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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) in Critically Ill Patients in China.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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In March 2013, human infection with a novel avian-origin reassortment influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in China. A total of 26 cases were confirmed and treated in Jiangsu. All the patients had findings consistent with pneumonia and were admitted to an ICU, which pose a threat to human health. We aimed to provide the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of the critically ill patients with H7N9 viral infection.
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[High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To evaluate the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) on mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Rescue Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have beneficial effects in acute lung injury (ALI), can serve as a vehicle for gene therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a counter-regulatory enzyme of ACE that degrades angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang 1-7, has a protective role against ALI. Because ACE2 expression is severely reduced in the injured lung, a therapy targeted to improve ACE2 expression in lung might attenuate ALI. We hypothesized that MSCs overexpressing ACE2 would have further benefits in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice, when compared with MSCs alone. MSCs were transduced with ACE2 gene (MSC-ACE2) by a lentiviral vector and then infused into wild-type (WT) and ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y)) mice following an LPS-induced intratracheal lung injury. The results demonstrated that the lung injury of ALI mice was alleviated at 24 and 72 h after MSC-ACE2 transplantation. MSC-ACE2 improved the lung histopathology and had additional anti-inflammatory effects when compared with MSCs alone in both WT and ACE2(-/y) ALI mice. MSC-ACE2 administration also reduced pulmonary vascular permeability, improved endothelial barrier integrity, and normalized lung eNOS expression relative to the MSC group. The beneficial effects of MSC-ACE2 could be attributed to its recruitment into the injured lung and enhanced local expression of ACE2 protein without changing the serum ACE2 levels after MSC-ACE2 transplantation. The biological activity of the increased ACE2 protein decreased the Ang II amount and increased the Ang 1-7 level in the lung when compared with the ALI and MSC-only groups, thereby inhibiting the detrimental effects of accumulating Ang II. Therefore, compared to MSCs alone, the administration of MSCs overexpressing ACE2 resulted in a further improvement in the inflammatory response and pulmonary endothelial function of LPS-induced ALI mice. These additional benefits could be due to the degradation of Ang II that accompanies the targeted overexpression of ACE2 in the lung.
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Effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation on oxygen metabolism and tissue perfusion in sheep models of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) allows for small tidal volumes at mean airway pressures (mPaw) above that of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), but the effect of HFOV on hemodynamics, oxygen metabolism, and tissue perfusion in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of HFOV and CMV in sheep models with ARDS.
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Monocyte interaction accelerates HCl-induced lung epithelial remodeling.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by overwhelming inflammatory responses and lung remodeling. We hypothesized that leukocyte infiltration during the inflammatory response modulates epithelial remodeling through a mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
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Propofol increases preload dependency in septic shock patients.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Predicting fluid responsiveness is crucial for fluid administration in septic shock patients. Midazolam and propofol decrease vascular tone and venous return, which may influence preload dependency. However, little is known about the effects of these two sedatives on preload dependency in septic shock patients. We evaluated the effects of sedation with propofol or midazolam on preload dependency in septic shock patients who have been fluid resuscitated.
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Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency after multiple traumas: a multicenter, prospective cohort study.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Given that the observed prevalence and time course of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) remain inconsistent in trauma patients, the present study was designed to investigate the prevalence, time course, and effect of CIRCI on the outcome of critically ill patients with multiple injuries.
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Catheter-related Candida bloodstream infection in intensive care unit patients: a subgroup analysis of the China-SCAN study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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BackgroundIn patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU), Candida infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and costs. However, previous studies reported confused risk factors for catheter-related Candida bloodstream infection (CRCBSI). The objective was to describe the risk factors, microbiology, management and outcomes of CRCBSI in the China-SCAN population.MethodsPatients with ¿1 Candida-positive peripheral blood culture were selected from the China-SCAN study. Peripheral and catheter blood samples were collected for Candida isolation. Patients with the same strain of Candida in peripheral and catheter blood samples were considered as being with CRCBSI, while patients with Candida-positive peripheral blood cultures only or different strains were considered as non-CRCBSI. Data were collected from the China-SCAN study.ResultsCRCBSI incidence in ICU was 0.03% (29/96,060), accounting for 9.86% of all candidemia observed in ICU (29/294). The proportion of CRCBSI due to Candida parapsilosis reached 33.3%, more than that of Candida albicans (28.6%). In univariate analyses, older age (P¿=¿0.028) and lower body weight (P¿=¿0.037) were associated with CRCBSI. Multivariate analysis showed that the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was independently associated with CRCBSI (odds ratio (OR)¿=¿1.142, 95% confidence interval¿=¿1.049-1.244, P¿=¿0.002). Catheter removal and immune enhancement therapy were often used for CRCBSI treatment.ConclusionsIn China, CRCBSI was more likely to occur in old patients with low body weight. SOFA score was independently associated with CRCBSI. Candida parapsilosis accounted for a high proportion of CRCBSI, but the difference from non-CRCBSI was not significant.
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Competitive inhibition of the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rocuronium on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in the rat superior cervical ganglia.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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A number of case reports now indicate that rocuronium can induce a number of serious side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects might be mediated by the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Conventional patch clamp recordings were used to study the effects of rocuronium on nAChR currents from enzymatically dissociated rat SCG neurons. We found that ACh induced a peak transient inward current in rat SCG neurons. Additionally, rocuronium suppressed the peak ACh-evoked currents in rat SCG neurons in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner, and it increased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs. The inhibitory rate of rocuronium on nAChR currents did not change significantly at membrane potentials between -70 and -20 mV, suggesting that this inhibition was voltage independent. Lastly, rocuronium preapplication enhanced its inhibitory effect, indicating that this drug might prefer to act on the closed state of nAChR channels. In conclusion, rocuronium, at clinically relevant concentrations, directly inhibits nAChRs at the SCG by interacting with both opened and closed states. This inhibition is competitive, dose dependent, and voltage independent. Blockade of synaptic transmission in the sympathetic ganglia by rocuronium might have potentially inhibitory effects on the cardiovascular system.
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[Effects of sucralfate and acid-suppressive drugs on preventing ventilator- associated pneumonia of mechanically ventilated patients: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To evaluate the effect of sucralfate and acid-suppressive drugs on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients.
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Consensus statement on the management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia in Asia.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Nosocomial pneumonia (NP; encompassing hospital-acquired, health care-associated and ventilator-associated pneumonia) is one of the most common nosocomial infections and is associated with a mortality rate of 18.7%-40.8% in Asian countries. The burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Asia is high, and approximately 13% of NP cases in Asia are caused by this pathogen. Evidence regarding optimal management of MRSA NP continues to evolve and is complicated by the fact that a significant proportion of cases are likely to be caused by isolates with reduced susceptibility to the main therapeutic agent, vancomycin. The Asian Consensus Taskforce on MRSA Nosocomial Pneumonia has developed this statement to provide consensus points on diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment and prevention strategies for MRSA NP in the Asian context, based on our review of Asian data, previous international guidelines and recent scientific evidence.
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[Changes in clinicopathological features and survival after surgical resection for gastric cancer over a 20-year period at a single institution].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To investigate changes in clinicopathological features and survival of patients with gastrectomy at a single institution in China.
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Effects of terlipressin on microcirculation of small bowel mesentery in rats with endotoxic shock.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Septic shock is still related to unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Microcirculatory alteration has been demonstrated to be one important reason associated with this evolution. Vasoactive drugs are often used to restore adequate arterial pressure and tissue perfusion in septic shock. To define the roles of different drugs, the effects of terlipressin (TP) on the microcirculation of small bowel mesentery in rats with endotoxic shock were evaluated and compared with those of norepinephrine (NE).
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Effects of recruitment maneuvers with PEEP on lung volume distribution in canine models of direct and indirect lung injury.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Lung recruitment maneuvers can help open collapsed lung units for sufficient oxygenation, and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used to keep the lung open after recruitment. However, the application of high PEEP levels may play a significant role in causing regional lung hyperinflation during mechanical ventilation. The authors sought to study the effects of PEEP targeting optimal oxygenation on regional lung volume distribution in a direct and an indirect acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model. ARDS was induced by either surfactant depletion or oleic acid injection in dogs. After lung recruitment, PEEP was decreased from 20 to 10 cmH2O in 2 cmH2O steps every 10 min to examine regional lung aeration by using computed tomography. Lung injury appeared to be localized in the model of surfactant depletion while it widely diffused after oleic acid infusion. At PEEP levels that achieved optimal oxygenation, nonaerated lung units decreased and normally aerated lung units enhanced, but hyperinflated areas increased significantly in both models (P < 0.05). Hyperinflated areas were greater in the surfactant depletion model than in the oleic acid model at PEEP levels applied (P < 0.05). Optimal oxygenation guided PEEP may cause hyperinflated in both focal lung injury and diffused lung injury post lung recruitment. Hyperinflation was more susceptible in focal lung injury than in diffused lung injury post lung recruitment.
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Wnt5a through noncanonical Wnt/JNK or Wnt/PKC signaling contributes to the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into type II alveolar epithelial cells in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and Wnt signaling was considered to be the underlying mechanisms. In our previous study, we found that canonical Wnt pathway promoted the differentiation of MSCs into AT II cells, however the role of the noncanonical Wnt pathway in this process is unclear. It was disclosed in this study that noncanonical Wnt signaling in mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (mMSCs) was activated during the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells in a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 cells and small airway growth media. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, increased in mMSCs when Wnt5a was added to activate noncanonical Wnt signaling, while pretreatment with JNK or PKC inhibitors reversed the promotion of Wnt5a. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. We found that the Wnt5a supplement promoted the vertical and horizontal migration of mMSCs, ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H2O2. The effect of Wnt5a on the migration of mMSCs and their survival after H2O2 exposure were partially inhibited with PKC or JNK blockers. In conclusion, Wnt5a through Wnt/JNK signaling alone or both Wnt/JNK and Wnt/PKC signaling promoted the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells and the migration of mMSCs; through Wnt/PKC signaling, Wnt5a increased the survival of mMSCs after H2O2 exposure in vitro.
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Value of American Thoracic Society guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms in critically ill patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China.
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Invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in China: in vitro antifungal susceptibility in the China-SCAN study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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The objectives of this study were to determine species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates identified in the multicentre China-SCAN study of invasive Candida infection (ICI) in intensive care units (ICUs) across China.
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Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates lung fibrosis by way of Mas receptor in acute lung injury.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Pulmonary fibrosis occurs in approximately 60% of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and has been significantly correlated with a poor outcome. The overexpression of angiotensin (Ang) II can induce lung inflammation and fibrosis. This observation, coupled with the knowledge that Ang-(1-7) is considered to be an endogenous antagonist of Ang II, led us to hypothesize that Ang-(1-7) would prevent lung remodeling in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
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The effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine infusion on fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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We studied the effects of propofol or dexmedetomidine on preload dependency and fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients.
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Measure synchronization in a two-species bosonic Josephson junction.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Measure synchronization (MS) in a two-species bosonic Josephson junction (BJJ) is studied based on semiclassical theory. Six different scenarios for MS, including two in the Josephson oscillation regime (the zero-phase mode) and four in the self-trapping regime (the ?-phase mode), are clearly shown. Systematic investigations of the common features behind these different scenarios are performed. We show that the average energies of the two species merge at the MS transition point. The scaling of the power law near the MS transition is verified and the critical exponent is 1/2 for all of the different scenarios for MS. We also illustrate MS in a three-dimensional phase space; from this illustration, more detailed information on the dynamical process can be obtained. In particular, by analyzing the Poincaré sections with changing interspecies interactions, we find that the two-species BJJ exhibits separatrix crossing behavior at the MS transition point and such behavior depicts the general mechanism behind the different scenarios for the MS transitions. The new critical behavior found in a two-species BJJ is expected to be found in real systems of atomic Bose gases.
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Higher frequency ventilation attenuates lung injury during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in sheep models of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) at higher frequencies minimizes the tidal volume. However, whether increased frequencies during HFOV can reduce ventilator-induced lung injury remains unknown.
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Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in Asia has not been observed previously. In March 2013, three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.
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Invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in China: a multicentre prospective observational study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To describe the epidemiology, microbiology and management of invasive Candida infection (ICI) in intensive care units (ICUs) in China.
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Optimization of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure by Volumetric Capnography Variables in Lavage-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Background: In the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung-protective ventilation strategies combine the delivery of small tidal volumes (VT) with sufficient positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an optimal approach guiding the setting of PEEP has not been defined. Monitoring volumetric capnography is useful to detect changes in lung aeration. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether volumetric capnography may be a useful method to determine the optimal PEEP in ARDS. Methods: In 8 lung-lavaged piglets, PEEP was reduced from 20 to 4 cm H2O in steps of 4 cm H2O every 10 min followed by full lung recruitment. Volumetric capnography, respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis, hemodynamic data and whole-lung computed tomography scans were obtained at each PEEP level. Results: After lung recruitment, end-expiratory lung volume progressively decreased from 1,160 ± 273 ml at PEEP 20 cm H2O to 314 ± 86 ml at PEEP 4 cm H2O. The ratio of alveolar dead space (VDalv) to alveolar VT (VTalv) and the phase III slope of volumetric capnography (SIII) reached a minimum at PEEP 16 cm H2O. At this PEEP level, overaerated lung regions were significantly reduced, nonaerated lung regions did not increase, and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) and static respiratory system compliance (Crs) reached a maximum. At PEEP levels <16 cm H2O, nonaerated lung regions significantly increased, P/F and Crs deteriorated, and VDalv/VTalv and SIII began to increase. Conclusions: In this surfactant-depleted model, PEEP at the lowest VDalv/VTalv and SIII allows an optimal balance between lung overinflation and collapse. Hence, volumetric capnography is a useful bedside approach to identify the optimal PEEP. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome: positive end-expiratory pressure titration needs stress index.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The heterogeneity of lung injury in pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may have contributed to the greater response of hyperinflated area with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). PEEP titrated by stress index can reduce the risk of alveolar hyperinflation in patients with pulmonary ARDS. The authors sought to investigate the effects of PEEP titrated by stress index on lung recruitment and protection after recruitment maneuver (RM) in pulmonary ARDS patients.
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Acid?induced cell injury and death in lung epithelial cells is associated with the activation of mitogen?activated protein kinases.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been regarded as a causative factor of acute lung injury (ALI). The activation of mitogen?activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been suggested to be a mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of ALI in vivo. However, the effects of HCl on MAPK activation in lung epithelial cells remain to be fully elucidated. Further investigation into the role of MAPK activation in acid?induced cell injury and death is also needed. In the present study, BEAS?2B cells were treated with HCl (pH 4.0 medium) for 5, 15 and 30 min, and the acidified medium was then removed. Cell viability and death were detected by MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion staining, respectively. The activation of MAPKs [c?Jun N?terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK and extracellular signal?regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2] was analyzed by western blot analysis. Cytotoxicity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and IL?8 levels in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell apoptosis was detected as changes in the levels of capase?3, Bad and fas by western blot analysis and the number of apoptotic cells by using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Following pre?treatment with the JNK inhibitor II (10 µmol/l), the p38 inhibitor SB202190 (10 µmol/l) or the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 µmol/l) for 30 min, BEAS?2B cells were exposed to HCl for 30 min. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, IL?8 levels and apoptosis were detected 4 h following acid stimulation. The viability of BEAS?2B cells was inhibited and cell death was increased in the presence of HCl. HCl stimulation induced activation of MAPKs in a time?dependent manner. HCl exposure increased the levels of IL?8 and the release of LDH, and induced apoptosis in BEAS?2B cells. JNK and p38 inhibitors increased cell viability and decreased cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis, while ERK inhibitor had no effect on cell viability, cytotoxicity or apoptosis. These results indicate that acid exposure induced epithelial cell injury and death. The activation of JNK and p38 is involved in HCl?induced epithelial lung cell injury and death.
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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase 894G?T but not -786T?C gene polymorphism is associated with organ dysfunction and increased mortality in patients with severe sepsis.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) -786T?C and 894G?T polymorphisms have been associated with eNOS dysfunction, which might further compromise microcirculatory blood flow during sepsis and increase the risk of organ injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of those two eNOS gene polymorphisms with the severity of organ dysfunction and outcome in patients with severe sepsis.
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The prognostic significance of peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cells in patients with colorectal cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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To evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative T-lymphocyte subsets ad natural killer (NK) cells and their correlan with other prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical treatment.
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Low tidal volume protects pulmonary vasomotor function from "second-hit" injury in acute lung injury rats.
Respir. Res.
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Sepsis could induce indirect acute lung injury(ALI), and pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction. While low tidal volume is advocated for treatment of ALI patients. However, there is no evidence for low tidal volume that it could mitigate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in indirect ALI. Our study is to evaluate whether low tidal volume ventilation could protect the pulmonary vascular function in indirect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury rats.
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Neuroventilatory efficiency and extubation readiness in critically ill patients.
Crit Care
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Based on the hypothesis that failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation is caused by respiratory demand exceeding the capacity of the respiratory muscles, we evaluated whether extubation failure could be characterized by increased respiratory drive and impaired efficiency to generate inspiratory pressure and ventilation. METHODS: Airway pressure, flow, volume, breathing frequency, and diaphragm electrical activity were measured in a heterogeneous group of patients deemed ready for a spontaneous breathing trial. Efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into inspiratory pressure was calculated as the ratio of negative airway pressure and diaphragm electrical activity during an inspiratory occlusion. Efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into volume was calculated as the ratio of the tidal volume to diaphragm electrical activity. All variables were obtained during a 30-minute spontaneous breathing trial on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5 cm H2O and compared between patients for whom extubation succeeded with those for whom either the spontaneous breathing trial failed or for those who passed, but then the extubation failed. RESULTS: Of 52 patients enrolled in the study, 35 (67.3%) were successfully extubated, and 17 (32.7%) were not. Patients for whom it failed had higher diaphragm electrical activity (48%; P < 0.001) and a lower efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into inspiratory pressure and tidal volume (40% (P < 0.001) and 53% (P < 0.001)), respectively. Neuroventilatory efficiency demonstrated the greatest predictability for weaning success. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a mixed group of critically ill patients for whom weaning fails have increased neural respiratory drive and impaired ability to convert neuromuscular activity into tidal ventilation, in part because of diaphragm weakness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01065428. ©2012 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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The effect of alveolar dead space on the measurement of end-expiratory lung volume by modified nitrogen wash-out/wash-in in lavage-induced lung injury.
Respir Care
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The accuracy of end-expiratory lung volume measurement by the modified nitrogen wash-out/wash-in method (EELV-N(2)) depends on the precise determination of carbon dioxide elimination (V(CO(2))), which is affected by alveolar dead space (V(D-alv)). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of V(D-alv) on EELV-N(2).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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