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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of non-tuberculous Mycobacteria on host biomarkers potentially relevant for tuberculosis management.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are different from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) both in their ubiquitous environmental distribution and in their reduced capacity to cause disease. While often neglected in favour of other infectious diseases, NTM may interfere with important aspects of TB control and management, namely the efficacy of new anti-tuberculosis (TB) vaccines; the immuno-diagnostic Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In Tube assay (QFTGIT); and immune biomarkers explored for their diagnostic and/or predictive potential. Our objective was therefore to explore host immune biomarkers in children who had NTM isolated from respiratory and/or gastric specimens.
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Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis.
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Influence of Age and Nutritional Status on the Performance of the Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in Young Children Evaluated for Tuberculosis in Southern India.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Reliable identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or tuberculosis (TB) disease in young children is vital to assure adequate preventive and curative treatment. The tuberculin skin test (TST) and IFN?-release assays may supplement the diagnosis of pediatric TB as cases are typically bacteriologically unconfirmed. However, it is unclear to what extent the performance of TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT; Cellestis' IFN?-release assay test) depends on the demographic, clinical and nutritional characteristics of children in whom they are tested.
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Increased level of acute phase reactants in patients infected with modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Mwanza, Tanzania.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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There is increasing evidence to suggest that different Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages cause variations in the clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB). Certain M. tuberculosis genotypes/lineages have been shown to be more likely to cause active TB in human populations from a distinct genetic ancestry. This study describes the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis genotypes in Mwanza city, Tanzania and the clinical presentation of the disease caused by isolates of different lineages.
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The frequencies of IFN?+IL2+TNF?+ PPD-specific CD4+CD45RO+ T-cells correlate with the magnitude of the QuantiFERON® gold in-tube response in a prospective study of healthy indian adolescents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) is an IFN?-release assay used in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. The risk of TB progression increases with the magnitude of the MTB-specific IFN?-response. QFT reversion, also associated with low Tuberculin Skin Test responses, may therefore represent a transient immune response with control of M. tuberculosis infection. However, studies at the single cell level have suggested that the quality (polyfunctionality) of the T-cell response is more important than the quantity of cytokines produced.
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Ambulatory Gastric Lavages Provide Better Yields of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis than Induced Sputum in Children with Intra-Thoracic Tuberculosis.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To compare mycobacterial yield by induced sputum (IS) and gastric lavage (GL), performed on an ambulatory basis in children with probable intra-thoracic tuberculosis.
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Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment: a prospective cohort study among tuberculosis patients from Mwanza, Tanzania.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment.
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Does neutralization of gastric aspirates from children with suspected intrathoracic tuberculosis affect mycobacterial yields on MGIT culture?
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in children relies on cultures of gastric aspirate (GA) specimens. Conventionally, GAs are neutralized to improve culture yields of mycobacteria. However, there are limited data to support this practice. To study the utility of neutralization of GAs with sodium bicarbonate in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis, a total of 116 children of either sex, aged 6 months to 14 years (median age, 120 months; interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 192 months), underwent gastric aspiration on 2 consecutive days. Gastric aspirates were divided into two aliquots, and only one aliquot was neutralized with 1% sodium bicarbonate. Both aliquots were processed for smear and culture examinations. Out of the 232 gastric aspirates, 12 (5.17%) were acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positive. There were no differences in smear positivity rates from samples with or without neutralization. The yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on a Bactec MGIT 960 culture system was significantly lower in the neutralized samples (16.3% [38/232]) than in the nonneutralized samples (21.5% [50/232]) (P = 0.023). There was no significant difference between the neutralized and the nonneutralized samples in time to detection using the MGIT 960 system (average, 24.6 days; IQR, 12 to 37 days) (P = 0.9). The contamination rates were significantly higher in the neutralized samples than in the nonneutralized samples (17.2% [40/232] versus 3.9% [9/232]) (P = 0.001). The agreement for positive mycobacterial culture between the two approaches was 66.5% (P = 0.001). Hence, we recommend that gastric aspirate samples not be neutralized with sodium bicarbonate prior to culture for M. tuberculosis.
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Two-step tuberculin skin testing in school-going adolescents with initial 0-4 millimeter responses in a high tuberculosis prevalence setting in South India.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established.
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Development of transmucosal patch using nanofibers.
Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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In the present work we have attempted to develop a novel transmucosal patch of diclofenac sodium using electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers. PCL nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning techniques using different polymer concentrations. Nanofibers formulations were characterized by SEM, FTIR, drug loading, and in-vitro release study using Franz diffusion cell. Studies revealed the nanofibers fabricated from 13% PCL were fracture-free, non-beaded, and ultrafine with 120 nm diameter. Release studies demonstrated the sustained release behavior of PCL nanofibers. Nanofibers can be exploited for transmucosal drug delivery of NSAID with improved therapeutic efficacy.
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The effect of energy-protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis HIV-co-infected patients: randomised controlled trial in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Undernutrition is common among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB+) patients. Micronutrient supplementation may improve treatment outcomes, but it is unclear whether additional energy-protein would be beneficial. The present study aimed to assess the effect of energy-protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength against a background of high micronutrient intake during tuberculosis (TB) treatment. A total of 377 PTB+ patients co-infected with HIV were randomly allocated one or six biscuits daily for 60 d during TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and 2 and 5 months. There were no effects on any outcome at 2 months, but energy-protein supplementation was associated with a 1·3 (95 % CI - 0·1, 2·8) kg marginally significant gain in handgrip strength at 5 months. However, after 2 months, energy-protein supplementation led to a weight gain of 1·9 (95 % CI 0·1, 3·7) kg among patients with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts ? 350 cells/?l, but not among patients with low CD4 counts ( - 0·2 kg; 95 % CI - 1·3, 0·8, Pinteraction = 0·03). Similarly, at 5 months, energy-protein supplementation led to a 2·3 (95 % CI 0·6, 4·1) kg higher handgrip strength gain among patients with CD4 counts < 350 cells/?l, but not in those with high CD4 counts (Pinteraction = 0·04). In conclusion, energy-protein supplementation to PTB+ HIV-co-infected patients had no overall effects on weight and body composition, but was associated with marginally significant gain in handgrip strength. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement, before it is recommended to TB programmes.
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Modulation of transcriptional and inflammatory responses in murine macrophages by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mammalian cell entry (Mce) 1 complex.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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The outcome of many infections depends on the initial interactions between agent and host. Aiming at elucidating the effect of the M. tuberculosis Mce1 protein complex on host transcriptional and immunological responses to infection with M. tuberculosis, RNA from murine macrophages at 15, 30, 60 min, 4 and 10 hrs post-infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv or ?-mce1 H37Rv was analyzed by whole-genome microarrays and RT-QPCR. Immunological responses were measured using a 23-plex cytokine assay. Compared to uninfected controls, 524 versus 64 genes were up-regulated by 15 min post H37Rv- and ?-mce1 H37Rv-infection, respectively. By 15 min post-H37Rv infection, a decline of 17 cytokines combined with up-regulation of Ccl24 (26.5-fold), Clec4a2 (23.2-fold) and Ppar? (10.5-fold) indicated an anti-inflammatory response initiated by IL-13. Down-regulation of Il13ra1 combined with up-regulation of Il12b (30.2-fold), suggested switch to a pro-inflammatory response by 4 hrs post H37Rv-infection. Whereas no significant change in cytokine concentration or transcription was observed during the first hour post ?-mce1 H37Rv-infection, a significant decline of IL-1b, IL-9, IL-13, Eotaxin and GM-CSF combined with increased transcription of Il12b (25.1-fold) and Inb1 (17.9-fold) by 4 hrs, indicated a pro-inflammatory response. The balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory responses during the early stages of infection may have significant bearing on outcome.
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Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi-micronutrient supplementation led to a higher handgrip gain (1.22 kg; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.94; P = 0.001) but had no effects on other outcomes. The effects of multi-micronutrient supplementation were modified by HIV infection (P-interaction = 0.002). Among HIV- patients, multi-micronutrient supplementation increased weight gain by 590 g (95% CI = -40, 1210; P = 0.07) and handgrip strength by 1.6 kg (95% CI = 0.78, 2.47; P < 0.001), whereas among HIV+ patients, it reduced weight gain by 1440 g (95% CI = 290, 2590; P = 0.002) and had no effect on handgrip strength (0.07 kg; 95% CI = -1.30, 1.46; P = 0.91). The reduced weight gain among HIV+ patients receiving multi-micronutrient supplementation seemed to be explained by a higher proportion of patients reporting fever. At 5 mo, the effects on weight were sustained, whereas there was no effect on handgrip strength. In conclusion, multi-micronutrient supplementation given as a biscuit is beneficial among HIV- PTB patients and may be recommended to TB programs. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement for HIV+ PTB patients.
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How participatory is parental consent in low literacy rural settings in low income countries? Lessons learned from a community based study of infants in South India.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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A requisite for ethical human subjects research is that participation should be informed and voluntary. Participation during the informed consent process by way of asking questions is an indicator of the extent to which consent is informed.
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Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a matched cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV status, anthropometric measurements and handgrip strength were determined. Deficits in weight, AFA, AMA and handgrip strength associated with PTB+ and HIV were estimated using multiple regression analysis. We recruited 355 pairs of PTB+ patients and controls. PTB+ was associated with deficits of 10.0kg (95% CI 7.3; 12.7) in weight and 6.8kg (95% CI 5.2; 8.3) in handgrip strength among females and 9.1kg (95% CI 7.3; 10.9) in weight and 6.8kg (95% CI 5.2; 8.4) in handgrip strength among males. In both sexes, PTB+ was associated with deficits in AFA and AMA. Among females, HIV was associated with deficits in AMA and handgrip strength, but the deficit in handgrip strength was larger among PTB+ patients (3.2kg 95% CI 1.3; 5.2) than controls (-1.6kg 95% CI -4.8; 1.5) (interaction, P=0.009). These findings suggest that deficits in weight and handgrip strength among patients starting TB treatment are severe. Thus, nutritional support may be necessary to ensure reversal of the deficits, and may improve treatment outcomes.
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The effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on treatment outcomes in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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Low serum concentrations of vitamin A and zinc are common in tuberculosis and may have an adverse effect on host cell-mediated responses. The role of adjunctive micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes is uncertain.
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BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the end of the second month after initiation of anti-TB treatment were assessed.
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Determination of the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide in liquid and solid media assessed by a colorimetric nitrate reductase assay.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate two colorimetric nitrate reductase-based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS) tests, the CONRAS-liquid test and the CONRAS-LJ test, to enable susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide. To enhance the growth of M. tuberculosis in 7H9 broth with acid pH (6.0), the effect of three potential growth-promoting substances (reconstitution fluid, fastidious organism supplement and epidermal growth factor) was evaluated.
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Isoniazid and rifampicin resistance-associated mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Yangon, Myanmar: implications for rapid molecular testing.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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To evaluate the frequency and nature of mutations in genes associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from Yangon, Myanmar.
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High diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in South Africa and preponderance of mixed infections among ST53 isolates.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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The reemergence of tuberculosis (TB) has become a major health problem worldwide, especially in Asia and Africa. Failure to combat this disease due to nonadherence or inappropriate drug regimens has selected for the emergence of multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) TB. The development of new molecular genotyping techniques has revealed the presence of mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, which may accelerate the emergence of drug-resistant strains. There are some studies describing the local distribution of circulating strains in South Africa, but to date, reports describing the frequency and distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes, and specifically MDR genotypes, across the different provinces are limited. Thus, 252 isolates (of which 109 were MDR) from eight of the nine provinces of South Africa were analyzed by spoligotyping. Spoligotyping showed 10 different lineages, and ST53 (11.1%) and ST1 (10.3%) were the most frequent genotypes. Of the 75 different spoligopatterns observed, 20 (7.9%) were previously unreported. Analysis of the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units of variable-number tandem repeats of the ST53 and ST1 isolates revealed that approximately 54% of the ST53 isolates were of mixed M. tuberculosis subpopulations. Drug resistance (defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and/or rifampin) could only be linked to a history of previous anti-TB treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.27 to 7.10; P = <0.0001). This study describes a high diversity of circulating genotypes in South Africa in addition to a high frequency of mixed M. tuberculosis subpopulations among the ST53 isolates. MDR TB in South Africa could not be attributed to the spread of any single lineage.
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Predominance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EAI and Beijing lineages in Yangon, Myanmar.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage are associated with high rates of transmission, hypervirulence and drug resistance. The Beijing lineage has been shown to dominate the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in East Asia; however, the diversity and frequency of M. tuberculosis genotypes from Myanmar are unknown. We present the first comprehensive study describing the M. tuberculosis isolates circulating in Yangon, Myanmar. Thus, 310 isolates from pulmonary TB patients from Yangon, Myanmar, were genotyped by spoligotyping and IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (IS6110 RFLP). The most frequent lineages observed were the East African-Indian (EAI; 48.4%; n = 150) and Beijing (31.9%; n = 99) lineages. Isolates belonging to the most frequent shared types (STs), ST1 (n = 98; Beijing), ST292 (n = 28; EAI), and ST89 (n = 11; EAI), had >or=75% similarity in their IS6110 patterns. Five of 11 Beijing isolates comprising five clusters with identical IS6110 RFLP patterns could be discriminated by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. Of the 150 EAI isolates, 40 isolates (26.7%) had only one IS6110 copy, and 17 of these isolates could be discriminated by MIRU-VNTR analysis. The findings from this study suggest that although there is a predominance of the ancient EAI lineage in Yangon, the TB epidemic in Yangon is driven by clonal expansion of the ST1 genotype. The Beijing lineage isolates (21.4%) were more likely (P = 0.009) than EAI lineage isolates to be multidrug resistant (MDR) (1.3%; odds ratio, 3.2, adjusted for the patients history of exposure to anti-TB drugs), suggesting that the spread of MDR Beijing isolates is a major problem in Yangon.
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In-depth molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from New Delhi--predominance of drug resistant isolates of the modern (TbD1) type.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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India has the highest estimated burden of tuberculosis in the world, accounting for 21% of all tuberculosis cases world-wide. However, due to lack of systematic analysis using multiple markers the available information on the genomic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India is limited.
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Effect of Ascaris Lumbricoides specific IgE on tuberculin skin test responses in children in a high-burden setting: a cross-sectional community-based study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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M.tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with enhanced T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune responses while helminth infection is associated with T helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Our aim was to investigate whether helminth infection could influence the ability to generate an appropriate Th1 immune response that is characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), in M.tb exposed children.
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BCG protects against tuberculosis irrespective of HIV status: a matched case-control study in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Thorax
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While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced risk of TB (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7, p=0.005), irrespective of HIV status (interaction, p=0.623). BCG vaccination considerably reduced the risk of TB, both among individuals with and without HIV infection.
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CD4 lymphocyte dynamics in Tanzanian pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time is complex and has been divergently reported.
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Baseline predictors of sputum culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis: importance of cavities, smoking, time to detection and W-Beijing genotype.
PLoS ONE
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Time to detection (TTD) on automated liquid mycobacterial cultures is an emerging biomarker of tuberculosis outcomes. The M. tuberculosis W-Beijing genotype is spreading globally, indicating a selective advantage. There is a paucity of data on the association between baseline TTD and W-Beijing genotype and tuberculosis outcomes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.