A high-performance, self-powered, elastic energy fiber is developed that consists of an energy conversion sheath and an energy storage core. The coaxial structure and the aligned nanostructures at the electrode interface enable a high total energy-conversion and energy-storage performance that is maintained under bending and after stretching as demonstrated by H. Peng and co-workers on page 7038.
Objective To retrospectively evaluate the clinical feasibility of high-pitch excretory phase images during dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector. Methods Totally 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with Stellar photon detector[80 kV,ref.92 mAs,CARE Dose 4D and CARE kV,pitch of 3.0,filter back projection reconstruction algorithm (FBP)](group A). Another 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with common detector(100 kV,ref.140 mAs,CARE Dose 4D,pitch of 3.0,FBP)(group B). Quantitative measurement of CT value of urinary segments(Hounsfield units),image noise(Hounsfield units),and effective radiation dose(millisievert)were compared using independent-samples t test between two groups. Urinary system subjective opacification scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U test between two groups. Results There was no significant difference in subjective opacification score of intrarenal collecting system and ureters between two groups(all P>0.05). The group A images yielded significantly higher CT values of all urinary segments(all P<0.01). There was no significant difference in image noise(P>0.05). The effective radiation dose of group A(1.1 mSv)was significantly lower than that of group B(3.79 mSv)(P<0.01). Conclusion High-pitch low-tube-voltage during excretory phase dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector is feasible,with acceptable image noise and lower radiation dose.
First principles calculations were used to investigate the surface energies, equilibrium morphology, surface redox potentials, and surface electrical conductivity of LiVOPO4. Relatively low-energy surfaces are found in the (100), (010), (001), (011), (111), and (201) orientations of the orthorhombic structure. Thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the LiVOPO4 crystal is built with the calculated surface energies through a Wulff construction. The (001) and (111) orientations are the dominating surfaces in the Wulff shape. Similar calculations for VOPO4 display a larger decrease in surface energies for the (100) surface rather than those in the other surfaces. It suggests that the Wulff shape of LiVOPO4 is closely related to the chemical environment around. Surfaces (100), (010) and (201) present lower Li surface redox potentials in comparison with the bulk material. Therefore, the Li migration rate on surfaces could be effectively increased by maximizing the exposure of these low redox potential surfaces. In addition, lower surface band gaps are found in all orientations compared to the bulk one, which indicates that electrical conductivity can be improved significantly by enlarging surfaces with relatively low band gaps in the particle. Therefore, synthesizing (201) and (100) nanosheets will greatly improve the electrochemical properties of the material.
Electronic level alignment at interfaces of molecular materials with inorganic semiconductors and metals controls many interfacial phenomena. How the intrinsic properties of the interacting systems define the electronic structure of their interface remains one of the most important problems in molecular electronics and nanotechnology that can be solved through a combination of surface science experimental techniques and theoretical modeling. In this article, we address this fundamental problem through experimental and computational studies of molecular electronic level alignment of thin films of C6F6 on noble metal surfaces. The unoccupied electronic structure of C6F6 is characterized with single molecule resolution using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy-based constant-current distance-voltage spectroscopy. The experiments are performed on several noble metal surfaces with different work functions and distinct surface-normal projected band structures. In parallel, the electronic structures of the quantum wells (QWs) formed by the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital state of the C6F6 monolayer and multilayer films and their alignment with respect to the vacuum level of the metallic substrates are calculated by solving the Schrödinger equation for a semiempirical one-dimensional (1D) potential of the combined system using input from density functional theory. Our analysis shows that the level alignment for C6F6 molecules bound through weak van der Waals interactions to noble metal surfaces is primarily defined by the image potential of metal, the electron affinity of the molecule, and the molecule surface distance. We expect the same factors to determine the interfacial electronic structure for a broad range of molecule/metal interfaces.
Large-scale clinical trials have shown that routine monitoring of the platelet function in patients after percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) is not necessary. However, it is still unclear whether patients received high-risk PCI would benefit from a therapy which is guided by a selective platelet function monitoring. This explanatory study sought to assess the benefit of a therapy guided by platelet function monitoring for these patients.
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) usually have no specific clinical symptoms at early stages. HCC with BDTT was usually misdiagnosed when the intrahepatic tumor was small, even undetectable. In this study, 5 cases of HCC with BDTT misdiagnosed as choledocholithiasis and cholangitis in the local hospital are described. We analyzed retrospectively and summarized our experiences of these 5 HCC patients with BDTT misdiagnosed in the local hospital during the past 5 years. The diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of the patients are discussed. Three patients underwent hepatectomy with thrombectomy and T-tube drainage. One patient underwent hepatectomy with the resection of the common bile duct and hepatojejunostomy, and palliative surgery was performed in 1 patient with portal vein tumor thrombus and intrahepatic metastasis. The patients were followed for 6-22 months; 4 patients died of tumor recurrence and metastasis or hepatic failure, despite 3 of these patients having received transhepatic arterial chemotherapy and embolization or radiofrequency ablation therapy. Early and accurate diagnosis of HCC with BDTT is very important. When patients have a history of abnormal recurrent cholangitis, HCC with BDTT should be highly suspected. Intraductal ultrasonography (US), intraoperative US, and histopathological examination are very valuable for the diagnosis. The prognosis of HCC patients with BDTT is dismal. Identification of this type of patient is clinically important, because surgical treatment may be beneficial.
Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) plays complicated and crucial roles in bone formation, and the biologic effect of FGF9 may depend on the gene dosage, developmental stage, cell type, or interactions with other cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that FGF9 enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 in calvaria-derived mesenchymal cells. However, the inhibitory effect of FGF9 on the osteogenic differentiation of calvaria-derived mesenchymal cells did not depend on the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2. Combined with the previous findings that FGF9 promotes dental pulp stem cells chondrogenesis in vitro, we suggest that FGF9 may be applied to promote chondrogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
Aligned carbon-nanotube (CNT) sheets are used as building blocks to prepare light-weight, frequency-tunable and high-performance microwave absorbers, and the absorption frequency can be accurately controlled by stacking them with different intersectional angles. A remarkable reflection loss of -47.66 dB is achieved by stacking four aligned CNT sheets with an intersectional angle of 90° between two neighboring ones. The incorporation of a second phase such as a metal and a conducting polymer greatly enhances the microwave-absorption capability.
A high-performance, self-powered, elastic energy fiber is developed that consists of an energy conversion sheath and an energy storage core. The coaxial structure and the aligned nanostructures at the electrode interface enable a high total energy-conversion and energy-storage performance that is maintained under bending and after stretching.
Efficient capture of CO2 by chemical means requires a microscopic understanding of the interactions of the molecule–substrate bonding and adsorption-induced collective phenomena. By molecule-resolved imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we investigate self-catalyzed CO2 adsorption on one-dimensional (1D) substrates composed of self-assembled metal–organic chains (MOCs) supported on gold surfaces. CO2 adsorption turns on attractive interchain interactions, which induce pronounced surface structural changes; the initially uniformly dispersed chains gather into close packed bundles, which are held together by highly ordered, single molecule wide CO2 ranks. CO2 molecules create more favorable adsorption sites for further CO2 adsorption by mediating the interchain attraction, thereby self-catalyzing their capture. The release of CO2 molecules by thermal desorption returns the MOCs to their original structure, indicating that the CO2 capture and release are reversible processes. The real space microscopic characterization of the self-catalyzed CO2 adsorption on 1D substrates could be exploited as platform for design of molecular materials for CO2 capture and reduction.
Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of premature mortality in epilepsy and was linked to mutations in ion channels; however, genes within the channel protein interactome might also represent pathogenic candidates. Here we show that mice with partial deficiency of Sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 2 (SENP2) develop spontaneous seizures and sudden death. SENP2 is highly enriched in the hippocampus, often the focus of epileptic seizures. SENP2 deficiency results in hyper-SUMOylation of multiple potassium channels known to regulate neuronal excitability. We demonstrate that the depolarizing M-current conducted by Kv7 channel is significantly diminished in SENP2-deficient hippocampal CA3 neurons, primarily responsible for neuronal hyperexcitability. Following seizures, SENP2-deficient mice develop atrioventricular conduction blocks and cardiac asystole. Both seizures and cardiac conduction blocks can be prevented by retigabine, a Kv7 channel opener. Thus, we uncover a disease-causing role for hyper-SUMOylation in the nervous system and establish an animal model for SUDEP.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various organic carbon sources (glucose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose and starch) on the growth and biochemical composition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Monosaccharides were found to exert stronger stimulative effects on the algal growth than disaccharides and starch. After 10-day culture, addition of 0.5-5.0gL(-1) glucose and galactose significantly reduced the cellular protein contents by 27.7-63.7% and 22.6-60.5%, respectively, and significantly increased the carbohydrate contents by 103.2-266.5% and 91.9-240.0%, respectively. However, addition of 0.5-5.0gL(-1) disaccharides and starch did not significantly affect the contents of lipid, protein and carbohydrate. Similar to the normal nitrogen condition, the cellular biochemical composition was not significantly affected by addition of 3.0gL(-1) disaccharides and starch under the low nitrogen condition. Finally, the significance of this work in the biotechnological application of mixotrophic cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa was further discussed.
Residue after evaporation (RAE) from industrial vitamin C fermentation is emitted as a waste product at an amount of 60,000 tons per year in China. The disposal of RAE is difficult because of its high chemical oxygen demand (1.17×10(6) mg/l) and low pH (0.27). We hypothesized that RAE could be used as an ameliorant for alkali-saline soils, and tried to verify it by carrying out a pot experiment of pakchoi cultivation and to explore its effect on soil chemical and microbial properties. The results showed that pakchoi yield was increased by 28.13% and pakchoi quality was also enhanced under RAE treatment. The improved chemical and microbial properties of treated soil were also observed: soil pH was decreased from 9.19 to 9.03; total organic carbon, available phosphorus and available potassium were increased by 49.15%, 34.91% and 42.02%, respectively; number of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activity number were improved by 52.97%, 104.05%, 79.09%, 57.82% and 31.16%, respectively. These results suggested the residue application led to an improved soil quality and subsequently a higher yield and quality of pakchoi. This study provided a strong evidence for the feasibility of RAE as an ameliorant for alkali-saline soil.
Imaging the location and dynamics of individual interacting protein pairs is essential but often difficult because of the fluorescent background from other paired and non-paired molecules, particularly in the sub-diffraction cellular space. Here we develop a new method combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation and photoactivated localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and single-molecule tracking of specific protein-protein interactions. The method is used to study the interaction of two abundant proteins, MreB and EF-Tu, in Escherichia coli cells. The super-resolution imaging shows interesting distribution and domain sizes of interacting MreB-EF-Tu pairs as a subpopulation of total EF-Tu. The single-molecule tracking of MreB, EF-Tu and MreB-EF-Tu pairs reveals intriguing localization-dependent heterogonous dynamics and provides valuable insights to understanding the roles of MreB-EF-Tu interactions.
The trans-2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (Lewisite) was produced and handled during WWI and WWII as chemical warfare agents. It was very difficult to explore its chemical characterization by experiments ways. The quantum chemical calculations proved to be a precise and harmless method for the toxicological system. In this paper, the gas phase reaction mechanisms of OH radical with trans-2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (lewisite) were studied by second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. The geometries of reactants, products, complexes, and transition states were optimized at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. To gain more accurate mechanistic knowledge, the single-point energies were calculated using G3 and CCSD(T) method. This reaction exhibited three mechanisms, namely, direct hydrogen abstraction, direct chlorine abstraction, and addition/elimination. Multichannel Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory and transition-state theory have been carried out for overall and individual rate constants over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The computational results indicated that addition/elimination reaction is more favorable than direct hydrogen abstraction and direct chlorine abstraction. The major products for the total reaction are AsCl2 and CHClCH2O generated via C(2)-addition/elimination.
Single-crystalline wurtzite InGaAs/InGaP nanopillars directly grown on a lattice-mismatched silicon substrate are demonstrated. The nanopillar growth is in a core-shell manner and gives a sharp, defect-free heterostructure interface. The InGaP shell provides excellent surface passivation effect for InGaAs nanopillars, as attested by 50-times stronger photoluminescence intensities and 5-times greater enhancements in the carrier recombination lifetimes, compared to the unpassivated ones. A record value of 16.8% internal quantum efficiency for InGaAs-based nanopillars was attained with a 50-nm-thick InGaP passivation layer. A room-temperature optically pumped laser was achieved from single, as-grown InGaAs nanopillars on silicon with a record-low threshold. Superior material qualities of these InGaP-passivated InGaAs nanopillars indicate the possibility of realizing high-performance optoelectronic devices for photovoltaics, optical communication, semiconductor nanophotonics, and heterogeneous integration of III-V materials on silicon.
Noninvasive prenatal testing using fetal DNA in maternal plasma is an actively researched area. The current generation of tests using massively parallel sequencing is based on counting plasma DNA sequences originating from different genomic regions. In this study, we explored a different approach that is based on the use of DNA fragment size as a diagnostic parameter. This approach is dependent on the fact that circulating fetal DNA molecules are generally shorter than the corresponding maternal DNA molecules. First, we performed plasma DNA size analysis using paired-end massively parallel sequencing and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma could be deduced from the overall size distribution of maternal plasma DNA. The fetal DNA fraction is a critical parameter affecting the accuracy of noninvasive prenatal testing using maternal plasma DNA. Second, we showed that fetal chromosomal aneuploidy could be detected by observing an aberrant proportion of short fragments from an aneuploid chromosome in the paired-end sequencing data. Using this approach, we detected fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 with 100% sensitivity (T21: 36/36; T18: 27/27) and 100% specificity (non-T21: 88/88; non-T18: 97/97). For trisomy 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.2% (20/21) and 99% (102/103), respectively. For monosomy X, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100% (10/10 and 8/8). Thus, this study establishes the principle of size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA. This approach has potential applications beyond noninvasive prenatal testing to areas such as oncology and transplantation monitoring.
The growth of III-V nanowires on silicon is a promising approach for low-cost, large-scale III-V photovoltaics. However, performances of III-V nanowire solar cells have not yet been as good as their bulk counterparts, as nanostructured light absorbers are fundamentally challenged by enhanced minority carriers surface recombination rates. The resulting nonradiative losses lead to significant reductions in the external spontaneous emission quantum yield, which, in turn, manifest as penalties in the open-circuit voltage. In this work, calibrated photoluminescence measurements are utilized to construct equivalent voltage-current characteristics relating illumination intensities to Fermi level splitting ?F inside InP microillars. Under 1 sun, we show that splitting can exceed ?F ? 0.90 eV in undoped pillars. This value can be increased to values of ?F ? 0.95 eV by cleaning pillar surfaces in acidic etchants. Pillars with nanotextured surfaces can yield splitting of ?F ? 0.90 eV, even though they exhibit high densities of stacking faults. Finally, by introducing n-dopants, ?F of 1.07 eV can be achieved due to a wider bandgap energy in n-doped wurzite InP, the higher brightness of doped materials, and the extraordinarily low surface recombination velocity of InP. This is the highest reported value for InP materials grown on a silicon substrate. These results provide further evidence that InP micropillars on silicon could be a promising material for low-cost, large-scale solar cells with high efficiency.
Electrically conducting wires play a critical role in the advancement of modern electronics and in particular are an important key to the development of next-generation wearable microelectronics. However, the thin conducting wires can easily break during use, and the whole device fails to function as a result. Herein, a new family of high-performance conducting wires that can self-heal after breaking has been developed by wrapping sheets of aligned carbon nanotubes around polymer fibers. The aligned carbon nanotubes offer an effective strategy for the self-healing of the electric conductivity, whereas the polymer fiber recovers its mechanical strength. A self-healable wire-shaped supercapacitor fabricated from a wire electrode of this type maintained a high capacitance after breaking and self-healing.
Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy, requiring effective biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic responsiveness. In this retrospective study of banked pathology material, we investigated the protein expression of MMP-21 in ESCC and its association with clinical significance. MMP-21 protein expression was investigated in 311 cases of ESCC by immunohistochemistry assay. Statistical analysis was utilized to evaluate the association of MMP-21 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival of patients with ESCC. Results showed that MMP-21 expression was significantly increased in ESCC (P < 0.001). It was also found that MMP-21 expression in ESCC was associated with tumor invasion (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and TNM stage (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed MMP-21 expression was associated with overall survival of patients with ESCC for patients with tumors of positive MMP-21 staining tend to have worse overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis proved that MMP-21 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival for patients with ESCC (P < 0.001). These results suggested the potential role of MMP-21 in tumor progression and prognosis predication of human ESCC. It might also be a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention.
Analysis of circulating RNA in the plasma of pregnant women has the potential to serve as a powerful tool for noninvasive prenatal testing and research. However, detection of circulating RNA in the plasma in an unbiased and high-throughput manner has been technically challenging. Therefore, only a limited number of circulating RNA species in maternal plasma have been validated as pregnancy- and placenta-specific biomarkers.
Whether supplementation of curcuminoids decreases serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) level and whether this decrease benefits glucose control is unclear. One-hundred participants (n=50 administered curcuminoids, n=50 administered placebo) from our previous report on the effect of curcuminoids on type 2 diabetes in a 3-month intervention were assessed for levels of serum A-FABP, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Curcuminoids supplementation led to significant decreases in serum A-FABP, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6 levels. Curcuminoids supplementation also significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The change in serum A-FABP levels showed positive correlations with changes in levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), and CRP in subjects supplemented with curcuminoids. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that A-FABP was an independent predictor for levels of FFAs, SOD, and CRP. These results suggest that curcuminoids may exert anti-diabetic effects, at least in part, by reductions in serum A-FABP level. A-FABP reduction is associated with improved metabolic parameters in human type 2 diabetes.
Sanger sequencing is a well-established molecular technique for diagnosis of genetic diseases. In these tests, DNA sequencers produce vast amounts of data that need to be examined and annotated within a short period of time. To achieve this goal, an online bioinformatics platform that can automate the process is essential. However, to date, there is no such integrated bioinformatics platform available. To fulfill this gap, we developed the Online Diagnosis System (ODS), which is a freely available webserver and supports the commonly used file format of Sanger sequencing data. ODS seamlessly integrates base calling, single nucleotide variation (SNV) identification, and SNV annotation into one single platform. It also allows laboratorians to manually inspect the quality of the identified SNVs in the final report. ODS can significantly reduce the data analysis time therefore allows Sanger sequencing-based genetic testing to be finished in a timely manner. ODS is freely available at http://sunlab.lihs.cuhk.edu.hk/ODS/.
Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability.
The relationship between CYP2C19*2 gene polymorphism and clopidogrel resistance reflected by platelet function assays has been studied extensively in the past several years, while no clear conclusion can be drawn from the previous studies. To explore a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted in the present study.
Immune surveillance and host defense depend on the precisely regulated trafficking of lymphocytes. Integrin ?4?7 mediates lymphocyte homing to the gut through its interaction with mucosal vascular address in cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). ?4?7 also binds vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which is expressed in other tissues. To maintain the tissue specificity of lymphocyte homing, ?4?7 must distinguish one ligand from the other. Here, we demonstrate that ?4?7 is activated by different chemokines in a ligand-specific manner. CCL25 stimulation promotes ?4?7-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to MAdCAM-1 but suppresses adhesion to VCAM-1, whereas CXCL10 stimulation has the opposite effect. Using separate pathways, CCL25 and CXCL10 stimulate differential phosphorylation states of the ?7 tail and distinct talin and kindlin-3 binding patterns, resulting in different binding affinities of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 to ?4?7. Thus, our findings provide a mechanism for lymphocyte traffic control through the unique ligand-specific regulation of integrin adhesion by different chemokines.
The novel species Halomonas zhaodongensis NEAU-ST10-25(T) recently identified by our group is a moderate halophile which can grow at the range of 0-2.5 M NaCl (optimum 0.5 M) and pH 6-12 (optimum pH 9). To explore its halo-alkaline tolerant mechanism, genomic DNA was screened from NEAU-ST10-25(T) in this study for Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter genes by selection in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking three major Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporters. One mrp operon could confer tolerance of E. coli KNabc to 0.8 M NaCl and 100 mM LiCl, and an alkaline pH. This operon was previously mainly designated mrp (also mnh, pha or sha) due to its multiple resistance and pH-related activity. Here, we will also use mrp to designate the homolog from H. zhaodongensis (Hz_mrp). Sequence analysis and protein alignment showed that Hz_mrp should belong to Group 1 mrp operons. Further phylogenetic analysis reveals that Hz_Mrp system should represent a novel sub-class of Group 1 Mrp systems. This was confirmed by a significant difference in pH-dependent activity profile or the specificity and affinity for the transported monovalent cations between Hz_Mrp system and all the known Mrp systems. Therefore, we propose that Hz_Mrp should be categorized as a novel Group 1 Mrp system.
A wire-shaped energy device that can perform photoelectric conversion and electrochemical storage was developed through a simple but effective twisting process. The energy wire exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency of 6.58?% and specific capacitance of 85.03??F?cm(-1) or 2.13?mF?cm(-2), and the two functions were alternately realized without sacrificing either performance.
The aim of this study was to compare the 2-year clinical outcomes of overlapping second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EES) with those of overlapping resolute zotarolimus-eluting stents (R-ZES) in the treatment of long coronary artery lesions.
In bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, the positioning of the maxilla and the mandible is typically accomplished via 2-splint technique, which may be the sources of several types of inaccuracy. To overcome the limitations of the 2-splint technique, we developed a new navigation method, which guided the surgeon to free-hand reposition the maxillomandibular complex as a whole intraoperatively, without the intermediate splint. In this preliminary study, the feasibility was demonstrated. Five patients with dental maxillofacial deformities were enrolled. Before the surgery, 3-dimensional planning was conducted and imported into a navigation system. During the operation, a tracker was connected to the osteotomized maxillomandibular complex via a splint. The navigation system tracked the movement of the complex and displayed it on the screen in real time to guide the surgeon to reposition the complex. The postoperative result was compared with the plan by analyzing the measured distances between the maxillary landmarks and reference planes, as determined from computed tomography data. The mean absolute errors of the maxillary position were clinically acceptable (<1.0 mm). Preoperative preparation time was reduced to 100 minutes on average. All patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. This navigation method without intraoperative image registration provided a feasible means of transferring virtual planning to the real orthognathic surgery. The real-time position of the maxillomandibular complex was displayed on a monitor to visually guide the surgeon to reposition the complex. In this method, the traditional model surgery and the intermediate splint were discarded, and the preoperative preparation was simplified.
Reactivation of the pluripotency network during somatic cell reprogramming by exogenous transcription factors involves chromatin remodeling and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to target loci. Here, we report that Pol II is engaged at pluripotency promoters in reprogramming but remains paused and inefficiently released. We also show that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) stimulates productive transcriptional elongation of pluripotency genes by dissociating the pause release factor P-TEFb from an inactive complex containing HEXIM1. Consequently, BRD4 overexpression enhances reprogramming efficiency and HEXIM1 suppresses it, whereas Brd4 and Hexim1 knockdown do the opposite. We further demonstrate that the reprogramming factor KLF4 helps recruit P-TEFb to pluripotency promoters. Our work thus provides a mechanism for explaining the reactivation of pluripotency genes in reprogramming and unveils an unanticipated role for KLF4 in transcriptional pause release.
Integrin ?4 ?7 mediates both rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes by modulating its affinity to the ligand: mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). Integrin activation is associated with allosteric reshaping in the ? subunit I (?I) domain. A prominently conformational change comprises displacement of the ?1 and ?7 helices in the ?I domain, suggesting that the location of these helices is important for the change in integrin affinity. In the present study, we report that the hydrophobic contacts between the center of the ?7 I domain and the ?1/?7 helices play critical roles in keeping ?4 ?7 in a low-affinity state. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we identified nine hydrophobic residues that might be involved in the critical hydrophobic contacts maintaining integrin in a low-affinity state. Integrin ?7 I domain exhibited a lower binding free energy for ligand after disrupting these hydrophobic contacts by substituting the hydrophobic residues with Ala. Moreover, these ?4 ?7 mutants not only showed high-affinity binding to soluble MAdCAM-1, but also demonstrated firm cell adhesion to immobilized MAdCAM-1 in shear flow and enhanced the strength of the ?4 ?7 -MAdCAM-1 interaction. Disruption of the hydrophobic contacts also induced the active conformation of ?4 ?7 . Thus, the findings obtained in the present study reveal an important structural basis for the low-affinity state of integrin.
The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants.
The newly developed transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 transcription factors (TF) offered a powerful and precise approach for modulating gene expression. In this article, we systematically investigated the potential of these new tools in activating the stringently silenced pluripotency gene Oct4 (Pou5f1) in mouse and human somatic cells. First, with a number of TALEs and sgRNAs targeting various regions in the mouse and human Oct4 promoters, we found that the most efficient TALE-VP64s bound around -120 to -80 bp, while highly effective sgRNAs targeted from -147 to -89-bp upstream of the transcription start sites to induce high activity of luciferase reporters. In addition, we observed significant transcriptional synergy when multiple TFs were applied simultaneously. Although individual TFs exhibited marginal activity to up-regulate endogenous gene expression, optimized combinations of TALE-VP64s could enhance endogenous Oct4 transcription up to 30-fold in mouse NIH3T3 cells and 20-fold in human HEK293T cells. More importantly, the enhancement of OCT4 transcription ultimately generated OCT4 proteins. Furthermore, examination of different epigenetic modifiers showed that histone acetyltransferase p300 could enhance both TALE-VP64 and sgRNA/dCas9-VP64 induced transcription of endogenous OCT4. Taken together, our study suggested that engineered TALE-TF and dCas9-TF are useful tools for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells.
Novel nanostructured composite fibers based on graphene and carbon nanotubes are developed with high tensile strength, electrical conductivity, and electrocatalytic activity. As two application demonstrations, these composite fibers are used to fabricate flexible, wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells and electrochemical supercapacitors, both with high performances, for example, a maximal energy conversion efficiency of 8.50% and a specific capacitance of ca. 31.50 F g(-1). These miniature wire-shaped devices are further shown to be promising for flexible and portable electronic facilities.
Recent advances indicating a key role of microenvironment for tumor progression, we investigated the role of PSCs and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, and examined the potential protective effect of ?-mangostin on hypoxia-driven pancreatic cancer progression. Our data indicate that hypoxic PSCs exploit their oxidative stress due to hypoxia to secrete soluble factors favouring pancreatic cancer invasion. ?-Mangostin suppresses hypoxia-induced PSC activation and pancreatic cancer cell invasion through the inhibition of HIF-1? stabilization and GLI1 expression. Increased generation of hypoxic ROS is responsible for HIF-1? stabilization and GLI1 upregulation. Therefore, ?-mangostin may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer progression.
To determine whether a recently proposed steady-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence, "small-tip fast recovery" (STFR), can be used for functional brain imaging. Compared to existing functional MRI (fMRI) based on T2*-contrast and long echo time, STFR has the potential for high-resolution imaging with reduced B0 artifacts such as geometric distortions, blurring, or local signal dropout.
A one-step anisotropic etching method is developed to specifically obtain armchair-edged graphene directly from graphite flakes on various substrates. The armchair edge structure of the produced graphene is verified by the atomic resolution images obtained from the fluid mode peakforce tapping AFM and the relatively high intensity of D band in the Raman spectra.
DNA methylation, one of the most important epigenetic modifications, plays a crucial role in various biological processes. The level of DNA methylation can be measured using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at single base resolution. However, until now, there is a paucity of publicly available software for carrying out integrated methylation data analysis. In this study, we implemented Methy-Pipe, which not only fulfills the core data analysis requirements (e.g. sequence alignment, differential methylation analysis, etc.) but also provides useful tools for methylation data annotation and visualization. Specifically, it uses Burrow-Wheeler Transform (BWT) algorithm to directly align bisulfite sequencing reads to a reference genome and implements a novel sliding window based approach with statistical methods for the identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The capability of processing data parallelly allows it to outperform a number of other bisulfite alignment software packages. To demonstrate its utility and performance, we applied it to both real and simulated bisulfite sequencing datasets. The results indicate that Methy-Pipe can accurately estimate methylation densities, identify DMRs and provide a variety of utility programs for downstream methylation data analysis. In summary, Methy-Pipe is a useful pipeline that can process whole genome bisulfite sequencing data in an efficient, accurate, and user-friendly manner. Software and test dataset are available at http://sunlab.lihs.cuhk.edu.hk/methy-pipe/.
Many of these therapies have been compared against placebos, but have not been directly compared against each other. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of several commonly used drugs for AIS directly or indirectly.
"Zuotai" is one of the main raw material of many rare Tibetan medicine, and it plays a important role in the system of Tibetan medicine. There are some toxic heavy metals in "Zuotai", such as Hg, Au, Pb and so on. As a result, its urgent to study the safety and effectiveness of "Zuotai" in depth. This paper will analyze and induce the resent progress of the study about "Zuotai". With constipation, "Zuotai" and "Zuotai" as key words, CNKI, CHINAINFO, CQVIP were retrieved, Springer were retrieved besides. Relevant 86 references were obtained. Twenty-two for reference were adopted through screening. The paper reviewed the resent progress of the study about "Zuotai" in chemical composition, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, toxicology and clinical application. This will establish the basis for further study.
Nanoscale self-assembly offers a pathway to realize heterogeneous integration of III-V materials on silicon. However, for III-V nanowires directly grown on silicon, dislocation-free single-crystal quality could only be attained below certain critical dimensions. We recently reported a new approach that overcomes this size constraint, demonstrating the growth of single-crystal InGaAs/GaAs and InP nanoneedles with the base diameters exceeding 1 ?m. Here, we report distinct optical characteristics of InP nanoneedles which are varied from mostly zincblende, zincblende/wurtzite-mixed, to pure wurtzite crystalline phase. We achieved, for the first time, pure single-crystal wurtzite-phase InP nanoneedles grown on silicon with bandgaps of 80 meV larger than that of zincblende-phase InP. Being able to attain excellent material quality while scaling up in size promises outstanding device performance of these nanoneedles. At room temperature, a high internal quantum efficiency of 25% and optically pumped lasing are demonstrated for single nanoneedle as-grown on silicon substrate. Recombination dynamics proves the excellent surface quality of the InP nanoneedles, which paves the way toward achieving multijunction photovoltaic cells, long-wavelength heterostructure lasers, and advanced photonic integrated circuits.
The authors describe an intraoral approach to accessing the mandibular condyle using endoscopy combined with a navigation system and explore the feasibility of this technique for the precise excision of a benign tumor in the condyle.
We explored the detection of genome-wide hypomethylation in plasma using shotgun massively parallel bisulfite sequencing as a marker for cancer. Tumor-associated copy number aberrations (CNAs) could also be observed from the bisulfite DNA sequencing data. Hypomethylation and CNAs were detected in the plasma DNA of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, smooth muscle sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor. For the detection of nonmetastatic cancer cases, plasma hypomethylation gave a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 94%, respectively, when a mean of 93 million reads per case were obtained. Reducing the sequencing depth to 10 million reads per case was found to have no adverse effect on the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection, giving respective figures of 68% and 94%. This characteristic thus indicates that analysis of plasma hypomethylation by this sequencing-based method may be a relatively cost-effective approach for cancer detection. We also demonstrated that plasma hypomethylation had utility for monitoring hepatocellular carcinoma patients following tumor resection and for detecting residual disease. Plasma hypomethylation can be combined with plasma CNA analysis for further enhancement of the detection sensitivity or specificity using different diagnostic algorithms. Using the detection of at least one type of aberration to define an abnormality, a sensitivity of 87% could be achieved with a specificity of 88%. These developments have thus expanded the applications of plasma DNA analysis for cancer detection and monitoring.
A novel core-sheath carbon nanostructured fiber is created with high tensile strength, electrical conductivity, and electrocatalytic activity. In particular, the designed ribbon-like nanostructure on the outer surface favors the attachment and impregnation of a second functional phase that is critical for electronic devices. As a demonstration, novel wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are produced with high energy conversion efficiencies up to 6.83%.
The geometrical structures, energetics properties, and aromaticity of C36-n Si n (n???18) fullerene-based clusters were studied using density functional theory calculations. The geometries of C36-n Si n clusters undergo strong structural deformation with the increase of Si substitution. For the most energy favorable structures of C36-n Si n , the silicon and carbon atoms form two distinct homogeneous segregations. Subsequently, the binding energy, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, vertical ionization potential, vertical electron affinity, and chemical hardness for the energetic favorable C36-n Si n geometries were computed and analyzed. In addition, the aromatic property of C36-n Si n cagelike clusters was investigated, and the result demonstrate that these C36-n Si n cagelike structures possess strong aromaticity.
To investigate the association between SNPs located in 5UTR and intron of prolyl hydroxylase 2 (EGLN1 or PHD2) and adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, the SNPs (rs2066140, rs2808584, rs2491405, rs2486741, rs2486734 and rs21533646) of EGLN1 gene were genotyped using Sequenom MassArray genotyping system in 152 unrelated healthy Tibetan individuals (3 650 m altitude) and 192 Han (5 00 m altitude), and the haplotypes of these SNPs were constructed and analyzed. Our results showed all the homozygous genotypes of six SNPs loci were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). The frequencies of haplotypes G-G (rs2066140 and rs2808584) and G-C (rs2486741 and rs2486734) of high-altitude group were significantly different from low-altitude group (P<0.05). In addition, the frequencies of haplotypes C-A (rs2066140 and rs2808584) and C-T (rs2486741 and rs2486734) of high-altitude group were significantly lower than those in low-altitude group (P<0.05). Our results indicate that the polymorphism of homozygous genotype in six SNPs and their haplotypes were associated with adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia.
Calcium plays an important role in regulating body homeostasis. Several studies have reported the association between serum calcium and cardiovascular disease in adults. However, studies assessing the relationship between serum calcium and hypertension were limited, especially in subject populations of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of serum calcium levels and blood pressure levels among adolescents in the rural area of Northeast China. A total of 2,023 students participated in this study, including 894 boys and 1,129 girls, aged from 12 to 17 years old. We measured the body weight, height, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and serum calcium concentrations of all eligible subjects, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated from body weight and height. Childhood hypertension was defined as SBP and/or DBP ?95th percentile for age and gender. According to the results of multivariable linear and logistic regression analysis, we found that higher serum calcium levels were positively associated with childhood hypertension. In comparison with serum calcium levels ?2.37 mmol/L, the multivariable odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of hypertension among adolescents with serum calcium levels ?2.53 mmol/L was 1.89 (1.41-2.53; P trend?0.001). In addition, higher serum calcium levels were also positively associated with average difference in SBP and DBP; the average differences (95 % confidence interval) were 4.22 (2.74-5.83; P trend?0.001) and 2.23(1.00-3.46; P trend?0.001), respectively. In conclusion, higher serum calcium concentrations were found to have an association with higher blood pressure levels and higher prevalence of hypertension in the young population.
In this study we demonstrated that Triticuside A, one of the flavonoid compounds isolated from wheat bran, induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Triticuside A inhibited the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in a dose-dependent manner but barely showed cytotoxicity to the normal human fibroblasts. Triticuside A-induced apoptosis was accompanied by a significant decrease of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 proteins and by an increase of cleavage of caspases-3, -7, -9, and PARP. Triticuside A also suppressed the level of phospho-Akt and its downstream targets, mTOR and P70 S6 kinase. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, significantly enhanced the Triticuside A-induced apoptosis. Moreover LY294002 not only downregulated the level of phospho-Akt but also enhanced the inhibition of Mcl-1 expression when combined with Triticuside A. Our results demonstrate for the first time the specific apoptogenic activity of Triticuside A in tumor cells and involvement of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, Triticuside A may be a potentially useful wheat bran component that can be used for prevention or treatment of breast cancer.
High-efficiency dynamic holography at 1.55 ?m is demonstrated in a broad-area InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well vertical microcavity. The design places single quantum wells at the cavity antinodes, reducing mode-pulling and enabling a higher Q-factor. The device is pumped by interference fringes through an amorphous mirror that is transparent to a high-energy hologram writing pulse at a wavelength of 1.06 ?m. Optically pumped free carrier gratings are probed by a tunable 1.5 ?m laser in a four-wave mixing configuration. Diffraction efficiency into both m=±1 diffraction orders of 35% (70% total) has been obtained with a phase grating contribution approaching the maximum ? phase shift by combining absorption bleaching with asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflectivity. The diffracted signal exhibits rise/fall times of 5 ns, demonstrating the high speed capabilities of this device.
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major subtype of stromal cells in the liver tumor microenvironment which can promote the growth and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the underlying mechanisms by which activated HSCs exert their oncogenic effects are not fully understood to date. In the present study, we investigated the number of activated HSCs and its clinicopathological significance in HCC and uncovered its correlation with focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-MMP9 signaling. A higher number of activated HSCs was associated with tumor invasion of the portal vein, advanced TNM stage and poorer tumor differentiation. The number of activated HSCs was positively correlated with the expression levels of p-FAK and MMP9 in HCC. Furthermore, we studied the effects of activated HSCs on the migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro. Conditioned medium (CM) from activated HSCs or co-culture with activated HSCs significantly induced the migration and invasion of HCC cells. In addition, activation of FAK-MMP9 signaling in HCC was demonstrated in the presence of activated HSC-CM and of co-culture. Inhibition of FAK-MMP9 signaling in HCC cells with FAK short hairpin RNA (shRNA) abrogated the effects of activated HSCs on HCC cells. Taken together, our data suggest that activated HSCs in the tumor microenvironment promote HCC cell migration and invasion via activation of FAK-MMP9 signaling.
An organic thiolate/disulfide redox couple with low absorption in the visible region was developed for use in fabricating novel dye-sensitized photovoltaic wires with an aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber as the counter electrode. These flexible wire devices achieved a maximal energy conversion efficiency of 7.33%, much higher than the value of 5.97% for the conventional I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. In addition, the aligned CNT fiber also greatly outperforms the conventional Pt counter electrode with a maximal efficiency of 2.06% based on the thiolate/disulfide redox couple.
Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in prenatal development, but fetal tissues are not readily accessible. Fetal DNA molecules are present in maternal plasma and can be analyzed noninvasively.
Skeletal muscle differentiation is orchestrated by a network of transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, and non-coding RNAs. The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) silences multiple target genes in myoblasts (MBs) by recruiting Ezh2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homologue2). To elucidate genome-wide YY1 binding in MBs, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq and found 1820 specific binding sites in MBs with a large portion residing in intergenic regions. Detailed analysis demonstrated that YY1 acts as an activator for many loci in addition to its known repressor function. No significant co-occupancy was found between YY1 and Ezh2, suggesting an additional Ezh2-independent function for YY1 in MBs. Further analysis of intergenic binding sites showed that YY1 potentially regulates dozens of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), whose function in myogenesis is underexplored. We characterized a novel muscle-associated lincRNA (Yam-1) that is positively regulated by YY1. Yam-1 is downregulated upon differentiation and acts as an inhibitor of myogenesis. We demonstrated that Yam-1 functions through in cis regulation of miR-715, which in turn targets Wnt7b. Our findings not only provide the first genome-wide picture of YY1 association in muscle cells, but also uncover the functional role of lincRNA Yam-1.
An in-line fiber quasi-Michelson interferometer (IFQMI) working on reflection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing head is fabricated by splicing a section of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) with a lead-in single mode fiber (SMF). Some cladding modes are excited into the PM-PCF via the mismatch-core splicing interface between PM-PCF and SMF. Besides, two orthogonal polarized-modes are formed due to the inherent multiholes cladding structure of the PM-PCF. A well-defined interference pattern is obtained as the result of cladding-orthogonal modes interference. The IFQMI with 20 cm long PM-PCF is proposed for strain and torsion measurements. A strain sensitivity of -1.3 pm/?? and a torsion sensitivity of -19.17 pm/deg are obtained, respectively. The proposed device with 10 cm long PM-PCF exhibits a considered temperature sensitivity of 9.9 pm/°C. The IFQMI has a compact structure and small size, making it a good candidate for multiparameter measurements.
Maxillectomy in childhood not only causes composite primary defects but also secondary malformation of the middle and lower face. In the case presented, we introduced computer-assisted planning and simulation of orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction to correct complex craniofacial deformities. Virtual orthognathic surgery and maxillary reconstruction surgery were undertaken preoperatively. LeFort I osteotomy, with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy and lower border ostectomy, was performed to correct malocclusion and facial asymmetry. Maxillary reconstruction was accomplished using a fibular osteomyocutaneous flap. The patient recovered uneventfully with an adequate aesthetic appearance on 3D computed tomography. Our experience indicates that orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction can used to correct complex facial asymmetry and maxillary defects secondary to maxillectomy. Computer-assisted simulation enables precise execution of the reconstruction. It shortens the free flap ischemia time and reduces the risks associated with microsurgery.
The formation of composite materials represents an efficient route to improve the performances of polymers and expand their application scopes. Due to the unique structure and remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and catalytic properties, carbon nanotube and graphene have been mostly studied as a second phase to produce high performance polymer composites. Although carbon nanotube and graphene share some advantages in both structure and property, they are also different in many aspects including synthesis of composite material, control in composite structure and interaction with polymer molecule. The resulting composite materials are distinguished in property to meet different applications. This review article mainly describes the preparation, structure, property and application of the two families of composite materials with an emphasis on the difference between them. Some general and effective strategies are summarized for the development of polymer composite materials based on carbon nanotube and graphene.
The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing brain regions, which include the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH), represent key brain sites that mediate melanocortin action. We conditionally restored MC4R expression in Sim1 neurons in the background of Mc4r-null mice. The restoration dramatically reduced obesity in Mc4r-null mice. The anti-obesity effect was completely reversed by selective disruption of glutamate release from those same Sim1 neurons. The reversal was caused by lower energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Corroboratively, selective disruption of glutamate release from adult PVH neurons led to rapid obesity development via reduced energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Thus, this study establishes glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter that mediates MC4Rs on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation.
Present practices for reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells involve simultaneous introduction of reprogramming factors. Here we report that a sequential introduction protocol (Oct4-Klf4 first, then c-Myc and finally Sox2) outperforms the simultaneous one. Surprisingly, the sequential protocol activates an early epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as indicated by the upregulation of Slug and N-cadherin followed by a delayed mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). An early EMT induced by 1.5-day TGF-? treatment enhances reprogramming with the simultaneous protocol, whereas 12-day treatment blocks reprogramming. Consistent results were obtained when the TGF-? antagonist Repsox was applied in the sequential protocol. These results reveal a time-sensitive role of individual factors for optimal reprogramming and a sequential EMT-MET mechanism at the start of reprogramming. Our studies provide a rationale for further optimizing reprogramming, and introduce the concept of a sequential EMT-MET mechanism for cell fate decision that should be investigated further in other systems, both in vitro and in vivo.
A novel sensitive method based on tertiary amine labeling for the analysis of gibberellins (GAs) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection was proposed. GA3 was tagged with 2-(2-aminoethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidine (AEMP) using N, N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 3,4-dihydro-3-hydroxy-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazine (HOOBt) as coupling agents in acetonitrile to produce GA3-AEMP-derivative. The GA3-AEMP-derivative was injected into CE by electrokinetic injection and detected by Ru(bpy)3(2+)-based ECL. The parameters affecting derivatization, detection and separation such as concentration of reactants, detection potential, pH and concentration of separation buffer, were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions, the linear concentration range for GA3 was from 2.0×10(-7) to 1.28×10(-4)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The detection limit was 8×10(-8)M (S/N=3). The relative standard deviations of migration time, peak intensity and peak area for nine continuous injections of 2.0×10(-5)M GA3-AEMP-derivative were 1.0%, 2.1% and 4.2%, respectively. The developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of total GAs in the stem, leaf and seed of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) with recoveries in the range from 89.6% to 99.3%.
Small-tip fast recovery (STFR) imaging is a recently proposed steady-state sequence that has similar image contrast as balanced steady-state free precession but has the potential to simultaneously remove banding artifacts and transient fluctuation. STFR relies on a "tip-up" radiofrequency (RF) pulse tailored to the accumulated phase during the free precession (data acquisition) interval, designed to bring spins back to the longitudinal axis, thereby preserving transverse magnetization as longitudinal magnetization for the next pulse repetition time. We recently proposed an RF-spoiled STFR sequence suitable for thin slab imaging, however, in many applications, e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging or isotropic-resolution structural imaging, three-dimensional (3D) steady-state imaging is desirable. Unfortunately, 3D STFR imaging is challenging due to the need for 3D tailored RF pulses. Here, we propose new strategies for improved 3D STFR imaging, based on (i) unspoiled imaging, and (ii) joint design of nonslice-selective tip-down/tip-up RF pulses.
As the worlds most populous nation, China exhibits a population with 56 nationalities. We already know the associations between genetic relationship of these ethnic groups in China and their geographic distributions are closely. However, the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinities have still not been fully revealed in China. To investigate these correlations, 31 populations and 1527 samples were chosen, and the languages of this population covered all of the languages spoken in mainland China (including 8 main linguistic families and 16 subfamilies). The genetic polymorphisms of the populations were investigated using 10 autosomal microsatellites. Five ethnic groups, which included 234 samples, were genotyped in this survey, and the data collected from the other 26 populations were obtained from our previous study. An analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, clustering analysis using the STRUCTURE and the Mantel test were used to investigate the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinity. These analyses indicated that most populations who speak the same language demonstrate a similar genetic composition, although a few populations deviated from this linkage between genetics and language. The demographic histories of these populations who deviated from this linkage were investigated. Obvious reasons for why evolutionary processes of genetics and linguistics separated in these populations included geographic isolation, gene replacement, language replacement and intermarriage. Thus, we proposed that the consistency of genetic and linguistic evolution is still present in most populations in China; however, this consistency can be broken by many factors, such as isolation, language replacement or intermarriage.
Marijuana has been used for thousands of years as a treatment for medical conditions. However, untoward side effects limit its medical value. Here, we show that synaptic and cognitive impairments following repeated exposure to ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) are associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids in the brain. COX-2 induction by ?(9)-THC is mediated via CB1 receptor-coupled G protein ?? subunits. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of COX-2 blocks downregulation and internalization of glutamate receptor subunits and alterations of the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons induced by repeated ?(9)-THC exposures. Ablation of COX-2 also eliminates ?(9)-THC-impaired hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, working, and fear memories. Importantly, the beneficial effects of decreasing ?-amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration by ?(9)-THC in Alzheimers disease animals are retained in the presence of COX-2 inhibition. These results suggest that the applicability of medical marijuana would be broadened by concurrent inhibition of COX-2.
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