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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluating the feasibility of using insecticide quantification kits (IQK) for estimating cyanopyrethroid levels for indoor residual spraying in Vanuatu.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The quality of routine indoor residual spraying (IRS) operations is rarely assessed because of the limited choice of methods available for quantifying insecticide content in the field. This study, therefore, evaluated a user-friendly, rapid colorimetric assay for detecting insecticide content after routine IRS operations were conducted.
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Laboratory and experimental hut evaluation of a long-lasting insecticide treated blanket for protection against mosquitoes.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Long-lasting insecticide treated blankets (LLIBs) may provide additional protection against malaria where use of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) is low or impractical such as in disaster or emergency situations.
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Residual Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Kenyan Children After Artemisinin-Combination Therapy Is Associated With Increased Transmission to Mosquitoes and Parasite Recurrence.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Background.?Parasite clearance time after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) may be increasing in Asian and African settings. The association between parasite clearance following ACT and transmissibility is currently unknown. Methods.?We determined parasite clearance dynamics by duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples collected in the first 3 days after treatment of uncomplicated malaria with ACT. Gametocyte carriage was determined by Pfs25 quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays; infectiousness to mosquitoes by membrane-feeding assays on day 7 after treatment. Results.?Residual parasitemia was detected by qPCR in 31.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.6-39.8) of the children on day 3 after initiation of treatment. Residual parasitemia was associated with a 2-fold longer duration of gametocyte carriage (P = .0007), a higher likelihood of infecting mosquitoes (relative risk, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17-3.24; P = .015), and a higher parasite burden in mosquitoes (incidence rate ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.61-5.31; P < .001). Children with residual parasitemia were also significantly more likely to experience microscopically detectable parasitemia during follow-up (relative risk, 11.25; 95% CI, 4.08-31.01; P < .001). Conclusions.?Residual submicroscopic parasitemia is common after ACT and is associated with a higher transmission potential. Residual parasitemia may also have consequences for individual patients because of its higher risk of recurrent parasitemia.
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HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed.
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Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in the Gambia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently confers resistance to DDT. Therefore, alternative insecticides are urgently needed.
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Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT) at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa.
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Residual activity and integrity of PermaNet® 2.0 after 24 months of household use in a community randomised trial of long lasting insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several brands of long lasting insecticidal net (LN) for protection against insect vectors but also advises national programmes to monitor and evaluate performance under local conditions to help them select the most suitable LN for their setting. During the course of a community randomised trial of LNs against visceral leishmaniasis in northern India and Nepal, opportunity arose to assess the efficacy of PermaNet 2.0 (Vestergaard-Frandsen, Denmark) after two years of use against sandfly vectors. Between 63% (India) and 78% (Nepal) of LNs became holed over the course of two years, deltamethrin residues fell from 55 mg/m(2) to an average of 11.6 mg/m(2) (India) and 27.9 mg/m(2) (Nepal), but on the basis of bioassay criteria all LNs tested still met the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme standard for LN effectiveness. Nets had on average only been washed 2.5 times (India) and 0.6 times (Nepal) by householders over the course of two years. The loss of insecticide was attributed to factors which had little or nothing to do with washing, such as handling, friction and torsion during daily use. Under conditions pertaining in this region of south Asia, and for two years at least, this brand of net continues to meet the criteria established by WHO for LNs.
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Poor quality drugs: grand challenges in high throughput detection, countrywide sampling, and forensics in developing countries.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Throughout history, poor quality medicines have been a persistent problem, with periodical crises in the supply of antimicrobials, such as fake cinchona bark in the 1600s and fake quinine in the 1800s. Regrettably, this problem seems to have grown in the last decade, especially afflicting unsuspecting patients and those seeking medicines via on-line pharmacies. Here we discuss some of the challenges related to the fight against poor quality drugs, and counterfeits in particular, with an emphasis on the analytical tools available, their relative performance, and the necessary workflows needed for distinguishing between genuine, substandard, degraded and counterfeit medicines.
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Oral activated charcoal prevents experimental cerebral malaria in mice and in a randomized controlled clinical trial in man did not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of parenteral artesunate.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Safe, cheap and effective adjunct therapies preventing the development of, or reducing the mortality from, severe malaria could have considerable and rapid public health impact. Oral activated charcoal (oAC) is a safe and well tolerated treatment for acute poisoning, more recently shown to have significant immunomodulatory effects in man. In preparation for possible efficacy trials in human malaria, we sought to determine whether oAC would i) reduce mortality due to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice, ii) modulate immune and inflammatory responses associated with ECM, and iii) affect the pharmacokinetics of parenteral artesunate in human volunteers.
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Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in Tanzanian infants.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) is a new malaria control tool. However, it is uncertain whether IPTi works mainly through chemoprophylaxis or treatment of existing infections. Understanding the mechanism is essential for development of replacements for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) where it is no longer effective. This study investigated how protection against malaria given by SP, chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) and mefloquine (MQ), varied with time since administration of IPTi.
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Simple field assays to check quality of current artemisinin-based antimalarial combination formulations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Malaria continues to be one of the major public health problems in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Artemisinin derivatives (ARTs; artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin) derived from the herb, Artemisia annua, are the most effective antimalarial drugs available providing rapid cures. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended that all antimalarials must be combined with an artemisinin component (artemisinin-based combination therapy; ACT) for use as first line treatment against malaria. This class of drugs is now first-line policy in most malaria-endemic countries. Reports of ad hoc surveys from South East Asia show that up to 50% of the artesunate currently sold is counterfeit. Drug quality is rarely assessed in resource poor countries in part due to lack of dedicated laboratory facilities which are expensive to build, equip and maintain. With a view to address this unmet need we developed two novel colour reaction assays that can be used in the field to check the quality of ARTs.
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Composition and biting activity of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Amazon region of Colombia.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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To provide information for public health policy on mosquito nets in the Amazon region of Colombia, we conducted landing catches to estimate Anopheles species composition and biting activity. Two hundred twenty person-nights of catches were done in seven locations over a period of 14 mo. A total of 1,780 Anopheles mosquitoes were caught (8.1 per person-night). Among the nine species found, An. oswaldoi Peryassú was the most common (776 mosquitoes, 44%), followed by An. darlingi Root s.l. (498, 28%). An. oswaldoi was the most common species collected outdoors, where its biting rate dropped steadily from a peak of >15 bites/person-night at the start of the night (1800-1900 hours) to approximately equal to 2 bites/person-night before dawn. An. darlingi was the most common species collected indoors, with a biting rate of approximately equal to 3-4 bites/person-night until about midnight, when the rate dropped below 1 bite/person-night, before showing a secondary peak before dawn. Sixty-four mosquito nets were analyzed by the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for levels of deltamethrin (DM). All but two (62) of these were reported by their owners to have been impregnated with insecticide, and 53 were found by HPLC to have deltamethrin. However, one half (32) of the nets had concentrations <4 mg/m2 and therefore were likely to have been inadequately protective. An inverse association was found between the reported time between washes and deltamethrin concentration. These findings show a need for additional protection from mosquitoes when not inside nets, as well as for more effective impregnation, possibly through wash-resistant insecticide formulation.
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Quality of anti-malarial drugs provided by public and private healthcare providers in south-east Nigeria.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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There is little existing knowledge about actual quality of drugs provided by different providers in Nigeria and in many sub-Saharan African countries. Such information is important for improving malaria treatment that will help in the development and implementation of actions designed to improve the quality of treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the quality of drugs used for the treatment of malaria in a broad spectrum of public and private healthcare providers.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.