JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mirror movements identified in patients with moebius syndrome.
Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Moebius syndrome is a rare disorder with minimum clinical criteria of congenital facial weakness in association with impairment in abduction of one or both eyes. Mirror movements are not known to be associated with Moebius syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of ocular motor deficits in congenital facial weakness: Moebius and related syndromes.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Congenital facial weakness is present in a heterogeneous group of conditions. Among them is Moebius syndrome, which has been defined as a disorder with congenital, non-progressive facial weakness and limited abduction of one or both eyes. It is typically attributed to agenesis of the abducens and facial cranial nerves. This paper details ocular motor findings of 40 subjects (23 months to 64 years; 24 females, 16 males) with congenital facial weakness: 38 presented at a Moebius Syndrome Conference and two were clinic patients. A new classification scheme of patterns based on ocular motor phenotype is presented. Of 40 subjects, 37 had bilateral and three had unilateral facial weakness. The most common ocular motor pattern (Pattern 1, n=17, 43%) was bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with intact vertical range. Pattern 2 (n=10, 26%) was bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with variable vertical limitations. Pattern 3, which was rare, was isolated abduction deficits (n=2, 5%). Others had full motility range and did not meet minimal criteria for the diagnosis of Moebius syndrome (Pattern 4, n=10, 26%). One subject was too severely affected to characterize. Abnormal vertical smooth pursuit was present in 17 (57%) of 30 subjects: nine with Pattern 1, five with Pattern 2, and three with Pattern 4. Abnormal vertical saccades were present in 10 (34%) of 29 subjects. Vertical saccades appeared slow in nine: six with Pattern 1 and three with Pattern 2. Vertical saccades were absent in one subject with Pattern 2. Abnormal vertical optokinetic nystagmus was present in 19 (68%) of 28 subjects: 10 with Pattern 1, six with Pattern 2, one with Pattern 3, and two with Pattern 4. Reduced convergence was present in 19 (66%) of 29 subjects: nine with Pattern 1, six with Pattern 2, one with Pattern 3, and three with Pattern 4. The most common pattern of ocular motor deficit in Moebius syndrome is bilateral horizontal gaze palsy from pontine abducens nuclear defects, rather than abducens nerve involvement. Defects in the range or dynamic properties of vertical movements in subjects with congenital facial weakness may suggest involvement of ocular motor structures in the midbrain, including oculomotor nerves or nuclei, vertical supranuclear saccadic centres, and convergence neurons. Such deficits were found even in subjects with full vertical motility range. Classification of patterns of ocular motor deficits in congenital facial weakness may assist with further delineation of anatomic localization and identification of genetic deficits underlying these disorders.
Related JoVE Video
The phenotypic spectrum of duplication 5q35.2-q35.3 encompassing NSD1: is it really a reversed Sotos syndrome?
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Loss-of-function mutations of NSD1 and 5q35 microdeletions encompassing NSD1 are a major cause of Sotos syndrome (Sos), which is characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, characteristic facies, and variable intellectual disability (ID). Microduplications of 5q35.2-q35.3 including NSD1 have been reported in only five patients so far and described clinically as a reversed Sos resulting from a hypothetical gene dosage effect of NSD1. Here, we report on nine patients from five families with interstitial duplication 5q35 including NSD1 detected by molecular karyotyping. The clinical features of all 14 individuals are reviewed. Patients with microduplications including NSD1 appear to have a consistent phenotype consisting of short stature, microcephaly, learning disability or mild to moderate ID, and distinctive facial features comprising periorbital fullness, short palpebral fissures, a long nose with broad or long nasal tip, a smooth philtrum and a thin upper lip vermilion. Behavioral problems, ocular and minor hand anomalies may be associated. Based on our findings, we discuss the possible etiology and conclude that it is possible, but so far unproven, that a gene dosage effect of NSD1 may be the major cause.
Related JoVE Video
Spectrum of mutations in the renin-angiotensin system genes in autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by early onset and persistent fetal anuria leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequence, associated with skull ossification defects. Early death occurs in most cases from anuria, pulmonary hypoplasia, and refractory arterial hypotension. The disease is linked to mutations in the genes encoding several components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS): AGT (angiotensinogen), REN (renin), ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme), and AGTR1 (angiotensin II receptor type 1). Here, we review the series of 54 distinct mutations identified in 48 unrelated families. Most of them are novel and ACE mutations are the most frequent, observed in two-thirds of families (64.6%). The severity of the clinical course was similar whatever the mutated gene, which underlines the importance of a functional RAS in the maintenance of blood pressure and renal blood flow during the life of a human fetus. Renal hypoperfusion, whether genetic or secondary to a variety of diseases, precludes the normal development/ differentiation of proximal tubules. The identification of the disease on the basis of precise clinical and histological analyses and the characterization of the genetic defects allow genetic counseling and early prenatal diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
U1 snRNA-mediated gene therapeutic correction of splice defects caused by an exceptionally mild BBS mutation.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a multisystem disorder caused by ciliary defects. To date, mutations in 15 genes have been associated with the disease and BBS1 is most frequently affected in patients with BBS. The use of homozygosity mapping in a large consanguineous family allowed us to identify the splice donor site (SD) mutation c.479G>A in exon 5 of BBS1. Clinically affected family members show symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) but lack other primary features that would clearly support the diagnosis of BBS. In agreement with this exceptionally mild BBS1-associated phenotype, we did not detect obvious ciliary defects in patient-derived cells. SDs are bound by the U1 small nuclear RNA (U1), a process that initiates exon recognition during splicing. The mutation described herein interferes with U1 binding and induces aberrant splicing of BBS1. For a gene therapeutic approach, we have adapted the sequence of U1 to increase its complementarity to the mutated SD. Lentiviral treatment of patient-derived fibroblasts with the adapted U1 partially corrected aberrant splicing of endogenously expressed BBS1 transcripts. This therapeutic effect was dose-dependent. Our results show that the adaptation of U1 can correct pathogenic effects of splice donor site mutations and suggest a high potential for gene therapy.
Related JoVE Video
A spectrum of LMX1B mutations in Nail-Patella syndrome: new point mutations, deletion, and evidence of mosaicism in unaffected parents.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nail-Patella syndrome (MIM 161200) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypoplastic or absent patellae, dystrophic nails, dysplasia of the elbows, and iliac horn. In 40% of cases, a glomerular defect is present and, less frequently, ocular damage is observed. Inter- and intrafamilial variable expressivity of the clinical phenotype is a common finding. Mutations in the human LMX1B gene have been demonstrated to be responsible for Nail-Patella syndrome in around 80% of cases.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of 12 families with type 1 recessive cutis laxa.
Hum. Mutat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5. Recently, LTBP4 mutations have been implicated in a similar phenotype. Studying FBLN4, FBLN5, and LTBP4 in 12 families with ARCL type I, we found bi-allelic FBLN5 mutations in two probands, whereas nine probands harbored biallelic mutations in LTBP4. FBLN5 and LTBP4 mutations cause a very similar phenotype associated with severe pulmonary emphysema, in the absence of vascular tortuosity or aneurysms. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract involvement seems to be more severe in patients with LTBP4 mutations. Functional studies showed that most premature termination mutations in LTBP4 result in severely reduced mRNA and protein levels. This correlated with increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. However, one mutation, c.4127dupC, escaped nonsense-mediated decay. The corresponding mutant protein (p.Arg1377Alafs(*) 27) showed reduced colocalization with fibronectin, leading to an abnormal morphology of microfibrils in fibroblast cultures, while retaining normal TGF? activity. We conclude that LTBP4 mutations cause disease through both loss of function and gain of function mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of 396 individuals with mutations in Sonic Hedgehog.
J. Med. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, may result from mutations in over 12 genes. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) was the first such gene discovered; mutations in SHH remain the most common cause of non-chromosomal HPE. The severity spectrum is wide, ranging from incompatibility with extrauterine life to isolated midline facial differences.
Related JoVE Video
HOXB1 founder mutation in humans recapitulates the phenotype of Hoxb1-/- mice.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Members of the highly conserved homeobox (HOX) gene family encode transcription factors that confer cellular and tissue identities along the antero-posterior axis of mice and humans. We have identified a founder homozygous missense mutation in HOXB1 in two families from a conservative German American population. The resulting phenotype includes bilateral facial palsy, hearing loss, and strabismus and correlates extensively with the previously reported Hoxb1(-/-) mouse phenotype. The missense variant is predicted to result in the substitution of a cysteine for an arginine at amino acid residue 207 (Arg207Cys), which corresponds to the highly conserved Arg5 of the homeodomain. Arg5 interacts with thymine in the minor groove of DNA through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction. Molecular modeling and an in vitro DNA-protein binding assay predict that the mutation would disrupt these interactions, destabilize the HOXB1:PBX1:DNA complex, and alter HOXB1 transcriptional activity.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatoblastoma in two siblings and familial adenomatous polyposis: causal nexus or coincidence?
Fam. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infantile and childhood hepatoblastoma (HB) occurs more frequently in children with hereditary predisposition to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) than in the general population. The occurrence of HB in two infant siblings is reported. The sister died of the disease. The brother survived the HB and was later diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis and advanced rectal cancer. He was found to carry a germline mutation of the APC gene. Presuming that the HB in the two siblings was the first manifestation of FAP we performed APC mutation analysis in DNA from archived tumour tissue of his sister and in blood samples of both parents. Surprisingly, the mutation was neither found in both parents, nor in the tissue samples of the sister. We outline the impact of this finding for genetic counselling and review the literature on FAP and HB.
Related JoVE Video
The molecular basis of EPCAM expression loss in Lynch syndrome-associated tumors.
Mod. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Germline deletions affecting the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) gene lead to silencing of MSH2 and cause Lynch syndrome. We have recently reported that lack of EPCAM expression occurs in many, but not all tumors from Lynch syndrome patients with EPCAM germline deletions. The differences in EPCAM expression were not related to the localization of EPCAM germline deletions. We therefore hypothesized that the type of the second somatic hit, which leads to MSH2 inactivation during tumor development, determines EPCAM expression in the tumor cells. To test this hypothesis and to evaluate whether lack of EPCAM expression can already be detected in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas, we analyzed four carcinomas and two adenomas from EPCAM germline deletion carriers for EPCAM protein expression and allelic deletion status of the EPCAM gene region by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. In four out of six tumors we observed lack of EPCAM expression accompanied by biallelic deletions affecting the EPCAM gene. In contrast, monoallelic retention of the EPCAM gene was observed in the remaining two tumors with retained EPCAM protein expression. These results demonstrate that EPCAM expression in tumors from EPCAM deletion carriers depends on the localization of the second somatic hit that inactivates MSH2. Moreover, we report lack of EPCAM protein expression in a colorectal adenoma, suggesting that EPCAM immunohistochemistry may detect EPCAM germline deletions already at a precancerous stage.
Related JoVE Video
Identification and functional characterization of the novel human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) R744P mutant associated with hereditary long QT syndrome 2.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations of the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) may disrupt human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channel function and lead to hereditary long QT syndrome (LQTS). We identified a novel missense mutation located in close proximity to the CNBD, hERG R744P, in a patient presenting with recurrent syncope and aborted cardiac death triggered by sudden auditory stimuli. Functional properties of wild type (WT) and mutant hERG R744P subunits were studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology and Western blot analysis. HERG R744P channels exhibited reduced activating currents compared to hERG WT (1.48±0.26 versus 3.40±0.29?A; n=40). These findings were confirmed by tail current analysis (hERG R744P, 0.53±0.07?A; hERG WT, 0.97±0.06?A; n=40). Cell surface trafficking of hERG R744P protein subunits was not impaired. To simulate the autosomal-dominant inheritance associated with LQTS, WT and R744P subunits were co-expressed in equimolar ratio. Mean activating and tail currents were reduced by 32% and 25% compared to hERG WT (n=40), indicating that R744P protein did not exert dominant-negative effects on WT channels. The half-maximal activation voltage was not significantly affected by the R744P mutation. This study highlights the significance of in vitro testing to provide mechanistic evidence for pathogenicity of mutations identified in LQTS. The functional defect associated with hERG R744P serves as molecular basis for LQTS in the index patient.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.