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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simultaneous Bilateral Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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We determined the feasibility and clinical efficacy of simultaneous bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for treating primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). We performed a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of simultaneous bilateral resection of pulmonary bullae using VATS in 21 PSP patients that were treated at our hospital from February 2010 to August 2013. We found bilateral bullae in all patients through the intraoperative exploration. Surgical procedures were successfully completed in all patients without conversion to thoracotomy. The mean time of surgery was 128.76 ± 13.82 min (range 100-150 min). Total amount of intraoperative bleeding was 80-200 ml. Total drainage of bilateral thoracic ducts was 200-500 ml at the 1st postoperative day with a mean drainage of 321.42 ± 82.66 ml. Bilateral thoracic ducts were removed 4-8 days postoperatively with a mean time of 4.7 days. The duration of postoperative hospitalization was 5-9 days with a mean duration of 7 days. No patient had serious complication(s) and all patients were discharged after full recovery. The patients were followed up for 6-18 months after the surgery and no relapse occurred. In conclusion, treating the unilateral PSP by simultaneous bilateral VATS is safe and effective. It reduces patients' risk of second surgery and also minimizes patients' suffering and costs incurred.
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In vitro fermentation of lactulose by human gut bacteria.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Lactulose has been known as a prebiotic that can selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Recent studies have indicated that Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium perfringens, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are also able to utilize lactulose. However, the previous studies mainly focused on the utilization of lactulose by individual strains, and few studies were designed to identify the species that could utilize lactulose among gut microbiota. This study aimed to identify lactulose-metabolizing bacteria in the human gut, using in silico and traditional culture methods. The prediction results suggested that genes for the transporters and glycosidases of lactulose are well distributed in the genomes of 222 of 453 strains of gastrointestinal-tract bacteria. The screening assays identified 35 species with the ability to utilize lactulose, of which Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas putida were reported for the first time to be capable of utilizing lactulose. In addition, significant correlations between lactulose and galactooligosaccharide metabolism were found. Thus, more attention should be paid to bacteria besides bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to further investigate the relationship between functional oligosaccharides and gut bacteria.
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Flavobacterium suzhouense sp. nov., isolated from farmland river sludge.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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A Gram-negative bacterium, designated XIN-1T, was isolated from farmland river sludge sample in Suzhou, China. Cells of strain XIN-1T was strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped. Strain XIN-1T grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 28?. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XIN-1T was most closely related to Flavobacterium hauense BX12T (98.2 %), followed by Flavobacterium beibuense F44-8T (96.3 %). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids (?5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c), summed feature 4 (comprising C17:1iso I and/or C17:1anteiso B), iso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain XIN-1T was 39.8 mol %. Strain XIN-1T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with F.hauense BX12T (38.7±0.5 %). On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, strain XIN-1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium suzhouense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XIN-1T (=CCTCC AB 2014200T =KCTC 42107T).
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Pulmonary MicroRNA Expression Profiling in an Immature Piglet Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6?±?0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2?h, followed by 2?h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs.
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Molecular functions and significance of the MTA family in hormone-independent cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The members of the metastasis-associated protein (MTA) family play pivotal roles in both physiological and pathophysiological processes, especially in cancer development and metastasis, and their role as master regulators has come to light. Due to the fact that they were first identified as crucial factors in estrogen receptor-mediated breast cancer metastasis, most of the early studies focused on their hormone-dependent functions. However, the accumulating evidence shows that the members of MTA family are deregulated in most, if not all, the cancers studied so far. Therefore, the levels as well as the activities of the MTA family members are widely accepted as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and predictors of overall survival. They function differently in different cancers with specific mechanisms. p53 and HIF-1? appear to be the respectively common upstream and downstream regulator of the MTA family in both development and metastasis of a wide spectrum of cancers. Here, we review the expression and clinical significance of the MTA family, focusing on hormone-independent cancers. To illustrate the molecular mechanisms, we analyze the MTA family-related signaling pathways in different cancers. Finally, targeting the MTA family directly or the pathways involved in the MTA family indirectly could be invaluable strategies in the development of cancer therapeutics.
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Effects of Spectralon absorption on reflectance spectra of typical planetary surface analog materials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Acquiring accurate visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) reflectance values of atmosphereless celestial bodies is very important in inferring the physical and geological properties of their surficial materials. When a calibration target with inherent non-trivial absorption features is used, the calibrated reflectance would essentially always contain spurious spectral features and the spectroscopic data may easily be misinterpreted if the artifact is not properly taken care of. We demonstrate with laboratory reflectance measurements that the VisNIR spectra of three typical planetary surface analog materials, lunar simulant JSC-1A, olivine and pyroxene grains, have an artificial peak at 2.1 µm when Spectralon-type plaque made of polytetrafluoroethylene is used as the calibration target in the NIR region. The degree of severity of this artifact is dependent on the strength of the 2.0 µm absorption feature of the mineral. Empirical methods are proposed to remove this artifact to bring the spectra close to that calibrated by a gold mirror which does not have any conspicuous absorption features in the NIR region. The correction methods may be applied to reflectance data acquired by the VisNIR imaging spectrometer onboard the Yutu Rover of the Chinese Chang'E 3 lunar mission which employed an onboard Spectralon-type calibration target.
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Hydrazine-mediated construction of nanocrystal self-assembly materials.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Self-assembly is the basic feature of supramolecular chemistry, which permits to integrate and enhance the functionalities of nano-objects. However, the conversion of self-assembled structures to practical materials is still laborious. In this work, on the basis of studying one-pot synthesis, spontaneous assembly, and in situ polymerization of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), NC self-assembly materials are produced and applied to design high performance white light-emitting diode (WLED). In producing self-assembly materials, the additive hydrazine (N2H4) is curial, which acts as the promoter to achieve room-temperature synthesis of aqueous NCs by favoring a reaction-controlled growth, as the polyelectrolyte to weaken inter-NC electrostatic repulsion and therewith facilitate the one-dimensional self-assembly, and in particular as the bifunctional monomers to polymerize with mercapto carboxylic acid-modified NCs via in situ amidation reaction. This strategy is versatile for mercapto carboxylic acid-modified aqueous NCs, for example CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSexTe1-x, and CdyHg1-yTe. Because of the multisite modification with carboxyl, the NCs act as macromonomers, thus producing cross-linked self-assembly materials with excellent thermal, solvent, and photostability. The assembled NCs preserve strong luminescence and avoid unpredictable fluorescent resonance energy transfer, the main problem in design WLED from multiple NC components. These advantages allow the fabrication of NC-based WLED with high color rendering index (86), high luminous efficacy (41 lm/W), and controllable color temperature.
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Oct-4 and nanog promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer stem cells and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Oct-4 and Nanog in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of breast cancer has not been clarified. We found that both Oct-4 and Nanog expression were significantly associated with tumor pathology and poor prognosis in 126 breast cancer patients. Characterization of CD44+CD24-Cancer stem cell(CSC) derived from breast cancer cells indicated that CSC rapidly formed mammospheres and had potent tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, TGF-? up-regulated the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, and Snail, but down-regulated E-cadherin and cytokeratin 18 expression, demonstrating that CSC underwent EMT. Knockdown of both Oct-4 and Nanog expression inhibited spontaneous changes in the expression of EMT-related genes, while induction of both Oct-4 and Nanog over-expression enhanced spontaneous changes in the expression of EMT-related genes in CSC. However, perturbing alternation of Oct-4 and Nanog expression also modulated TGF-?-induced EMT-related gene expression in CSC. Induction of Oct-4 and Nanog over-expression enhanced the invasiveness of CSC, but knockdown of both Oct-4 and Nanog inhibited the migration of CSC in vitro. Our data suggest that both Oct-4 and Nanog may serve as biomarkers for evaluating breast cancer prognosis. Our findings indicate that Oct-4 and Nanog positively regulate the EMT process, contributing to breast cancer metastasis.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Three Escherichia coli Strains Investigated for the Effects of Lysogeny on Niche Diversification.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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During the course of investigating the effects of lysogeny on niche diversification of Escherichia coli, we used the temperate phages induced from one E. coli strain to infect another and created an isogenic lysogen of the latter. The draft genome sequences of the three E. coli strains are reported herein.
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Procyanidins protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Abstract Primary objective: Oxidative stress is the principal factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI) that initiates the events that result in protracted neuronal dysfunction and remodeling. Importantly, antioxidants can protect the brain against oxidative damage and modulate the capacity of the brain to cope with synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Research design: To date, however, no studies have investigated the effects of procyanidins (PC) on cognitive deficits after TBI. Methods and Procedures: In the present study, rats with controlled cortical impact (CCI) were used to investigate the protective effects of procyanidins. Main outcomes and results: The results showed that procyanidins reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and elevated the level of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, treatment with procyanidins, which elevated the levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), phosphorylation-cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB), total CREB, and cyclic AMP (cAMP), improved cognitive performance in the Morris water maze after TBI. Conclusions: These results suggest that procyanidins appear to counteract oxidative damage and behavioral dysfunction after TBI through antioxidant activity and the up-regulation of cAMP/CREB signaling.
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[Three-dimensional positions and forms of temporomandibular joints in Class II devision 1 malocclusion patients associated with different vertical skeletal patterns].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To evaluate the positions and forms of temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with different vertical skeletal patterns in Class II division 1 patients.
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A novel lung nodules detection scheme based on vessel segmentation on CT images.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Lung vessels often interfere with the detection of lung nodules. In this paper, a novel computer-aided lung nodule detection scheme on vessel segmentation is proposed. This paper describes an active contour model which can combine image region mean gray value and image edge energy. It is used to segment and remove lung vessels. A selective shape filter based on Hessian Matrix is used to detect suspicious nodules and remove omitted lung vessels. This paper extracts density, shape and position features of suspicious nodules, and uses a Rule-Based Classification (RBC) method to identify true positive nodules. In the experiment results, the detection sensitivity is about 90% and FP is 1/scan.
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Novel Modified Surgical Treatment of Auricular Pseudocyst Using Plastic Sheet Compression.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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To introduce a novel modified surgical procedure of excision of anterior cartilage of the pseudocyst along with plastic sheet compression for the treatment of auricular pseudocyst and ascertain the effect of the surgical modality of this disease.
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[Comparison study of five scoring systems for evaluating prognosis of patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To compare the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), delta model for end-stage liver disease (deltaMELD), MELD and serum sodium (MELD-Na), MELD score to serum sodium ratio index (MESO), and integrated end-stage liver disease model (iMELD) scoring systems for their utility in evaluating medium-short term prognosis of cirrhotic patients who underwent the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Boer goat (Bovidae; Caprinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Abstract In this study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of Boer goat. The mitogenome was 16,639?bp in length, comprised of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Almost all genes were encoded on the H-strand except the ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Most of the genes initiated with ATG, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 started with ATA. The total base composition of the mitogenome was 33.53% for A, 26.05% for C, 13.12% for T and 27.30% for G. These results provide a standard reference sequence for phylogenetic analyses among goats.
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Combination of platelet-rich plasma within periodontal ligament stem cell sheets enhances cell differentiation and matrix production.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The longstanding goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate periodontal tissues. Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been gaining increasing popularity for use in the orofacial region, whether PRP is useful for periodontal regeneration is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mixture of periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets and PRP promoted bone regeneration, one of the most important measurement indices of periodontal tissue regenerative capability in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different doses of PRP on the differentiation of human PDLSCs. Then cell sheet formation, extracellular matrix deposition and osteogenic gene expression in response to different doses of PRP treatment during sheet grafting was investigated. Furthermore, we implanted PDLSC sheets treated with 1% PRP subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice to evaluate their bone-regenerative capability. The results revealed that 1% PRP significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Based on the production of extracellular matrix proteins, the results of scanning electron microscopy and the expression of the osteogenic genes ALP, Runx2, Col-1 and OCN, the provision of 1% PRP for PDLSC sheets was the most effective PRP administration mode for cell sheet formation. The results of in vivo transplantation showed that 1% PRP-mediated PDLSC sheets exhibited better periodontal tissue regenerative capability than those obtained without PRP intervention. These data suggest that a suitable concentration of PRP stimulation may enhance extracellular matrix production and positively affect cell behaviour in PDLSC sheets. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Genetic characterization of Meigu goat (Capra hircus) based on the mitochondrial DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Abstract Meigu goat (Capra hircus) is one of the indigenous goat breeds in China. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of Meigu goat was 16,643?bp in length. The contents of A, C, T and G in the mitochondrial genome were 33.59%, 26.05%, 27.31% and 13.05%, respectively. The mitogenome of meigu goat contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Components of the Meigu goat's mitogenome were similar to those of other Capra hircus in gene arrangement and composition. These results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of domestic goats.
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Cross-linking electrochemical mass spectrometry for probing protein three-dimensional structures.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is powerful to provide protein three-dimensional structure information but difficulties in identifying cross-linked peptides and elucidating their structures limit its usefulness. To tackle these challenges, this study presents a novel cross-linking MS in conjunction with electrochemistry using disulfide-bond-containing dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate] (DSP) as the cross-linker. In our approach, electrolysis of DSP-bridged protein/peptide products, as online monitored by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is highly informative. First, as disulfide bonds are electrochemically reducible, the cross-links are subject to pronounced intensity decrease upon electrolytic reduction, suggesting a new way to identify cross-links. Also, mass shift before and after electrolysis suggests the linkage pattern of cross-links. Electrochemical reduction removes disulfide bond constraints, possibly increasing sequence coverage for tandem MS analysis and yielding linear peptides whose structures are more easily determined than their cross-linked precursor peptides. Furthermore, this cross-linking electrochemical MS method is rapid, due to the fast nature of electrochemical conversion (much faster than traditional chemical reduction) and no need for chromatographic separation, which would be of high value for structural proteomics research.
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A one-pot approach to pyridyl isothiocyanates from amines.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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A one-pot preparation of pyridyl isothiocyanates (ITCs) from their corresponding amines has been developed. This method involves aqueous iron(III) chloride-mediated desulfurization of a dithiocarbamate salt that is generated in situ by treatment of an amine with carbon disulfide in the present of DABCO or sodium hydride. The choice of base is of decisive importance for the formation of the dithiocarbamate salts. This one-pot process works well for a wide range of pyridyl ITCs. Utilizing this protocol, some highly electron-deficient pyridyl and aryl ITCs are obtained in moderate to good yields.
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In vitro and in vivo Activity of the Dimer of PMAP-36 Expressed in Pichia pastoris.
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The antimicrobial peptide PMAP-36 exists as a homodimer stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bridge. The dimer of PMAP-36 exhibits a potent and rapid microbicidal activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. The gene encoding the antiparallel dimer (PMAP-36)2 was designed and codon-optimized according to bias of Pichia pastoris. The gene was then expressed in the P. pastoris strain GS115. The concentration of the recombinant product reached 106 mg/l. In vitro activity assays indicated that the recombinant peptide showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but did not cause hemolysis of chicken erythrocytes. Subsequently, 120 7-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were used to evaluate the in vivo activities of the peptide. A prophylactic dose of ciprofloxacin lactate was supplemented as the control. The results showed that recombinant (PMAP-36)2 significantly increased the serum IgM content of the birds (p < 0.05). The recombinant peptide significantly increased the amounts of Bifidobacterium and decreased the amount of Escherichia coli cells in the ceca of the experimental birds (p < 0.05). The results obtained in the present study indicate that the recombinant (PMAP-36)2 has a potent in vitro and in vivo activity and can be used as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Fenofibrate increases radiosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Radiation therapy is an important treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, how to promote radiation sensitivity in HNSCC remains a challenge. This study aimed to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of fenofibrate on HNSCC and explore the underlying mechanisms. HNSCC cell lines CNE-2 and KB were subjected to ionizing radiation (IR), in the presence or absence of fenofibrate treatment. Cell growth and survival, apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. In addition, CNE-2 cells were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to IR and/ or fenofibrate treatment. The expression of cyclinB and CDK1 was detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that fenofibrate efficiently radiosensitized HNSCC cells and xenografts in mice, and induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest via reducing the activity of the CDK1/cyclinB1 kinase complex. These data suggest that fenofibrate could be a promising radiosensitizer for HNSCC radiotherapy.
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Adult-onset autosomal recessive ataxia associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 5 gene (CLN5) mutations.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Autosomal recessive inherited ataxias are a growing group of genetic disorders. We report two Italian siblings presenting in their mid-50s with difficulty in walking, dysarthria and progressive cognitive decline. Visual loss, ascribed to glaucoma, manifested a few years before the other symptoms. Brain MRI showed severe cerebellar atrophy, prevalent in the vermis, with marked cortical atrophy of both hemispheres. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.935G > A;p.Ser312Asn) in the ceroid neuronal lipofuscinosis type 5 gene (CLN5). Bioinformatics predictions and in vitro studies showed that the mutation was deleterious and likely affects ER-lysosome protein trafficking. Our findings support CLN5 hypomorphic mutations cause autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia, confirming other reports showing CLN mutations are associated with adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. We suggest CLN genes should be considered in the molecular analyses of patients presenting with adult-onset autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia.
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Transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes in response to abiotic stresses correlates with dynamic changes in histone modifications in maize.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The histone modification level has been shown to be related with gene activation and repression in stress-responsive process, but there is little information on the relationship between histone modification and cell cycle gene expression responsive to environmental cues. In this study, the function of histone modifications in mediating the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes under various types of stress was investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). Abiotic stresses all inhibit the growth of maize seedlings, and induce total acetylation level increase compared with the control group in maize roots. The positive and negative regulation of the expression of some cell cycle genes leads to perturbation of cell cycle progression in response to abiotic stresses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that dynamic histone acetylation change in the promoter region of cell cycle genes is involved in the control of gene expression in response to external stress and different cell cycle genes have their own characteristic patterns for histone acetylation. The data also showed that the combinations of hyperacetylation and hypoacetylation states of specific lysine sites on the H3 and H4 tails on the promoter regions of cell cycle genes regulate specific cell cycle gene expression under abiotic stress conditions, thus resulting in prolonged cell cycle duration and an inhibitory effect on growth and development in maize seedlings.
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Mast species composition alters seed fate in North American rodent-dispersed hardwoods.
Ecology
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Interactions between plants and scatter-hoarding animals may shift from mutualism to predation as a function of the resources available to those animals. Because seed species differ in their nutrient content and defenses to predation, resource selection and cache management by scatter-hoarders, and thus seed fate, may also depend on the relative availability of different seed types. We tracked the fates of tagged Castanea dentata, Quercus alba, and Q. rubra seeds presented to rodents in pairwise combinations and found that C. dentata, which has moderate dormancy prior to germination, survived better in the presence of Q. alba (no dormancy) than with Q. rubra (longer dormancy). Decisions made by scatter-hoarders in response to the composition of available seed resources can alter the relationship between masting and seed dispersal effectiveness in individual tree species and may have influenced the evolution of asynchrony among species-specific masting patterns in temperate forests. In theory, preferential allocation of certain seed species to storage or consumption could also result in indirect apparent predation by one seed species on another.
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Prognostic value of bone marrow micrometastasis in patients with operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a long-term follow-up study.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Detection of bone marrow micrometastasis (BMM) has been focused on as a prognostic parameter in various malignant neoplasms recently. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic significance of BMM detection in patients with operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after long-term follow-up.
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Personalizing risk stratification by addition of PAK1 expression to TNM staging: Improving the accuracy of clinical decision for gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJA) is an aggressive malignancy with an alarmingly rising incidence. TNM staging is widely used by oncologists to stratify prognosis as well as direct therapeutic strategies. However, inadequate lymphadenectomy is frequently encountered for GEJA and largely confounds prognosis resulting from TNM staging. Thus, a molecular biomarker, which can accurately forecast the risk of nodal metastasis in patients with inadequate lymphadenectomy, is required to guide precisely clinical decision. In this study, bioinformatics and pathological analysis identified that p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is associated with lymph nodal metastasis of GEJA. The PAK1 H-score was lower in the patients with negative lymph nodes than that in patients with positive (metastatic) lymph nodes (6.865?±?3.376, 9.370?±?2.530, respectively; p??7 and high PAK1 expression in PTs were associated with significantly increased risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. In conclusion, high PAK1 expression in PTs is predictive of node metastasis and can be easily integrated in the clinical decision process for personalized therapeutics of GEJA.
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Significance of serum procalcitonin as biomarker for detection of bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Bacterial peritonitis is serious disease and remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Many studies have highlighted the potential usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) for identification of bacterial peritonitis, however, the overall diagnostic value of PCT remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of PCT for detection of bacterial peritonitis.
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[Developing and applying of a parentage identification approach based on high density genetic markers].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Pedigree is an important information source in the studies on human genetics and animal/plant breeding. Pedigree error is a common data error in breeding practice. It can affect the reliability of results from researches such as gene mapping, genetic or phenotypic value prediction. By using genetic markers, several approaches can identify the suspected pedigrees, but most of them are complex and the allowed number of genetic markers is limited, such as Cervus. Since the wide use of high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human genetic and animal/plant breeding, a new parentage identification approach (named EasyPC, Easy Pedigree Checking) based on whole genome genetic data was proposed in this study. EasyPC was compared with Cervus on efficiency, and validated with a Chinese Holstein cattle (n=2180) and a Duroc swine (n=191) population. Results showed that EasyPC was much less time demanding than Cervus, and pedigree error rates were 20% for cattle and 6% for swine. Result from the cattle population is in accordance with previous study. By analyzing the empirical distribution of Mendelian error rate calculated in a population using all available SNPs, EasyPC not only can identify the correctness of a pedigree in a simple, fast, and accurate manner, but also can correct the wrong pedigree. EasyPC provides a promising alternative solution to traditional pedigree correction approaches and eases the data analysis of whole genome related studies.
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[Recent advances in understanding the innate immune mechanisms and developing new disease resistance breeding strategies against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most destructive diseases in rice. Utilization of resistant cultivars is the most effective and economic strategy against the disease. Recently, rice blast has become an advanced model system for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of plant-fungal interactions. Significant progress has been made in the molecular biology, genomics and proteomics of the rice-M. oryzae interaction and host resistance in the last few years. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in rice against M. oryzae, and propose the new strategies for blast resistance molecular breeding. We also discuss the new challenges for future investigations.
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[Computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for diaphragm-abutting liver tumors: assessments of safety and short-term therapeutic efficacies].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To assess the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacies of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (PMA) for diaphragm-abutting liver tumors.
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Evidence of functional trimeric chlorophyll a/c2-peridinin proteins in the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin-protein (apcPC), a major light harvesting component in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, is an integral membrane protein complex. We isolated functional acpPC from the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. Both SDS-PAGE and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis quantified the denatured subunit polypeptide molecular weight (MW) as 18kDa. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) were employed to estimate the size of native acpPC complex to be 64-66kDa. We also performed native ESI-MS, which can volatilize and ionize active biological samples in their native states. Our result demonstrated that the native acpPC complex carried 14 to 16 positive charges, and the MW of acpPC with all the associated pigments was found to be 66.5kDa. Based on these data and the pigment stoichiometry, we propose that the functional light harvesting state of acpPC is a trimer. Our bioinformatic analysis indicated that Symbiodinium acpPC shares high similarity to diatom fucoxanthin Chl a/c binding protein (FCP), which tends to form a trimer. Additionally, acpPC protein sequence variation was confirmed by de novo protein sequencing. Its sequence heterogeneity is also discussed in the context of Symbiodinium eco-physiological adaptations.
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Composite photothermal platform of polypyrrole-enveloped Fe?O? nanoparticle self-assembled superstructures.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Photothermal nanoplatforms with small size, low cost, multifunctionality, good biocompatibility and in particular biodegradability are greatly desired in the exploration of novel diagnostic and therapeutic methodologies. Despite Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) have been approved as safe clinical agents, the low molar extinction coefficient and subsequent poor photothermal performance shed the doubt as effective photothermal materials. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPy)-enveloped Fe3O4 NP superstructures with a spherical morphology, which leads to a 300-fold increase in the molar extinction coefficient. The basic idea is the optimization of Fe3O4 electronic structures. By controlling the self-assembly of Fe3O4 NPs, the diameters of the superstructures are tuned from 32 to 64 nm. This significantly enhances the indirect transition and magnetic coupling of Fe ions, thus increasing the molar extinction coefficient of Fe3O4 NPs from 3.65 × 10(6) to 1.31 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) at 808 nm. The envelopment of Fe3O4 superstructures with conductive PPy shell introduces additional electrons in the Fe3O4 oscillation system, and therewith further enhances the molar extinction coefficient to 1.12 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1). As a result, the photothermal performance is greatly improved. Primary cell experiments indicate that PPy-enveloped Fe3O4 NP superstructures are low toxic, and capable to kill Hela cells under near-infrared laser irradiation. Owing to the low cost, good biocompatibility and biodegradability, the PPy-enveloped Fe3O4 NP superstructures are promising photothermal platform for establishing novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods.
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Computed tomography manifestations of histologic subtypes of retroperitoneal liposarcoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma and accounts for approximately 20% of all mesenchymal malignancies, often occurring in deep soft tissue of retroperitoneal space. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is therefore necessary. We explored whether computed tomography (CT) could be used to differentiate between the various types of retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS).
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Copper-catalyzed direct alkylation of 1,3-azoles with N-tosylhydrazones bearing a ferrocenyl group: a novel method for the synthesis of ferrocenyl-based ligands.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of ferrocenyl ketone-derived N-tosylhydrazones with benzo[d]oxazole leads to the direct C-H bond functionalization by a secondary ferrocenyl alkyl group. This direct C-H bond alkylation of azoles with N-tosylhydrazones bearing a ferrocenyl group uses inexpensive CuBr as the catalyst without any ligand. The reaction is operationally simple and conducted under mild conditions, giving the corresponding ferrocenyl-based ligands in moderate to good yields. Furthermore, they were able to act as bidentate ligands, giving rise to the corresponding palladium chelated complex 6a-6c, which were obtained by reaction of 5a-5c with [PdCl2(MeCN)2].
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An analysis of the Malassezia species distribution in the skin of patients with pityriasis versicolor in Chengdu, China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,??2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639?bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.
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Bone transport for the treatment of infected forearm nonunion.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of infected forearm nonunion by bone transport.
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Binding mode investigations on the interaction of lead(II) acetate with human chorionic gonadotropin.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Lead exposure could induce endocrine disruption and hormonal imbalance of humans, resulting in detrimental effects on the reproductive system even at low doses. However, mechanisms of lead actions remain unknown. This article investigated lead interactions with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) as a conceivable mechanism of its reproductive toxicity by spectroscopic technique, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), molecular docking study, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fluorescence measurements showed that lead acetate dynamically quenched intrinsic fluorescence of HCG through collisional mechanism with the association constant (KSV) in the magnitude of 10(3) L/mol at the detected temperatures (298, 303, and 310 K). ITC and molecular docking results revealed lead acetate could bind into 5 binding sites of HCG through electrostatic effects (?H < 0, ?S > 0) and hydrophobic forces (?H > 0, ?S > 0). The conformational investigation of HCG by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and ELISA indicated lead acetate changed the secondary structure of HCG by loosening and destruction of HCG skeleton and increasing the hydrophobicity around Tyr residues and resulted in the decreased bioactivities of HCG. This work presents direct interactions of lead with sex hormones and obtains a possible mechanism on lead induced reproductive toxicity at the molecular level.
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Continuous versus interrupted suture techniques of pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) has traditionally been a source of significant morbidity and potential mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Both patient-derived and technical factors contribute to pancreatic anastomotic failure. The continuous suture duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) described previously is associated with a low rate of POPF. The aim of the present study was to observe whether the new technique would effectively reduce the POPF rate in comparison with conventional interrupted suture duct-to-mucosa PJ.
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Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.
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Mass spectrometry footprinting reveals the structural rearrangements of cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein upon light activation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The orange carotenoid protein (OCP), a member of the family of blue light photoactive proteins, is required for efficient photoprotection in many cyanobacteria. Photoexcitation of the carotenoid in the OCP results in structural changes within the chromophore and the protein to give an active red form of OCP that is required for phycobilisome binding and consequent fluorescence quenching. We characterized the light-dependent structural changes by mass spectrometry-based carboxyl footprinting and found that an ? helix in the N-terminal extension of OCP plays a key role in this photoactivation process. Although this helix is located on and associates with the outside of the ?-sheet core in the C-terminal domain of OCP in the dark, photoinduced changes in the domain structure disrupt this interaction. We propose that this mechanism couples light-dependent carotenoid conformational changes to global protein conformational dynamics in favor of functional phycobilisome binding, and is an essential part of the OCP photocycle.
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Enhanced Levels of Interleukin-8 Are Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Resistance to Interferon-Alpha Therapy.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The objective of this study was to analyze the expression levels of IL-8 in serum and liver tissues from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and to investigate whether IL-8 may antagonize interferon-alpha (IFN-?) antiviral activity against HBV. IL-8 expression in serum was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to measure IL-8 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with CHB. IL-8 protein expression was detected in liver biopsy tissues by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the differences in serum IL-8 and PBMCs mRNA levels were also observed in patients with different anti-viral responses to IFN-?. Compared to normal controls, serum IL-8 protein and mRNA levels were increased in CHB patients, IL-8 levels were positively correlated with the severity of liver inflammation/fibrosis. Moreover, serum IL-8 protein and mRNA levels were positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and negatively correlated with serum prealbumin (PA) level. IL-8 expression was mainly located in portal area of liver tissues and was increased with the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis stage. The expression serum and mRNA levels of IL-8 in the CHB patients with a complete response to IFN-? are significantly lower than that of the patients with non-response to IFN-? treatment. It is suggested that IL-8 might play important roles in the pathogenesis of CHB. Moreover, interferon resistance may be related to the up-regulation of IL-8 expression in the patients did not respond to IFN-? treatment.
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Colloidal self-assembly of catalytic copper nanoclusters into ultrathin ribbons.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Metal nanoclusters (NCs) with diameter below 2?nm are promising catalysts in oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the high surface energy of ultra-small clusters leads to structural instability, shedding doubt on practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a self-assembly method to improve the durability of catalytic metal NCs, employing copper?NCs capped by 1-dodecanethiol (DT) to form free-standing ribbons in colloidal solution. By tuning the cooperation between the dipolar attraction between Cu?NCs and the van der Waals attraction between DT, the thickness of ribbons is adjusted to a single?NC scale. Such free-standing ribbons exhibit excellent catalytic activity and durability in ORR.
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Aberrant sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and STAT3 activation in papillary thyroid cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The sonic hedgehog (SHH) and STAT3 signaling pathways play important roles during carcinogenesis with possible interaction. To determine the association of the activation of SHH signaling pathway and STAT3 pathway in carcinogenesis of human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we examined the expression of SHH signaling pathway molecules including SHH, Patched (PTCH), Smoothened (SMO) and GLI1 (glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1), as well as p-STAT3 (phosphorylation at Tyr705) by immunohistochemistry in 164 cases of PTC. In PTC, 70.12%, 64.02%, 68.90%, 64.02%, and 56.71% and in the adjacent normal thyroid tissues, 18.29%, 18.90%, 26.83%, 14.63%, and 10.98% of the specimens stained positive for SHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, and p-STAT3, respectively. Significant difference were found for the positive rate of SHH, PTCH, SMO, and GLI1 as well as p-STAT3 expression between PTC and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. There was a high accordance rate between SHH, PTCH, SMO, and GLI1 expression and all of them positively correlated with larger tumor size, the presence of ETE and LNM, and higher TNM stage. P-STAT3 expression positively correlated with the presence of ETE and LNM, and higher TNM stage but not age, gender, tumor size of the PTC patients. Signifi cant positive correlation between p-STAT3 and SHH, PTCH, SMO and GLI expression was found in PTC. These findings suggest that the SHH and STAT3 signaling pathways are frequently activated in PTC, interact with each other and may therefore be indicators for prognosis or potential targets for therapy against PTC.
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Interaction of Cu(2+), Pb (2+), Zn (2+) with Trypsin: What is the Key Factor of their Toxicity?
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Heavy metals possess great endangerment to environment even human health because of their indissolubility and bioaccumulation. The toxicity of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+)) to trypsin was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and enzyme activity assay. The experimental results showed that toxic effect of heavy metal ions was due to their own characteristic, rather than the electric charges of the ion. Zn(2+) could not show the obvious toxicity to trypsin, while the structure and function of trypsin was damaged when the enzyme explored to Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). From the spectra results, we found that Cu(2+) would bind with trypsin, which lead to the fluorescence quenched and hydrophobicity increased. Pb(2+) could also change the structure and reduce the activity of trypsin in high concentration. In vitro measurement, the toxicity order of heavy metal ions to trypsin is: Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Zn(2+). In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry analysis proved that the interactions between Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) and trypsin were all spontaneous and exothermic, which indicated the adverse effect of these heavy metal ions to trypsin.
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Exercise training preserves ischemic preconditioning in aged rat hearts by restoring the myocardial polyamine pool.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Background. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) strongly protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, IPC protection is ineffective in aged hearts. Exercise training reduces the incidence of age-related cardiovascular disease and upregulates the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyamine pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise can reestablish IPC protection in aged hearts and whether IPC protection is linked to restoration of the cardiac polyamine pool. Methods. Rats aging 3 or 18 months perform treadmill exercises with or without gradient respectively for 6 weeks. Isolated hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes were exposed to an IR and IPC protocol. Results. IPC induced an increase in myocardial polyamines by regulating ODC and spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT) in young rat hearts, but IPC did not affect polyamine metabolism in aged hearts. Exercise training inhibited the loss of preconditioning protection and restored the polyamine pool by activating ODC and inhibiting SSAT in aged hearts. An ODC inhibitor, ?-difluoromethylornithine, abolished the recovery of preconditioning protection mediated by exercise. Moreover, polyamines improved age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Conclusion. Exercise appears to restore preconditioning protection in aged rat hearts, possibly due to an increase in intracellular polyamines and an improvement in mitochondrial function in response to a preconditioning stimulus.
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Lysinibacillus fluoroglycofenilyticus sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from fluoroglycofen contaminated soil.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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A novel Gram-positive, fluoroglycofen-degrading bacterium, designated cmg86(T), was isolated from herbicide contaminated soil collected from Tongjing, Jiangsu province, China. Strain cmg86(T) was found to be aerobic, motile, endospore-forming rods. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain cmg86(T) belongs to the genus Lysinibacillus and showed the highest sequence similarity to Lysinibacillus meyeri DSM 25057(T) (97.9 %) and Lysinibacillus odysseyi KCTC 3961(T) (96.6 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was determined to be A4? (L-Lys-D-Asp), which is consistent with the cell-wall characteristics of the genus Lysinibacillus. The predominant respiratory quinones were identified as menaquinone-7 (MK-7, 89.5 %) and meanaquinone-6 (MK-6, 8.9 %), and the major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and antesio-C17:0. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain cmg86(T) was determined to be 37.6 mol%. The results of this study support the conclusion that strain cmg86(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus for which the name and Lysinibacillus fluoroglycofenilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is cmg86(T) (=KCTC 33183(T) = CCTCC AB 2013247(T)).
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RNA activation: Promise as a new weapon against cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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RNA activation (RNAa) is a novel mechanism in which short RNA duplexes, referred to as small activating RNAs (saRNAs), enable sequence-specific gene activation capable of lasting up to 2 weeks. RNAa was named in contrast to RNA interference (RNAi). Although many mysteries remain, increasing evidence demonstrates that RNAa not only provides a novel mechanism for the study of gene function and regulation, but also holds exciting potential for clinical translation to therapeutic modality against cancers. In this review, we will focus on the potential applications of RNAa in cancer studies and therapeutics.
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The RNA-binding protein RBPMS1 represses AP-1 signaling and regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and migration.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex plays a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. However, how AP-1 transcriptional activity is repressed is not fully understood. Here, we show that RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing 1 (RBPMS1) physically and functionally interacts with AP-1 in vitro and in vivo. The RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and C-terminus of the RBPMS1 isoforms RBPMS1A and RBPMS1C, but not RBPMS1B, interacted with cFos, a member of the AP-1 family that dimerizes with cJun to stimulate AP-1 transcriptional activity. RBPMS1 did not associate with Jun proteins. RBPMS1A and RBPMS1C bound to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of cFos that mediates dimerization of AP-1 proteins. In addition, RBPMS1A-C interacted with the transcription factor Smad3, which was shown to interact with cJun and increase AP-1 transcriptional activity. RBPMS1 inhibited c-Fos or Smad3-mediated AP-1 transactivation and the expression of AP-1 target genes known to be the key regulators of cancer growth and progression, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclin D1. Mechanistically, RBPMS1 blocks the formation of the cFos/cJun or Smad3/cJun complex as well as the recruitment of cFos or Smad3 to the promoters of AP-1 target genes. In cultured cells and a mouse xenograft model, RBPMS1 inhibited the growth and migration of breast cancer cells through c-Fos or Smad3. These data suggest that RBPMS1 is a critical repressor of AP-1 signaling and RBPMS1 activation may be a useful strategy for cancer treatment.
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Improving and testing geochemical speciation predictions of metal ions in natural waters.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The ability of WHAM VII and NICA-Donnan models to predict free-ion activities of Cu in natural waters was examined from two perspectives, (i) the presence of EDTA and NTA contaminants, (ii) the need to improve estimates of HA and FA concentrations. Potentiometric responses of a Cu(II) ion-selective electrode were investigated in five assays containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from a series of polluted (urban) and relatively unpolluted (upland) streams in northern England. The [Cu]/[DOC] ratio in these assays spanned an environmentally realistic range of ?1-500 ?mol/g. Reasonably good agreement between measured and predicted Cu(2+) activities was obtained with both WHAM VII and NICA-Donnan models, assuming 65% of DOM as fulvic acid and including the measured EDTA and NTA concentrations, but generally the models overestimated the activities by a factor of ?2. In contrast, the models over-predicted the Cu(2+) activities by up to 2 orders of magnitude at low [Cu]/[DOC] ratios in urban waters if anthropogenic ligands were not included in the model simulations. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to measure the functional properties of the isolated DOM and to estimate the fractions of FA and HA present. Using these fractions in the models gave improvements in predictions compared to the 65% FA assumption, as shown by higher correlations, reduced error and reduced bias. These results highlight various issues with the use of the available speciation models for predicting free ion concentrations in natural waters, such as the use of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for the derivation of environmental standards. It is clearly necessary to measure EDTA and NTA in waters with urban influences, while fluorescence measurements offer the possibility of appreciably improving the accuracy of predictions.
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Aortic bypass and orthotopic right renal autotransplantation for midaortic syndrome: a case report.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare vascular anomaly characterized by segmental narrowing of the distal descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. Renal or visceral arteries may also be affected to varying degrees. MAS is often associated with renovascular hypertension, and requires early intervention. When medical therapy and percutaneous interventions fail to control hypertension, surgical treatment is required. We report a case of MAS that failed to respond to bilateral renal artery stenting, but treated with aortic bypass and orthotopic right renal autotransplantation with good outcome.
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miR-281, an abundant midgut-specific miRNA of the vector mosquito Aedes albopictus enhances dengue virus replication.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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BackgroundEmerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-virus interaction. We previously reported that some miRNAs were differentially expressed in sugar-fed and blood-fed females of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Here, we analysis the role in the host-virus system of an abundant midgut-specific miRNA in the mosquito Ae. albopictus.MethodsThe expression profiles of miR-281 in different body parts of Ae. albopictus and following dengue virus infection were determined using RT-qPCR and Northern blot. miR-281 mimics, antagomiRs and corresponding negative controls were designed and their overexpression and knock-down efficiency were analyzed by qRT-PCR after transfecting the mosquito cell lines C6/36, and also by injecting female mosquitoes. Dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2) viral genomic RNA abundance was determined by RT-qPCR. The levels of DENV-2 E protein were detected using Western blot. Virus titers were tested using TCID50. RNAhybrid was used to predict targets of miR-281 in the DENV-2 genome. The EGFP plasmid-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction between miR-281 and the predicted binding site in the C6/36 cell line.ResultsmiR-281 is specifically expressed in the female midgut where dengue virus first invades. After DENV-2 infection, this miRNA is up-regulated in response to viral infection. Functional intervention analyses in vitro with specifically designed miR-281 mimics and corresponding antagomiRs indicated that miR-281 enhances DENV-2 viral replication. Further depletion of miR-281 in female mosquitoes by injection of its specific antagomiRs led to a significant reduction in DENV-2 abundance. The interaction between miR-281 and its predicted target sequence, the DENV-2 genomic 5¿-untranslated region (UTR), is confirmed in the context of a plasmid-based reporter system.ConclusionThese findings confirm that miR-281, an abundant midgut-specific miRNA, facilitates DENV-2 replication.
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Label-free detection of exonuclease III by using dsDNA-templated copper nanoparticles as fluorescent probe.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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3'-5' Exonuclease activities play key roles in maintaining genome stability, so the detection of 3'-5' exonuclease activity is very important for diseases diagnosis and drug development. In this paper, we established a simple, sensitive, low-cost and label-free method to detect the activity of exonuclease III (Exo III) by using double-strand DNA (dsDNA)-templated copper nanoparticles as fluorescent probe. Fluorescent Cu nanoparticles (NPs ) with maximum emission wavelength of 575 nm are formed by using double-strand DNA (dsDNA) as templates. Upon the addition of Exo III, the dsDNA templates would be digested from 3' to 5', and the formation of fluorescent Cu NPs would be inhibited. Thus, the fluorescence intensity of dsDNA-Cu NPs would decrease. This method exhibits a low detection limit of 0.02 U mL(-1) for Exo III. Compared with the previous reports, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescence dye label and sophisticated experimental techniques.
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Amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres/polylactide composite coated tantalum scaffold: Facile preparation, fast biomineralization and subchondral bone defect repair application.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials are widely used in various biomedical areas such as drug/gene delivery and bone repair/tissue engineering. In this study, amorphous CaP nanospheres synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method are used to prepare the CaP-polylactide (CaP-PLA) composite. Then, the as-prepared CaP-PLA composite is used to coat tantalum (Ta) plates and porous scaffolds. Compared with bare Ta plate, CaP-PLA coated Ta plates show a high performance of surface biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the hydrophilicity of the CaP-PLA coated Ta plates is significantly improved. CaP-PLA coated Ta plates with bovine serum albumin (BSA) are prepared and used for the investigation of BSA release in vitro. The experimental results indicate a sustained BSA release property and simultaneous biomineralization of the as-prepared BSA-containing CaP-PLA coated Ta plates. Furthermore, CaP-PLA coated Ta scaffolds are favorable for the human osteoblast-like MG63 cells adhesion and spreading. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-containing CaP-PLA coated porous Ta scaffolds are used for the study of rabbit subchondral bone defect repair, covering with autogeneic periosteums. The as-prepared CaP-PLA composite coated Ta scaffolds are useful to guide the bone regeneration in vivo.
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Efficacy of tandospirone in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea and anxiety.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of tandospirone in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) and anxiety in a prospective, randomized, controlled study.
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Antidiabetic effect of Lactobacillus casei CCFM0412 on mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of Lactobacillus casei CCFM0412 on mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin.
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High glucose-induced resistance to 5-fluorouracil in pancreatic cancer cells alleviated by 2-deoxy-D-glucose.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Abnormal glucose metabolism from hyperglycemia or diabetes aggravates the progression of pancreatic cancer. It is unknown whether high glucose has an impact on the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and whether targeting aberrant glucose metabolism using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) may reverse this effect in high-glucose microenvironments. The cell viability of AsPC-1 and Panc-1 was analyzed by MTT assay following 5-Fu treatment at different glucose concentrations. Altered sensitivity to 5-Fu by 2-DG was also analyzed. LY294002 was used to inhibit PI3K-Akt signaling to determine the mechanism involved. In response to glucose, 5-Fu-induced cell growth inhibition was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied with activated p-Akt, while 2-DG enhanced 5-Fu-induced cell growth inhibition. Moreover, blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 effectively eliminated 2-DG-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, high glucose weakens the antitumor effect of 5-Fu via PI3K/Akt signaling. Using 2-DG in combination with 5-Fu significantly increased their therapeutic effectiveness in high-glucose microenvironments.
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Synchronous unilateral basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The current study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who presented with a 4-month history of a painless slow-growing mass in the left parotid region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed two independent, round lesions in the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland on the left side, respectively. A total parotidectomy was performed and basal cell adenomas (BCAs) were identified by histopathological examination. At the 6-month follow-up examination, no sign of recurrence was found. This study describes the clinical features of a rare case of synchronous unilateral BCA in the parotid gland and also provides a review of the literature.
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Surface reactivity of hydroxyapatite nanocoatings deposited on iron oxide magnetic spheres toward toxic metals.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Hydroxyapatite and magnetite are two environmentally-friendly mineral phases that have fruitful properties for remediation process. The formation of magnetic core@sorbent shell nanostructures should provide efficient materials for toxic metal removal from aqueous media. However the nanoscale confinement of hydroxyapatite may influence its reactivity.
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A hybrid search algorithm for swarm robots searching in an unknown environment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper proposes a novel method to improve the efficiency of a swarm of robots searching in an unknown environment. The approach focuses on the process of feeding and individual coordination characteristics inspired by the foraging behavior in nature. A predatory strategy was used for searching; hence, this hybrid approach integrated a random search technique with a dynamic particle swarm optimization (DPSO) search algorithm. If a search robot could not find any target information, it used a random search algorithm for a global search. If the robot found any target information in a region, the DPSO search algorithm was used for a local search. This particle swarm optimization search algorithm is dynamic as all the parameters in the algorithm are refreshed synchronously through a communication mechanism until the robots find the target position, after which, the robots fall back to a random searching mode. Thus, in this searching strategy, the robots alternated between two searching algorithms until the whole area was covered. During the searching process, the robots used a local communication mechanism to share map information and DPSO parameters to reduce the communication burden and overcome hardware limitations. If the search area is very large, search efficiency may be greatly reduced if only one robot searches an entire region given the limited resources available and time constraints. In this research we divided the entire search area into several subregions, selected a target utility function to determine which subregion should be initially searched and thereby reduced the residence time of the target to improve search efficiency.
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Genetically Engineered Lactococcus lactis Protect against House Dust Mite Allergy in a BALB/c Mouse Model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive concept for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but their mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate how recombinant major dust mite allergen Der p2-expressing Lactococcus lactis as a mucosal vaccine induced the immune tolerance against house dust mite allergy in a mouse model.
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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii inhibits interleukin-17 to ameliorate colorectal colitis in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been shown that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), one of the dominant intestinal bacterial flora, may protect colonic mucosa against the development of inflammation and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with the underlying mechanisms being unclear.
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The effect and mechanism of growth hormone replacement on cognitive function in rats with traumatic brain injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effects of growth hormone on cognitive dysfunction were observed in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) rat model and the underlying mechanism was explored.
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Evaluation of antioxidant activities of ampelopsin and its protective effect in lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress piglets.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of ampelopsin (APS) by using various methods in vitro, as well as to determine effects of APS on LPS-induced oxidative stress in piglets. The results showed that APS exhibited excellent free radical scavenging by DPPH, ABTS, O2•-, H2O2 and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Ampelopsin also protected pig erythrocytes against AAPH-induced apoptosis and hemolysis, decreased total superoxide dismutase activity, and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore the results demonstrated that APS enhanced the total antioxidant capacity and decreased the malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in LPS-treated piglets. The results of the present investigation suggest that APS possesses a strong antioxidant activity and alleviates LPS-induced oxidative stress, possibly due to its ability to prevent reactive oxygen species.
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Galectin-3 as a marker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Galectin-3 has a relatively high level of expression in triple-negative breast cancers and is a potential marker for this disease. However, the clinical and prognostic implications of galectin-3 expression in breast cancer remain unclear. We examined mastectomy specimens from 1086 breast cancer cases and matching, adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry. Overall, triple-negative breast cancers expressed galectin-3 more strongly than did other breast cancers types (63.59% vs 21.36%, P = 0.001). Galectin-3 expression was not found to be an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer by Cox regression analysis, but was associated with chemotherapeutic resistance. Apoptosis was only weakly induced by arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment in galectin-3-positive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), although ATO treatment up-regulated galectin-3 expression. Knockdown of galectin-3 in MDA-MB-231 cells sensitized them to killing by ATO. These findings support a possible role for galectin-3 as a marker for triple-negative breast cancer progression and as a therapeutic target in combination with ATO treatment, although the mechanisms that underlie this synergy require further investigation.
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Epigenetic silencing of dual oxidase 1 by promoter hypermethylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1), which is the main sources for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the airway, are frequently silenced in human lung cancer. In poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma, a high expression of DUOX1 was associated with a reduced risk of death. However, the role of DUOX1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still not clear. Here, we investigated DUOX1 expression and its promoter methylation status in primary HCC. To date, We found that expression of DUOX1 was decreased significantly in 76.9% (60/78) human hepatocellular carcinoma and 66.7% (6/9) liver cancer cell lines, compared with the paired adjacent non-tumor tissues and immortalized normal cell line. Moreover, which was well correlated with its promoter methylation status. Methylation was further detected in primary HCC, but none or occasionally in paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Detailed methylation analysis of 35 CpG sites at a 324-bp promoter region by bisulfi te genomic sequencing (BGS) confi rmed its methylation. DUOX1 silencing could be reversed by chemical demethylation treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), indicating direct epigenetic silencing. Restoring DUOX1 expression in lowly expressed cancer cells signifi cantly inhibited cancer cells growth and colony formation ability through the induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and an increase in ROS generation, while knockdown of DUOX1 could markedly promote cancer cells proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that epigenetic silencing of DUOX1 via promoter hypermethylation is common in human liver cancer cells and primary HCC and DUOX1 appears to be a functional tumor suppressor involved in liver carcinogenesis.
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An efficient Trojan delivery of tetrandrine by poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(?-caprolactone) (PVP-b-PCL) nanoparticles shows enhanced apoptotic induction of lung cancer cells and inhibition of its migration and invasion.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Earlier studies have demonstrated the promising antitumor effect of tetrandrine (Tet) against a series of cancers. However, the poor solubility of Tet limits its application, while its hydrophobicity makes Tet a potential model drug for nanodelivery systems. We report on a simple way of preparing drug-loaded nanoparticles formed by amphiphilic poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(?-caprolactone) (PVP-b-PCL) copolymers with Tet as a model drug. The mean diameters of Tet-loaded PVP-b-PCL nanoparticles (Tet-NPs) were between 110 nm and 125 nm with a negative zeta potential slightly below 0 mV. Tet was incorporated into PVP-b-PCL nanoparticles with high loading efficiency. Different feeding ratios showed different influences on sizes, zeta potentials, and the drug loading efficiencies of Tet-NPs. An in vitro release study shows the sustained release pattern of Tet-NPs. It is shown that the uptake of Tet-NPs is mainly mediated by the endocytosis of nanoparticles, which is more efficient than the filtration of free Tet. Further experiments including fluorescence activated cell sorting and Western blotting indicated that this Trojan strategy of delivering Tet in PVP-b-PCL nanoparticles via endocytosis leads to enhanced induction of apoptosis in the non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 line; enhanced apoptosis is achieved by inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins. Moreover, Tet-NPs more efficiently inhibit the ability of cell migration and invasion than free Tet by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as well as up-regulating tissue inhibitor of MMP-3 (TIMP-3). Therefore, data from this study not only confirms the potential of Tet in treating lung cancer but also offers an effective way of improving the anticancer efficiency of Tet by nanodrug delivery systems.
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[Prokaryote diversity in the surface sediment of northern South China Sea].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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In order to investigate the composition and diversity of prokaryotes in marine surface sediment from site XSCS13 at northern South China Sea.
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[Analysis of directional reflectance properties of Lake Taihu using multi-angle measurements].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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The optical field above water is not isotropic. It is important to study the directional reflectance properties of the optical field above water, which is useful for building water quality parameters retrieving models by remote sensing. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function above oceanic waters has been well studied. However, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function above inland waters is still unresolved. The in-situ measured multi-angle remote sensing reflectance above water provides valuable data for studying directional reflectance properties above water. Unfortunately, such data is almost unavailable for inland waters due to the lack of of feasible instrument. Therefore, the authors designed and manufactured a specialized device to measure in situ multi-angle remote sensing reflectance involving with a spectrometer. We carried out an experiment in Lake Taihu to measure in situ multi-angle remote sensing reflectance data with this device. Then, we analyzed the directional properties of the remote sensing reflectance above water surface of Lake Taihu, and their effects on building water quality parameters retrieving models by remote sensing. Finally, we proposed a strategy for building water quality parameters retrieving models, which could reduce the directional effects of the optical field above inland waters.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.