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A series of cobalt and nickel clusters based on thiol-containing ligands accompanied by in situ ligand formation.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Eight cobalt and nickel clusters with the formulae [Co4(?4-O)(MBT)5(?2-Piv)] (), [Ni3(MBT)2()2(OCH3)2] (), [Ni4(?3-S)(?3-S2)(MBT)2()] (), [Ni4()4] (), [Ni6(?4-S)3(MBT)6]·(C2H5OH)2 (), H[Co4(?4-O)(HMBI)6]·(NO3)(TEA)0.5(CH3OH)2(H2O) (), [Ni2(HMBI)4]·(CH3OH)2 (), and [Ni5(MBI)2(HMBI)4(OCH3)2]·(CH3OH)3(H2O)2 () (HPiv = pivalic acid, H = 2-disulfanylbenzo[d]thiazole, H2 = (Z)-2-((2-mercaptophenyl)imino)benzo[d]thiazole-3(2H)-thiol, H2 = (Z)-2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylideneamino)benzenethiol, TEA = triethylamine) have been solvothermally prepared via assembling distinct metal resource and thiol-containing ligands 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (HMBT)/2-mercaptobenzimidazole (H2MBI). Complexes and are tetrahedral cobalt clusters. Complex features linear arrangement of nickel ions. Complexes and are tetranuclear nickel clusters with the butterfly and square shape, respectively. Complex displays a trigonal prism geometry. Complexes and exhibit paddle-wheel and trigonal bipyramidal geometry, respectively. The starting ligand HMBT undergoes in situ ligand transformation in the formation of the nickel clusters, and the new generated inorganic ligands (S(2-) and S2(2-)) and organic ligands (H, H2 and H2) were captured within the metallic cores. Magnetic studies indicate that complexes and show dominating antiferromagnetic couplings and that spin frustration exists in .
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A flexible zwitterion ligand based lanthanide metal-organic framework for luminescence sensing of metal ions and small molecules.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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A new lanthanide metal-organic framework was constructed using a tripodal flexible zwitterion ligand (H3LBr3) which takes a chair-shaped configuration. The luminescence of the compound displays highly selective sensing of the Fe(3+) ion and nitrobenzene.
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Discovery of 5-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-1-(2-fluoro-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (BMS-903452), an antidiabetic clinical candidate targeting GPR119.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is expressed predominantly in pancreatic ?-cells and in enteroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract. GPR119 agonists have been shown to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin release by direct action in the pancreas and to promote secretion of the incretin GLP-1 by action in the gastrointestinal tract. This dual mechanism of action has generated significant interest in the discovery of small molecule GPR119 agonists as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes. Herein, we describe the discovery and optimization of a new class of pyridone containing GPR119 agonists. The potent and selective BMS-903452 (42) was efficacious in both acute and chronic in vivo rodent models of diabetes. Dosing of 42 in a single ascending dose study in normal healthy humans showed a dose dependent increase in exposure and a trend toward increased total GLP-1 plasma levels.
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Occult hepatitis B virus infection of hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study in a hepatitis B virus-endemic region.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver tissue and/or serum of subjects seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV infection of hemodialysis (HD) patients is informative in terms of virus transmission, reactivation after kidney transplantation, and the progression of liver disease. However, there is little detailed information about occult HBV infection in the context of virus endemicity. We tried to investigate the seroprevalence and clinical features of occult HBV infection in HD patients in HBV-endemic regions. We enrolled a total of 159 HD patients and 121 apparently healthy subjects at Dankook University Hospital and Jeju National University Hospital in Korea. HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum levels of HBV DNA were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The seroprevalence of occult HBV infection was 1.3% in HD patients and 2.5% in the healthy controls. This difference was not significant. The HBV load in all subjects with occult infection was <116 copies/mL, and all were positive for IgG anti-HBc, regardless of the presence of anti-HBs. None of the occult HBV-infected subjects were co-infected with HCV. One of the 2 HD patients with occult HBV infection had no history of blood transfusion. In this HBV-endemic region, the seroprevalence of occult HBV infection in HD patients with a very low viral load was not significantly different from that in apparently healthy subjects.
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The tandem repeats enabling reversible switching between the two phases of ?-lactamase substrate spectrum.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Expansion or shrinkage of existing tandem repeats (TRs) associated with various biological processes has been actively studied in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, while their origin and biological implications remain mostly unknown. Here we describe various duplications (de novo TRs) that occurred in the coding region of a ?-lactamase gene, where a conserved structure called the omega loop is encoded. These duplications that occurred under selection using ceftazidime conferred substrate spectrum extension to include the antibiotic. Under selective pressure with one of the original substrates (amoxicillin), a high level of reversion occurred in the mutant ?-lactamase genes completing a cycle back to the original substrate spectrum. The de novo TRs coupled with reversion makes a genetic toggling mechanism enabling reversible switching between the two phases of the substrate spectrum of ?-lactamases. This toggle exemplifies the effective adaptation of de novo TRs for enhanced bacterial survival. We found pairs of direct repeats that mediated the DNA duplication (TR formation). In addition, we found different duos of sequences that mediated the DNA duplication. These novel elements-that we named SCSs (same-strand complementary sequences)-were also found associated with ?-lactamase TR mutations from clinical isolates. Both direct repeats and SCSs had a high correlation with TRs in diverse bacterial genomes throughout the major phylogenetic lineages, suggesting that they comprise a fundamental mechanism shaping the bacterial evolution.
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Solvent induced rapid modulation of micro/nano structures of metal carboxylates coordination polymers: mechanism and morphology dependent magnetism.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Rational modulation of morphology is very important for functional coordination polymers (CPs) micro/nanostructures, and new strategies are still desired to achieve this challenging target. Herein, organic solvents have been established as the capping agents for rapid modulating the growth of metal-carboxylates CPs in organic solvent/water mixtures at ambient conditions. Co-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (pydc) CPs was studied here as the example. During the reaction, the organic solvents exhibited three types of modulation effect: anisotropic growth, anisotropic growth/formation of new crystalline phase and the formation of new crystalline phase solely, which was due to the variation of their binding ability with metal cations. The following study revealed that the binding ability was critically affected by their functional groups and molecular size. Moreover, their modulation effect could be finely tuned by changing volume ratios of solvent mixtures. Furthermore, they could be applied for modulating other metal-carboxylates CPs: Co-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic (BTC), Zn-pydc and Eu-pydc etc. Additionally, the as-prepared Co-pydc CPs showed a fascinating morphology-dependent antiferromagnetic behavior.
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Endothelin-1-Induced Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Growth Hormone/IGF-1 Deficient Lewis Dwarf Rat.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Aging is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Growth hormone (GH) and its anabolic mediator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, decrease with advancing age and this decline has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction. In addition, lower GH/IGF-1 levels are associated with higher stroke mortality in humans. These results suggest that decreased GH/IGF-1 level is an important factor in increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess whether GH/IGF-1-deficiency influences the outcome of cerebral ischemia. We found that endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a modest but nonsignificant decrease in cerebral infarct size in GH/IGF-1 deficient dw/dw rats compared with control heterozygous littermates and dw/dw rats with early-life GH treatment. Expression of endothelin receptors and endothelin-1-induced constriction of the middle cerebral arteries were similar in the three experimental groups. Interestingly, dw/dw rats exhibited reduced brain edema and less astrocytic infiltration compared with their heterozygous littermates and this effect was reversed by GH-treatment. Because reactive astrocytes are critical for the regulation of poststroke inflammatory processes, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and neural repair, further studies are warranted to determine the long-term functional consequences of decreased astrocytic activation in GH/IGF-1 deficient animals after cerebral ischemia.
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Deletion mutations conferring substrate spectrum extension in the class A ?-lactamase.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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We describe four new deletion mutations in a class A ?-lactamase PenA in Burkholderia thailandensis, each conferring an extended substrate spectrum. Single-amino-acid deletions T171del, I173del, and P174del and a two-amino-acid deletion, R165_T167delinsP, occurred in the omega loop, increasing the flexibility of the binding cavity. This rare collection of mutations has significance, allowing exploration of the diverse evolutionary trajectories of ?-lactamases and as potential future mutations conferring high-level ceftazidime resistance on isolates from clinical settings, compared with amino acid substitution mutations.
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Acinar cell-specific knockout of the PTHrP gene decreases the proinflammatory and profibrotic responses in pancreatitis.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Pancreatitis is a necroinflammatory disease with acute and chronic manifestations. Accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels are elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Here, we show elevated PTHrP levels in mouse models of pancreatitis induced by chronic cerulein administration and pancreatic duct ligation. Because acinar cells play a major role in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis, mice with acinar cell-specific targeted disruption of the Pthrp gene (PTHrP(?acinar)) were generated to assess the role of acinar cell-secreted PTHrP in pancreatitis. These mice were generated using Cre-LoxP technology and the acinar cell-specific elastase promoter. PTHrP(?acinar) exerted protective effects in cerulein and pancreatic duct ligation models, evident as decreased edema, histological damage, amylase secretion, pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Treating acinar cells in vitro with cerulein increased IL-6 expression and NF-?B activity; these effects were attenuated in PTHrP(?acinar) cells, as were the cerulein- and carbachol-induced elevations in amylase secretion. The cerulein-induced upregulation of procollagen I expression was lost in PSCs from PTHrP(?acinar) mice. PTHrP immunostaining was elevated in human CP sections. The cerulein-induced upregulation of IL-6 and ICAM-1 (human acinar cells) and procollagen I (human PSCs) was suppressed by pretreatment with the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7-34). These findings establish PTHrP as a novel mediator of inflammation and fibrosis associated with CP. Acinar cell-secreted PTHrP modulates acinar cell function via its effects on proinflammatory cytokine release and functions via a paracrine pathway to activate PSCs.
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Large magnetocaloric effect in a dense and stable inorganic-organic hybrid cobridged by in situ generated sulfate and oxalate.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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A dense and stable inorganic-organic hybrid with distorted cubic [Gd4 O4 ] units as building blocks bridged by in situ generated sulfate and oxalate was synthesized. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title complex features a -?Sm (max) =51.49?J?kg(-1) ?K(-1) , which is among the highest values reported so far.
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Impact of microRNA-134 on neural cell survival against ischemic injury in primary cultured neuronal cells and mouse brain with ischemic stroke by targeting HSPA12B.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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As a newly discovered member of the HSP70 family, heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is involved in brain ischemic injury. According to our previous study, microRNA-134 (miR-134) could target HSPA12B by binding to its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). However, the regulation of miR-134 on HSPA12B and their role in protecting neuronal cells from ischemic injury are unclear. In this study, the miR-134 expression level was manipulated, and the HSPA12B protein levels were also determined in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated primary cultured neuronal cells in vitro and mouse brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in vivo. The results showed that miR-134 expression levels increased in primary cultured neuronal cells and mouse brain from 12h to 7 day reoxygenation/reperfusion after 1h OGD or 1h MCAO treatment. miR-134 overexpression promoted neuronal cell death and apoptosis by decreasing HSPA12B protein levels. Conversely, downregulating miR-134 reduced neuronal cell death and apoptosis by enhancing HSPA12B protein levels. Also, HSPA12B siRNA could block miR-134 inhibitor-mediated neuroprotection against OGD-induced neuronal cell injury in vitro. Taken together, miR-134 might influence neuronal cell survival against ischemic injury in primary cultured neuronal cells and mouse brain with ischemic stroke by negatively modulating HSPA12B protein expression in a posttranscriptional manner.
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Evaluation of pharmacokinetic drug interactions between gemigliptin (dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor) and glimepiride (sulfonylurea) in healthy volunteers.
Drugs R D
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Gemigliptin is approved for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Sulfonylureas are commonly used in combination with other antidiabetic drugs to improve glycemic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of gemigliptin and glimepiride combination therapy compared with those of monotherapies.
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Traditional Chinese medicine treatment for ruptured lumbar disc herniation: clinical observations in 102 cases.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To explore the therapeutic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) regimen on patients with ruptured lumbar disc herniation, including assessing its effects on prognosis and protrusion size.
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Rhinovirus associated severe respiratory failure in immunocompetent adult patient.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Rhinovirus infection is typically associated with the common cold and has rarely been reported as a cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A 55-year-old previous healthy woman, who consumed half a bottle of alcohol daily, presented with respiratory failure after one week of upper respiratory infection symptoms. Radiography revealed bilateral, diffuse ground glass opacity with patchy consolidation in the whole lung field; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis indicated that rhinovirus was the causative organism. After five days of conservative support, the symptoms and radiographic findings began to improve. We report this rare case of rhinovirus pneumonia in an otherwise healthy host along with a review of references.
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Two novel human cytomegalovirus NK cell evasion functions target MICA for lysosomal degradation.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, ?? and ?? T-cell function. This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1-6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. Studies into human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have aided both the identification and characterization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs). HCMV immediate early (IE) gene up regulates NKGDLs, and we now describe the differential activation of ULBP2 and MICA/B by IE1 and IE2 respectively. Despite activation by IE functions, HCMV effectively suppressed cell surface expression of NKGDLs through both the early and late phases of infection. The immune evasion functions UL16, UL142, and microRNA(miR)-UL112 are known to target NKG2DLs. While infection with a UL16 deletion mutant caused the expected increase in MICB and ULBP2 cell surface expression, deletion of UL142 did not have a similar impact on its target, MICA. We therefore performed a systematic screen of the viral genome to search of addition functions that targeted MICA. US18 and US20 were identified as novel NK cell evasion functions capable of acting independently to promote MICA degradation by lysosomal degradation. The most dramatic effect on MICA expression was achieved when US18 and US20 acted in concert. US18 and US20 are the first members of the US12 gene family to have been assigned a function. The US12 family has 10 members encoded sequentially through US12-US21; a genetic arrangement, which is suggestive of an 'accordion' expansion of an ancestral gene in response to a selective pressure. This expansion must have be an ancient event as the whole family is conserved across simian cytomegaloviruses from old world monkeys. The evolutionary benefit bestowed by the combinatorial effect of US18 and US20 on MICA may have contributed to sustaining the US12 gene family.
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miR-27a suppresses EV71 replication by directly targeting EGFR.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, has broken out several times and was accompanied by neurological disease. microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that are approximately 20 nucleotides long, play important roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including antiviral defense. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 replication and pathogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-27a was significantly decreased in EV71-infected cells. Interestingly, the over-expression of miR-27a could inhibit EV71 replication, as measured by virus titration, qPCR, and Western blotting. We identified EGFR mRNA is a bona fide target of miR-27a by computational analysis and luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, miR-27a could decrease EGFR expression, as measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibition of EGFR expression by miR-27a decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, which facilitate EV71 replication. These results suggest that miR-27a may have antiviral activity against EV71 by inhibiting EGFR.
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Age-related activation of MKK/p38/NF-?B signaling pathway in lung: from mouse to human.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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We and others previously reported that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-6 significantly accumulate with age in mouse lung. This is accompanied by elevated phosphorylation of p38. Here, we further investigate whether aging affects activation of p38 signaling and the inflammatory reaction after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the lungs of mice in vivo and humans ex vivo. The data showed that activation of p38 peaked at 0.5h and then rapidly declined in young (2-month-old) mouse lung, after intranasal inhalation challenge with LPS. In contract, activation of p38 peaked at 24h and was sustained longer in aged (20-month-old) mice. As well as altered p38, activations of its upstream activator MKK and downstream substrate NF-?B were also changed in the lungs of aged mice, which corresponded with the absence in the early phase but delayed increases in concentrations of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. Consistent with the above observations in mice, similar patterns of p38 signaling also occurred in human lungs. Compared with younger lungs from adult-middle aged subjects, the activation of p38, MKK and NF-?B, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the lungs of older subjects ex vivo. Exposure of human lung cells to LPS induced rapid activation of p38, MKK and NF-?B in these cells from adult-middle aged subjects, but not older subjects, with increases in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. The LPS-induced rapid activation in the lung cells from adult-middle aged subjects occurred as early as 0.25h after exposure, and then declined. Compared with adult-middle aged subjects, the LPS exposure did not induce marked changes in the early phase, either in the activation of p38, MKK and NF-?B, or in the production of TNF-?, IL-1? or IL-6 in the lung cells from older subjects. In contrast, these changes occurred relatively late, peaked at 16h and were sustained longer in the lungs of older subjects. These data support the hypothesis that the sustained activation of the p38 signaling pathway at baseline and the absence in the early phase but delayed of p38 signaling pathway response to LPS in the elderly may play important roles in increased susceptibility of aged lungs to inflammatory injury.
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A facile low-temperature approach to designing controlled amorphous-based titania composite photocatalysts with excellent noble-metal-free photocatalytic hydrogen production.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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A microporous amorphous-based titania composite photocatalysts has been fabricated using a facile low-temperature (120 °C) synthetic method. Notably, we have successfully prepared the various stages of the amorphous/crystalline heterostructure by simply adjusting the pH value. The high-pH sample favors the formation of amorphous based titania composite structure. Additionally, the BET surface area of the sample increases with the increasing of the pH value, reaching a maximum of 358 m(2) g(-1) when the pH value is 12. Unexpectedly, the H2 productivity of amorphous-based composite photocatalyst without noble metal co-catalyst increases significantly with the increasing pH value, which is attributed to the quickly increasing amorphous, and the highly active catalytic centers created by the synergistic effect between crystalline TiO2 and amorphous ZnO. This study demonstrates that it is possible to improve the properties of the amorphous-based composite photocatalyst by properly modifying the synthesis conditions. The approach presented herein can be applied to the research of controlled amorphous-based composite photocatalytic systems.
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Skin decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime on rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Abstract Context: The chemical weapon sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister agent, and currently, there is no effective antidote. Objective: To evaluate the decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime against SM and preliminarily elucidate its decontamination mechanism. Materials and methods: Potassium ketoxime reacted with SM, and SM residues were tested at different time intervals by T-135 colorimetry after the reaction. Rabbit skin was topically exposed to 2?mg/cm(2) SM, treated with potassium ketoxime 1?min later, and observed after 6, 12, and 24?h. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was employed to screen and identify the main products of potassium ketoxime decontamination of SM. Results: Potassium ketoxime had a great effect against SM contamination. With a mass ratio of decontaminant: SM of 50:1, decontamination rates against SM were 87.5% after 30?s, 95.9% after 1?min, and 99.0% after 5?min. Fifteen minutes after exposure to SM, the untreated group showed clear erythema lesions, whereas the experimental group showed no clear erythema lesions within 6?h. After 12 and 24?h, the areas of damaged skin in the experimental group were 0.038 and 0.125?cm(2), respectively, compared with 2.21 and 2.65?cm(2) in the control group. Histopathological analysis revealed that treatment with potassium ketoxime also reduced inflammation-induced damage. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that potassium ketoxime reacted rapidly and completely with SM, and thus, it was found to be a suitable and effective skin decontaminant against SM. The decontamination reaction mechanism is mainly related to nucleophilic substitution.
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Genome-wide transcriptional sequencing identifies novel mutations in metabolic genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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We report on next-generation transcriptome sequencing results of three human hepatocellular carcinoma tumor/tumor-adjacent pairs. This analysis robustly examined ?12,000 genes for both expression differences and molecular alterations. We observed 4,513 and 1,182 genes demonstrating 2-fold or greater increase or decrease in expression relative to their normal, respectively. Network analysis of expression data identified the Aurora B signaling, FOXM1 transcription factor network and Wnt signaling pathways pairs being altered in HCC. We validated as differential gene expression findings in a large data set containing of 434 liver normal/tumor sample pairs. In addition to known driver mutations in TP53 and CTNNB1, our mutation analysis identified non-synonymous mutations in genes implicated in metabolic diseases, i.e. diabetes and obesity: IRS1, HMGCS1, ATP8B1, PRMT6 and CLU, suggesting a common molecular etiology for HCC of alternative pathogenic origin.
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Unusual binding mode of scorpion toxin BmKTX onto potassium channels relies on its distribution of acidic residues.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Besides classical scorpion toxin-potassium channel binding modes, novel modes remain unknown. Here, we report a novel binding mode of native toxin BmKTX towards Kv1.3 channel. The combined experimental and computational data indicated that BmKTX-D33H analog used the classical anti-parallel ?-sheet domain as the channel-interacting interface together with the conserved channel pore-blocking Lys(26). However, the wild-type BmKTX was found to use Arg(23) rather than Lys(26) as the new pore-blocking residue, and mainly adopt the turn motif between the ?-helix and antiparallel ?-sheet domains to recognize Kv1.3 channel. Together, these findings not only reveal that scorpion toxin-potassium channel interaction modes are more diverse than thought, but also highlight the functional role of toxin acidic residues in mediating diverse toxin-potassium channel binding modes.
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A unique bleeding-related complication of sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor as a standard of care for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, may lead endothelial cells to an unstable state by blocking the signaling pathway of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, which may result in the disruption of the architecture and integrity of the microvasculature, and eventually increase the risk of hemorrhage. Hemobilia is a relatively uncommon condition as a consequence of hepatocellular carcinoma and its risk factors remain uncertain.
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Sphingomonas oligoaromativorans sp. nov., an oligotrophic bacterium isolated from a forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A halo- and organo-sensitive oligotrophic bacterium, designated strain SY-6T, was isolated from humus forest soil at Gyeryong mountain in Korea. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile rods and the strain formed yellow-pigmented colonies on 100-fold-diluted nutrient broth. Strain SY-6T grew at pH 6.0-7.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0), at 10-37 °C (optimal growth at 28 °C) and at salinities of 0-0.5% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally at 0.01% (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SY-6T was shown to belong to the genus Sphingomonas and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity to Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans B2-7T (96.7%). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. The predominant ubiquinone and polyamine were Q-10 and sym-homospermidine, respectively. The major fatty acids were C18:1?7c and C16:0. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was 65.3 mol%. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, strain SY-6T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas oligoaromativorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SY-6T (=KACC 12948T=NBRC 105508T).
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Low-dimensional carboxylate-bridged Gd(III) complexes for magnetic refrigeration.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Four carboxylate-bridged Gd(III) complexes (1-4) with 1D/2D structures have been synthesized by using the hydrothermal reaction of Gd2O3 with various carboxylate ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 contained the same [2n] Gd(III)-OH ladders, but with different crystallographically independent Gd(III) ions, whilst the structures of compounds 3 and 4 were composed of [Gd4(?3-OH)2(piv)8(H2O)2](2+) units and 1D ladder Gd(III) chains, respectively. Antiferromagnetic interactions occurred in compounds 1-3, owing to their small Gd-O-Gd angles, whereas ferromagnetic coupling occurred in compound 4, in which the Gd-O-Gd angles were larger. These complexes exhibited a distinct magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which was affected by their different magnetic densities and exchange interactions. Among these compounds, complex 4 presented the largest MCE (-?S(m)(max)=43.6?J?kg(-1) K(-1)), the lowest M(w)/N(Gd) ratio (the highest magnetic density), and weak ferromagnetic coupling. Therefore, a lower M(w)/N(Gd) ratio and weaker exchange interactions (a smaller absolute value of ?) between Gd(III) ions resulted in a larger MCE for the Gd(III) complexes.
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Determination of ten hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers using two coupled reversed-phase columns and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are raising concern due to their potential persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Apart from the widely reported isomers ?-, ?-, ?-HBCD, other HBCD diastereoisomers such as ?-HBCD have been also recently found in environmental media and biota. These newly reported diastereoisomers might give more insight into the degradation and biotransformation of HBCDs.
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Tim-3 on peripheral CD4? and CD8? T cells is involved in the development of glioma.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Tim-3 acts as a negative regulatory molecule and plays a critical role in immune tolerance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of Tim-3 on peripheral CD4? and CD8? T cells in glioma. A total of 30 newly diagnosed glioma patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited and leukocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed for Tim-3 surface expression by flow cytometry. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) was also measured. Data showed that expression of Tim-3 was significantly increased in both CD4? and CD8? T cells in glioma patients than in controls (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Patients with a higher tumor grade revealed further elevated Tim-3 expression in CD8? T cells compared with those with a lower tumor grade. Also, the Karnofsky score of patients was negatively correlated with the percentage of Tim-3?CD8? T cells in glioma patients (p=0.007). In addition, an inverse correlation was observed between the plasma level of TNF-? and Tim-3?CD4? T cells (p=0.005) or Tim-3?CD8? T cells (p<0.001) in glioma patients. Our results suggested that Tim-3 may be involved in the development of glioma.
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Enantiomeric composition of polycyclic musks in sediments from the Pearl River and Suzhou Creek.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Due to differences in stereostructure, enantiomeric compositions and enantiomeric ratios (ERs) of chiral compounds can be used to discriminate environmental processes such as abiotic and biotic degradation/transformation. In this study, the ERs of two chiral polycyclic musks, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN), were investigated in the sediments of Zhujiang River and Dongjiang River in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), as well as in those of Suzhou Creek in Shanghai City. The results indicated that ER cis of HHCB varied significantly, ranging from 1.09 to 1.53 and 1.40 to 1.48 in the PRD and Suzhou Creek samples, respectively, whereas ER trans of HHCB exhibited limited variation, ranging from 0.98 to 1.10 and 0.98 to 1.05 for Pearl River and Suzhou Creek samples, respectively. In addition, ERs of AHTN varied substantially from 1.10 to 1.34 and 1.17 to 1.28 in the PRD and Suzhou Creek, respectively. These results suggest that HHCB in the sediment in the study area underwent biotic degradation and the preferential biotransformation isomer was (4R,7S)-HHCB, while AHTN simultaneously underwent a certain degree of biotic degradation/transformation.
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Five-Year Follow-up Study of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in a Korean Elderly Urban Cohort.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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We previously reported the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to be 3.3% among an elderly Korean urban cohort recruited during 2005-2006. Here, we report a 5-year follow-up study of the previously identified MGUS cohort.
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Mycobacterium leprae upregulates IRGM expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which evokes a strong inflammatory response and leads to nerve damage. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM) plays critical roles in controlling inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether IRGM is involved in the infection of M. leprae. Levels of IRGM were assessed in M. leprae-infected CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Data revealed that both protein and mRNA levels of IRGM were increased in monocytes after M. leprae infection. Interestingly, monocyte-derived macrophages showed more prominent IRGM expression with M. leprae infection, whereas the bacteria did not affect IRGM in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we assessed levels of IRGM in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes from 78 leprosy patients and 40 healthy controls, and observed upregulated protein level of IRGM in the monocytes from leprosy patients. Also, IRGM expression was inversely correlated with the severity of the disease. These findings suggested a close involvement of IRGM in M. leprae infection and indicated a potential mechanism of defending M. leprae infection.
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[Early gastric cancer with cellulitis-like skin metastasis].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Skin metastasis from internal carcinoma rarely occurs and it has an incidence of 0.7% to 9%. Although the prognosis of the skin metastases varies considerably depending on the type of the primary malignancy, presence of metastatic skin cancer usually implies a widespread systemic disease and a high mortality. A 50-year-old Korean male patient visited Dankook University Hospital for evaluation of skin rash on his whole abdomen of about 1 month's duration. He had undergone laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer about 3 months ago. He did not complain of any noticeable symptoms like febrile sense or pruritus. Skin biopsy was performed on the periumbilical area at previous port site and around the scar. Microscopic examination revealed multiple malignant cells in lymphatic spaces, consistent with metastatic carcinoma. He was therefore diagnosed with isolated skin metastasis from early gastric cancer. Because of patient's poor liver function, systemic chemotherapy could not be performed and only best supportive care was provided. Herein, we report a rare case of cellulitis-like skin metastasis from early gastric cancer with a brief review of the literature.
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Down-regulation of miRNA-30a alleviates cerebral ischemic injury through enhancing beclin 1-mediated autophagy.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The understanding of molecular mechanism underlying ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal death and neurological dysfunction may provide therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. The up-regulated miRNA-30a among our previous identified 19 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in mouse brain after 6 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) could negatively regulate Beclin 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) resulting in decreased autophagic activity in tumor cells and cardiomyocytes, but its role in ischemic stroke is unclear. In this study, the effects of miRNA-30a on ischemic injury in N2A cells and cultured cortical neurons after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and mouse brain with MCAO-induced ischemic stroke were evaluated. The results showed that miRNA-30a expression levels were up regulated in the brain of mice after 6 h MCAO without reperfusion, but significantly down regulated in the peri-infarct region of mice with 1 h MCAO/24 h reperfusion and in N2A cells after 1 h OGD/6-48 h reoxygenation. Both the conversion ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I and Beclin 1 protein level increased in N2A cells and cultured cortical neurons following 1 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation. The down-regulated miRNA-30a could attenuate 1 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation-induced ischemic injury in N2A cells and cultured cortical neurons through enhancing Beclin 1-mediated autophagy, as miRNA-30a recognized the 3'-untranslated region of beclin 1 mRNA to negatively regulate Beclin 1-protein level via promoting beclin 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, and Beclin 1 siRNA abolished anti-miR-30a-induced neuroprotection in 1 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation treated N2A cells. In addition, anti-miR-30a attenuated the neural cell loss and improved behavioral outcome of mice with ischemic stroke. These results suggested that down-regulation of miRNA-30a alleviates ischemic injury through enhancing beclin 1-mediated autophagy, providing a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.
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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with metabolic syndrome: relationship to insulin resistance and liver histology.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. We aimed to assess the relationship of metabolic syndrome-associated NASH and insulin resistance (IR), and to define the correlation of chemicometabolic components with different degree of liver histology in NASH subjects.
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Reduction of brain barrier tight junctional proteins by lead exposure: role of activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src via chaperon GRP78.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Lead (Pb) has long been recognized as a neurodevelopmental toxin. Developing blood-brain barrier (BBB) is known to be a target of Pb neurotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that intracellular nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase Src regulates tight junctional proteins (TJPs). This study was designed to investigate whether Pb acted on the Src-mediated cascade event leading to an altered TJP expression at BBB. Rats aged 20-22 days were exposed to Pb in drinking water (0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm Pb) for eight weeks. Electron microscopic and Western blot analyses revealed a severe leakage of BBB and significantly decreased expressions of TJP occludin and ZO-1. When cultured brain endothelial RBE4 cells were exposed to 10?M Pb for 24 h, expressions of phosphor-Src and an upstream regulator GRP78 were significantly increased by 6.42-fold and 8.29-fold (p < 0.01), respectively. Inactivation of Src pathway by a Src-specific inhibitor reversed Pb-induced downregulation of occludin, but not ZO-1; small interfering RNA knockdown of GRP78 attenuated Pb-induced Src phosphorylation and occludin reduction. Furthermore, Pb exposure caused redistribution of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to cytosol and toward cell member. However, the data from immunoneutralization studies did not show the involvement of cell-surface GRP78 in regulating Src phosphorylation upon Pb exposure, suggesting that the cytosolic GRP78, rather than cell-surface GRP78, was responsible to Pb-induced Src activation and ensuing occludin reduction. Taken together, this study provides the evidence of a novel linkage of GRP78, Src activation to downregulation of occludin, and BBB disruption during Pb exposure.
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Discovery of structure-based small molecular inhibitor of ?B-crystallin against basal-like/triple-negative breast cancer development in vitro and in vivo.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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?B-crystallin (CRYAB) is present at a high frequency in poor prognosis basal-like breast tumours, which are largely absent of oestrogen, progesterone receptors and HER2 known as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CRYAB functions as a molecular chaperone to bind to and correct intracellular misfolded/unfolded proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), preventing non-specific protein aggregations under the influence of the tumour microenvironment stress and/or anti-cancer treatments including bevacizumab therapy. Directly targeting CRYAB can sensitize tumour cells to chemotherapeutic agents and decrease tumour aggressiveness. However, growing evidence shows that CRYAB is a critical adaptive response element after ischemic heart disease and stroke, implying that directly targeting CRYAB might cause serious unwanted side effects. Here, we used structure-based molecular docking of CRYAB and identified a potent small molecular inhibitor, NCI-41356, which can strongly block the interaction between CRYAB and VEGF165 without affecting CRYAB levels. The disruption of the interaction between CRYAB and VEGF165 elicits in vitro anti-tumour cell proliferation and invasive effects through the down-regulation of VEGF signalling in the breast cancer cells. The observed in vitro anti-tumour angiogenesis of endothelial cells might be attributed to the down-regulation of paracrine VEGF signalling in the breast cancer cells after treatment with NCI-41356. Intraperitoneal injection of NCI-41356 greatly inhibits the tumour growth and vasculature development in in vivo human breast cancer xenograft models. Our findings provide 'proof-of-concept' for the development of highly specific structure-based alternative targeted therapy for the prevention and/or treatment of TNBC.
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Recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, GM-CSF, and B7-1 genes suppresses the growth of glioma in vivo.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Malignant gliomas are the most common of primary brain tumors and have been proven incurable with conventional treatments. Evidence have shown that a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and B7-1 genes (BB-102) may have antitumor effects in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of BB-102-based vaccine on glioma in vivo. An animal model using nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice with human immune system was established. The mice were vaccinated with inactivated U251 glioma cells transduced with BB-102 or adenoviral vector expressing green fluorescence protein (Ad-GFP) as a control and followed by the challenge of live U251 glioma cells. Tumor growth and antitumor responses were measured. Data showed that mice vaccinated with BB-102 had significantly reduced local tumor growth compared to mice with Ad-GFP vaccination or the control group. Histopathological analysis displayed low tumor cell density and significant infiltration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HuPBLs) in the tumor tissues of mice transduced with BB-102. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that mutant p53 was not expressed in tumor tissues of mice with BB-102 vaccination, and the expression level of Ki67 was significantly lower in the tumor tissues of the BB-102 group than those in the Ad-GFP group or the control group. Further study demonstrated that mice with BB-102 vaccination had significantly increased total T cell numbers, total T cell proportion, CD4+ T cell proportion, and CD8+ T cell proportion in spleens, as well as higher value of IgG, IgA, and IgE in sera. These data suggest that the recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, GM-CSF, and B7-1 genes could suppress glioma in NOD/SCID mice model and might be considered as a novel strategy for glioma therapy.
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Analysis of gene profiles involved in the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid-induced HL-60 cell differentiation by sesquiterpene lactones identifies asparagine synthetase as a novel target for differentiation-inducing therapy.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is one of the most useful drugs in the treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but its adverse effects, which include drug resistance and hypercalcemia are obstacles to achieving complete remission. Our previous study showed that some sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), i.e., helenalin (HE) and parthenolide (PA) but not sclareolide (SC), enhance ATRA-induced differentiation of HL-60 APL cells with no unexpected effects, but the precise mechanism on underlying this synergism is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the distinctive transcriptional profile of cells treated with effective STL compounds, which were identified by comparing the profile with that of cells treated with SC. Genome-wide approaches using cDNA microarrays showed that co-treatment with the differentiation-enhancing STLs HE and PA maximized the transcriptional variation regulated by the suboptimal concentration of ATRA in HL-60 cells. Of the genes of interest, asparagine synthetase was remarkably downregulated by ATRA co-treated with either HE or PA, but not with SC. In an additional analysis for the role of asparagine synthetase, ATRA-mediated HL-60 cell differentiation was enhanced when asparagine in the culture media was depleted by an addition of L-asparaginase, indicating that downregulation of asparagine synthetase gene expression may be involved in the enhanced cell differentiation by STL compounds. These results provide useful insight into differentiation-inducing therapy in the treatment of leukemia.
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Viable bacterial cell patterning using a pulsed jet electrospray system.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In the present study, drop-on-demand two-dimensional patterning of unstained and stained bacterial cells on untreated clean wafers was newly conducted using an electrospray pulsed jet. We produced various spotted patterns of the cells on a silicon wafer by varying experimental conditions such as the frequency, flow rate, and translational speed of the electrospray system in a two-dimensional manner. Especially, the electrospray's pulsed jet of cell solutions produced alphabetical patterns consisting of spots with a diameter of approximately 10 µm, each of which contained a single or a small number of viable bacteria. We tested the viability of patterned cells using two visualization methods. This pattering technique is newly tested here and it has the potential to be applied in a variety of cell biology experiments.
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A novel finding for enterovirus virulence from the capsid protein VP1 of EV71 circulating in mainland China.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes various clinical manifestations in young children, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different pathotypes of EV71 notably differ in virulence. Several virulence determinants of EV71 have been predicted. However, these reported virulence determinants could not be used to identify the EV71 strains of subgenotype C4, which mainly circulate in China. In this study, VP1 sequences of 37 EV71 strains from severe cases (SC-EV71) and 192 EV71 strains from mild cases (MC-EV71) in mainland China were analyzed to determine the potential virulence determinants in the capsid protein VP1 of EV71. Although most SC-EV71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, no specific genetic lineages in C4a were correlated with EV71 virulence. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions at nine positions (H22Q, P27S, N31S/D, E98K, E145G/Q, D164E, T240A/S, V249I, and A289T) were detected by aligning the VP1 sequences of the SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. Moreover, both the constituent ratios of the conservative or mutated residues in the MC-EV71 and SC-EV71 strains and the changes in the VP1 3D structure resulting from these mutations confirmed that the conservative residues (22H, 249V, and 289A) and the mutated residues (27S, 31S/D, 98K, 145G/Q, 164E, and 240A/S) might be potential virulence determinants in VP1 of EV71. Furthermore, these results led to the hypothesis that VP1 acts as a sandwich switch for viral particle stabilization and cellular receptors attachment, and specific mutations in this protein can convert mild cases into severe cases. These findings highlight new opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
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Micro-ribonucleic acid expression profiling and bioinformatic target gene analyses in laryngeal carcinoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Abnormal expression of micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) might be clinically valuable as a biomarker or treatment target in the early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of tumors. However, little is known concerning abnormal miRNA expression of laryngeal carcinoma, one of the most commonly encountered head and neck tumors. Microarray analysis was used to obtain miRNA-expression profiles of ten pairs of freshly frozen laryngeal carcinoma tissue and surrounding normal tissue specimens. Characteristic miRNAs that were significantly related to laryngeal carcinoma were identified. Verification was performed using an additional 32 pairs of samples. The expression of two miRNAs (miR-21-3p and miR-106b-3p) was upregulated in both microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain-reaction analyses, whereas the expression of six miRNAs (let-7f-5p, miR-10a-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-144-3p, miR-195-5p, and miR-203) was downregulated. The decreased expression of let-7f-5p and miR-195-5p is a novel finding in head and neck cancer. The target genes of these miRNAs were also predicted through multiple software programs. The differential expression of miRNAs might be related to the early onset and development of laryngeal carcinoma, and may be exploited as new biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of laryngeal carcinoma.
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Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus in novel rat model of febrile seizures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events in infants and young children, but the precise underlying genetic mechanism remains to be explored. To investigate the underlying pathogenic factors in FS and subsequent epilepsy, alterations in gene expression between the two new strains of rats (hyperthermia-prone [HP] vs hyperthermia-resistant [HR]), were investigated by using the Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray. This process identified 1,140 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 602 upregulated and 538 downregulated), which were analyzed to determine significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, signaling pathways and gene networks. Based on the GO analyses, the modified genes are closely related to various FS pathogenesis factors, including immune and inflammatory responses and ion transport. Certain DEGs identified have not been previously examined in relation to FS pathogenesis. Among these genes is dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), a gene closely linked to interleukin 6 (IL-6), which played a key role in the gene network analysis. Furthermore, sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor significantly decreased epileptic discharge in rats, observed via electroencephalogram, suggesting an important role for DPP4 in FS. The effectiveness of sitagliptin in reducing seizure activity may occur through a mechanism that stabilizes cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In addition, DPP4 expression may be regulated by DNA methylation. The hippocampal gene expression profiles in novel rat models of FS provides a large database of candidate genes and pathways, which will be useful for researchers interested in disorders of neuronal excitability.
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Sex- and season-dependent differences in telomere length and telomerase activity in the leaves of ash and willow.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Telomeres and telomerase have important biological functions and can protect chromosome ends. In this study, sex- and season-dependent changes in telomere length and telomerase activity in ash and willow were analyzed. A statistical analysis showed that the telomere lengths of male and female trees differed significantly (P??0.05), and decreased significantly in September and October (P?
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Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurobehavioral development of neonates: a birth cohort study in Shenyang, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A large amount of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are used in agriculture in China every year, contributing to exposure of OPs through dietary consumption among the general population. However, the level of exposure to OPs in China is still uncertain.
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[Early and midterm outcomes of artificial chordae transplant in mitral valve repair].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To summarize the early and midterm outcomes of artificial chordae transplant in mitral valve repair.
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Spinal epidermoid cyst formation after spinal fracture operation: a case report.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Acquired spinal epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. There are only a few reports on the formation of epidermoid cysts after lumbar puncture or spinal trauma. In this report, we present a patient who was diagnosed with epidermoid cyst after operation for spinal fracture. This 43-yearold female suffered from progressively worsening low back pain radiating down the left leg four years after lumbar burst fracture in the L1 segment and subsequent posterior vertebral pedicle screw fixation surgery. 1 year later, the spinal fracture fixation devices were successfully removed. On admission, spinal magnetic resonance imaging found a cyst locating anterior to the site of operation and this lesion was removed by a following total laminectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case ever reported showing the formation of epidermoid cyst after primary spinal fracture operation. Therefore, in patients with a history of spinal fracture operation, spinal epidermoid cysts should be taken into consideration if the low back pain and radiculopathy were refractory.
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MicroRNA-503 acts as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma for multiple antitumor effects by targeting IGF-1R.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is associated with various types of human cancer by regulating cancer cell survival, proliferation and invasion. Aberrant expression of microRNA-503 (miR-503) has been reported in several cancer profiles. However, potential linkage of miR-503 levels and the underlying regulatory mechanisms in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remain unclear. In the present study, we showed for the first time that the expression of miR-503 was significantly reduced in GBM tissues and cell lines (U251 and U87MG) relative to normal brain tissues. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-503 in GBM cell lines not only suppressed cell proliferation through inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but also inhibited cancer cell migration and tumor invasion. In addition, we identified insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF?1R) receptor mRNA is a bona fide target of miR-503 by computational analysis followed by luciferase reporter assays. Of note, upregulation of miR-503 in GBM cells suppressed endogenous IGF-1R protein expression. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that forced expression of miR-503 inhibited AKT activation, suggesting the tumor suppressive effect of miR-503 in GBM cells is partially mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR-503 is a tumor suppressor for GBM and a favorable factor against glioma progression through targeting IGF-1R, thus providing a new evidence-supported prognostic marker for GBM diagnosis.
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Lead exposure results in hearing loss and disruption of the cochlear blood-labyrinth barrier and the protective role of iron supplement.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the impact of lead (Pb(2+)) on the auditory system and its molecular mechanisms. Pb(AC)2 was administrated to male SD rats aged 21-22 d for 8 weeks at a dose of 300ppm. Male guinea pigs were also administrated with 50mg/kg Pb(AC)2 two times a week for 8 weeks. The auditory nerve-brainstem evoked responses (ABR) was recorded and the morphological changes of the outer hair cells (OHCs) were observed with Phallodin-FITC staining. In addition, the integrity of the blood-labyrinth barrier was observed by TEM and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) in the cochlear stria vascularis was determined by immunofluorescence. Our results showed that Pb(2+) exposure resulted in increased ABR threshold in both rats and guinea pigs. Abnormal shapes and loss of OHCs were found in the cochlear basilar membrane following the Pb(2+) exposure. TEM study showed that the tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the border cells were lost and disrupted. Down-regulation of the occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 in the stria vascularis suggested that the increased permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier may attribute to the Pb(2+)-induced decrease of TJPs expression. Additionally, Fe(2+) supplement partly reversed the Pb(2+)-induced hearing loss and down-regulation of TJPs. Taken together, these data indicate that the disruption of blood-labyrinth barrier by down-regulating the expression of TJPs plays a role in the Pb(2+)-induced hearing loss, and Fe(2+) supplement protects the auditory system against Pb(2+)-induced toxicity and may have significant clinical implications.
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Terriglobus tenax sp. nov., a novel exopolysaccharide producing acidobacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of a medicinal plant.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria, designated strain DRP 35T was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a medicinal herb, Angelica sinensis, at Geumsan in Korea. Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile short rods, and catalase positive and oxidase negative. The isolates grew aerobically from 15 to 45 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 3.5-7.0 (optimum pH 5.0) and 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain DRP 35T belongs to the genus Terriglobus in the phylum Acidobacteria with the sequence similarity of 97.2% (Terriglobus saanensis SP1PR4T) and 97.0% (Terriglobus roseus KBS63T), respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 62.1 mol%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DRP 35T and the other type species of the genus Terriglobus, T. saanensis SP1PR4T and T. roseus KBS63T were 24.6 and 17.2?%, respectively. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8. Major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1?7c and C16:0. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified aminophospholipid, and unknown phospholipids. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, strain DRP 35T represents a novel species of the genus Terriglobus for which the name Terriglobus tenax sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DRP 35T (=KACC 16474T=NBRC 109677T).
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[Changes of centrosome and related protein in malignant transformation of BEAS-2B cell induced by coal tar pitch smoke extracts].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To analyze the centrosome abnormalities in the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) induced by coal tar pitch smoke extracts and to investigate the role and action mechanism of centrosome in the lung cancer induced by coal tar pitch.
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Non-high altitude methods for rapid screening of susceptibility to acute mountain sickness.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Acute mountain sickness (AMS) refers to the cerebral abnormalities typically triggered by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Although AMS is not often life threatening, it can seriously impact health quality and decrease productivity. Thus, detection of potential susceptibility to AMS has become important for people arriving at high-altitude plateaus for the first time, including laborers and military staff. The aim of this review was to examine techniques which efficiently assess the susceptibility to AMS prior to exposure to high altitude.
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Involvement of CTR1 and ATP7A in lead (Pb)-induced copper (Cu) accumulation in choroidal epithelial cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) plays a key role in maintaining copper (Cu) homeostasis in the brain. Cumulative evidences indicate that lead (Pb) exposure alters cerebral Cu homeostasis, which may underlie the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the roles of Cu transporter 1 (CTR1) and ATP7A, two Cu transporters, in Pb-induced Cu accumulation in the choroidal epithelial cells. Pb exposure resulted in increased intracellular (64)Cu retention, accompanying with up-regulated CTR1 level. Knockdown of CTR1 using siRNA before Pb exposure diminished the Pb-induced increase of (64)Cu uptake. The expression level of ATP7A was down-regulated following the Pb exposure. ATP7A siRNA knockdown, or PCMB treatment, inhibited the (64)Cu efflux from the cells, while the following additional incubation with Pb failed to further increase the intracellular (64)Cu retention. Cu exposure, or intracellular Cu accumulation following the tetracycline (Tet)-induced overexpression of CTR1, did not result in significant change in ATP7A expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CTR1 and ATP7A play important roles in Cu transport in choroidal epithelial cells, and the Pb-induced intracellular Cu accumulation appears to be mediated, at least in part, via the alteration of CTR1 and ATP7A expression levels following Pb exposure.
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Chitinophaga polysaccharea sp. nov., an Exopolysaccharide-producing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizoplane of Dioscorea japonica.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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A novel strain, designated MRP-15(T), belonging to the class Sphingobacteria (phylum Bacteroidetes) was isolated from the rhizoplane of Dioscorea japonica in South Korea and was characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to comprise Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Chitinophaga but was clearly separated from established Chitinophaga species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between MRP-15(T) and type strains of established Chitinophaga species ranged from 90.3 to 97.8 %. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data (major menaquinone, MK-7; major fatty acids, iso-C15:0 and C16:1?5c) supported the affiliation of strain MRP-15(T) with the genus Chitinophaga. Therefore strain MRP-15(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Chitinophaga polysacchareus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MRP-15(T) (=KACC 17184(T) =NCAIMB 02530(T)).
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Risk prediction of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the era of antiviral therapy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a grave primary liver cancer that has a limited therapeutic option because it is generally diagnosed later in an advanced stage due to its aggressive biologic behavior. The early detection of HCC has a great impact on the treatment efficacy and survival of patients at high risk for cancer. Potential host, environmental, and virus-related risk factors have been introduced. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis or HCC in endemic areas, and its serologic or virologic status is considered an important risk factor. HCC risk prediction derived from the identification of major risk factors is necessary for providing adequate screening/surveillance strategies to high-risk individuals. Several risk prediction models for HBV-related HCC have been presented recently with simple, efficient, and readily available to use parameters applicable to average- or unknown-risk populations as well as high-risk individuals. Predictive scoring systems of risk estimation to assess HCC development can provide the way to an evidence-based clinical approach for cost- and effort-effective outcomes, capable of inducing a personalized surveillance program according to risk stratification. In this review, the concepts and perspectives of the risk prediction of HCC are discussed through the analysis of several risk prediction models of HBV-related HCC.
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Open-circuit voltage enhancement on the basis of polymer gel electrolyte for a highly stable dye-sensitized solar cell.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have received considerable attention owing to their low preparation cost and easy fabrication process. However, one of the drawbacks that limits the further application of DSSC is their poor stability, arising from the leakage and volatilization of the liquid organic solvent in the electrolyte. Therefore, to improve the long-term stability of DSSC, polymer gel electrolyte was studied to replace the conventional liquid electrolyte in this work. The results show that compared to liquid electrolyte, DSSC with polymer gel electrolyte has a smaller short-circuit current (Jsc), which decreases with the increase of the polymer gelator. Nevertheless, with the employment of the polymer gel electrolyte, there is a significant enhancement of open-circuit voltage (Voc), and it increases with the increase of the polymer gelator content. The highest Voc, up to 0.873 V, can be obtained for DSSC with a 30% polymer gelator content. The impact of the polymer gel electrolyte on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC, especially on Voc, was studied by analyzing the charge-transfer kinetics in the polymer gel electrolyte. Furthermore, the influence of the polymer gel electrolyte on the long-term stability of DSSC was also investigated.
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Planifilum composti sp. nov., a thermophile isolated from compost.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Two thermophilic bacteria, designated strains P8(T) and P12, were isolated from compost in Korea. The isolates grew aerobically from 50 to 75 °C (optimum at 55 °C) and at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5). Aerial mycelia were not observed. Single spores were produced along the substrate hypha. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids were iso-C17?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an aminophospholipid and sphingoglycolipid. The DNA G+C contents were 55.9-56.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains P8(T) and P12 belonged to the genus Planifilum in the family Thermoactinomycetaceae with sequence similarities of 96.1-97.2?%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain P8(T) and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Planifilum ranged from 28.9 to 38.2?%. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strains P8(T) and P12 are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Planifilum, for which the name Planifilum composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P8(T) (?=?KACC 16581(T)?=?NBRC 108858(T)).
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A luminescent 2D coordination polymer for selective sensing of nitrobenzene.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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A luminescent two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer is demonstrated to be a selective sensing material for the straightforward detection of nitrobenzene via a redox fluorescence quenching mechanism.
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An unprecedented decanuclear Gd(III) cluster for magnetic refrigeration.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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An unprecedented decanuclear Gd(III) cluster composed of the [Gd10(?3-OH)8](22+) core has been hydrothermally synthesized. Magnetic analyses indicate that this complex shows weak antiferromagnetic behavior with a relatively large magnetocaloric effect (-?S(m)(max) = 31.22 J kg(-1) K(-1)).
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A controllable gate effect in cobalt(II) organic frameworks by reversible structure transformations.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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With H2 O or NH3 stimuli, the blue cobalt-based metal-organic framework (MOF) BP can reversibly transform to red RP. The removal/recovery of terephthalate ligands accompanied by the transformation leads to a gate effect, which allows the encapsulation and release of small solvent molecules under certain conditions. This is the first example of topology transformation from a self-penetrating to interpenetrating net in 3D MOFs.
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Surgical Management of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Fistula: A 25-Year Single-Center Experience in 29 Patients.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) fistula is rare, and surgical experience is limited. We report our experience with 29 patients with LCX fistula during a 25-year period in terms of clinical features, pathology, surgical procedure, and late outcomes.
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Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level: An independent risk factor for tuberculosis?
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). Low serum vitamin D levels may also be associated with poor nutritional status in TB patients. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the association between low serum vitamin D level and TB, regardless of other nutritional factors.
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Synthesis and ferrimagnetic properties of an unprecedented polynuclear cobalt complex composed of [Co24] macrocycles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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An unprecedented polynuclear cobalt complex with a [Co(24)] macrocycle in the presence of [Co(H(2)O)(6)](2+) has been prepared and characterized. In this complex, [Co(H(2)O)(6)](2+) not only acts as a counterion to balance the negative charge of the 2D layer, but may also serve as a template in the assembly of the [Co(24)] macrocyclic complex through hydrogen-bond interactions. Magnetic analyses indicate that the title compound shows homometallic ferrimagnetic behavior.
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Hyperthermia-induced seizures: development of hyperthermia-prone and hyperthermia-resistant rats.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Febrile seizures (FS), as a multifactorial and genetic disease, are the most common type of convulsive event in infants and young children. Their genetic basis, however, remains elusive. To investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in FS and to identify novel susceptibility genes, we developed two new strains of rats that are hyperthermia-prone (HP, lower seizure threshold) and hyperthermia-resistant (HR, higher seizure threshold) using an established model of hyperthermia-induced seizures combined with selective breeding process. With each subsequent generation, the morbidity of the FS gradually increased in the HP group and gradually decreased in the HR group. Changes in seizure susceptibility between the two genotypes were investigated using kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures and electroencephalography (EEG). The HP rats had a greater seizure severity compared with the HR rats. Our findings may be a significant step toward discovering the genetic mechanisms involved in FS and may elucidate the pathogenesis of this disorder.
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The GacS-regulated sigma factor RpoS governs production of several factors involved in biocontrol activity of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 possesses many beneficial traits involved in biocontrol of plant diseases. In this paper, we examined the effect of a mutation in rpoS encoding a stress-related alternative sigma factor to better understand the regulation of these traits. Biochemical studies indicated that production of acyl homoserine lactones was altered and phenazine was increased in the P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant. The rpoS mutation reduced hydrogen cyanide levels, but the rpoS mutant still displayed a level of in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and Alternaria alternata. Tomato root colonization by the rpoS mutant was lower than that by the wild type at 5, 7, and 13 days after inoculation. The rpoS mutant was less effective than the wild type in induction of systemic resistance to two foliar pathogens after root inoculation of the tomato plants. Our findings demonstrate that the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS regulates production of several key factors involved in the biocontrol potential of P. chlororaphis O6, some independently of the global regulator GacS.
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Multifunctional nanomedicine platform for concurrent delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and mild hyperthermia to ovarian cancer cells.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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A multifunctional tumor-targeting delivery system was developed and evaluated for an efficient treatment of drug-resistant ovarian cancer by combinatorial therapeutic modality based on chemotherapy and mild hyperthermia. The engineered iron oxide nanoparticle (IONPs)-based nanocarrier served as an efficient delivery vehicle for doxorubicin and provided the ability to heat cancer cells remotely upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The nanocarrier was additionally modified with polyethylene glycol and LHRH peptide to improve its biocompatibility and ability to target tumor cells. The synthesized delivery system has an average size of 97.1 nm and a zeta potential close to zero, both parameters favorable for increased stability in biological media and decreased elimination by the immune system. The nanocarrier demonstrated faster drug release in acidic conditions that mimic the tumor environment. It was also observed that the LHRH targeted delivery system could effectively enter drug resistant ovarian cancer cells, and the fate of doxorubicin was tracked with fluorescence microscope. Mild hyperthermia (40°C) generated by IONPs under exposure to AMF synergistically increased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin delivered by the developed nanocarrier to cancer cells. Thus, the developed IONPs-based delivery system has high potential in the effective treatment of ovarian cancer by combinatorial approach.
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Pancreatitis activates pancreatic apelin-APJ axis in mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Pancreatitis is classified into acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Apelin, a small regulatory peptide, is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor. Apelin and APJ are expressed in the pancreas. The aims of this study were to examine whether apelin influences the inflammatory and fibrosis responses to pancreatitis in mice and to identify mechanisms behind apelins activities. Supramaximal cerulein induction of AP or CP caused significant (P < 0.05) elevations in pancreatic apelin and APJ expression. Levels declined during the recovery phases. In apelin gene-knockout mice with pancreatitis, pancreatic neutrophil invasion and myeloperoxidase activity were enhanced significantly, and apelin treatment suppressed both. Apelin exposure reduced CP-induced elevations of extracellular matrix-associated proteins. Apelin inhibited PDGF-simulated connective tissue growth factor production and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte cytokine levels were higher in apelin gene-knockout than wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Apelin reduced AP- and CP-induced elevations in pancreatic NF-?B activation. Together, these findings imply that the pancreatic apelin-APJ system functions to curb the inflammatory and fibrosis responses during pancreatitis. Furthermore, findings suggest that apelin reduces inflammation and fibrosis by reducing neutrophil recruitment and PSC activity. Inhibition of neutrophil invasion may be mediated by reduced keratinocyte cytokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor secretion. Apelin-induced reductions in PSC proliferation and connective tissue growth factor production are putative mechanisms underlying apelins inhibition of extracellular matrix production. The apelin-associated changes in NF-?B binding may be linked to apelins regulation of pancreatic inflammatory and fibrosis responses during pancreatitis.
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Betel Quid Chewing Without Tobacco: A Meta-analysis of Carcinogenic and Precarcinogenic Effects.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Betel quid without tobacco is an important factor influencing the incidences of oral cancer and precancer. This study systematically evaluated the associations between betel quid containing no tobacco and oral cancer and precancer, with implications for the prevention of oral cancer. We searched MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE (to April 2011) and retrieved studies that investigated the relationship between chewing betel quid and oral cancer (or precancer). We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the published data and describe the prevalence of betel quid use with regard to cancerous diseases. In all, 19 eligible studies that reported odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oral cancer with respect to betel quid were included. The analysis identified an association suggesting that betel quid might be an important risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The results of this review suggest that betel-chewing-cessation programs should be developed to help prevent oral diseases.
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Tat-collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) increases the survival of neurons after NMDA excitotoxity by reducing the cleavage of CRMP2.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) is a brain-specific multifunctional adaptor protein involved in neuronal polarity and axonal guidance. Our previous results showed CRMP2 may be involved in the hypoxic preconditioning and ischemic injury, but the mechanism was not clear. This study explored whether CRMP2 was involved in NMDA-induced neural death, and the possible mechanism. Western blot analysis demonstrated that NMDA reduced the phosphorylation of CRMP2 and inspired the cleavage of CRMP2. Also, it was detected that NMDA treatment did not affect the phosphorylation of CRMP2 in early stage (<6 h). Over-expression of CRMP2 aggravated the NMDA-induced injury, suggesting the vital role of CRMP2 in excitotoxicity. Tat-CRMP2 was designed to provide the cleavage site of calpain. Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342/Propidium Iodide staining and Western blot assay showed that Tat-CRMP2 pretreatment increased cell viability compared with the control group against NMDA exposure by decreasing the cleavage of CRMP2. In conclusion, these studies indicated that cleavage of CRMP2 plays an important role involved in the NMDA-induced injury. The cleavage of CRMP2 may be a promising target for excitatory amino acid-related ischemic and hypoxic injury.
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A chiral 2p-3d heterometallic azido complex with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate as the co-ligand showing magnetic order.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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A new chiral 3D heterometallic coordination polymer [NaCo2(L)2(N3)·(MeOH)]? (1) (L = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate) was synthesized and characterized magnetically. Ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions co-exist in 1, which results in a magnetic phase transition at the high temperature of 29 K.
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[Establishment and experimental study of alveolar preservation before dental implantation in Beagle dogs].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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To establish the model of alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction for dental implant replacement, and to observe the effect of tissue engineered bone on osseointegration.
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Phosphorylated CaMKII levels increase in rat central nervous system after large-dose intravenous remifentanil.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Postoperative remifentanil-induced pain sensitization is common, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been shown to have a critical role in morphine-induced hyperalgesia. This study was designed to determine how CaMKII phosphorylation and protein expression levels change in the central nervous system of rats with remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.