted indoors, little work performed outdoors. There are enormous differences between indoor and outdoor conditions, especially for light intensity, temperature and their diurnal or annual fluctuations, which would greatly influence microalgae growth. No data shows whether the differences would lead to different results on medium screening and optimization. In present study, medium screening for the photoautotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was carried out indoors and outdoors firstly, and then the selected medium was optimized. The results showed that F-Si medium is the optimum both under indoor and outdoor conditions. Based on F-Si medium, nutrients were optimized as follows: NaNO3 500mgl(-1), NaH2PO4·2H2O 7.7mgl(-1) and FeCl3·6H2O 6.30mgl(-1). With the optimized medium, the biomass, lipid content and productivity were all significantly higher both indoors and outdoors.
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SOX2 promotes tumorigenicity and inhibits the differentiation of I-type neuroblastoma cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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SOX2 is a transcription factor associated with the pluripotency, proliferative potential, and self-renewing properties observed with embryonic stem cells and germ cells. SOX2 expression has been reported in several cancers and is implicated in tumorigenesis. We previously found that SOX2 expression was correlated to the clinical stage of neuroblastoma. Recently, we found that SOX2 overexpression occurs in I-type neuroblastoma cells (BE(2)-C cells). To elucidate the tumorigenic function of SOX2, we established a SOX2 overexpressed BE(2)-C cell line. SOX2 overexpressed cells showed higher tumorigenicity than control cells and exhibited decreased expression levels of marker proteins of N- or S-type cells after agent-induced differetiation. By contrast, in cells where SOX2 mRNA expression was knocked down by gene-specific siRNA, tumorigenicty was significantly decreased and the expression levels of marker proteins of N- or S-type cells were upregulated. In conclusion, our findings indicate an important function for SOX2 in promoting tumorigenicity of I-type neuroblastoma cells and in inhibiting their differentiation, suggesting that SOX2 might be a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.
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Intermediate long-term clinical performance of dental implants placed in sites with a previous early implant failure: a retrospective analysis.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to evaluate the intermediate long-term clinical performance and success rate of dental implants inserted into sites of previous early implant failure.
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Clinical significance of tumor-derived IL-1? and IL-18 in localized renal cell carcinoma: Associations with recurrence and survival.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18 are products of activated inflammasomes that play central roles in innate immunity and inflammation. This study was aimed to determine the effect of tumor-derived IL-1? and IL-18 on recurrence and survival of patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) following surgery.
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Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: a retrospective study of 44 patients.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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When patients with recurrent facial paralysis are encountered, otolaryngologists should check for fissured tongue, and question those patients about orofacial edema, minor symptoms, and family history. Histologic evidence is not necessary for the diagnosis of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS), while coronary high-resolution CT (HRCT) reconstruction of temporal bone and food allergen detection may be beneficial. Prophylactic decompression of the facial nerve for patients with appropriate electrophysiological indication may prevent further facial palsy attacks.
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Irradiation facilitates the inhibitory effect of the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 on the proliferation of malignant glioblastoma cells through attenuation of the upregulation of heat shock protein 70.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the effect of NVP-BEP800, a novel heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibitor of the 2-aminothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine class, in combination with radiation on glioblastoma cells. T98G human glioblastoma cells were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), NVP-BEP800, NVP-BEP800 in combination with X-ray irradiation (10 Gy, 20 min), or X-ray irradiation only, and cultured for 40 h. Cell viability was measured upon completion of the treatments. In addition, apoptosis was measured and immunoblot analysis was performed to analyze the expression levels of cellular protein inhibitory ?B kinase ? (IKK?). The combined treatment with NVP-BEP800 and X-ray irradiation resulted in the synergistic destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, NVP-BEP800 significantly induced apoptosis in the human glioblastoma cells. The immunoblot analysis data indicated that NVP-BEP800 markedly reduced the expression level of IKK?. The results also revealed that X-ray irradiation significantly attenuated the increase in the level of Hsp70 in cells treated with NVP-BEP800. Since elevated levels of Hsp70 are associated with drug resistance induced by Hsp90 inhibitors, the effects of X-ray irradiation on Hsp70 levels may be associated with the enhanced effect on cells of the presence of irradiation. The results of the current study suggest that irradiation enhances the inhibitory effect of NVP-BEP800 on the proliferation of malignant glioblastoma cells by downregulating the expression level of cellular signaling protein IKK? and attenuating the upregulation of Hsp70 that is induced by NVP-BEP800.
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In situ study of the growth of two-dimensional palladium dendritic nanostructures using liquid-cell electron microscopy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We investigated the growth of two-dimensional (2D) palladium dendritic nanostructures (DNSs) using in situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Detailed in situ and ex situ high-resolution scanning TEM (S/TEM) characterization and fractal dimension analyses reveal that the diffusion-limited aggregation and direct atomic deposition are responsible for the growth of palladium dendritic nanostructures.
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In situ study of oxidative etching of palladium nanocrystals by liquid cell electron microscopy.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Oxidative etching has widely prevailed in the synthesis of a crystal and played a critical role in determining the final growth behavior. In this Letter, we report an in situ microscopic study on the oxidative etching of palladium cubic nanocrystals by liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy. The etching was realized with oxidative radiation reactants from electron-water interaction in the presence of Br(-) ions. Dissolution dynamics of monodispersed and aggregated nanocrystals were both investigated and compared. Analyses on the dissolution kinetics of nanocrystals and the diffusion kinetics of the dissolved agents were carried out based on the scanning transmission electron microscopy characterizations. The results presented here pave a way toward the quantitative understanding of the oxidative etching reaction and its application in the functionally orientated fabrication of nanocrystals with certain sizes, structures, and morphologies.
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Determination of chloramphenicol and zeranols in pig muscle by immunoaffinity column clean-up and LC-MS/MS analysis.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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An immunoaffinity column clean-up and LC-MS/MS method was successfully developed for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, zearalanone, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalanol, zearalenone, ?-zearalenol and ?-zearalenol in pig muscle. The sample was extracted with diethyl ether after enzymatic digestion by ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase. The extracted solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was then dissolved in 1 ml of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtration and dilution with phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the reconstituted solution was cleaned-up with an IAC-CZ immunoaffinity column and then analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. The established method were validated by linearity (r ? 0.9990), precision (RSD ? 2.9%), average recovery (74.5-105.0%) and limit of detection (0.04-0.10 ?g kg(-1)). The developed method is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and has good applicability for real samples.
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CoFe2O4 and/or Co3Fe7 loaded porous activated carbon balls as a lightweight microwave absorbent.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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In order to prepare a lightweight and efficient microwave absorbent, porous activated carbon balls (PACB) were used to load Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions, because the PACB carrier has a high specific surface area of 800 m(2) g(-1) and abundant pores, including micropores and macropores. The loaded Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions in the PACB composite were transformed into magnetic CoFe2O4 and/or Co3Fe7 particles during subsequent heat-treatment under an Ar atmosphere. According to the XRD and SEM results, the magnetic particles were embedded in the PACB macropores and showed different crystalline phases and morphologies after heat-treatment. CoFe2O4 flakes with spinel structure were obtained at approximately 450 °C, and were then transformed into loose quasi-spheres between 500 °C and 600 °C, where CoFe2O4 and Co3Fe7 coexisted because of the partial reduction of CoFe2O4. Co3Fe7 microspheres appeared above 700 °C. The density of the magnetic PACB composites was in the range of 2.2-2.3 g cm(-3). The as-synthesized PACB composites exhibited excellent microwave absorbability, which was mainly attributed to the magnetism of CoFe2O4 and Co3Fe7, as well as the presence of graphitized carbon. The minimum reflection loss value of the CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7-PACB composite reached -32 dB at 15.6 GHz, and the frequency of microwave absorption obeyed the quarter-wavelength matching model, showing a good match between dielectric loss and magnetic loss. The microwave reflection loss (RL) value could be modulated by adjusting the composition and thickness of the PACB composite absorbent. PACB composites with CoFe2O4-Co3Fe7 are a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials.
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Reprogramming sertoli cells into pluripotent stem cells.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have potential applications in the restoration of fertility, regenerative medicine, and animal biotechnology. In this study, we present the induction of iPSCs from mouse Sertoli cells (SCs) by introducing four factors--Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. As early as day 3 after induction, expression of these factors was detected and typical embryonic stem-like cells began to form. On day 18, these exogenous genes were silenced and colonies were selected according to morphological characteristics. The iPSCs induced from SCs, termed SCiPSCs, strongly expressed pluripotent markers, showed a normal karyotype, and had proliferation and differentiation characteristics similar to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, exposure of SCiPSCs to nitric oxide (NO) allowed them to maintain pluripotency through the activation of the pluripotent genes Oct4 and Sox2 and upregulation of Nanog expression. Moreover, NO prevented SCiPSCs from undergoing apoptosis by activating the antiapoptotic genes Bcl2 and Bcl2lll, downregulating the proapoptotic genes Bak1 and Casp7, and blocking the activation of the proapoptotic gene Bac. These effects were reversed by exposure to l-NG-monomethylarginine (l-NMMA), a NO inhibitor. These data demonstrate that iPSCs can be generated from SCs and that the self-renewal and pluripotency of SCiPS cells can be maintained in the presence of NO.
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Meta-analysis of vaccine effectiveness of mumps-containing vaccine under different immunization srategies in China.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mumps-containing vaccine (MuV) under different immunization strategies.
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The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in quercetin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Our previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expressions, and induces human leukemia HL-60 cell apoptosis. In order to investigate the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on quercetin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, we used flow cytometry to detect cell apoptosis. The expressions of LKB1, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and Cox-2 protein were detected in HL-60 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by western blot. The expressions of LKB1, p-AMPK, and Cox-2 were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with quercetin. The expressions of p-AMPK were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Then, the expressions of LKB1, p-AMPK, and Cox-2 were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with quercetin alone or quercetin + Compound C. It was found that there was no significant difference in LKB1 between PBMCs and HL-60. p-AMPK in PBMCs was higher than that in HL-60, while Cox-2 was lower. After culture of HL-60 with quercetin, p-AMPK was increased, Cox-2 was decreased, but LKB1 remained unchanged. After culture of HL-60 with Compound C, p-AMPK was decreased. There was no significant difference in LKB1 between the quercetin-alone and the quercetin + Compound C groups. p-AMPK decreased more significantly, while Cox-2 increased more significantly in the quercetin + Compound C groups than those in the quercetin-alone groups. Taken together, these findings suggested that quercetin activates AMPK expression in HL-60 cells independent of LKB1 activation, inhibits Cox-2 expression by activating AMPK, and further regulates the Bcl-2-dependent pathways of apoptosis to exert its anti-leukemia effect.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of trisubstituted thiazoles as Cdc7 kinase inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The Cell division cycle 7 (Cdc7) protein kinase is essential for DNA replication and maintenance of genome stability. We systematically explored thiazole-based compounds as inhibitors of Cdc7 kinase activity in cancer cells. Our studies resulted in the identification of a potent, selective Cdc7 inhibitor that decreased phosphorylation of the direct substrate MCM2 in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited DNA synthesis and cell viability in vitro.
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Gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: analysis of methanol, ethanol and acetic acid by direct injection of aqueous alcoholic and acetic acid samples.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid are not easily extracted from aqueous samples and are susceptible to isotope fractionation in gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) analysis. Developing a direct dilution GC/IRMS method for aqueous samples, by adjusting the sample concentrations in common solvents to be similar to each other and using a fixed GC split ratio, is very convenient and important because any linearity effects caused by amount-dependent isotope fractionation can be avoided.
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Clinical use of ridge-splitting combined with ridge expansion osteotomy, sandwich bone augmentation, and simultaneous implantation.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Our aim was to describe and evaluate the outcome of ridge-splitting and simultaneous implantation combined with ridge expansion osteotomy and sandwich-bone augmentation in the aesthetic zone. Thirty-one patients aged from 21-55 years who presented with narrow edentulous ridges (2.88?5.08mm) were treated by ridge-splitting together with ridge expansion osteotomy and sandwich-bone augmentation to correct the osseous deficiency for simultaneous implantation. Bicon(®) implants were used. Calipers were used for biometric evaluation of the width of the ridge at both the first and second operations. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT, Morita, Kyodo, Japan) was used to assess the morphology of the ridge and the outcome of the operation. Forty-three implants were placed in the 31 patients selected, and none failed. At follow up all the implants functioned well and we saw no sign of gingival recession. Biometric evaluation at the surgical sites showed that the mean (SD) amount of augmentation of the ridge in the buccopalatal dimension was 2.8 (0.7) mm, p<0.01). For a narrow edentulous ridge in an aesthetic zone, ridge splitting together with ridge expansion osteotomy and sandwich-bone augmentation is a reliable technique.
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Influence of closure, phenolic levels and microoxygenation on Cabernet Sauvignon wine composition after 5 years' bottle storage.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Wine aging is generally limited by the amount of oxidation, which is dependent on the amount of oxygen entering via the closure. Cabernet Sauvignon wine is well known for its high concentration of tannin, making it an ideal red wine for aging. The impact of closure type after 5 years' bottle aging has been investigated on a 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, treated with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and micro-oxygenation (Mox). Two oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions (16 and 5 µg per day) into 375 mL bottles were obtained by using different synthetic stoppers.
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Simultaneous determination of 16 synthetic colorants in hotpot condiment by high performance liquid chromatography.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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A simultaneous determination method for 16 synthetic colorants in hotpot condiment was developed by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples were successively extracted with 2 mol/L carbamide solution containing 5% ammonia (dissolved in methanol) and methanol-acetone solution, and then the target analytes could be divided into two groups named as lipid-soluble and water-soluble colorants by ethyl acetate-cyclohexane with liquid-liquid extraction. The lipid-soluble and water-soluble colorants were purified by gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction column packed with polyamide resin, respectively. The obtained two eluates were combined, concentrated, and separated by C18 column and determined by diode array detector. Good linear relationships between peak areas and the concentrations of the synthetic colorants were obtained in the range of 0.01-50.0mg/L with correlation coefficients above 0.999 (n=10). The limits of detection and quantitation were 1-3 and 10 ?g/kg for 16 synthetic colorants, respectively. The average recoveries at the spiked levels of 5, 10, 20 and 50 ?g/kg were in the range of 63.2-97.1% with relative standard deviations (n=6) around 1.5-10.6%. This method is sensitive and reliable, and can be used to simultaneously determine 8 lipid-soluble and 8 water-soluble colorants in hotpot condiment.
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Clinical characteristics of basilar-type migraine in the neurological clinic of a university hospital.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of basilar-type migraine in the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in China.
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Prognostic value of diametrically polarized tumor-associated macrophages in renal cell carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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As the most abundant tumor-infiltrating immune cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are significant for fostering tumor progression. CD68(+) TAMs display diversely polarized programs comprising CD11c(+) proinflammatory macrophages (M1) and CD206(+) immunosuppressive macrophages (M2). The aim of this study was to determine the survival impact of diametrically polarized TAMs in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and their application to stratification of patients according to their prognostic values.
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Evaluation of hydrolysis and alcoholysis reactions in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry inlets.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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During gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses using water and methanol as injection solvents, hydrolysis reactions after injecting water control and alcoholysis reactions after injecting methanol control or ethanol into a GC-MS system were observed and studied. Two dominant hydrolysis/alcoholysis product series were detected, and were identified as being HO(CH?)?SiOR and HO(CH?)?SiO(CH?)?SiOR, where R=H, methyl, or ethyl, when pure water, methanol and ethanol were injected. The chemical structures of the reaction products were cross-checked by injecting H?O/D?O and H?O/MeOH/EtOH, and comparable EI mass fragmentation patterns were found. The water and alcohols injected reacted with silicones in septum particles which accumulated in the injection port liner after numerous injections, and both hydrolysis and alcoholysis reaction products gradually increased in concentration as the number of injections increased. Potential interferences from hydrolysis or alcoholysis reactions should be paid attention to, evaluated or eliminated when water or methanol was used as the GC or GC-MS solvent, and especially when underivatized methanol or ethanol was subject to GC and GC-MS analysis.
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Using a silver-enhanced microarray sandwich structure to improve SERS sensitivity for protein detection.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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A simple and sensitive method, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), for immunoassay and label-free protein detection is reported. A series of bowl-shaped silver cavity arrays were fabricated by electrodeposition using a self-assembled polystyrene spheres template. The reflection spectra of these cavity arrays were recorded as a function of film thickness, and then correlated with SERS enhancement using sodium thiophenolate as the probe molecule. The results reveal that SERS enhancement can be maximized when the frequency of both the incident laser and the Raman scattering approach the frequency of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The optimized array was then used as the bottom layer of a silver nanoparticle-protein-bowl-shaped silver cavity array sandwich. The second layer of silver was introduced by the interactions between the proteins in the middle layer of the sandwich architecture and silver nanoparticles. Human IgG bound to the surface of this microcavity array can retain its recognition function. With the Raman reporter molecules labeled on the antibody, a detection limit down to 0.1 ng mL(-1) for human IgG is easily achieved. Furthermore, the SERS spectra of label-free proteins (catalase, cytochrome C, avidin and lysozyme) from the assembled sandwich have excellent reproducibility and high quality. The results reveal that the proposed approach has potential for use in qualitative and quantitative detection of biomolecules.
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Synchronous primary cancers of trachea and esophagus and ventricular tachycardia.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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The incidence of multiple primary cancers involving trachea is rare. We present a case of synchronous double primary cancer of trachea and esophagus in a 70-year-old woman, with a special symptom of ventricular tachycardia and no history of smoking and alcohol drinking. Biopsies from multiple foci demonstrated the patient had primary small cell cancer of trachea and squamous cell carcinoma in situ of esophagus. The patient was successfully treated with four cycles of chemotherapy consisting of etoposide and carboplatin (EC) followed by thoracic radiotherapy (60 Gy in 30 fractions, in 6 weeks), and was evaluated to have complete response of tumor. To our knowledge, there is no synchronous cancer of trachea and esophagus has been reported in English literature, and our experience showed sequential EC chemotherapy and radiotherapy provided an effective treatment to control both cancers.
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The combined treatment of amyloid-?1-42-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells plus splenocytes from young mice prevents the development of Alzheimer's disease in APPswe/PSENldE9 mice.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Anti-amyloid-? (A?) immunotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce amyloid plaques and amyloid-associated pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immune senescence with aging has also played a crucial role in AD pathogenesis and influences the effect of anti-A? immunotherapy. In this study, a combined treatment of A?1-42-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with intraperitoneal injection of splenocytes from young mice was designed as a novel immunotherapy for AD in APPswe/PSEN1de9 transgenic mice models. The results showed that the combined treatment not only elevated the level of anti-A? antibodies but also reduced amyloid plaques in brain and finally ameliorated deterioration of spatial learning and memory in AD mice. Additionally, the results revealed an increase of CD68 positive microglial cells in the vicinity of amyloid plaques in the mouse brain, which was responsible for the enhanced phagocytosis of A? plaques. In conclusion, the A?1-42-BMDCs plus splenocytes treatment improved the phagocytosis of microglia and prevented AD pathology more effectively. This combined immunotherapy provided a promising treatment in preventing the progression of AD in clinical studies in the near future.
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SAINTexpress: improvements and additional features in Significance Analysis of INTeractome software.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Significance Analysis of INTeractome (SAINT) is a statistical method for probabilistically scoring protein-protein interaction data from affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. The utility of the software has been demonstrated in many protein-protein interaction mapping studies, yet the extensive testing also revealed some practical drawbacks. In this paper, we present a new implementation, SAINTexpress, with simpler statistical model and quicker scoring algorithm, leading to significant improvements in computational speed and sensitivity of scoring. SAINTexpress also incorporates external interaction data to compute supplemental topology-based scores to improve the likelihood of identifying co-purifying protein complexes in a probabilistically objective manner. Overall, these changes are expected to improve the performance and user experience of SAINT across various types of high quality datasets.
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The anti-atherosclerotic effects of puerarin on induced-atherosclerosis in rabbits.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Cardiovascular disease is a major health issue worldwide, which has been well treated by the extracts of traditional herbs. Radix Puerariae, the dried root of the leguminous plant Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, is a delicious vegetable in some southern provinces of China. Puerarin has also been widely used to treat human diseases, but few controlled studies are available.
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Special role of Foxp3 for the specifically altered microRNAs in Regulatory T cells of HCC patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) exhibit functional abnormalities in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The microRNAs (miRNAs) are identified as the key modulators in Tregs. This study was to explore whether the expression profiles of miRNAs of Tregs were different in HCC-activated Tregs and whether Foxp3 had special effects on them.
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Characteristics of primary stabbing headache in a tertiary neurological clinic in China.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of primary stabbing headache (PSH) and its prevalence in a neurology outpatient center at a university hospital in China.
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Genetically modified Schwann cells producing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor inhibit neuronal apoptosis in rat spinal cord injury.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Schwann cells (SCs) are the major cells constituting the peripheral nerve structure and function, and also secret a variety of neurotrophic factors. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, the ability of genetically modified SCs producing high levels of glial cell line?derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to promote spinal cord repair was assessed. The GDNF gene was transduced into SCs. The engineered SCs were characterized by their ability to express and secrete biologically active GDNF, which was shown to inhibit apoptosis of primary rat neurons induced by radiation, and upregulate the expression of B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) and downregulate the expression of Bcl?2 associated X protein (Bax) in vitro. Following SC implantation into the spinal cord of adult rats with SCI induced by weight?drop impact, the survival of rats with transplanted SCs, histology of the spinal cord and expression levels of Bcl?2 and Bax were examined. Transplantation of unmodified and genetically modified SCs producing GDNF attenuated SCI by inhibiting apoptosis via the Bcl?2/Bax pathways. The genetically modified SCs demonstrated markedly improved recovery of SCI as compared with unmodified SCs. The present study combined the outgrowth?promoting property of SCs with the neuroprotective effects of overexpressed GDNF and identified this as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for SCI.
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Structures of an intramembrane vitamin K epoxide reductase homolog reveal control mechanisms for electron transfer.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The intramembrane vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) supports blood coagulation in humans and is the target of the anticoagulant warfarin. VKOR and its homologues generate disulphide bonds in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Here, to better understand the mechanism of VKOR catalysis, we report two crystal structures of a bacterial VKOR captured in different reaction states. These structures reveal a short helix at the hydrophobic active site of VKOR that alters between wound and unwound conformations. Motions of this 'horizontal helix' promote electron transfer by regulating the positions of two cysteines in an adjacent loop. Winding of the helix separates these 'loop cysteines' to prevent backward electron flow. Despite these motions, hydrophobicity at the active site is maintained to facilitate VKOR catalysis. Biochemical experiments suggest that several warfarin-resistant mutations act by changing the conformation of the horizontal helix. Taken together, these studies provide a comprehensive understanding of VKOR function.
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Novel flat-plate photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation with special mixers to promote mixing along the light gradient.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Novel flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs) with special mixers (type-a, type-b, and type-c) were designed based on increased mixing degree along the light gradient. The hydrodynamic and light regime characteristic of the novel PBRs were investigated through computational fluid dynamics. Compared with the control reactor without mixer, the novel reactors can effectively increase liquid velocity along the light gradient, the frequency of light/dark (L/D) cycles, and the algal growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The maximum biomass concentrations in type-a, type-b, and type-c reactors were 42.9% (1.3 g L(-1)), 31.9% (1.2 g L(-1)), and 20.9% (1.1 g L(-1)) higher than that in the control reactor (0.91 g L(-1)), respectively, at an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. Correlation analysis of algal growth rate with the characteristics of mixing and light regime shows the key factors affecting algal photoautotrophic growth are liquid velocity along the light gradient and L/D cycles rather than the macro-mixing degree.
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Biodiesel production in a membrane reactor using MCM-41 supported solid acid catalyst.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Production of biodiesel from the transesterification between soybean oil and methanol was conducted in this study by a membrane reactor, in which ceramic membrane was packed with MCM-41 supported p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and circulation velocity on the yield of biodiesel. A reduced cubic model was developed to navigate the design space. Reaction temperature was found to have most significant effect on the biodiesel yield while the interaction of catalyst amount and circulation velocity have minor effect on it. 80°C of reaction temperature, 0.27 g/cm(3) of catalyst amount and 4.15 mL/min of circulation velocity were proved to be the optimum conditions to achieve the highest biodiesel yield.
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Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds with chemical liquid deposition (CLD) modified ZSM-5.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Chemical liquid deposition (CLD) with KH550, TEOS and methyl silicone oil as the modifiers was used to modify ZSM-5 and deposit its external acid sites. The characteristics of modified catalysts were tested by catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds. The effects of different modifying conditions (deposited amount, temperature, and time) on the product yields and selectivities were investigated. The results show KH550 modified ZSM-5 (deposited amount of 4%, temperature of 20°C and time of 6h) produced the maximum yields of aromatics (24.5%) and olefins (16.5%), which are much higher than that obtained with original ZSM-5 catalyst (18.8% aromatics and 9.8% olefins). The coke yield decreased from 44.1% with original ZSM-5 to 26.7% with KH550 modified ZSM-5. The selectivities of low-molecule-weight hydrocarbons (ethylene and benzene) decreased, while that of higher molecule-weight hydrocarbons (propylene, butylene, toluene, and naphthalene) increased comparing with original ZSM-5.
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Typical nodal calcifications in the maxillofacial region: a case report.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multiple nodal calcifications in the maxillofacial region are very rare. This case report described a 49-year-old female patient diagnosed with calcified lymph nodes due to chronic inflammation of the lymphatic nodes, including the parotid lymphatic nodes, the posterior auricular lymphatic nodes and submandibular lymphatic nodes in the right maxillofacial region. In clinical practice, we conducted ultrasonography, three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and sialography make a preliminary diagnosis. Then we took surgery, while removing the calcified blocks within the lymphatic node and cleaning the wound cavity. After surgery, we used anti-inflammatory therapy for one week. Six months follow-up indicated no evidence of other calcified lymph nodes infection.
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Epidemiological analysis of trauma patients following the Lushan earthquake.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Lushan County in China's Sichuan province on April 20, 2013, resulting in 196 deaths and 11,470 injured. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the injuries and the treatment of the seismic victims.
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Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years.
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Mini-flank supra-12th rib incision for open partial nephrectomy compared with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and traditional open partial nephrectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to report our approach of partial nephrectomy (PN) using a supra-12th rib mini-flank incision. We compared mini-incision open partial nephrectomy (MI-OPN) with open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) to verify whether MI-OPN can be an alternative to OPN and LPN.
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Excellent temperature performance of spherical LiFePO4/C composites modified with composite carbon and metal oxides.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanosized spherical LiFePO4/C composite was synthesized from nanosized spherical FePO4 ·2H2O, Li2C2O4, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, oxalic acid, and sucrose by binary sintering process. The phases and morphologies of LiFePO4/C were characterized using SEM, TEM, CV, EIS, EDS, and EDX as well as charging and discharging measurements. The results showed that the as-prepared LiFePO4/C composite with good conductive webs from nanosized spherical FePO4 ·2H2O exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, delivering an initial discharge capacity of 161.7?mAh·g(-1) at a 0.1?C rate, 152.4?mAh·g(-1) at a 1?C rate and 131.7?mAh·g(-1) at a 5?C rate, and the capacity retention of 99.1%, 98.7%, and 95.8%, respectively, after 50 cycles. Meanwhile, the high and low temperature performance is excellent for 18650 battery, maintaining capacity retention of 101.7%, 95.0%, 88.3%, and 79.3% at 55°C, 0°C, -10°C, and -20°C by comparison withthat of room temperature (25°C) at the 0.5 C rate over a voltage range of 2.2?V to 3.6?V, respectively.
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HMGB1 is an early and critical mediator in an animal model of uveitis induced by IRBP-specific T cells.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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It is largely unknown how invading autoreactive T cells initiate the pathogenic process inside the diseased organ in organ-specific autoimmune disease. In this study, we used a chronic uveitis disease model in mice-EAU-induced by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic IRBP-specific T cells and showed that HMGB1, an important endogenous molecule that serves as a danger signal, was released rapidly from retinal cells into the ECM and intraocular fluid in response to IRBP-specific T cell transfer. HMGB1 release required direct cell-cell contact between retinal cells and IRBP-specific T cells and was an active secretion from intact retinal cells. Administration of HMGB1 antagonists inhibited severity of EAU significantly via mechanisms that include inhibition of IRBP-specific T cell proliferation and their IFN-? and IL-17 production. The inflammatory effects of HMGB1 may signal the TLR/MyD88 pathway, as MyD88(-/-) mice had a high level of HMGB1 in the eye but did not develop EAU after IRBP-specific T cell transfer. Our study demonstrates that HMGB1 is an early and critical mediator of ocular inflammation initiated by autoreactive T cell invasion.
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A Retrospective Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment by Transurethral Vaporization Using a 1470?nm Laser.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Abstract Objective: This article aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new diode laser at a wavelength of 1470?nm, in the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Background data: BPH is very common. Laser surgeries, such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), have gained interest over the past decade because of their satisfying clinical results and reduced morbidity. Methods: A total of 24 patients who underwent transurethral vaporization of the prostate with a new diode laser prototype at a wavelength of 1470?nm were included in this retrospective study. The baseline characteristics of patients and treatment outcomes were evaluated at 4 weeks after the operation with the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), duration of catheterization, and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax). Results: The mean age of patients was 69±8.6 years. The mean time of operation and hospitalization were 97±39?min and 5.3±5.2 days, respectively. The mean duration of catheterization after surgery was 3.1±2.7 days. No recatheterizations or secondary surgeries were required. IPSS and Qmax at 4 weeks postoperatively were significantly changed compared with the baseline (p<0.001). Conclusions: Transurethral vaporization of the prostate using a 1470?nm laser is effective to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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Scd1 mammary-specific vector constructed and overexpressed in goat fibroblast cells resulting in an increase of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of Scd1 in transgenic animals would modify the nutritional value of ruminant-derived foods by increasing the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content. The aim of this study was to develop an effective Scd1 vector that is specifically expressed in dairy goat mammary glands. We successfully amplified the goat full length Scd1 cDNA and evaluated its activity in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by lipid analysis. In addition, we constructed a mammary gland-specific expression vector and confirmed efficient expression of Scd1 in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that Scd1-overexpression resulted in an increase in levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and oleic acid (18:1n-9), from 1.73±0.02% to 2.54±0.02% and from 27.25±0.13% to 30.37±0.04%, respectively (both p<0.01) and the ratio of MUFA to SFA was increased. This work lays a foundation for the generation of Scd1 transgenic goats.
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Measurement and evaluation of the alar base in unilateral secondary lip nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Objective : This study aimed to analyze the asymmetry of the pyriform aperture and alar base in patients with unilateral secondary nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods : 3D-CT images of the subject group of 101 adult patients and of a control group of 65 normal adults were examined. Sixty-nine patients without alveolar bone grafting (ABG) were classified as Group A, and 32 patients with ABG were classified as Group B. Seven landmarks (INM, LPA, IPA, Gbase, Gsup, Glat, and Sbal) were measured for both the subject and control groups, and comparative analyses were done to assess the degree of asymmetry in the subject group. Results : For over 95% of Group A and 80% to 85% of Group B, the index of LPA and IPA showed asymmetry or marked asymmetry. The index of Gbase, Glat, Gsup, and Sbal showed symmetry for around 50% of Group A and about 60% of Group B. In Group A, dorsal, lateral, and caudal translocation was found on the cleft side in LPA and IPA, while all soft landmarks showed dorsal translocation. In Group B, caudal translocation was found in both LPA and IPA, but only LPA appeared dorsal on the cleft side, while Glat showed dorsal and caudal translocation. Conclusion : The results indicated that the degree of asymmetry of hard tissue landmarks far exceeded that of the soft tissue landmarks, and the degree of asymmetry of pyriform aperture was higher than expected for patients after ABG.
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Ruptured hepatic carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as the first-line therapy for unresectable hepatic carcinoma (HCC). Serious complications such as hepatic abscess and hepatic decompensation are well known, but rupture of HCC after TACE is a rare complication.
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Atomic resolution liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy investigations of the dynamics of nanoparticles in ultrathin liquids.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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We proposed a highly reproducible method that enables atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations of the dynamics of nanoparticles in liquids. An ultrathin liquid layer was established as a result of formation of bubbles that was initiated and tuned by beam radiation. The migration, aggregation and rotation of palladium nanoparticles were observed.
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Fabrication of two kinds of eight-fold photonic quasi-crystals assisted by a specially designed prism.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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We demonstrate that two kinds of 2D eight-fold photonic quasi-crystals (PQCs) can be fabricated by a specially designed prism via single-exposure holographic lithography. The prism with five continuous side surfaces out of common eight symmetrical side surfaces, plus a top surface, is well designed for PQC fabrication. Compared with the traditional method of setting up eight free-space beams in the half-space for an eight-fold PQC fabrication, our specially designed prism reduces the number of beams, avoids the differences of beam-to-beam phases, and simplifies the fabrication process. The theory and computer simulation confirm the patterns of two kinds of PQCs by a single prism illumination recording. Further, these quasi-crystal patterns are successfully verified by experimental results under a scanning electron microscope. In addition, these samples show some good properties, such as uniformity over large area, the implementation of a single defect by underexposure, and symmetry break of the eight dots. Our special prism-assisted holographic lithography technique provides a base for further investigating the optical properties of these novel structures.
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Simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in grape canes by HPLC-DAD-UV using wavelength switching detection.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+)-catechin, (?)-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW) employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10?350 mg/L), precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%), accuracy (97.31%?104.66%), specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%), limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (?)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin.
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Morphology of nervous lesion in the spinal cord and bladder of fetal rats with myelomeningocele at different gestational age.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To analyze the development and innervation of bladder smooth muscle and lesions of the spinal cord in fetal rats with meningomyelocele (MMC) at different gestational ages and to investigate interactions between spinal cord lesions and bladder.
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Silicon mode multi/demultiplexer based on multimode grating-assisted couplers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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A simple and low-crosstalk 1 × 4 silicon mode (de)multiplexer based on multimode grating-assisted-couplers is proposed. Mode transitions can be flexibly controlled by designing the grating period at the phase-matching condition. Due to the contra-directional coupling, precise control of the coupling strength and the coupling length are not needed in the system. Calculation results show that the insertion loss and the 3 dB bandwidths of the device are 0.2 dB and 3.7 nm, 0.34 dB and 7.6 nm, and 0.21 dB and 11.8 nm for the channels which (de)multiplex to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd modes of the bus waveguide, respectively.
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Elevated immunoglobulin to tissue KLK11 in patients with Sjögren syndrome.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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We have previously reported that mouse kallikrein (KLK) 22 in the lacrimal and salivary glands is an autoantigen that can induce primary Sjogren syndrome (SS) in rats. In this study, we determine whether the production of antibodies against tissue KLK is specific for SS and whether the antibody can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis in humans.
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Exosomes from retinal astrocytes contain antiangiogenic components that inhibit laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Exosomes released from different types of host cells have different biological effects. We report that exosomes released from retinal astroglial cells (RACs) suppress retinal vessel leakage and inhibit choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a laser-induced CNV model, whereas exosomes released from retinal pigmental epithelium do not. RAC exosomes inhibit the migration of macrophages and the tubule forming of mouse retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Further, we analyzed antiangiogenic components in RAC exosomes using an angiogenesis array kit and detected several endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis exclusively present in RAC exosomes, such as endostatin. Moreover, blockade of matrix metalloproteinases in the cleavage of collagen XVIII to form endostatin using FN-439 reverses RAC exosome-mediated retinal vessel leakage. This study demonstrates that exosomes released from retinal tissue cells have different angiogenic effects, with exosomes from RACs containing antiangiogenic components that might protect the eye from angiogenesis and maintain its functional integrity. In addition, by identifying additional components and their functions of RAC exosomes, we might improve the antiangiogenic therapy for CNV in age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy.
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Effect of the orientation of nitro group on the electronic transport properties in single molecular field-effect transistors.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Molecular devices with nitro groups display unique electronic transport properties in experiments. By applying the non-equilibrium Greens function combined with density functional theory, we find that the orientation of the nitro group with respect to the backbone of the molecule has a crucial effect on the device performance and can show unusual experimental phenomena. Furthermore, molecular devices with a nitro group are sensitive to gate voltage and suitable for making effective single molecular field-effect transistors. These results provide an important theoretical support to experiments and the design of future molecular devices by using nitro groups.
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Combination of SLC administration and tregs depletion is an attractive strategy for targeting hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) is a key CC chemokine for chemotaxis of immune cells and has been an attractive candidate for anti-tumor treatments. However, among the immune cells recruited by SLC to tumors, the CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) compromise the anti-tumor effects. In this study, we proposed the combination therapy of intratumoral co-administration of SLC and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We hypothesized that the intratumoral injections of SLC and depletion of Tregs would have stronger inhibition effects for the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice.
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Effect of Val66Met polymorphism in BDNF on attentional bias in an extroverted Chinese Han population.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars)
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Studies have indicated that a functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene can influences human cognitive functions and mood disorders. In this study, we examined associations of BDNF Val66Met with attentional bias and personality in an unaffected population. The results showed that BDNF Val66Met was significantly associated with attentional disengagement for positive cueing words in extraverts. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the dosages of Met allele and attentional disengagement, however, we did not observe any significant influences of BDNF Val66Met on personality traits. These preliminary results indicate that the individual differences in attentional bias for positive words are partially underpinned by BDNF.
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A remote sensor for detecting methane based on palladium-decorated single walled carbon nanotubes.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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The remote detection of the concentration of methane at room temperature is performed by a sensor that is configured by the combination of radio frequency identification (RFID), and functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The proposed sensor is schemed as a thin film RFID tag in a polyethylene substrate, on which a metal trace dipole, a metal trace T impedance matching networks, a 0.5 µm-CMOS RF/DC rectifier chipset and a sensor head of palladium-decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (Pd-SWCNTs) are surface mounted in cascade. The performances of the sensor are examined and described by the defined parameters of the received signal strength index (RSSI) and the comparative analog identifier (?AID). Results validate the sensors ability to detect molecules of methane at room temperature, showing that the RSSI can increase 4 dB and the ?AID can increase 3% in response to methane concentrations ranging from zero to 100 ppm.
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Experience of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of large impacted proximal ureteral stones.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mini- percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the treatment of large impacted proximal ureteral stones.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.