Citrus polymethoxyflavone tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone, TAN) displays multiple biological activities, but previous reports showed that TAN failed to induce MCF-7 human breast cancer cells apoptosis. Herein, we prepared 5-acetyl-6,7,8,4'-tetramethylnortangeretin (5-ATAN), and evaluated its cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells. 5-ATAN revealed stronger cytotoxicity than that of parent TAN in the growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells. 5-ATAN induced apoptosis via both caspase-independent and -dependent pathways, in which 5-ATAN induced the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor and phosphorylation of H2AX as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, caspase-3 activation. However, 5-ATAN did not affect extrinsic markers caspase-8, BID, and FADD. Further, 5-ATAN induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) by regulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Loss of ??m led to the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c which triggered activation of caspase-9. In conclusion, these data indicate that 5-ATAN plays pro-apoptotic cytotoxic roles in MCF-7 cells through both caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptosis and caspase-independent apoptosis pathways.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.