A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will output as the TE0 mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < -17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology.
Success of modern agriculture relies heavily on breeding of crops with maximal regional adaptability and yield potentials. A major limiting factor for crop cultivation is their flowering time, which is strongly regulated by day length (photoperiod) and temperature. Here we report identification and characterization of Days to heading 7 (DTH7), a major genetic locus underlying photoperiod sensitivity and grain yield in rice. Map-based cloning reveals that DTH7 encodes a pseudo-response regulator protein and its expression is regulated by photoperiod. We show that in long days DTH7 acts downstream of the photoreceptor phytochrome B to repress the expression of Ehd1, an up-regulator of the "florigen" genes (Hd3a and RFT1), leading to delayed flowering. Further, we find that haplotype combinations of DTH7 with Grain number, plant height, and heading date 7 (Ghd7) and DTH8 correlate well with the heading date and grain yield of rice under different photoperiod conditions. Our data provide not only a macroscopic view of the genetic control of photoperiod sensitivity in rice but also a foundation for breeding of rice cultivars better adapted to the target environments using rational design.
Various poly(l-histidine) based amphiphilic copolymers have been developed for intracellular drug delivery due to the pH responsive properties and the escape from endolysosomal pathway. However, the pH induced reassembly of copolymer micelles and the assumed endolysosome membrane rupture during the copolymer facilitated endolysosomal escape have never been elucidated. To address these issues, a series of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide)-poly(l-histidine) (mPEG-PLA-PHis) with different degrees of polymerization of PLA and PHis block were synthesized. The self-assembly and reassembly behaviors of the copolymers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (1)H NMR, fluorescence probe technique, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The copolymers self-assembled into micelles with PLA and unprotonated PHis blocks as hydrophobic core and PEG as hydrophilic shell at neutral pH. The changes in TEM images, (1)H NMR spectrum of PHis peak, pyrene fluorescene spectrum, and particle size as well as size distribution over the pH range from pH 8.5 to 4.5 suggest that the copolymer micelles reassembled into micelles with PLA as hydrophobic core and protonated PHis and PEG as hydrophilic shell under acidic environment. The pH induced reassembly triggered the incoporated doxorubicin (DOX) release, as indicated by the in vitro accelerated drug release and enhanced cytotoxicity. The integrity of endolysosome membrane during the copolymer facilitated DOX endolysosomal escape was observed by confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) and further evaluated by hemolysis test and calculation of the critical size of endolysosomal membrane. The results indicate that the endolysosomal membrane remained intact during the copolymer facilitated endolysosomal escape of DOX. It is more reasonable to ascribe the PHis based copolymer facilitation endolysosomal escape to the "proton sponge" hypothesis without rupturing the endolysosomal membrane.
Abstract CRF01_AE and subtype B are the two major HIV-1 clades circulating in China. Heterosexual transmission is the predominant route for the spread of HIV and heterosexuals often include men who have sex with men and intravenous drug users. Furthermore, many kinds of circulating recombinant forms (CRF) and unique recombinant forms (URF) between CRF01_AE and subtype B were recently identified in Southeast Asia. Therefore it is inevitable that the new recombinant of CRF01_AE/B will emerge among them. Here we identified a novel recombinant of CRF01_AE/B, isolated from heterosexuals, which has a distinctly different genome structure from other CRF01Bs and URFs reported before. The analysis of the near full-length sequence of JS2011001 shows that it is composed of at least five interlaced CRF01_AE and B segments. Recently, many kinds of URFs and CRFs began to prevail within a short period in China, which implies that a mix of HIV-1 infections is common in China and more attention should focus on it.
Major research efforts are focusing on the development of simultaneous multiplexed immunoassays. In this study, a novel dual-binding fluorescence polarisation immunoassay (DB-FPIA) using a broad-specificity bi-specific single-chain diabody (scDb) and two fluorescent-labelled tracers (sulfamethoxypyridazine-fluorescein isothiocyanate (SMP-FITC) and sarafloxacin-Texas Red (SAR-TR)) with different excitation and emission wavelengths was developed for simultaneous and high-throughput detection of 19 fluoroquinolones (FQs) and 13 sulfonamides (SAs) at the maximum residue limits in milk samples. Recoveries for spiked milk samples were from 76.4% to 128.4%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 13.9%. The developed DB-FPIA was then applied to field samples, followed by confirmation by LC-MS/MS. All three instances in which FQs and SAs were present at concentrations near or above the assay limit of detection were identified as positive by the developed DB-FPIA, demonstrating that the method is suitable for rapid screening of FQs and SAs contamination. The novel methodology combines the advantage of the FPIA and the broad sensitivity of scDb and shows great promise for fast multi-analyte screening of low-molecular weight chemical residues in food samples.
The residue of lincomycin (LIN) in edible animal foodstuffs caused by the widespread use of veterinary drugs is in need of rapid, simple and sensitive detection methods. In the present work, we introduce a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for detecting LIN in different samples based on the competitive immunoreaction on the chromatography test strip. The residues of LIN in different samples compete with the bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled LIN conjugates on the T-line to bind to the anti-LIN monoclonal antibody labeled fluorescent microspheres (FM-mAbs). Captured FM-mAbs on the T-line represent the fluorescent intensity, which is detected under UV-light and quantified by a fluorescent reader. Under optimized conditions, the dynamic range is from 1.35 ng/mL to 3.57 ng/mL, and 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) is 2.20 ng/mL. This method has 4.4% cross-reactivity with clindamycin and negligible cross-reactivity (< 0.1%) with other analogues. To reduce the matrix effects, a dilution method is used to pretreat the samples, and the recoveries range from 73.92% to 120.50% with coefficient of variations less than 21.76%. Comparing with the results of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay, FMIA has obvious advantages such as easy operation, time-saving, high sensitivity and specificity, and a broader prospect.
This study was aimed at investigating the caries status of Chinese civilian pilots and the relationship between caries and oral health behaviors, including sugar intake, smoking, alcohol consumption, tooth brushing, and dental check-up attendance.
Specific fragments of the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) coat protein gene (cp) were amplified by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction and used to construct a marker free small interfering RNA complex expression vector against SCMV. In planta transformation was performed on maize (Zea mays) inbred line 8112 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR and Southern blot analyses demonstrated successful integration of the cp segment into the 8112 genome. The in planta transformation frequency was 0.1%, and the cotransformed frequency with the cp and bar genes was 0.034%. Real-time quantitative PCR of samples from different transgenic plant organs showed that the expression of the cp gene fragment in transgenic plants was variable and that the highest expression level occurred in the tassels and leaves and the lowest expression occurred in the roots. Real-time quantitative PCR was also used to measure how gene expression in transgenic T2 generation plants inoculated with SCMV changes over time. The results showed that the hairpin RNA structure transcribed from the cp gene interfered with SCMV infection and transgenic maize lines were not equally effective in preventing SCMV infection. Our findings provide a valuable tool for controlling plant viruses using RNA interference and the posttranslational gene silencing approach.
Lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) could be directed through micro/nanopatterning of the extracellular matrix (ECM) between cells and substrate. Integrin receptors, integrator of the ECM and cell cytoskeleton, function as molecular bridges linking cells to different biophysical cues translated from patterned ECM. Here we report the distinct recruitment of active integrin ?1 (ITG-?1) in hMSCs when they were committed toward the cardiomyogenic lineage on a micropatterned surface. In addition, a systematic study of the distribution of ITG-?1 was performed on focal adhesions (FAs) using a direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) technique, a super-resolution imaging technique to establish the relationship between types of integrin expression and its distribution pattern that are associated with cardiomyogenic differentiation of hMSCs. We ascertained that elongated FAs of ITG-?1 expressed in patterned hMSCs were more prominent than FAs expressed in unpatterned hMSCs. However, there was no significant difference observed between the widths of FAs from both experimental groups. It was found in patterned hMSCs that the direction of FA elongation coincides with cell orientation. This phenomenon was however not observed in unpatterned hMSCs. These results showed that the biophysical induction methods like FAs patterning could selectively induce hMSCs lineage commitment via integrin-material interaction.
Effective treatment of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder requires early diagnosis. Identifying novel molecular markers in TCC would guide the development of diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Ephrins mediate signals via tyrosine kinase activity that modulates diverse physiologic and developmental processes, and ephrins are increasingly implicated in carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to examine the differential regulation of EphB4 and EphB2 in normal bladder and in TCC of the bladder in 40 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for curative intent. Immunostaining and Western blotting revealed that normal urothelium expresses EphB2 (20 of 24 cases, 83% of the time) not EphB4 (0 of 24 cases, 0%). In sharp contrast, TCC specimens show loss of EphB2 expression (0 of 34 cases, 0%) and gain of EphB4 expression (32 of 34, 94%). Furthermore, EphB4 signal strength statistically correlated with higher tumor stage, and trended toward the presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS). These results are confirmed by analysis of normal urothelial and tumor cell lines. EphB2 is not a survival factor in normal urothelium, while EphB4 is a survival factor in TCC. Treatment of bladder tumor xenograft with an EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA leads to 62% tumor regression and complete remission when combined with Bevacizumab. Furthermore, tissue analysis revealed that sEphB4-HSA led to increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and reduced vessel density, implicating direct tumor cell targeting as well as anti-angiogenesis effect. In summary loss of EphB2 and gain of EphB4 expression represents an inflection point in the development, growth and possibly progression of TCC. Therapeutic compounds targeting EphB4 have potential for diagnosing and treating TCC.
The LigaSure vessel sealing system allows dissection and hemostasis in a safe and quick way, and it has been reported to be an effective tool to shorten operative time and reduce intraoperative blood loss for various surgeries. However, short- and long-term outcomes in comparison with conventional surgery for gastric cancer resection are limited.
The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity by focusing on the alteration of d-serine metabolism in the hippocampus of mice at the early life. Mother mice and their offspring were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0g/L lead in lead acetate via drinking water from the first day of gestation until the postnatal day (PND) 40. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability of PND 40 mice. Expressions of serine racemase (SR), d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), alanine-serine- cysteine transporter-1 (asc-1) and subunits of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the hippocampus of PND 10, 20 and 40 mice were examined by western blot and real time RT-PCR. Findings from this study disclosed that the spatial learning ability of mice tested by place trial could be significantly impaired by 0.5g/L lead exposure, and the spatial memory ability tested by probe trail could be impaired by 1.0g/L lead exposure. Exposure to 2.0g/L lead in the water could significantly inhibit the protein and mRNA expression of SR; conversely enhance the expression of DAAO protein and mRNA in the hippocampus during the early developmental stages. However, the protein expressions of DAAO and asc-1 in the hippocampus were significantly enhanced by 0.5g/L lead exposure at different developmental stages. On the other hand, the protein and mRNA expressions of both NR1 and NR2A were inhibited significantly by 1.0g/L lead exposure since PND 10, and by 0.5g/L lead exposure since PND 20. Noteworthy, the protein expression of NR2B was inhibited significantly by 0.5g/L lead exposure in PND 10 mice, and by 1.0g/L lead exposure in PND 20 mice, but there was no significant group difference in PND 40 mice. Meanwhile, expressions of asc-1 and NR2B mRNA were not affected obviously by lead exposure. In conclusion, chronic lead exposure during brain development might affect d-serine metabolism by enhancing its degradation, which might be related to the inhibited expression of NMDAR subunits, and furthermore contribute to deficits in learning and memory ability in mice.
A field measurement campaign for ozone and ozone precursors (VOCs and NOx) was conducted in summer 2011 around a petroleum refinery in the Beijing rural region. Three observation sites were arranged, one at southwest of the refinery as the background, and two at northeast of the refinery as the downwind receptors. Monitoring data revealed the presence of serious surface O3 pollution with the characteristics of high average daily mean and maximum concentrations (64.0 and 145.4 ppbV in no-rain days, respectively) and multi-peak diurnal variation. For NOx, the average hourly concentrations of NO2 and NO were in the range of 20.5-46.1 and 1.8-6.4 ppbV, respectively. For VOC measurement, a total of 51 compounds were detected. Normally, TVOCs at the background site was only dozens of ppbC, while TVOCs at the downwind sites reached several hundreds of ppbC. By subtracting the VOC concentrations at background, chemical profiles of VOC emission from the refinery were obtained, mainly including alkanes (60.0% +/- 4.3%), alkenes (21.1% +/- 5.5%) and aromatics (18.9% +/- 3.9%). Moreover, some differences in chemical profiles for the same measurement hours were observed between the downwind sites; the volume ratios of alkanes with low reactivity and those of alkenes with high reactivity respectively showed an increasing trend and a decreasing trend. Finally, based on temporal and spatial variations of VOC mixing ratios, their photochemical degradations and dispersion degradations were estimated to be 0.15-0.27 and 0.42-0.62, respectively, by the photochemical age calculation method, indicating stronger photochemical reactions around the refinery.
One role of stems is that of water storage. The water content of stems increases and decreases as xylem water potential increases and decreases, respectively. Hence, a nondestructive method to measure stem water content (StWC) = (volume of water) : (volume of stem), could be useful in monitoring the drought stress status of plants. We introduce a frequency domain inner fringing capacitor-sensor for measuring StWC which operates at 100 MHz frequency. The capacitor-sensor consists of two wave guides (5-mm-wide braided metal) that snugly fit around the surface of a stem with a spacing of 4-5 mm between guides. Laboratory measurements on analog stems reveals that the DC signal output responds linearly to the relative dielectric constant of the analog stem, is most sensitive to water content between the waveguides to a depth of c. 3 mm from the stem surface, and calibrations based on the gravimetric water loss of excised stems of plants revealed a resolution in StWC of < ± 0.001 v/ v. The sensor performed very well on whole plants with a 100-fold increased resolution compared with previous frequency domain and time domain reflectometry methods and, hence, may be very useful for future research requiring nondestructive measurements of whole plants.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is a ligand-binding nuclear receptor, and its activation plays a prominent role in regulating the inflammatory response. Therefore, PPAR-? has been suggested as a candidate gene for sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-? and sepsis in a Han Chinese population. A total of 308 patients with sepsis and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. No significant differences were detected in the allele and genotype distributions of the PPAR-? Pro12Ala SNP between septic patients and controls (P = 0.622 for genotype; P = 0.629 for allele). However, stratification by subtypes (sepsis, septic shock, and severe sepsis) revealed a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the Ala allele and Ala-carrier genotype between the patients with the sepsis subtype and the healthy controls (P = 0.014 for allele and P = 0.012, for genotype). Moreover, significant differences were found in the frequency of the Ala allele and genotype between the sepsis survivors and nonsurvivors (all P = 0.002). In the survivors, the PPAR-? Pro12Ala genotype was significantly associated with decreased disease severity and recovery time (all P < 0.001). Thus, genetic polymorphism is thought to play a role in the development and outcome of sepsis.
Urogenital dysfunctions are well-recognized problems after rectal cancer surgery and are often due to autonomic nerve damage. Although following holy planes during total mesorectal excision (TME) reduces the possibility of damage to the autonomic nerve fibers, these could still be affected in some critical areas.1 (,) 2 To improve the quality of surgery and prevent nerve damage, accurate intraoperative anatomical orientation of autonomic nerve is essential.3 Thanks to advancement of the high-definition laparoscopic technology, even the finest nerve fibers deep in the pelvic cavity can be identified through illumination and magnification.4 We aim to present a surgical technique of using the autonomic nerves as landmarks to guide laparoscopic TME for distal rectal cancer, with the purpose of preventing autonomic nerve damage to the largest extent.
Community detection has been extensively studied in the past decades largely because of the fact that community exists in various networks such as technological, social and biological networks. Most of the available algorithms, however, only focus on the properties of the vertices, ignoring the roles of the edges. To explore the roles of the edges in the networks for community discovery, the authors introduce the novel edge centrality based on its antitriangle property. To investigate how the edge centrality characterises the community structure, they develop an approach based on the edge antitriangle centrality with the isolated vertex handling strategy (EACH) for community detection. EACH first calculates the edge antitriangle centrality scores for all the edges of a given network and removes the edge with the highest score per iteration until the scores of the remaining edges are all zero. Furthermore, EACH is characterised by being free of the parameters and independent of any additional measures to determine the community structure. To demonstrate the effectiveness of EACH, they compare it with the state-of-the art algorithms on both the synthetic networks and the real world networks. The experimental results show that EACH is more accurate and has lower complexity in terms of community discovery and especially it can gain quite inherent and consistent communities with a maximal diameter of four jumps.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux has been recognized as a key factor contributing to the multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells. To address this issue, a new pH-sensitive mixed copolymer micelles system composed of hyaluronic acid-g-poly(l-histidine) (HA-PHis) and d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 (TPGS2k) copolymers was developed to co-deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and TPGS2k into drug-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR). The DOX-loaded HA-PHis/TPGS2k mixed micelles (HPHM/TPGS2k) were characterized to have a unimodal size distribution, high DOX loading content and a pH dependent drug release profile due to the protonation of poly(l-histidine). As compared to HA-PHis micelles (HPHM), the HPHM/TPGS2k showed higher and comparable cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells and MCF-7 cells, respectively. The enhanced MDR reversal effect was attributed to the higher amount of cellular uptake of HPHM/TPGS2k in MCF-7/ADR cells than HPHM, arising from the inhibition of P-gp mediated drug efflux by TPGS2k. The measurements of P-gp expression level and mitochondrial membrane potential indicate that the blank HPHM/TPGS2k inhibited P-gp activity by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of ATP but without inhibition of P-gp expression. In vivo study of micelles in tumor-bearing mice indicate that HPHM/TPGS2k could reach the tumor site more effectively than HPHM. The pH-sensitive mixed micelles system has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for overcoming the MDR.
Intronless genes are a feature of prokaryotes; however, they are widespread and unequally distributed among eukaryotes and represent an important resource to study the evolution of gene architecture. Although many databases on exons and introns exist, there is currently no cohesive database that collects intronless genes in plants into a single database.
It has been previously reported that Toll?like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF??B signaling mediates early inflammation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has additionally been suggested that resveratrol produces cardioprotective and anti?inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resveratrol could modulate TLR4/NF??B signaling, reduce neutrophil accumulation and TNF?? induction in an ischemia/reperfusion injured rat heart model. Rats were randomly exposed to a sham operation, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R), MI/R + resveratrol or MI/R + resveratrol + L?NAME. The data showed that following MI/R, the expression of myocardial TLR4 and NF??B increased significantly in the area of induced ischemia. As compared with MI/R, resveratrol significantly attenuated the expression of TLR4 and NF??B and reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase, serum and myocardial TNF?? production, myocardial infarct size and myocardial apoptosis induced by MI/R. All the effects of resveratrol were abolished upon application of L?NAME, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor. These data provide evidence that resveratrol inhibits TLR4/NF??B signaling in the rat heart subjected to MI/R, and the anti?inflammatory effect of resveratrol is associated with NO production.
The use of tissue-specific promoters to drive the expression of target genes during certain developmental stages or in specific organs can prevent unnecessary gene expression caused by constitutive promoters. Utilizing heterologous promoters to regulate the expression of genes in transgenic receptors can help prevent gene silencing. Here, we engineered heterologous maize promoters that regulate gene-specific expression in rice plant receptors. We performed a histochemical and quantitative ?-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis of the Zea mays legumin1 (ZM-LEGF) gene promoter and detailed detection of stably transformed rice expressing the GUS gene under the control of the promoter of ZM-LEGF (pZM-LEGF) and its truncated promoters throughout development. When the promoter sequence was truncated, the location and intensity of GUS expression changed. The results suggest that the sequence from -140 to +41 is a critical region that confers the expression of the entire promoter. Truncation of pZM-LEG (3'-deleted region of pZM-LEGF) markedly increased the GUS activity, with the core cis-elements located in the -273 to -140 regions, namely pZM-LEG6. Detailed analysis of pZM-LEG6::GUS T2 transformant rice seeds and plant tissues at different developmental stages indicated that this promoter is an ideal vegetative tissue-specific promoter that can serve as a valuable tool for transgenic rice breeding and genetic engineering studies.
Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a valuable fish for aquaculture in China. This fish exhibits sexual dimorphism, particularly different growth rates and body sizes between two genders. Thus, C. semilaevis is a good model that can be used to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism, this model can also be utilized to answer fundamental questions in evolution and applied fields of aquaculture. Hence, advances in second-generation sequencing technology, such as 454 pyrosequencing, could provide a robust tool to study the genome characteristics of non-model species.
Anatomic liver resection not only enables enough tumor-free resection margin but also guarantees maximum preservation of remaining normal liver tissue. We report herein a hepatocellular carcinoma patient who underwent successful anatomic liver resection of segments 6, 7, and 8 by the method of selective occlusion of hepatic inflow. Multiple tumors were found in segments 6, 7, and 8 by computed tomographic (CT) scanning. CT volumetry analyzed that his left hemi-liver volume was less than the minimal limit of safe survival. Therefore, we planned to perform segment 5 remaining, anatomic liver resection of segments 6, 7, and 8 to guarantee the maximum preservation of remaining normal liver tissue. Selective occlusion of hepatic inflow was creatively used twice in this case to divide right hemi-liver Glissonean pedicle and segments 6 and 7 Glissonean pedicle, respectively. Thus, the resection line was determined, and anatomic liver resection of segments 6, 7, and 8 was completed. Selective right hemi-liver Glissonean pedicle occlusion was used, while parenchymal transection was between segments 6 and 5 and between segments 8 and 5. Therefore, liver ischemia reperfusion injury and homodynamic instability were maximally reduced during operation.
Midpalatal suture expansion could induce osteogenesis to correct maxillary insufficiency; cartilage formation could also be induced, and lower-magnitude forces might generate a preferable response pattern. In this study, we aimed for an enhanced understanding of the cartilage formatting effects of expansion.
We cloned and characterized cDNA sequence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The 1493 bp full-length cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 780 bp, which encoded a protein of 259 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences included a putative signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues resulting in a mature protein of 231 amino acids. Twenty cysteine residues and two conserved IGFBPs motif (GCGCCXXC and CWCV) were found in the N- and C-terminal domain. In the over 13 kbp genomic sequence, four exons, three introns, and 5'-/3'-flanking sequences were identified. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that Japanese flounder IGFBP-4 was indeed the ortholog of the human IGFBP-4 gene and shared high identities with other teleost IGFBP-4 genes. The promoter region was also analyzed and several potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites were determined which may modulate the IGFBP-4 expression. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that IGFBP-4 mRNA was observed in various tissues, with intestine showing the highest expression. The maternal transcripts of IGFBP-4 gene existed in the early embryonic stages and then increased in the following stages until hatching, suggesting that IGFBP-4 may be involved in the fish early development. The expression level of IGFBP-4 mRNA was relatively higher at 3 days post hatching (dph) and 15 dph, and gradually decreased during the metamorphosis period. All these results indicated that IGFBP-4 plays a significant role in IGF regulating vertebrate growth and development.
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common feature of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), is widely accepted as surgical indication for refractory epilepsy. Pathological hallmarks in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), including granule cell loss (GCL) and granule cell dispersion (GCD), are known to be closely related to the status epilepticus and spontaneous seizure. Our aim was to assess the association between volumetric changes in the hippocampal CA4/DG determined with 3-Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the postoperative seizure outcomes in MTLE patients with or without dentate gyrus pathology (DGP).
This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV), permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I) wellbore storage section, (II) intermediate flow section (transient section), (III) mid-radial flow section, (IV) crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer), and (V) systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins comprise a large family in higher plants and modulate organellar gene expression by participating in various aspects of organellar RNA metabolism. In rice, the family contains 477 members, and the majority of their functions remain unclear. In this study, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant, white stripe leaf (wsl), which displays chlorotic striations early in development. Map-based cloning revealed that WSL encodes a newly identified rice PPR protein which targets the chloroplasts. In wsl mutants, PEP-dependent plastid gene expression was significantly down-regulated, and plastid rRNAs and translation products accumulate to very low levels. Consistently with the observations, wsl shows a strong defect in the splicing of chloroplast transcript rpl2, resulting in aberrant transcript accumulation and its product reduction in the mutant. The wsl shows enhanced sensitivity to ABA, salinity, and sugar, and it accumulates more H2O2 than wild-type. These results suggest the reduced translation efficiency may affect the response of the mutant to abiotic stress.
Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been recently identified as a p53 target gene, which mediates the role of p53 in maternal implantation under normal physiological conditions. Here we report that LIF is a negative regulator of p53; LIF downregulates p53 protein levels and function in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The downregulation of p53 by LIF is mediated by the activation of Stat3, which transcriptionally induces inhibitor of DNA-binding 1 (ID1). ID1 upregulates MDM2, a key negative regulator of p53, and promotes p53 protein degradation. LIF is overexpressed in a large percentage of CRCs. LIF overexpression promotes cellular resistance towards chemotherapeutic agents in cultured CRC cells and colorectal xenograft tumours in a largely p53-dependent manner. Overexpression of LIF is associated with a poor prognosis in CRC patients. Taken together, LIF is a novel negative regulator of p53, overexpression of LIF is an important mechanism for the attenuation of p53, which promotes chemoresistance in CRCs.
Increasing evidence suggests that homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip) I transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses, but no HD-Zip I proteins have been reported in maize. Here, a drought-induced HD-Zip I gene, Zmhdz10, was isolated from maize and characterized for its role in stress responses. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that expression of Zmhdz10 was also induced by salt stress and ABA. Transient expression of Zmhdz10-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins in onion cells showed a nuclear localization of Zmhdz10. Yeast hybrid assays demonstrated that Zmhdz10 has transactivation and DNA-binding activity in yeast cells. Overexpression of Zmhdz10 in rice led to enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses and increased sensitivity to ABA. Moreover, Zmhdz10 transgenic plants had lower relative electrolyte leakage (REL), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased proline content relative to wild-type plants under stress conditions, which may contribute to enhanced stress tolerance. Zmhdz10 transgenic Arabidopsis plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses that was concomitant with altered expression of stress/ABA-responsive genes, including ?1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1), Responsive to dehydration 22 (RD22), Responsive to dehydration 29B (RD29B) and ABA-insensitive 1 (ABI1). Taken together, these results suggest that Zmhdz10 functions as a transcriptional regulator that can positively regulate drought and salt tolerance in plants through an ABA-dependent signaling pathway.
Laparoscopic incisional and ventral hernia repair (LIVHR) is an alternative approach to conventional open incisional and ventral hernia repair (OIVHR). A consensus on outcomes of LIVHR when compared with OIVHR has not been reached.
Intronless genes, as a characteristic feature of prokaryotes, are an important resource for the study of the evolution of gene architecture in eukaryotes. In the study, 14,623 (36.87%) intronless genes in maize were identified and the percentage is greater than that of other monocots and algae. The number of maize intronless genes on each chromosome has a significant linear correlation with the number of total genes on the chromosome and the length of the chromosomes. Intronless genes in maize play important roles in translation and energy metabolism. Evolutionary analysis revealed that 2601 intronless genes conserved among the three domains of life and 2323 intronless genes that had no homology with genes of other species. These two sets of intronless genes were distinct in genetic features, physical locations and function. These results provided a useful source to understand the evolutionary patterns of related genes and genomes and some intronless genes are good candidates for subsequent functional analyses specifically.
CRF01_AE and subtype B are the two of major HIV-1 clades circulating in China. HIV spread more rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among populations with other risk behaviors. In Jiangsu province in China, the HIV-1 incidence among MSM was more than 3.8%. Our previous study showed that almost equal proportions of CRF01_AE, B, and CRF07_BC were circulating among MSM. Moreover, many kinds of CRF01Bs have been identified among MSM in Southeast Asia in recent years. It is therefore inevitable that recombination between CRF01_AE and subtype B will emerge among MSM in Jiangsu province in China. Here we identify a novel recombinant of CRF01_AE/B that has a distinctly different genome structure from other CRF01Bs and unique recombinant forms (URFs) previously identified. An analysis of the near full-length sequence of JS2010001 showed that it is composed of at least three interlaced CRF01_AE and B segments. Recently, many kinds of URFs and C circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have emerged among MSM in China within a short period of time, which suggests that dual infection of HIV-1 among MSM in China is very common and that more effective intervening measures to prevent the spread of HIV among MSM should be taken.
Accumulating evidence suggests that the principal TNF-? converting enzyme, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), is involved in the development of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the association between ADAM17 gene polymorphisms and AAA has not been explored. The present study was aimed to determine the association between ADAM17 promoter polymorphisms and AAA.
Apramycin (APR) residue in food of animal origin can cause harmful effects on human health. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was successfully produced using APR-BSA as immunogen, which was prepared by glutaraldehyde method. The mAb 2A2 showed low cross reactivity (<0.1%) with other aminoglycoside antibiotics, and its IC50 value was 0.35 ng/mL. Based on this mAb, a novel immunoassay in the format of immuno-affinity test column (IATC) was developed. The immune-affinity column filled with anti-APR antibody-Sepharose 4B gel was used as solid phase. APR in sample and HRP-APR conjugate compete with each other for the limited antibody on the column. The approach was able to give a naked-eye color signal from the detection of analyte. A blue color appears for negative results and no color for positive. The method was then successfully applied onto the detection of APR in animal-origin food. To further evaluate the assay, direct competitive ELISA (dcELISA) based on the same antibody was developed for comparison in different aspects. Compared to the dcELISA, the detection time of IATC is shorten to 20 min while the similar sensitivity for various samples was observed. The limit of detections (LOD) for raw milk, muscles and livers is 3 ng/mL, 3 µg/kg, and 10 µg/kg, respectively.
The tumour suppressor gene silencing and proto-oncogene activation caused by epigenetic alterations plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Re-establishing the balance between the expression of tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes by epigenetic modulation is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated whether cancer cells can be epigenetically reprogrammed by oocyte extract. H460 human lung cancer cells were reversibly permeabilized and incubated with the extract of bovine parthenogenetic oocytes. Bisulphite sequencing showed that bovine parthenogenetic oocyte extract induced significant demethylation at the promoters of the tumour suppressor genes RUNX3 and CDH1, but not at the promoter of the oncogenic pluripotency gene SOX2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the histone modifications at RUNX3 and CDH1 promoters were modulated towards a transcriptionally activating state, while those at SOX2 promoter towards a transcriptionally repressive state. Correspondingly, bovine parthenogenetic oocyte extract reversed the epigenetic silencing of RUNX3 and CDH1, and repressed the expression of SOX2. At the functional level, proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion of H460 cells was strongly inhibited. These results indicate that bovine parthenogenetic oocyte extract changes the expression patterns of tumour suppressor and oncogenic genes in cancer cells by remodelling the epigenetic modifications at their promoters. Bovine parthenogenetic oocyte extract may provide a useful tool for epigenetically reprogramming cancer cells and for dissecting the epigenetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis.
The aim of this study was to explore the mutual communication of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/threonine protein kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway on the proliferation and differentiation of condylar chondrocytes from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
A recombinant bispecific single-chain diabody (scDb), recognizing fluoroquinolones (FQs) and sulfonamides (SAs), was successfully constructed with two single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs). The scDb gene was cloned into the expression vector pJB33, and 6×His-tagged scDb was expressed as soluble bodies in Escherichia coli RV308 host, then purified by one step affinity chromatography of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of the purified scDb indicated that the prepared scDb was successfully expressed as a ?60 kDa and the final purity of the scDb protein was up to 95% with yields of approximately 6 mg/L of bacterial culture. The scDb was further characterized by indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), showing that the affinity and specificity of scDb were fully retained from the two parental scFvs, capable of simultaneously binding FQs and SAs. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of the optimized immunoassay were 0.45 ng mL(-1) for FQs and 0.75 ng mL(-1) for SAs, respectively. The scDb exhibited high affinity to 20 FQs and 14 SAs. Taken together, these findings suggested that the prepared scDb could be used to develop future novel immunoassay for simultaneous determination of 20 FQs and 14 SAs.
As one of the three key components of the 'Green Revolution', photoperiod insensitivity is vital for improved adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars to a wider geographical range. Photoperiod-B1a (Ppd-B1a) is one of the major genes that confers photoperiod insensitivity in 'Green Revolution' varieties, and has made a significant contribution to wheat yield improvement. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the photoperiod insensitivity of Ppd-B1a alleles from an epigenetic perspective using a combination of bisulfite genomic sequencing, orthologous comparative analysis, association analysis, linkage analysis and gene expression analysis. Based on the study of a large collection of wheat germplasm, we report two methylation haplotypes of Ppd-B1 and demonstrate that the higher methylation haplotype (haplotype a) was associated with increased copy numbers and higher expression levels of the Ppd-B1 gene, earlier heading and photoperiod insensitivity. Furthermore, assessment of the distribution frequency of the different methylation haplotypes suggested that the methylation patterns have undergone selection during the wheat breeding process. Our study suggests that DNA methylation in the regulatory region of the Ppd-B1 alleles, which is closely related to copy number variation, plays a significant role in wheat breeding, to confer photoperiod insensitivity and better adaptation to a wider geographical range.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs during the predementia stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities that frequently represents a transition between normal cognition and AD dementia. Its pathogenesis is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate the direct consequences and potential mechanisms of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamic and functional defects in MCI-derived mitochondria. Using a cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell model in which mitochondria from MCI or age-matched non-MCI subjects were incorporated into a human neuronal cell line depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA, we evaluated the mitochondrial dynamics and functions, as well as the role of oxidative stress in the resultant cybrid lines. We demonstrated that increased expression levels of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) are markedly induced by oxidative stress in MCI-derived mitochondria along with aberrant mitochondrial functions. Inhibition of oxidative stress rescues MCI-impaired mitochondrial fusion/fission balance as shown by the suppression of Mfn2 expression, attenuation of abnormal mitochondrial morphology and distribution, and improvement in mitochondrial function. Furthermore, blockade of MCI-related stress-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling not only attenuates aberrant mitochondrial morphology and function but also restores mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, in particular inhibition of overexpressed Mfn2. Our results provide new insights into the role of the oxidative stress-ERK-Mfn2 signal axis in MCI-related mitochondrial abnormalities, indicating that the MCI phase may be targetable for the development of new therapeutic approaches that improve mitochondrial function in age-related neurodegeneration.
This study aimed to determine the effect on hair cortisol level of a chronic stress response from the Wenchuan earthquake, and to explore the temporal features of elevated hair cortisol. We recruited two cohorts of earthquake survivors: cohort A consisted of 12 male adults and 8 females and cohort B of 20 male adolescents, with 23 and 29 participants as controls, respectively. Their hair samples closest to the scalp were assayed with mass spectrometry to determine cortisol content. Results revealed that hair cortisol content in survivors of cohort A was significantly higher than in the control. For survivors of cohort B, hair cortisol levels increased 6 and 22 weeks after the earthquake and decreased 43 weeks after the outburst. In conclusion, the chronic stress response elicited by the earthquake resulted in elevated hair cortisol. Timing since the earthquake outburst played an important role in the long-term response of the HPA axis to a major acute stressor.
Low temperature (LT) is one of the most prevalent factors limiting the productivity and geographical distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the effect of LT on seed germination and reproductive development in rice, the genetic component affecting vegetative growth under LT remains poorly understood. Here, we report that rice cultivars harboring the dominant LTG1 (Low Temperature Growth 1) allele are more tolerant to LT (15-25°C, a temperature range prevalent in high-altitude, temperate zones and high-latitude areas), than those with the ltg1 allele. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we show that LTG1 encodes a casein kinase I. A functional nucleotide polymorphism was identified in the coding region of LTG1, causing a single amino acid substitution (I357K) that is associated with the growth rate, heading date and yield of rice plants grown at LT. We present evidence that LTG1 affects rice growth at LT via an auxin-dependent process(es). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of this locus suggests that the ltg1 haplotype arose before the domestication of rice in tropical climates. Together, our data demonstrate that LTG1 plays an important role in the adaptive growth and fitness of rice cultivars under conditions of low ambient temperature.
Ambient temperature is one of the major abiotic environmental factors determining the main parameters of fish vital activity. HSP70 plays an essential role in heat response. In this investigation, the promoter and structure of Paralichthys olivaceus hsp70 (Pohsp70) gene was cloned and predicted. 2558 bp upstream regulatory region of Pohsp70 was annotated with four potential promoter elements and four putative binding sites of transcription factors heat shock elements (HSE, nGAAn) in the upstream of the transcription start site. In addition, one intron with 454 bp in the 5'-noncoding region was found. Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript level of Pohsp70 was raised markedly after 1 h by heat shocked. Furthermore, 25 SNPs were identified in Pohsp70 by resequencing, seven of which was associated with heat resistance. In addition, two of the seven SNPs, namely SNP14 and SNP16, were observed in strong linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype with association analysis showed TAGGAG haplotype was more represented in heat susceptible group while (DEL/T) GAATA haplotype was more frequent in heat resistant group. The heat resistant SNPs and haplotype could be candidate markers potentially serving for selective breeding programs of Japanese flounder aimed at improving anti-stress and production.
A novel pH-sensitive polymer, poly(l-histidine)-poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLH-PLGA-TPGS), was synthesized to design a biocompatible drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy. The structure of the PLH-PLGA-TPGS copolymer was confirmed by (1)H-NMR, FTIR and GPC. The apparent pKa of the PLH-PLGA-TPGS copolymer was calculated to be 6.33 according to the acid-base titration curve. The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles (PLH-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles) and corresponding blank nanoparticles were prepared by a co-solvent evaporation method. The blank PLH-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles showed an acidic pH-induced increase in particle size. The DOX-loaded nanoparticles based on PLH-PLGA-TPGS showed a pH-triggered drug-release behavior under acidic conditions. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity experiment on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells showed that the DOX-loaded PLH-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles resulted in lower cell viability versus the PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and free DOX solution. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that DOX-loaded PLH-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles were internalized by MCF-7/ADR cells after 1 and 4h incubation and most of them accumulated in lysosomes to accelerate DOX release under acidic conditions. In summary, the PLH-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have great potential to be used as carriers for anti-tumor drug delivery.
In seed plants, a major pathway for sorting of storage proteins to the protein storage vacuole (PSV) depends on the Golgi-derived dense vesicles (DVs). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the directional trafficking of DVs to PSVs remain largely elusive. Here, we report the functional characterization of the rice (Oryza sativa) glutelin precursor accumulation3 (gpa3) mutant, which exhibits a floury endosperm phenotype and accumulates excess proglutelins in dry seeds. Cytological and immunocytochemistry studies revealed that in the gpa3 mutant, numerous proglutelin-containing DVs are misrouted to the plasma membrane and, via membrane fusion, release their contents into the apoplast to form a new structure named the paramural body. Positional cloning of GPA3 revealed that it encodes a plant-specific kelch-repeat protein that is localized to the trans-Golgi networks, DVs, and PSVs in the developing endosperm. In vitro and in vivo experiments verified that GPA3 directly interacts with the rice Rab5a-guanine exchange factor VPS9a and forms a regulatory complex with Rab5a via VPS9a. Furthermore, our genetic data support the notion that GPA3 acts synergistically with Rab5a and VPS9a to regulate DV-mediated post-Golgi traffic in rice. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating the plant-specific PSV pathway and expand our knowledge of vesicular trafficking in eukaryotes.
MiRNAs have been reported as important regulators in normal physiological processes, human cancer, and even their roles as therapeutic targets have been proposed. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the expression of miRNAs is reported to remarkably deregulate, showing that miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of this disease. In this study, we found that miR-99a was obviously decreased in EOC tissues, serums and cell lines SKOV-3. Importantly, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), predicted to be one target gene of miR-99a using computational algorithms, was higher in expression in EOC cells. Subsequently, FGFR3 was proved to be direct target of miR-99a by dual luciferase assay. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-99a dramatically suppressed expression level of FGFR3 at both mRNA and protein levels, proving FGFR3 to be inversely correlated with miR-99a. Finally, overexpression of miR-99a could significantly inhibit EOC cell proliferation in vitro by decreasing the expression of FGFR3 which also reduced the EOC cell growth after siRNA knockdown. Conclusively, miR-99a expression was remarkably downregulated in serums, tissues and cell and suppresses EOC cell proliferation by targeting FGFR3, suggesting miR-99a as a prospective prognosis marker and potential tumor suppressor for EOC therapeutics.
With the premium bull plays a growing important role in cattle industry, semen detection technology based on individual identification and phylogenetic relationship is paid more and more attention. In order to lay the foundation for the establishment of the China Holstein bull identification method, this research takes 20 Chinese Holstein dairy bull's blood and their corresponding semen, and then extracts the DNA both from the blood and semen, analysis the genetic polymorphisms of 10 microsatellite loci (TGLA227, INRA23, TGLA122, BM2113, SPS115, ETH3, ETH225, MCM158, MAF45 and UMN0108) by microsatellite marker, discuss the feasibility of this method used to individual identification. The results showed that Chinese Holstein dairy bull genetic diversity in the ten microsatellite loci were both high, and the average polymorphic information content of TGLA227, which highest, is 0.8162, ETH225 has the lowest, which is 0.6224. Use STR loci to identify the bull's semen, the cumulative individual identification capacity is 99.99%, which indication that 10 STR loci can be used to the frozen semen quality test and cows individual identification.
By promoting cell wall loosening, expansins contribute to cell enlargement during various developmental processes. Nevertheless, the role of expansins in the expansion and development of endosperm-a major seed component whose cell size is significantly associated with grain yield-is poorly understood. To explore associated biological processes and the evolution of expansins in maize, we performed a systematic analysis of the expansin gene family encompassing gene structure, phylogeny, chromosomal location, gene duplication, and gene ontology. A total of 88 maize expansin genes (ZmEXPs) were identified and categorized into three subfamilies according to their phylogenetic relationships. Expression patterns of ZmEXPs were also investigated in nine different tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of eight ZmEXPs was detected in endosperm, with five showing endosperm-specific expression. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze expression patterns of the eight ZmEXPs in endosperm (10 days after pollination) under abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments. All eight ZmEXPs were found to be significantly regulated by ABA and GA3 in endosperm, suggesting important roles for these hormones in the regulation of ZmEXPs during endosperm development. Our results provide essential information for ZmEXPs cloning and functional exploration, which will assist research on expansin-related mechanisms and contribute to future enhancement of maize grain yield.
Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes one of the most serious viral diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but the molecular basis of RSV resistance has remained elusive. Here we show that the resistant allele of rice STV11 (STV11-R) encodes a sulfotransferase (OsSOT1) catalysing the conversion of salicylic acid (SA) into sulphonated SA (SSA), whereas the gene product encoded by the susceptible allele STV11-S loses this activity. Sequence analyses suggest that the STV11-R and STV11-S alleles were predifferentiated in different geographic populations of wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, and remained prevalent in cultivated indica and japonica rice varieties, respectively. Introgression of the STV11-R allele into susceptible cultivars or heterologous transfer of STV11-R into tobacco plants confers effective resistance against RSV. Our results shed new insights into plant viral defense mechanisms and suggest effective means of breeding RSV-resistant crops using molecular marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering.
Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe shares various important properties with higher eukaryotes and is now considered a useful host for elevated production of mammalian proteins for medicinal applications. The full-length nmt1 promoter has been widely used as a strong promoter in S. pombe expression system. In the present study, the promoters of the eno101 and gpd3 genes in S. pombe were identified as strong constitutive promoters. For convenient applications in the plasmids of S. pombe, these promoters were refined to 276-bp eno and 273-bp gpd promoters by deleting undesired sequences and examining the expression of reporter genes including lacZ and xynA. Both the refined eno and gpd promoters provided approximately 1.5-fold higher expression of LacZ than nmt1 promoter. Furthermore, gene expression under the control of the eno or gpd promoter was not repressed by the components of YES medium while nmt1 promoter was inhibited by thiamine in yeast extract. Therefore, both eno and gpd promoters offer opportunities for efficient production of recombinant proteins by S. pombe in high cell-density fermentation.
We evaluated the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery in drug-resistant epilepsy patients, and investigated preoperative factors associated with postoperative long-term surgical outcome. We performed a retrospective study of 379 patients who received epilepsy surgeries from 2000 to 2010. Patients had completed a minimum of 2-year and up to 12-year follow-up. Preoperative evaluations, surgical outcomes and clinical data of patients were collected and analyzed. We found that the epilepsy surgery was effective in drug-resistant patients and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery was satisfactory. The bipolar electro-coagulation could improve the surgical outcome when the epileptogenic focus was on the functional cortex. Results of the 2-year follow-up showed that preoperative seizure characteristics including the history of febrile seizure, seizure frequency, and location, quantity and range of seizure foci were significantly associated with the surgical outcome. The surgery procedure including the surgery type and the extent of resection also affected outcome. Abnormal head or hippocampus MRI, inconsistent results of preoperative investigations, seizure types, and pathology type might also be predictors of long-term surgical outcome.
1: This study investigated 15 coexisting dominant species in a humid subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest China, consisting of long-lived pioneers and climax species occurring in natural and disturbed regimes. The authors hypothesized that there would be non-tradeoff scaling relationships between sprouting and seed size among species, with the aim of uncovering the ecological relationship between plant sprouting and seed characteristics in the two functional groups. 2: The sprouting variations of the species were initially examined using pairwise comparisons between natural and disturbed habitats within and across species and were noted to show a continuum in persistence niches across the forest dominants, which may underlie the maintenance of plant diversity. Second, a significantly positive, rather than tradeoff, relationship between sprout number and seed size across species within each of the two functional groups was observed, and an obvious elevational shift with a common slope among the two groups in their natural habitat was examined. The results indicate the following: 1) the relationship of seed size vs. sprouts in the natural habitat is more likely to be bet-hedging among species within a guild in a forest; 2) climax species tend to choose seeding rather than sprouting regeneration, and vice versa for the long-lived pioneers; and 3) the negative correlation between sprouting and seed dispersal under disturbed conditions may imply a tradeoff between dispersal and persistence in situ during the process of plant regeneration. 3: These findings may be of potential significance for urban greening using native species.
Chemical conversions mediated by microorganisms, otherwise known as microbial biotransformations, are playing an increasingly important role within the biotechnology industry. Unfortunately, the growth and production of microorganisms are often hampered by a number of stressful conditions emanating from environment fluctuations and/or metabolic imbalances such as high temperature, high salt condition, strongly acidic solution, and presence of toxic metabolites. Therefore, exploring methods to improve the stress tolerance of host organisms could significantly improve the biotransformation process. With the help of synthetic biology, it is now becoming feasible to implement strategies to improve the stress-resistance of the existing hosts. This review summarizes synthetic biology efforts to enhance the efficiency of biotransformations by improving the robustness of microbes. Particular attention will be given to strategies at the cellular and the microbial community levels.
In this study, a sensitive dual-label time-resolved reverse competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay was developed for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) and clenbuterol (CLE) in milk. The strategy was performed based on the distinction of the kinetic characteristics of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in chemiluminesecence (CL) systems and different orders of magnitude in HRP CL value for CAP and ALP CL value for CLE in the chemiluminescent immunoassay. Capture antibodies were covalently bound to the amine group functionalized chemiluminescent microtiter plate (MTP) for efficient binding of detection antibodies for the enzymes labeled CAP (HRP-CAP) and CLE (ALP-CLE). The CL signals were recorded at different time points by the automatic luminometers with significant distinction in the dynamic curves. When we considered the ALP CL value (about 105) of CLE as background for HRP CL signal value (about 107) of CAP, there was no interaction from ALP CL background of CLE and the differentiation of CAP and CLE can be easily achieved. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of CAP and CLE in milk samples were 0.00501 µg L-1 and 0.0128 µg L-1, with the ranges from 0.0003 µg L-1 to 0.0912 µg L-1 and from 0.00385 µg L-1 to 0.125 µg L-1, respectively. The developed method is more sensitive and of less duration than the commercial ELISA kits, suitable for simultaneous screening of CAP and CLE.
Whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy events) and gene loss events have played important roles in the evolution of legumes. Here we show that the vast majority of Hsf gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplication, and significant differences in gene retention exist between species. By searching for intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found that genome duplications accounted for 42 of 46 Hsf-containing segments in Glycine max, while paired segments were rarely identified in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan. However, by comparing interspecies microsynteny, we determined that the great majority of Hsf-containing segments in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan show extensive conservation with the duplicated regions of Glycine max. These segments formed 17 groups of orthologous segments. These results suggest that these regions shared ancient genome duplication with Hsf genes in Glycine max, but more than half of the copies of these genes were lost. On the other hand, the Glycine max Hsf gene family retained approximately 75% and 84% of duplicated genes produced from the ancient genome duplication and recent Glycine-specific genome duplication, respectively. Continuous purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of Hsf genes in Glycine max. Expression analysis of the Hsf genes in Lotus japonicus revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages and responses to various abiotic stimuli. This study traces the evolution of Hsf genes in legume species and demonstrates that the rates of gene gain and loss are far from equilibrium in different species.
Myostatin, a member of the TGF-? superfamily, has been shown to act as a negative regulator of myogenesis. Although its role in myogenesis has been clearly documented through genetic analysis, few gene cascades that respond to myostatin signaling and regulate myogenesis have been characterized, especially in avian species. In a previous study, we screened for such genes in chicken fetal myoblasts (CFMs) using the differential display PCR method and found that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was downregulated by myostatin and specifically expressed in chicken skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the potential functions of CARP in chicken skeletal myogenesis. In this study, the expression patterns of chicken CARP and the possible function of this gene in skeletal muscle growth were characterized. Our data showed that CARP was predominantly expressed in postnatal skeletal muscle, and its expression increased during myogenic differentiation in CFM cells. When CARP was overexpressed, CFM cell growth was enhanced by accelerating the cell cycle at the G1 to S phase transition and increasing cyclin D1 expression. CARP knockdown had the opposite effect: while myoblasts underwent differentiation, knockdown of CARP expression induced extensive cell death, suppressed the formation of myotubes, and markedly decreased the expression of differentiation-related genes such as myosin heavy chain (MHC), myoD, and caveolin-3. Our findings indicate that CARP may play a key role in the myostatin signaling cascade that governs chicken skeletal myogenesis through promoting proliferation and avoiding apoptosis during CFM cell differentiation.
The pH-responsive micelles have enormous potential as nanosized drug carriers for cancer therapy due to their physicochemical changes in response to the tumor intracellular acidic microenvironment. Herein, a series of comb-like amphiphilic copolymers bearing acetal-functionalized backbone were developed based on poly[(2,4,6-trimethoxybenzylidene-1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl) ethane methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA)] as effective nanocarriers for intracellular curcumin (CUR) release. P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA) copolymers with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic ratios were prepared by one-step reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of TTMA and mPEGMA. Their molecular structures and chemical compositions were confirmed by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA) copolymers could self-assemble into nanosized micelles in aqueous solution and displayed low critical micelle concentration (CMC). All P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA) micelles displayed excellent drug loading capacity, due to the strong ?-? conjugate action and hydrophobic interaction between the PTTMA and CUR. Moreover, the hydrophobic PTTMA chain could be selectively hydrolyzed into a hydrophilic backbone in the mildly acidic environment, leading to significant swelling and final disassembly of the micelles. These morphological changes of P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA) micelles with time at pH 5.0 were determined by DLS and TEM. The in vitro CUR release from the micelles exhibited a pH-dependent behavior. The release rate of CUR was significantly accelerated at mildly acidic pH of 4.0 and 5.0 compared to that at pH 7.4. Toxicity test revealed that the P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA) copolymers exhibited low cytotoxicity, whereas the CUR-loaded micelles maintained high cytotoxicity for HepG-2 and EC-109 cells. The results indicated that the novel P(TTMA-co-mPEGMA) micelles with low CMC, small and tunable sizes, high drug loading, pH-responsive drug release behavior, and good biocompatibility may have potential as hydrophobic drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer therapy with intelligent delivery.
A distributed virtual environment (DVE) is a shared virtual environment (VE) that allows remote users to interact with each other through networks. DVEs are becoming very popular due to some prominent applications, such as online games and virtual worlds. To support a large number of users, a multi-server DVE architecture may be adopted, with each server managing a subset of users. However, there are two critical problems with this architecture: view inconsistency caused by delays and server overloading caused by uneven distribution of users. While the first problem affects users perception of the VE and causes user disputes, the second problem affects the system response time. In this paper, we first show that the view inconsistency problem and the load balancing problem are conflicting objectives. We then propose an efficient joint optimization framework to address both problems. Our results show that the proposed method can improve the view inconsistency problem significantly, which is important to the interactivity of DVE applications.
Easily visualization of complex data features is a necessary step to conduct studies on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. We developed STAR, an integrated web application that enables online management, visualization and track-based analysis of NGS data.
The kidneys vital filtration function depends on the structural integrity of the glomerulus, the proximal portion of the nephron. Within the glomerulus, the architecturally complex podocyte forms the final cellular barrier to filtration. Injury to the podocyte results in a morphological change called foot process effacement, which is a ubiquitous feature of proteinuric diseases. The exact mechanism underlying foot process effacement is not known, but recently it has been proposed that this change might reflect activation of the Rac1 GTPase. To test this hypothesis, we generated a podocyte-specific, inducible transgenic mouse line that expressed constitutively active Rac1. When the Rac1 transgene was induced, we observed a rapid onset of proteinuria with focal foot process effacement. Using superresolution imaging, we verified that the induced transgene was expressed in damaged podocytes with altered foot process morphology. This work sheds new light on the complex balance of Rho GTPase signaling that is required for proper regulation of the podocyte cytoskeleton.
The tumour suppressor p53 is frequently mutated in tumours. Mutant p53 (Mutp53) proteins often gain new activities in promoting tumorigenesis, defined as gain-of-function (GOF). Mutp53 can accumulate to high levels in tumours, which promotes mutp53 GOF in tumorigenesis. The mechanism of mutp53 accumulation is poorly understood. Here we find that MDM2 isoforms promote mutp53 accumulation in tumours. MDM2 isoform B (MDM2-B), the MDM2 isoform most frequently over-expressed in human tumours, interacts with full-length MDM2 to inhibit MDM2-mediated mutp53 degradation, promoting mutp53 accumulation and GOF in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, MDM2-B overexpression correlates with mutp53 accumulation in human tumours. In mutp53 knock-in mice, a MDM2 isoform similar to human MDM2-B is overexpressed in the majority of tumours, which promotes mutp53 accumulation and tumorigenesis. Thus, overexpression of MDM2 isoforms promotes mutp53 accumulation in tumours, contributing to mutp53 GOF in tumorigenesis. This may be an important mechanism by which MDM2 isoforms promote tumorigenesis.
Light and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulate overlapping processes in plants, such as seed germination and seedling development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between light and ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1), two key positive transcription factors in the phytochrome A pathway, directly bind to the promoter of ABA-Insensitive5 and activate its expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Disruption of FHY3 and/or FAR1 reduces the sensitivity to ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination, seedling development, and primary root growth. The seed germination of the fhy3 mutant is also less sensitive to salt and osmotic stress than that of the wild type. Constitutive expression of ABA-Insensitive5 restores the seed germination response of fhy3. Furthermore, the expression of several ABA-responsive genes is decreased in the fhy3 and/or far1 mutants during seed imbibition. Consistently, FHY3 and FAR1 transcripts are up-regulated by ABA and abiotic stresses. Moreover, the fhy3 and far1 mutants have wider stomata, lose water faster, and are more sensitive to drought than the wild type. These findings demonstrate that FHY3 and FAR1 are positive regulators of ABA signaling and provide insight into the integration of light and ABA signaling, a process that may allow plants to better adapt to environmental stresses.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which depends on the AP2 complex, plays an essential role in many cellular and developmental processes in mammalian cells. However, the function of the AP2 complex in plants remains largely unexplored. Here, we show in Arabidopsis that the AP2 ? subunit mutant (ap2 ?) displays various developmental defects that are similar to those of mutants defective in auxin transport and/or signaling, including single, trumpet-shaped and triple cotyledons, impaired vascular pattern, reduced vegetative growth, defective silique development and drastically reduced fertility. We demonstrate that AP2 ? is closely associated and physically interacts with the clathrin light chain (CLC) in vivo using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), protein proximity analyses and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Using variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (VA-TIRFM), we show that AP2 ?-mCherry spots colocalize with CLC-EGFP at the plasma membrane, and that AP2 ?-mCherry fluorescence appears and disappears before CLC-EGFP fluorescence. The density and turnover rate of the CLC-EGFP spots are significantly reduced in the ap2 ? mutant. The internalization and recycling of the endocytic tracer FM4-64 and the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1 are also significantly reduced in the ap2 ? mutant. Further, the polar localization of PIN1-GFP is significantly disrupted during embryogenesis in the ap2 ? mutant. Taken together, our results support an essential role of AP2 ? in the assembly of a functional AP2 complex in plants, which is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, polar auxin transport and plant growth regulation.
Homeodomain leucine zipper I (HD-ZIP I) genes were used to increase the plasticity of plants by mediating external signals and regulating growth in response to environmental conditions. The way genomic histories drove the evolution of the HD-ZIP I family in legume species was described; HD-ZIP I genes were searched in Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris, and then divided into five clades through phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis was made based on genomic segments containing the HD-ZIP I genes. Some pairs turned out to conform with syntenic genome regions, while others corresponded to those that were inverted, expanded, or contracted after the divergence of legumes. Besides, we dated their duplications by Ks analysis and demonstrated that all the blocks were formed after the monocot-dicot split; we observed Ka/Ks ratios representing strong purifying selections in the four legume species which might have been followed by gene loss and rearrangement.
Nanometallic fuels with high combustion enthalpy, such as aluminum, have been proposed as a potential fuel replacement for conventional metallic fuel to improve propellant performance in a variety of propulsive systems. Nevertheless, nanometallic fuels suffer from the processing challenges in polymer formulations such as increased viscosity and large agglomeration, which hinder their implementation. In this letter, we employ electrospray as a means to create a gel within a droplet, via a rapid, solvent evaporation-induced aggregation of aluminum nanoparticles, containing a small mass fraction of an energetic binder. The gelled aluminum microspheres were characterized and tested for their burning behavior by rapid wire heating ignition experiments. The gelled aluminum microspheres show enhanced combustion behavior compared to nanoaluminum, which possibly benefits from the nitrocellulose coating and the gelled microstructure, and is far superior to the corresponding dense micrometer-sized aluminum.
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