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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Positive Semidefinite Rank-based Correlation Matrix Estimation with Application to Semiparametric Graph Estimation.
J Comput Graph Stat
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Many statistical methods gain robustness and flexibility by sacrificing convenient computational structures. In this paper, we illustrate this fundamental tradeoff by studying a semi-parametric graph estimation problem in high dimensions. We explain how novel computational techniques help to solve this type of problem. In particular, we propose a nonparanormal neighborhood pursuit algorithm to estimate high dimensional semiparametric graphical models with theoretical guarantees. Moreover, we provide an alternative view to analyze the tradeoff between computational efficiency and statistical error under a smoothing optimization framework. Though this paper focuses on the problem of graph estimation, the proposed methodology is widely applicable to other problems with similar structures. We also report thorough experimental results on text, stock, and genomic datasets.
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Titanium Dioxide-Coated Carbon Nanotube Network Filter for Rapid and Effective Arsenic Sorption.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In this study, a TiO2-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) network filter was prepared via a simple filtration-steam hydrolysis method and evaluated with respect to aqueous arsenic removal. The TiO2 coating was 5.5 ± 2.7 nm thick, completely covered the CNT network surface, and had a specific surface area of 196 m(2) g(-1), which was ?2-fold greater than that of the CNT network. The TiO2-CNT As sorption kinetics increased with both increasing flow rate and cell potential, with increasing flow rate having a significantly stronger effect. At 6 mL min(-1) in the absence of potential and in recirculation mode, the first-order As sorption rate constants were 4.3 and 4.4 s(-1) for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The TiO2-CNT electro-assisted equilibrium sorption capacities at a cell potential of 2 V for effluent [As] = 10 ppb in single-pass mode were 1.8 and 1.3 mg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The enhanced TiO2-CNT filter As sorption kinetics and capacity result from increased mass transport due to internal convection and pore radius range, improved sorption site accessibility due to porosity and TiO2 dispersion, and reduced TiO2 negative surface charge due to anodic capacitance. Groundwater samples containing 44 ppb As were treated by single-pass filtration, and 12500 bed volumes (residence time of 4.5 s; 127 L m(-2) h(-1); 5.8 mg m(-2) h(-1)) were filtered prior to the effluent As level reaching >10 ppb. A spent TiO2 filter was successfully regenerated by 5 mM NaOH for both As(III) and As(V).
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[Molluscicidal effect comparison between TDS and MNSC in field].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To compare the molluscicidal effects between "Luo-wei" (TDS), a plant molluscicide in 4 percent, and metaldehyde and niclosamide (MNSC) in the field.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594?bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora.
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Device perspective for black phosphorus field-effect transistors: contact resistance, ambipolar behavior, and scaling.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Although monolayer black phosphorus (BP), or phosphorene, has been successfully exfoliated and its optical properties have been explored, most of the electrical performance of the devices is demonstrated on few-layer phosphorene and ultrathin BP films. In this paper, we study the channel length scaling of ultrathin BP field-effect transistors (FETs) and discuss a scheme for using various contact metals to change the transistor characteristics. Through studying transistor behaviors with various channel lengths, the contact resistance can be extracted with the transfer length method (TLM). With different contact metals, we find out that the metal/BP interface has different Schottky barrier heights, leading to a significant difference in contact resistance, which is quite different from previous studies of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, where the Fermi level is strongly pinned near the conduction band edge at the metal/MoS2 interface. The nature of BP transistors is Schottky barrier FETs, where the on and off states are controlled by tuning the Schottky barriers at the two contacts. We also observe the ambipolar characteristics of BP transistors with enhanced n-type drain current and demonstrate that the p-type carriers can be easily shifted to n-type or vice versa by controlling the gate bias and drain bias, showing the potential to realize BP CMOS logic circuits.
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Chloride Molecular Doping Technique on 2D Materials: WS2 and MoS2.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Low-resistivity metal-semiconductor (M-S) contact is one of the urgent challenges in the research of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Here, we report a chloride molecular doping technique which greatly reduces the contact resistance (Rc) in the few-layer WS2 and MoS2. After doping, the Rc of WS2 and MoS2 have been decreased to 0.7 k?·?m and 0.5 k?·?m, respectively. The significant reduction of the Rc is attributed to the achieved high electron-doping density, thus a significant reduction of Schottky barrier width. As a proof-of-concept, high-performance few-layer WS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) are demonstrated, exhibiting a high drain current of 380 ?A/?m, an on/off ratio of 4 × 10(6), and a peak field-effect mobility of 60 cm(2)/(V·s). This doping technique provides a highly viable route to diminish the Rc in TMDs, paving the way for high-performance 2D nanoelectronic devices.
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Semiconducting black phosphorus: synthesis, transport properties and electronic applications.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Phosphorus is one of the most abundant elements preserved in earth, and it comprises a fraction of ?0.1% of the earth crust. In general, phosphorus has several allotropes, and the two most commonly seen allotropes, i.e. white and red phosphorus, are widely used in explosives and safety matches. In addition, black phosphorus, though rarely mentioned, is a layered semiconductor and has great potential in optical and electronic applications. Remarkably, this layered material can be reduced to one single atomic layer in the vertical direction owing to the van der Waals structure, and is known as phosphorene, in which the physical properties can be tremendously different from its bulk counterpart. In this review article, we trace back to the research history on black phosphorus of over 100 years from the synthesis to material properties, and extend the topic from black phosphorus to phosphorene. The physical and transport properties are highlighted for further applications in electronic and optoelectronics devices.
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Proteomic analysis of BmN cells (Bombyx mori) in response to infection with Nosema bombycis.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Nosema bombycis (N. bombycis, Nb) is an obligate intracellular parasite, which can cause pebrine disease in the silkworm. To investigate the effects of N. bombycis infection on the host cells, proteomes from BmN cells that had or had not been infected with N. bombycis at different infection stages were characterized with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, which identified 24 differentially expressed host proteins with significant intensity differences (P < 0.05) at least at one time point in mock- and N. bombycis infected cells. Notably, gene ontology analyses showed that these proteins are involved in many important biological reactions. During the infection phase, proteins involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress had up-regulated expression. Two proteins participated in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process had down-regulated expression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of these identified proteins. Taken together, the abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in biological reactions for the identified proteins produce a host-responsive protein model in N. bombycis-infected BmN cells. These findings further our knowledge about the effect of energy defect parasites on the host cells.
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A short peptide from frog skin accelerates diabetic wound healing.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Delayed wound healing will result in the development of chronic wounds in some diseases, such as diabetes. Amphibian skins possess excellent wound-healing ability and represent a resource for prospective wound-healing promoting compounds. A potential wound-healing promoting peptide (CW49; amino acid sequence APFRMGICTTN) was identified from the frog skin of Odorrana grahami. It promotes wound healing in a murine model with a full-thickness dermal wound in both normal and diabetic animals. In addition to its strong angiogenic ability with respect to the upregulation of some angiogenic proteins, CW49 also showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic wounds, which was very important for healing chronic wounds. CW49 had little effect on re-epithelialization, resulting in no significant effect on wound closure rate compared to a vehicle control. Altogether, this indicated that CW49 might accelerate diabetic wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and preventing any excessive inflammatory response. Considering its favorable traits as a small peptide that significantly promotes angiogenesis, CW49 might be an excellent candidate or template for the development of a drug for use in the treatment of diabetic wounds.
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Two-dimensional TaSe2 metallic crystals: spin-orbit scattering length and breakdown current density.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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We have determined the spin-orbit scattering length of two-dimensional layered 2H-TaSe2 metallic crystals by detailed characterization of the weak antilocalization phenomena in this strong spin-orbit interaction material. By fitting the observed magneto-conductivity, the spin-orbit scattering length for 2H-TaSe2 is determined to be 17 nm in the few-layer films. This small spin-orbit scattering length is comparable to that of Pt, which is widely used to study the spin Hall effect, and indicates the potential of TaSe2 for use in spin Hall effect devices. A material must also support large charge currents in addition to strong spin-orbit coupling to achieve spin-transfer-torque via the spin Hall effect. Therefore, we have characterized the room temperature breakdown current density of TaSe2 in air, where the best breakdown current density reaches 3.7 × 10(7) A/cm(2). This large breakdown current further indicates the potential of TaSe2 for use in spin-torque devices and two-dimensional device interconnect applications.
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Autoimmune disease comorbidities in patients with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide case-control study in Taiwan.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatitis of unknown etiology. It is thought that abnormal regulation of Th1 and Th2 is not only the major cause of AD, but also the vital pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. To date, no large-scale studies have been performed on the relationship between AD and autoimmune disease. By conducting a nationwide population-based study with case-controls in Taiwan, we sought to clarify the association of AD with other autoimmune diseases to obtain a better understanding of its pathogenesis.
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Downregulation of RIP140 in hepatocellular carcinoma promoted the growth and migration of the cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies with a poor response to chemotherapy. It is very important to identify novel diagnosis biomarkers and therapeutic targets. RIP140, a regulator of estrogen receptor, recently has been found to be involved in the tumorigenesis. However, its function in the progression of HCC remains poorly understood. Here, we found that the expression of RIP140 was downregulated in the HCC tissues. Moreover, overexpression of RIP140 in HCC cells inhibited cell proliferation and migration, while downregulation of RIP140 promoted the tumorigenicity of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, RIP140 interacted with beta-catenin and negatively regulated beta-catenin/TCF signaling. Taken together, our study suggests the suppressive roles of RIP140 in the pathogenesis of HCC.
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Implications of the Wnt5a/CaMKII pathway in retinoic acid-induced myogenic tongue abnormalities of developing mice.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Although proper tongue development is relevant to other structures in the craniofacial region, the molecular details of muscle development in tongue remain poorly understood. Here, we report that pregnant mice treated with retinoic acid (+RA) produce embryos with tongue malformation and a cleft palate. Histological analyses revealed that at E14.5, the tongues of +RA fetuses failed to descend and flatten. Ultrastructural analysis showed that at perinatal stage E18.5, the myofilaments failed to form normal structures of sarcomeres, and arranged disorderly in the genioglossus. The proliferation and levels of myogenic determination markers (Myf5 and MyoD) and myosin in the genioglossus were profoundly reduced. Wnt5a and Camk2d expressions were down-regulated, while levels of Tbx1, Ror2, and PKC? were up-regulated in the tongues of +RA fetuses. In mock- and Wnt5a-transfected C2C12 (Wnt5a-C2C12) cells, Wnt5a overexpression impaired proliferation, and maintained Myf5 at a relative high level after RA treatment. Furthermore, Wnt5a overexpression positively correlated with levels of Camk2d and Ror2 in C2C12 cells after RA exposure. These data support the hypothesis that the Wnt5a/CaMKII pathway is directly involved in RA-induced hypoplasia and disorder of tongue muscles.
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An infertile 45,X male with a SRY-bearing chromosome 13: a clinical case report and literature review.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Patients with a karyotype of 45,X (monosomy X) normally display a female phenotype. However, in some rare cases, monosomy X is associated with maleness. Here we describe a case of a male with a 45,X karyotype and primary infertility, which prompted molecular investigation of the sex-determination gene SRY.
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Terahertz wave polarization beam splitter using a cascaded multimode interference structure.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A terahertz wave polarization beam splitter, based on two cascaded multimode interference structures with different widths, is designed and numerically demonstrated. The numerical calculation results show that the designed polarization beam splitter can split transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized terahertz waves into different propagation directions with high efficiency over a frequency range from 6.40 to 6.50 THz. This polarization beam splitter shows more than a 22.06 dB extinction ratio for TE-polarization and a 31.65 dB extinction ratio for TM-polarization. Using such a polarization beam splitter, the whole length of the polarization beam splitter is reduced to about 1/12 that of a conventional design. This enables the polarization beam splitter to be used in terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.
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Black phosphorus-monolayer MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction p-n diode.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Phosphorene, a elemental 2D material, which is the monolayer of black phosphorus, has been mechanically exfoliated recently. In its bulk form, black phosphorus shows high carrier mobility (?10,000 cm(2)/V·s) and a ?0.3 eV direct band gap. Well-behaved p-type field-effect transistors with mobilities of up to 1000 cm(2)/V·s, as well as phototransistors, have been demonstrated on few-layer black phosphorus, showing its promise for electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its high hole mobility and thickness-dependent direct band gap. However, p–n junctions, the basic building blocks of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices, have not yet been realized based on black phosphorus. In this paper, we demonstrate a gate-tunable p–n diode based on a p-type black phosphorus/n-type monolayer MoS2 van der Waals p–n heterojunction. Upon illumination, these ultrathin p–n diodes show a maximum photodetection responsivity of 418 mA/W at the wavelength of 633 nm and photovoltaic energy conversion with an external quantum efficiency of 0.3%. These p–n diodes show promise for broad-band photodetection and solar energy harvesting.
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TPX2 siRNA regulates growth and invasion of esophageal cancer cells.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Observe how specific small RNA interference (siRNA) aimed at TPX2 gene suppresses TPX2 gene expression in esophageal cancer EC9706 cells and the effect on esophageal cancer cell growth and invasion ability.
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Sonic hedgehog paracrine signaling activates stromal cells to promote perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is characterized by stromal desmoplasia and perineural invasion (PNI). We sought to explore the contribution of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) activated by paracrine Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in pancreatic cancer PNI and progression.
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Scale-Invariant Sparse PCA on High Dimensional Meta-elliptical Data.
J Am Stat Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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We propose a semiparametric method for conducting scale-invariant sparse principal component analysis (PCA) on high dimensional non-Gaussian data. Compared with sparse PCA, our method has weaker modeling assumption and is more robust to possible data contamination. Theoretically, the proposed method achieves a parametric rate of convergence in estimating the parameter of interests under a flexible semiparametric distribution family; Computationally, the proposed method exploits a rank-based procedure and is as efficient as sparse PCA; Empirically, our method outperforms most competing methods on both synthetic and real-world datasets.
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Efficient and cost reduced glucoamylase fed-batch production with alternative carbon-sources.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Glucoamylase is an important industrial enzyme. Glucoamylase production by industrial Aspergillus niger strain featured with two major problems: (1) empirical substrate feeding methods deteriorating the fermentation performance; (2) the high raw materials cost limiting the economics of the glucoamylase product with delegated specification. In this study, we firstly proposed a novel three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy for efficient glucoamylase production in a 5 L bioreactor using the standard feeding medium, by comparing the changing patterns of the important physiological parameters such as DO, OUR, RQ, etc., when using different substrate feeding strategies. With this strategy, the glucoamylase activity and productivity reached higher levels of 11,000 U/ml and 84.6 U/ml/h, respectively. The performance enhancement in this case was beneficial from the following results: DO and OUR could be controlled at the higher levels (30%, 43.83 mmol/l/h) while RQ be maintained at a stable/lower level of 0.60 simultaneously throughout the fed-batch phase. Based on this three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy, we further evaluated the economics of using alternative carbon-sources, attempting to reduce the raw materials cost. The results revealed that cornstarch hydrolysate could be considered as the best carbon-source to replace the standard and expensive feeding medium. In this case, production cost of the glucoamylase with delegated specification (5,000 U/ml) could be saved for more than 61% while the product quality be ensured simultaneously. The proposed strategy showed application potential in improving economics of industrial glucoamylase production.
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A stereoselective ring-closing glycosylation via nonglycosylating pathway.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Two glycosyl partners were first coupled with as ester linkage, which upon reductive acetylation produced an ?-acetoxy ether group. The subsequent activation with TfOH triggered the ring-closing process and provided the corresponding glycosidic bond in high ?-selectivity without relying on neighboring group participation.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the connection between inflammation and autophagy in type 2 diabetes.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Type 2 diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease. A number of studies have clearly demonstrated that cytokines such as interleukin 1? (IL1?) contribute to pancreatic inflammation, leading to impaired glucose homeostasis and diabetic disease. There are findings which suggest that islet ?-cells can secrete cytokines and cause inflammatory responses. In this process, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which further demonstrates a potential role for ER stress in innate immunity via activation of the NOD-like receptor (NLRP) 3/caspase1 inflammasome and in diabetes pathogenesis via the release of cytokines. Recent developments have also revealed a crucial role for the autophagy pathway during ER stress and inflammation. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic system that not only plays a crucial role in maintaining the normal islet architecture and intracellular insulin content but also represents a form of programmed cell death. In this review, we focus on the roles of autophagy, inflammation, and ER stress in type 2 diabetes but, above all, on the connections among these factors.
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A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Although it is well known that wound healing proceeds incredibly quickly in urodele amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, little is known about skin-wound healing, and no bioactive/effector substance that contributes to wound healing has been identified from these animals. As a step toward understanding salamander wound healing and skin regeneration, a potential wound-healing-promoting peptide (tylotoin; KCVRQNNKRVCK) was identified from salamander skin of Tylototriton verrucosus. It shows comparable wound-healing-promoting ability (EC50=11.14 ?g/ml) with epidermal growth factor (EGF; NSDSECPLSHDGYCLHDGVCMYIEALDKYACNCVVGYIGERCQYRDLKWWELR) in a murine model of full-thickness dermal wound. Tylotoin directly enhances the motility and proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, resulting in accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation in the wound site. Tylotoin also promotes the release of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are essential in the wound healing response. Gene-encoded tylotoin secreted in salamander skin is possibly an effector molecule for skin wound healing. This study may facilitate understanding of the cellular and molecular events that underlie quick wound healing in salamanders.-Mu, L., Tang, J., Liu, H., Shen, C., Rong, M., Zhang, Z., Lai, R. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.
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MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. More than 80% of diagnoses occur at the middle to late stage of the disease, highlighting an urgent need for novel biomarkers detectable at earlier stages. Recently, aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) have received a great deal of attention as potential sensitive and accurate biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge about potential miRNA biomarkers for gastric cancer that have been reported in the publicly available literature between 2008 and 2013. Available evidence indicates that aberrantly expressed miRNAs in gastric cancer correlate with tumorigenesis, tumor proliferation, distant metastasis and invasion. Furthermore, tissue and cancer types can be classified using miRNA expression profiles and next-generation sequencing. As miRNAs in plasma/serum are well protected from RNases, they remain stable under harsh conditions. Thus, potential functions of these circulating miRNAs can be deduced and may implicate their diagnostic value in cancer detection. Circulating miRNAs, as well as tissue miRNAs, may allow for the detection of gastric cancer at an early stage, prediction of prognosis, and monitoring of recurrence and/or lymph node metastasis. Taken together, the data suggest that the participation of miRNAs in biomarker development will enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic and prognostic tests for gastric cancer.
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mRNA stability in the nucleus.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled by different levels of biological events, such as transcription factors regulating the timing and strength of transcripts production, alteration of transcription rate by RNA processing, and mRNA stability during RNA processing and translation. RNAs, especially mRNAs, are relatively vulnerable molecules in living cells for ribonucleases (RNases). The maintenance of quality and quantity of transcripts is a key issue for many biological processes. Extensive studies draw the conclusion that the stability of RNAs is dedicated-regulated, occurring co- and post-transcriptionally, and translation-coupled as well, either in the nucleus or cytoplasm. Recently, RNA stability in the nucleus has aroused much research interest, especially the stability of newly-made transcripts. In this article, we summarize recent progresses on mRNA stability in the nucleus, especially focusing on quality control of newly-made RNA by RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes.
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Development and application of serine/threonine ligation for synthetic protein chemistry.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Chemical synthesis of proteins, especially those with post-translational modifications, has offered new opportunities to study the protein structure-function relationship. In the past four years, we have developed the serine/threonine ligation (STL), which involves the chemoselective reaction between peptide salicylaldehyde esters and peptides with N-terminal serine or threonine. The method has been successfully applied to the synthesis of both linear and cyclic peptides/proteins.
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Developmental toxicity, oxidative stress, and related gene expression induced by dioxin-like PCB 126 in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) cause multiple adverse effects in organisms including animals and humans. Although PCB toxicities are linked to oxidative damage in rodents, the mechanism in early life stages of zebrafish is not clear. To explore the developmental toxicity mechanism of PCB126, three paradigms (toxicological phenotypes, biochemical changes, and molecular changes) were studied in 3-h postfertilization (hpf) zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to different PCB126 concentrations (0, 16, 32, 64, and 128 ?g/L) until 168 hpf. Developmental malformations, including pericardial and yolk sac edema, impaired lower jaw growth, spinal curvature, head edema and failure to inflate the swim bladder were observed, some as early as 72 hpf. Mortality was not apparent in early stages but significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner from 144 hpf onward. A dose-dependent significant increase in malformation rate was observed from 72 hpf onward with up to 100% at 132 hpf in embryos exposed to 128 ?g/L of PCB126. Higher doses of PCB126 significantly decreased the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-Sod), catalase (Cat), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) enzyme activities at 96, 132 hpf, but markedly declined from thereafter. PCB126 at 128 ?g/L significantly increased the malondialdehyde content at 72, 96, and 132 hpf. The transcriptional gene expression of antioxidant enzymes Cat and Gpx was upregulated in embryos exposed to 64 ?g/L of PCB126 at 24 and 96 hpf. Sod1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was low in embryos exposed to 32 ?g/L at 72 and 96 hpf but was induced in embryos exposed to 64 and 128 ?g/L doses at 132 hpf. Collectively, the results suggest oxidative stress as a major factor in the induction of multiple developmental abnormalities in early life stages of zebrafish exposed to PCB126. However, the relationship between the antioxidant enzyme activity and the mRNA expression was not clear and the potential reasons for this are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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We introduce the 2D counterpart of layered black phosphorus, which we call phosphorene, as an unexplored p-type semiconducting material. Same as graphene and MoS2, single-layer phosphorene is flexible and can be mechanically exfoliated. We find phosphorene to be stable and, unlike graphene, to have an inherent, direct, and appreciable band gap. Our ab initio calculations indicate that the band gap is direct, depends on the number of layers and the in-layer strain, and is significantly larger than the bulk value of 0.31-0.36 eV. The observed photoluminescence peak of single-layer phosphorene in the visible optical range confirms that the band gap is larger than that of the bulk system. Our transport studies indicate a hole mobility that reflects the structural anisotropy of phosphorene and complements n-type MoS2. At room temperature, our few-layer phosphorene field-effect transistors with 1.0 ?m channel length display a high on-current of 194 mA/mm, a high hole field-effect mobility of 286 cm(2)/V·s, and an on/off ratio of up to 10(4). We demonstrate the possibility of phosphorene integration by constructing a 2D CMOS inverter consisting of phosphorene PMOS and MoS2 NMOS transistors.
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BarR, an Lrp-type transcription factor in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, regulates an aminotransferase gene in a ?-alanine responsive manner.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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In archaea, nothing is known about the ?-alanine degradation pathway or its regulation. In this work, we identify and characterize BarR, a novel Lrp-like transcription factor and the first one that has a non-proteinogenic amino acid ligand. BarR is conserved in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus tokodaii and is located in a divergent operon with a gene predicted to encode ?-alanine aminotransferase. Deletion of barR resulted in a reduced exponential growth rate in the presence of ?-alanine. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and promoter activity assays demonstrated that BarR activates the expression of the adjacent aminotransferase gene, but only upon ?-alanine supplementation. In contrast, auto-activation proved to be ?-alanine independent. Heterologously produced BarR is an octamer in solution and forms a single complex by interacting with multiple sites in the 170?bp long intergenic region separating the divergently transcribed genes. In vitro, DNA binding is specifically responsive to ?-alanine and site-mutant analyses indicated that ?-alanine directly interacts with the ligand-binding pocket. Altogether, this work contributes to the growing body of evidence that in archaea, Lrp-like transcription factors have physiological roles that go beyond the regulation of ?-amino acid metabolism.
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Expressions of ABCG2, CD133, and podoplanin in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most common salivary gland malignant tumors with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Current studies on cancer stem cells (CSCs) have verified that CSCs are the driving force behind tumor initiation and progression, suggesting that new cancer therapies may be established by effectively targeting and killing the CSCs. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of ABCG2, CD133, and podoplanin in ACC of minor salivary glands by immunohistochemistry analysis. We found that ABCG2 was weakly expressed in normal looking salivary gland tissues. A significant upregulation of ABCG2 expression in ACC was observed with a similar expression pattern of Ki-67. CD133 was detected in apical membrane of epithelial cells and podoplanin was expressed positively in myoepithelial cells of both normal looking tissue and ACC. However, no significant difference was found of the expression pattern of CD133 and podoplanin between normal looking tissues and ACC. Our observations suggest that CSCs may exist in quiescent cells with ABCG2 positive staining, which are surrounded by cells with positive expression of ABCG2 and Ki-67 in ACC, and costaining with ABCG2 and Ki-67 may help predict the location of CSCs.
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Tumor genetic analyses of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and extended benefit from mTOR inhibitor therapy.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Rapalogs are allosteric mTOR inhibitors and approved agents for advanced kidney cancer. Reports of clonal heterogeneity in this disease challenge the concept of targeted monotherapy, yet a small subset of patients derives extended benefit. Our aim was to analyze such outliers and explore the genomic background of extreme rapalog sensitivity in the context of intratumor heterogeneity.
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Proteasome inhibitors evoke latent tumor suppression programs in pro-B MLL leukemias through MLL-AF4.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Chromosomal translocations disrupting MLL generate MLL-fusion proteins that induce aggressive leukemias. Unexpectedly, MLL-fusion proteins are rarely observed at high levels, suggesting excessive MLL-fusions may be incompatible with a malignant phenotype. Here, we used clinical proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib, to reduce the turnover of endogenous MLL-fusions and discovered that accumulated MLL-fusions induce latent, context-dependent tumor suppression programs. Specifically, in MLL pro-B lymphoid, but not myeloid, leukemias, proteasome inhibition triggers apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involving activation cleavage of BID by caspase-8 and upregulation of p27, respectively. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition conferred preliminary benefit to patients with MLL-AF4 leukemia. Hence, feasible strategies to treat cancer-type and oncogene-specific cancers can be improvised through harnessing inherent tumor suppression properties of individual oncogenic fusions.
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Osr1 acts downstream of and interacts synergistically with Six2 to maintain nephron progenitor cells during kidney organogenesis.
Development
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Mammalian kidney organogenesis involves reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that drive iterative cycles of nephron formation. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Six2 transcription factor acts cell autonomously to maintain nephron progenitor cells, whereas canonical Wnt signaling induces nephron differentiation. How Six2 maintains the nephron progenitor cells against Wnt-directed commitment is not well understood, however. We report here that Six2 is required to maintain expression of Osr1, a homolog of the Drosophila odd-skipped zinc-finger transcription factor, in the undifferentiated cap mesenchyme. Tissue-specific inactivation of Osr1 in the cap mesenchyme caused premature depletion of nephron progenitor cells and severe renal hypoplasia. We show that Osr1 and Six2 act synergistically to prevent premature differentiation of the cap mesenchyme. Furthermore, although both Six2 and Osr1 could form protein interaction complexes with TCF proteins, Osr1, but not Six2, enhances TCF interaction with the Groucho family transcriptional co-repressors. Moreover, we demonstrate that loss of Osr1 results in ?-catenin/TCF-mediated ectopic activation of Wnt4 enhancer-driven reporter gene expression in the undifferentiated nephron progenitor cells in vivo. Together, these data indicate that Osr1 plays crucial roles in Six2-dependent maintenance of nephron progenitors during mammalian nephrogenesis by stabilizing TCF-Groucho transcriptional repressor complexes to antagonize Wnt-directed nephrogenic differentiation.
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EGb-761 prevents ultraviolet B-induced photoaging via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and proinflammatory cytokine expression.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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EGb-761 is an antioxidant and anticarcinogen; however, its role as a photoprotector remains unknown.
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Developmental toxicity, EROD, and CYP1A mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to dioxin-like PCB126.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Dioxin-like PCB126 is a persistent organic pollutant that causes a range of syndromes including developmental toxicity. Dioxins have a high affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). However, the role of CYP1A activity in developmental toxicity is less clear. To better understand dioxin induced developmental toxicity, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to PCB126 at concentrations of 0, 16, 32, 64, and 128 ?g L(-1) from 3-h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168 hpf. The embryonic survival rate decreased at 144 and 168 hpf. The fry at 96 hpf displayed gross developmental malformations, including pericardial and yolk sac edema, spinal curvature, abnormal lower jaw growth, and non-inflated swim bladder. The pericardial and yolk sac edema rate significantly increased and the heart rate declined from 96 hpf compared with the controls. PCB126 did not alter the hatching rate. To elucidate the mechanism of PCB126-induced developmental toxicity, we conducted ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in vivo assay to determine CYP1A enzyme activity, and real-time PCR to study the induction of CYP1A mRNA gene expression in embryo/larval zebrafish at 24, 72, 96, and 132 hpf. In vivo EROD activity was induced by PCB126 at 16 ?g L(-1) concentration as early as 72 hpf but significant increases were observed only in zebrafish exposed to 64 and 128 ?g L(-1) doses (p?
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The risk of cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis taking tumor necrosis factor antagonists: a nationwide cohort study.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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IntroductionThe association between cancer and use of biologic therapy among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients remains controversial. We aimed to compare the relative risk of cancer development between RA patients taking tumor necrosis factor ¿ (TNF¿) antagonists and those taking nonbiologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs).MethodsWe conducted a nationwide cohort study between 1997 and 2011 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The risk of newly diagnosed cancer was compared between patients starting TNF-¿ antagonists (biologics cohort) and matched subjects taking nbDMARDs only (nbDMARDs cohort). Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated after adjusting for competing mortality. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for cancer risk. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model.ResultsWe compared 4426 new users of TNF-¿ antagonists and 17704 users of nbDMARDs with similar baseline covariate characteristics. The incidence rates of cancer among biologics and nbDMARDs cohorts were 5.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.23 to 6.46) and 7.41 (95% CI 6.75 to 8.07) per 1000 person-years, respectively. On modified Cox proportional hazards analysis, the risk of cancer was significantly reduced in subjects in biologics cohort (adjusted HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.80, P¿<¿.001), after adjusting for age, gender, disease duration, major co-morbidities, and prior use of DMARDs and corticosteroids. However, there was an increased risk for hematologic cancers in biologics cohort, yet without statistical significance. The effect of biologics was consistent across all multivariate stratified analyses and the association between biologics use and cancer risk was independent of dosage of concomitant nbDMARDs.ConclusionThese findings suggested that RA patients taking TNF-¿ antagonist are associated with a lower risk of cancer, but not for hematologic cancers, than RA patients taking nbDMARDs alone.
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Differences in oxygen-18 and deuterium content of throughfall and rainfall during different flood events in a small headwater watershed.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Inter-storm stable isotopic values of rainfall and throughfall for three flooding events were measured during the period of July to August 2011 to estimate their differences in a first-order chestnut watershed, Meilin, within the Taihu Lake basin. Comparison of ?(2)H and ?(18)O was conducted from four aspects: (1) sampling methods, (2) calculation methods, (3) stable isotopes and (4) flood events. Arithmetic and weighted incremental values of throughfall were generally lighter than those of rainfall. Isotopic composition of both incremental rainfall and throughfall exhibits marked temporal variation, particularly during large storm events; the former shows a higher variation than the latter. Differences of averaged precipitation and throughfall between storms were small, but individual storm variations were larger. Isotopic differences using different calculation methods are not significant; however, the differences resulting from sampling methods are of greater importance.
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A color gamut description algorithm for liquid crystal displays in CIELAB space.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Because the accuracy of gamut boundary description is significant for gamut mapping process, a gamut boundary calculating method for LCD monitors is proposed in this paper. Within most of the previous gamut boundary calculation algorithms, the gamut boundary is calculated in CIELAB space directly, and part of inside-gamut points are mistaken for the boundary points. While, in the new proposed algorithm, the points on the surface of RGB cube are selected as the boundary points, and then converted and described in CIELAB color space. Thus, in our algorithm, the true gamut boundary points are found and a more accurate gamut boundary is described. In experiment, a Toshiba LCD monitor's 3D CIELAB gamut for evaluation is firstly described which has regular-shaped outer surface, and then two 2D gamut boundaries ( CIE-a*b* boundary and CIE-C*L* boundary) are calculated which are often used in gamut mapping process. When our algorithm is compared with several famous gamut calculating algorithms, the gamut volumes are very close, which indicates that our algorithm's accuracy is precise and acceptable.
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An ultra-high density bin-map for rapid QTL mapping for tassel and ear architecture in a large F? maize population.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Understanding genetic control of tassel and ear architecture in maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) is important due to their relationship with grain yield. High resolution QTL mapping is critical for understanding the underlying molecular basis of phenotypic variation. Advanced populations, such as recombinant inbred lines, have been broadly adopted for QTL mapping; however, construction of large advanced generation crop populations is time-consuming and costly. The rapidly declining cost of genotyping due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies has generated new possibilities for QTL mapping using large early generation populations.
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Human amniotic epithelial cells suppress relapse of corticosteroid-remitted experimental autoimmune disease.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be a T-cell-mediated disease. Although MS remits with corticosteroid treatment, the disease relapses on discontinuation of therapy. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) from the placenta are readily accessible in large quantities and have anti-inflammatory properties. Previously we reported that hAEC given near disease onset ameliorated clinical signs and decreased myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific immune responses in MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental MS model.
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A potential wound healing-promoting peptide from frog skin.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic, complex, and well-organized process that requires the orchestration of many different cell types and cellular processes. Transforming growth factor ?1 is an important factor that plays a key role during wound healing. Amphibian skin has been proven to possess excellent wound healing ability, whilst no bioactive substrate related to it has ever been identified. Here, a potential wound healing-promoting peptide (AH90, ATAWDFGPHGLLPIRPIRIRPLCG) was identified from the frog skin of Odorrana grahami. It showed potential wound healing-promoting activity in a murine model with full thickness dermal wound. AH90 promoted release of transforming growth factor ?1 through activation of nuclear factor-?B and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways, while inhibitors of nuclear factor-?B and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibited the process. In addition, the effects of AH90 on Smads family proteins, key regulators in transforming growth factor ?1 signaling pathways, could also be inhibited by transforming growth factor ?1 antibody. Altogether, this indicated that AH90 promoted wound healing by inducing the release of transforming growth factor ?1. This current study may facilitate the understanding of effective factors involved in the wound repair of amphibians and the underlying mechanisms as well. Considering its favorable traits as a small peptide that greatly promoting generation of endogenous wound healing agents (transforming growth factor ?1) without mitogenic effects, AH90 might be an excellent template for the future development of novel wound-healing agents.
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Common genetic variants on FOXE1 contributes to thyroid cancer susceptibility: evidence based on 16 studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms at chromosome 9q22.23 as a new thyroid cancer (TC) susceptibility locus in populations of European descent. Since then, the relationship between three common variations (rs965513, rs1867277, and rs71369530) of FOXE1 and TC has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, the results have been inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship as well as to quantify the between-study heterogeneity and potential bias, a meta-analysis including 120,258 individuals from 16 studies was performed. An overall random-effect per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.74 (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), 1.62-1.86, P<10(-5)) and 1.62 (95 % CI, 1.50-1.76, P<10(-5)) was found for the rs965513 and rs1867277 polymorphisms, respectively. In addition, we also detected significant association of FOXE1 polyalanine tract (rs71369530) with TC risk (OR=2.01; 95 % CI, 1.66-2.44, P<10(-5)). Significant associations were also detected under dominant and recessive genetic models. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found for the rs965513 polymorphism among Caucasians (OR=1.79; 95 % CI, 1.69-1.91, P<10(-5)) and Asians (OR=1.42; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.81, P=0.004). Ethnicity was identified as a potential source of between-study heterogeneity for rs965513. When stratified by sample size, study design, histological types of TC, and radiation exposure status, significantly increased risks were found for the rs965513 polymorphism. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three common variations on FOXE1 is a risk factor associated with increased TC susceptibility, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations.
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Comparative analysis of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgical patients.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate application effects of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgically treated patients receiving spine surgery, abdomen surgery and ectopic pregnancy surgery.
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microRNAs in spinal cord injury: potential roles and therapeutic implications.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs can modulate gene expression and thus play important roles in diverse neurobiological processes, such as cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and neural activity, as well as the pathogenic processes of spinal cord injury (SCI) like inflammation, oxidation, demyelination and apoptosis. Results from animal studies have revealed the temporal alterations in the expression of a large set of miRNAs following SCI in adult rats, and the expressional changes in miRNAs following SCI is bidirectional (increase or decrease). In addition, several miRNAs have distinct roles in prognosis of SCI (protective, detrimental and varied). Taken together, the existing evidence suggests that abnormal miRNA expression following SCI contributes to the pathogenesis of SCI, and miRNAs may become potential targets for the therapy of SCI.
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A small peptide with potential ability to promote wound healing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Wound-healing represents a major health burden, such as diabetes-induced skin ulcers and burning. Many works are being tried to find ideal clinical wound-healing biomaterials. Especially, small molecules with low cost and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (i.e. transforming growth factor beta, TGF-?) are excellent candidates. In this study, a small peptide (tiger17, c[WCKPKPKPRCH-NH2]) containing only 11 amino acid residues was designed and proved to be a potent wound healer. It showed strong wound healing-promoting activity in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Tiger17 exerted significant effects on three stages of wound healing progresses including (1) the induction of macrophages recruitment to wound site at inflammatory reaction stage; (2) the promotion of the migration and proliferation both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, leading to reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation; and (3) tissue remodeling phase, by promoting the release of transforming TGF-?1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in murine macrophages and activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways. Considering its easy production, store and transfer and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (TGF-?), tiger17 might be an exciting biomaterial or template for the development of novel wound-healing agents.
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Mitochondrial p38? and manganese superoxide dismutase interaction mediated by estrogen in cardiomyocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While etiology behind the observed acceleration of ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women is poorly understood, collective scientific data suggest cardioprotective effects of the endogenous female sex hormone, estrogen. We have previously shown that 17?-estradiol (E2) protects cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) by inhibiting p38? - p53 signaling in apoptosis and activating pro-survival p38? mitogen activated protein kinase (p38? MAPK), leading to suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) post H/R. However, little is known about the mechanism behind the antioxidant actions of E2-dependent p38?. The aim of this study is to determine whether the cytoprotection by estrogen involves regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a major mitochondrial ROS scavenging enzyme, via cardiac p38?.
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[Molluscicidal effect of plastic film mulch covering method].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the plastic film mulch covering method.
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Switching Mechanism in Single-Layer Molybdenum Disulfide Transistors: An Insight into Current Flow across Schottky Barriers.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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In this article, we study the properties of metal contacts to single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) crystals, revealing the nature of switching mechanism in MoS2 transistors. On investigating transistor behavior as contact length changes, we find that the contact resistivity for metal/MoS2 junctions is defined by contact area instead of contact width. The minimum gate dependent transfer length is ?0.63 ?m in the on-state for metal (Ti) contacted single-layer MoS2. These results reveal that MoS2 transistors are Schottky barrier transistors, where the on/off states are switched by the tuning of the Schottky barriers at contacts. The effective barrier heights for source and drain barriers are primarily controlled by gate and drain biases, respectively. We discuss the drain induced barrier narrowing effect for short channel devices, which may reduce the influence of large contact resistance for MoS2 Schottky barrier transistors at the channel length scaling limit.
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[Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate on postoperative insulin resistance in radical gastrectomy patients].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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To investigate the effects and mechanism of postoperative insulin resistance in gastrectomy patients with preoperative oral carbohydrate.
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[Development of full-quantified HPLC fingerprint for quality evaluation of ophiopogonis radix of sichuan].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To establish HPLC fingerprint of Ophiopogonis Radix of Sichuan and simultaneously determine two homoisoflavonoids (methylophiopogonanones A and B).
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Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis.
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NADPH Oxidases: A Perspective on Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Tumor Biology.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote genomic instability, altered signal transduction, and an environment that can sustain tumor formation and growth. The NOX family of NADPH oxidases, membrane-bound epithelial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide producers, plays a critical role in the maintenance of immune function, cell growth, and apoptosis. The impact of NOX enzymes in carcinogenesis is currently being defined and may directly link chronic inflammation and NOX ROS-mediated tumor formation. Recent Advances: Increased interest in the function of NOX enzymes in tumor biology has spurred a surge of investigative effort to understand the variability of NOX expression levels in tumors and the effect of NOX activity on tumor cell proliferation. These initial efforts have demonstrated a wide variance in NOX distribution and expression levels across numerous cancers as well as in common tumor cell lines, suggesting that much remains to be discovered about the unique role of NOX-related ROS production within each system. Progression from in vitro cell line studies toward in vivo tumor tissue screening and xenograft models has begun to provide evidence supporting the importance of NOX expression in carcinogenesis. Critical Issues: A lack of universally available, isoform-specific antibodies and animal tumor models of inducible knockout or over-expression of NOX isoforms has hindered progress toward the completion of in vivo studies. Future Directions: In vivo validation experiments and the use of large, existing gene expression data sets should help define the best model systems for studying the NOX homologues in the context of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank with linear-phase individual filters: an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Dual-tree transforms have recently received much attention for the properties of shift-invariance and directional-selectivity. However, their designs generally encounter fractional-delay constraints, and become more complicated for providing linear-phase (LP) individual filters and flexible directional-selectivity, two important properties in image processing. In this paper, we propose an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform-the dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank (DTCMFB). In the proposed DTCMFB, its primal and dual filter banks are derived by cosine-modulating one LP prototype filter, and thus its design involves no fractional-delay constraints. Meanwhile, the derived modulation technique guarantees each individual filter to be LP and the LP condition is satisfied without any constraint on the prototype filter. By separable operations, the DTCMFB is extended to two-dimensions. The resulting 2D DTCMFB can provide much more flexible directional-selectivity. Finally, several simulations are given to verify the proposed DTCMFB, and the experiments on nonlinear approximation and image denoising are presented to demonstrate its potential in image processing.
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Bismuth-doped tin oxide-coated carbon nanotube network: improved anode stability and efficiency for flow-through organic electrooxidation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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In this study, a binder-free, porous, and conductive 3D carbon-nanotube (CNT) network uniformly coated with bismuth-doped tin oxide (BTO) nanoparticles was prepared via a simple electrosorption-hydrothermal method and utilized for the electrooxidative filtration of organics. The BTO-CNT nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and Tafel analysis. The submonolayer BTO coating is composed of 3.9±1.5 nm diameter nanoparticles (NPs). The oxygen-evolution potential of the BTO-CNT nanocomposite was determined to be 1.71 V (vs Ag/AgCl), which is 440 mV higher than an uncoated CNT anode. Anodic stability, characterized by CNT oxidative corrosion to form dissolved species, indicated that the BTO-CNT incurred negligible corrosion up to Vanode=2.2 V, whereas the uncoated CNT was compromised at Vanode?1.4 V. The effect of metal oxide-nanoparticle coating on anodic performance was initially studied by oxalate oxidation followed by total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis. The BTO-CNT displayed the best performance, with ?98% oxalate oxidation (1.2 s filter residence time) and current efficiencies in the range of 32 to >99%. The BTO-CNT anode energy consumption was 25.7 kW h kgCOD(-1) at ?93% TOC removal and 8.6 kW h kgCOD(-1) at ?50% TOC removal, comparable to state-of-the-art oxalate oxidation processes (22.5-81.7 kW h kgCOD(-1)). The improved reactivity, current efficiency, and energy consumption are attributed to the increased conductivity, oxygen-evolution potential, and stability of the BTO-CNT anode. The effectiveness and efficiency of the BTO-CNT anode as compared to the uncoated CNT was further investigated by the electrooxidative filtration of ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, and formate, and it was determined to have TOC removals 2 to 8 times greater, mineralization current efficiencies 1.5 to 3.5 times greater, and energy consumption 4 to 5 times less than the uncoated CNT anode. Electrooxidation and anode passivation mechanisms are discussed.
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Deubiquitylases from genes to organism.
Physiol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Ubiquitylation is a major posttranslational modification that controls most complex aspects of cell physiology. It is reversed through the action of a large family of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) that are emerging as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of disease conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the complement of human DUBs, indicating structural motifs, typical cellular copy numbers, and tissue expression profiles. We discuss the means by which specificity is achieved and how DUB activity may be regulated. Generically DUB catalytic activity may be used to 1) maintain free ubiquitin levels, 2) rescue proteins from ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and 3) control the dynamics of ubiquitin-mediated signaling events. Functional roles of individual DUBs from each of five subfamilies in specific cellular processes are highlighted with an emphasis on those linked to pathological conditions where the association is supported by whole organism models. We then specifically consider the role of DUBs associated with protein degradative machineries and the influence of specific DUBs upon expression of receptors and channels at the plasma membrane.
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Magneto-transport in MoS2: phase coherence, spin-orbit scattering, and the hall factor.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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We have characterized phase coherence length, spin-orbit scattering length, and the Hall factor in n-type MoS2 2D crystals via weak localization measurements and Hall-effect measurements. Weak localization measurements reveal a phase coherence length of ~50 nm at T = 400 mK for a few-layer MoS2 film, decreasing as T(-1/2) with increased temperatures. Weak localization measurements also allow us, for the first time without optical techniques, to estimate the spin-orbit scattering length to be 430 nm, pointing to the potential of MoS2 for spintronics applications. Via Hall-effect measurements, we observe a low-temperature Hall mobility of 311 cm(2)/(V s) at T = 1 K, which decreases as a power law with a characteristic exponent ? = 1.5 from 10 to 60 K. At room temperature, we observe Hall mobility of 24 cm(2)/(V s). By determining the Hall factor for MoS2 to be 1.35 at T = 1 K and 2.4 at room temperature, we observe drift mobility of 420 and 56 cm(2)/(V s) at T = 1 K and room temperature, respectively.
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Novel analgesic peptides from the tree frog of Hyla japonica.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Two novel analgesic peptides (Analgesin-HJ, FWPVI-NH2 and Analgesin-HJ(I5T), FWPVT-NH2) were identified from the skin of the tree frog, Hyla japonica. There are 171 amino acid residues in the precursor encoding analgesin-HJs. The precursor contains 10 copies of mature peptide, which include 9 copies of analgesin-HJ and one copy of analgesin-HJ(I5T). Results from analgesic experiments using mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking, and thermal pain test indicated that this two peptides exerted comparable analgesic activities with morphine. In addition, they had ability to inhibit inflammatory factor secretion induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Considering their easy production, storage, transfer and potential analgesic activity, analgesin-HJs might be exciting leading compounds or templates for the development of novel analgesic agent. In addition, this study might facilitate to understand skin defensive mechanism of amphibians.
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Characterization of NADPH oxidase 5 expression in human tumors and tumor cell lines with a novel mouse monoclonal antibody.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) have been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological signaling pathways, including cancer development and progression. However, because immunological tools are lacking, knowledge of the role of Nox5 in tumor biology has been limited; the expression of Nox5 protein across tumors and normal tissues is essentially unknown. Here, we report the characterization and use of a mouse monoclonal antibody against a recombinant Nox5 protein (bp 600-746) for expression profiling of Nox5 in human tumors by tissue microarray analysis. Using our novel antibody, we also report the detection of endogenous Nox5 protein in human UACC-257 melanoma cells. Immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and immunohistochemical techniques were employed to demonstrate Nox5 localization throughout UACC-257 cells, with perinuclear enhancement. Tissue microarray analysis revealed, for the first time, substantial Nox5 overexpression in several human cancers, including those of prostate, breast, colon, lung, brain, and ovary, as well as in malignant melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma; expression in most nonmalignant tissues was negative to weak. This validated mouse monoclonal antibody will promote further exploration of the functional significance of Nox5 in human pathophysiology, including tumor cell growth and proliferation.
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[Expression of vacuole membrane protein 1 and its prognostic value in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To investigate the expression of vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) and its prognostic value in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and concomitant ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast.
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Statistical study of deep submicron dual-gated field-effect transistors on monolayer chemical vapor deposition molybdenum disulfide films.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV is a promising two-dimensional material with a potential to surpass graphene in next generation nanoelectronic applications. In this Letter, we synthesize monolayer MoS2 on Si/SiO2 substrate via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and comprehensively study the device performance based on dual-gated MoS2 field-effect transistors. Over 100 devices are studied to obtain a statistical description of device performance in CVD MoS2. We examine and scale down the channel length of the transistors to 100 nm and achieve record high drain current of 62.5 mA/mm in CVD monolayer MoS2 film ever reported. We further extract the intrinsic contact resistance of low work function metal Ti on monolayer CVD MoS2 with an expectation value of 175 ?·mm, which can be significantly decreased to 10 ?·mm by appropriate gating. Finally, field-effect mobilities (?FE) of the carriers at various channel lengths are obtained. By taking the impact of contact resistance into account, an average and maximum intrinsic ?FE is estimated to be 13.0 and 21.6 cm(2)/(V s) in monolayer CVD MoS2 films, respectively.
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Senile gluteal dermatosis: a clinical study of 137 cases.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Senile gluteal dermatosis (SGD) is a common genital dermatosis but has gained little attention before. A large-scale clinical study of this disease is lacking.
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[Determination of four kinds of illegal additive residues in sprouts and source beans by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin residues in sprouts and source beans. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile containing 0.1% acetic acid and concentrated. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on a C18 column with methanol and 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phases in gradient elution program. The MS analysis was set in electrospray ionization mode and separated to two segments of positive and negative modes. The precursor ions were m/z 189.9, 226.1, 359.9 and 320.1, while the product ions for quantification were m/z 127.0, 91.2, 315.9 and 276.2 for 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin, respectively. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 5 - 200 microg/L with correlation coefficients more than 0.995. The limits of detection (LODs) were 1 microg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 microg/kg for the four compounds spiked in mung bean sprouts and mung beans. The recoveries of the four compounds spiked at three levels of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 70% to 91%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 14%. The method established is accurate, sensitive, simple, and has considerable advantages in the analysis of the four kinds of illegal additive residues in sprouts and beans simultaneously.
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Near-infrared (NIR) luminescent hetero-tetranuclear Zn2Ln2 (Ln = Nd, Yb or Er) complexes self-assembled from the benzimidazole-based HL and two rigid 4,4-bipyridine ligands with different spacers.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Through the self-assembly of the benzimidazole-based ligand HL (HL=2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-6-methoxyphenol) with Zn(OAc)2 · 2H2O, Ln(NO3)3·6H2O (Ln=Nd, Yb, Er or Gd) and 4,4-bipyridine ligand (bpy, 4,4-bipyridine or bpe, trans-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), two series of Zn2Ln2-arrayed complexes [Zn(2)Ln(2)(L)4(bpy)(NO3)6] (Ln=Nd, 1; Yb, 2; Er, 3 or Gd, 4) and [Zn(2)Ln(2)(L)4(bpe)(NO3)6] (Ln=Nd, 5; Yb, 6; Er, 7 or Gd, 8) were obtained, respectively. The result of their photophysical properties shows that the characteristic near-infrared (NIR) luminescence of Nd(3+), Yb(3+) or Er(3+) ion has been sensitized from the excited state (both (1)LC and (3)LC) of the mixed HL and bipyridyl ligands in both complexes 1-3 and 5-7. Moreover, the change from bpy to bpe bridging for the fine-tuning of whole molecular conjugations, attributing to the different crossings of the two benzimidazole-based L(-) ligands, has the important influence on their NIR luminescent properties.
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Adverse outcomes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma with mutations of 3p21 epigenetic regulators BAP1 and SETD2: a report by MSKCC and the KIRC TCGA research network.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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To investigate the impact of newly identified chromosome 3p21 epigenetic tumor suppressors PBRM1, SETD2, and BAP1 on cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 609 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from 2 distinct cohorts.
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A mycobacteriophage-derived trehalose-6,6-dimycolate-binding peptide containing both antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Bacteriophages, the viruses of eubacteria, have developed unique mechanisms to interact with their host bacteria. They have been viewed as potential antibacterial therapeutics. Mycobacteriophage-derived compounds may interact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and/or its components, such as the cord factor, trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), which is the most abundant glycolipid produced on the surface of MTB. TDM emulsion injected intravenously into mice induces lung immunopathology that mimics many aspects of MTB infection. Thus, TDM is an important target for anti-MTB agent development. On the basis of genomics information of mycobacteriophages, 200 peptides were synthesized. Their effects on MTB, their interactions with TDM, and anti-inflammatory activities were tested. One of them (PK34) showed MTB-killing activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 50 ?g/ml and TDM-binding ability. In a mouse model, PK34 showed comparable ability to clear MTB as rifampin did in vivo. It also exerted strong activity to inhibit MTB or TDM-induced inflammation in vivo. PK34 significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokines secretions by inactivating MAPK and PKB signals while it maintained certain proinflammatory cytokine production. It is possible to prospect for TDM-binding and/or anti-MTB peptides by mining the mycobacteriophages genome. In addition to its direct MTB-killing ability, PK34 might be a useful adjunct in the treatment of granulomatous inflammation occurring during mycobacterial infection or a template for developing antituberculosis (TB) agents because of its immunoregulative effects. As a TDM-binding peptide, PK34 may be a promising tool to study TDMs interactions with corresponding receptors and signal pathways.
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Functional proteome of macrophage carried nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy demonstrates enhanced particle carrying capacity.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Our laboratory developed long-acting nanoformulations of antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) to improve drug compliance, reduce toxicities, and facilitate access of drug to viral reservoirs. These all function to inevitably improve treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Formulations are designed to harness the carrying capacities of mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes and macrophages) and to use these cells as Trojan horses for drug delivery. Such a drug distribution system limits ART metabolism and excretion while facilitating access to viral reservoirs. Our prior works demonstrated a high degree of nanoART sequestration in macrophage recycling endosomes with broad and sustained drug tissue biodistribution and depots with limited untoward systemic toxicities. Despite such benefits, the effects of particle carriage on the cells functional capacities remained poorly understood. Thus, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture to elucidate the macrophage proteome and assess any alterations in cellular functions that would affect cell-drug carriage and release kinetics. NanoART-MP interactions resulted in the induction of a broad range of activation-related proteins that can enhance phagocytosis, secretory functions, and cell migration. Notably, we now demonstrate that particle-cell interactions serve to enhance drug loading while facilitating drug tissue depots and transportation.
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Total synthesis of daptomycin by cyclization via a chemoselective serine ligation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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A total synthesis of daptomycin, the first natural product antibiotic launched in a generation, was achieved. This convergent synthesis relies on an efficient macrocyclization via a serine ligation to assemble the 31-membered cyclic depsipeptide. The difficult esterification by the nonproteinogenic amino acid kynurenine was accomplished via the esterification of a threonine residue by a suitably protected Trp ester, followed by ozonolysis. This synthesis provides a foundation and framework to prepare varied analogues of daptomycin to establish its structure-activity profile.
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HGF-MET signals via the MLL-ETS2 complex in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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HGF signals through its cognate receptor, MET, to orchestrate diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell fate specification, organogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), an epigenetic regulator, plays critical roles in cell fate, stem cell, and cell cycle decisions. Here, we describe a role for MLL in the HGF-MET signaling pathway. We found a shared phenotype among Mll(-/-), Hgf(-/-), and Met(-/-) mice with common cranial nerve XII (CNXII) outgrowth and myoblast migration defects. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that MLL was required for HGF-induced invasion and metastatic growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. HGF-MET signaling resulted in the accumulation of ETS2, which interacted with MLL to transactivate MMP1 and MMP3. ChIP assays demonstrated that activation of the HGF-MET pathway resulted in increased occupancy of the MLL-ETS2 complex on MMP1 and MMP3 promoters, where MLL trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4), activating transcription. Our results present an epigenetic link between MLL and the HGF-MET signaling pathway, which may suggest new strategies for therapeutic intervention.
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Hedgehog signaling regulates hypoxia induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells via a ligand-independent manner.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Hypoxia plays a vital role in cancer epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion. However, it is not quite clear how hypoxia may contribute to these events. Here we investigate the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in hypoxia induced pancreatic cancer EMT and invasion.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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