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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasia: A review of involved molecular mechanisms.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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The clonal bone marrow stem cell disorders essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belong to the group of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasia (Ph- MPN). In 2005 the JAK2V617F mutation was discovered which has generated more insight in the pathogenetic mechanism of the MPNs. More mutations have been detected in MPN patients since. However, the underlying cause of MPN has not been discovered so far. The mechanism of increased angiogenesis in MPNs and the development of fibrosis in the bone marrow in PMF patients and in some ET and PV patients is still not known. This review will focus on the most important molecular pathogenetic mechanisms in MPN patients.
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Long-term Survival and Late Effects among 1-year Survivors of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We analyzed the outcomes of patients who survived disease-free for 1-year or more following second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for relapsed acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes between 1980 and 2009. A total of 1285 patients received a second allogeneic transplant following disease relapse; among these 325 survived relapse-free at 1-year after the second HCT. The median time from first to second HCT was 17 and 24 months for children and adults, respectively. A myeloablative preparative regimen was used in the second transplant in 62% of children and 45% of adult patients. The overall 10-year conditional survival rates after second transplantation in this cohort of patients who had survived disease-free for at least one year were 55% in children and 39% in adults. Relapse was the leading cause of mortality (77% and 54% of deaths in children and adults, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only disease status prior to second HCT was significantly associated with higher risk for overall mortality (HR 1.71 for patients with disease not in complete remission prior to second HCT, P<0.01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 43% and 75% of children and adults following second transplant. Chronic GVHD was the leading cause of non-relapse mortality followed by organ failure and infection. The cumulative incidence of developing at least one of the studied late effects at 10-years after second HCT was 63% in children and 55% in adults. The most frequent late effects in children were growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence 22%) and cataracts (20%), and in adults were cataracts (20%) and avascular necrosis (13%). Among patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who receive a second allogeneic HCT for relapse and survive disease-free for at least 1-year, many can be expected to survive long term. However, they continue to be at risk for relapse and non-relapse morbidity and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to minimize relapse risk and long-term transplant morbidity in this population.
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Dietary one-carbon nutrient intake and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms: results of the Netherlands cohort study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Previous epidemiologic research suggests a protective role of one-carbon nutrients in carcinogenesis. Folate, however, may play a dual role in neoplasms development: protect early in carcinogenesis and promote carcinogenesis at a later stage. We prospectively examined associations between intake of total folate, methionine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms (including subtypes) and investigated whether alcohol modified the effects of folate.
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Second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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We examined risk of second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) using reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NMC). RIC/NMC recipients with leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 2833) and lymphoma (n = 1436) between 1995 and 2006 were included. In addition, RIC/NMC recipients 40 to 60 years of age (n = 2138) were compared with patients of the same age receiving myeloablative conditioning (MAC, n = 6428). The cumulative incidence of solid cancers was 3.35% at 10 years. There was no increase in overall cancer risk compared with the general population (leukemia/MDS: standardized incidence ratio [SIR] .99, P = 1.00; lymphoma: SIR .92, P = .75). However, risks were significantly increased in leukemia/MDS patients for cancers of lip (SIR 14.28), tonsil (SIR 8.66), oropharynx (SIR 46.70), bone (SIR 23.53), soft tissue (SIR 12.92), and vulva (SIR 18.55) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.04). Lymphoma patients had significantly higher risks of oropharyngeal cancer (SIR 67.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.52). Among RIC/NMC recipients, age >50 years was the only independent risk factor for solid cancers (hazard ratio [HR] 3.02, P < .001). Among patients ages 40 to 60 years, when adjusted for other factors, there was no difference in cancer risks between RIC/NMC and MAC in leukemia/MDS patients (HR .98, P = .905). In lymphoma patients, risks were lower after RIC/NMC (HR .51, P = .047). In conclusion, the overall risks of second solid cancers in RIC/NMC recipients are similar to the general population, although there is an increased risk of cancer at some sites. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to realize the complete risks of solid cancers after RIC/NMC AHCT.
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Older patients with myeloma derive similar benefit from autologous transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for plasma cell myeloma is performed less often in people >70 years old than in people ?70 years old. We analyzed 11,430 AHCT recipients for plasma cell myeloma prospectively reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 2008 and 2011, representing the majority of US AHCT activity during this period. Survival (OS) was compared in 3 cohorts: ages 18 to 59 years (n = 5818), 60 to 69 years (n = 4666), and >70 years (n = 946). Median OS was not reached for any cohort. In multivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with mortality (P = .0006). Myeloma-specific mortality was similar among cohorts at 12%, indicating an age-related effect on nonmyeloma mortality. Analyses were performed in a representative subgroup comparing relapse rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). One-year NRM was 0% for age >70 years and 2% for other ages (P = not significant). The three-year relapse rate was 56% in age 18 to 59 years, 61% in age 60 to 69 years, and 63% age >70 (P = not significant). Three-year PFS was similar at 42% in age 18 to 59 years, 38% in age 60 to 69 years, and 33% in age >70 years (P = not significant). Postrelapse survival was significantly worse for the older cohort (P = .03). Older subjects selected for AHCT derived similar antimyeloma benefit without worse NRM, relapse rate, or PFS.
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Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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There are limited data on the outcomes of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma. We analyzed transplantation outcomes in 141 subjects with biopsy-proven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1990 and 2009. Two groups were identified: autologous HCT (auto-HCT; n = 108) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT; n = 33). Fewer auto-HCTs were done for transformed follicular lymphoma in 2003 to 2009, with a shift favoring allo-HCT. Auto-HCT was associated with a 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 14%), 5-year progression-free survival of 35% (95% CI, 26% to 45%), and 5-year overall survival of 50% (95% CI, 40% to 59%). In contrast, allo-HCT was associated with a 1-year NRM of 41% (95% CI, 23% to 58%), 5-year progression-free survival of 18% (95% CI, 6% to 35%), and 5-year overall survival of 22% (95% CI, 8% to 41%). Auto-HCT for transformed follicular lymphoma achieves sustained remission in a high proportion of subjects. The high NRM of allo-HCT offset any benefit that might be associated with this transplantation modality.
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Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
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Autologous or Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Chemotherapy-Sensitive Mantle-Cell Lymphoma: Analysis of Transplantation Timing and Modality.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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To examine the outcomes of patients with chemotherapy-sensitive mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) following a first hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT), comparing outcomes with autologous (auto) versus reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic (RIC allo) HCT and with transplantation applied at different times in the disease course.
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Better leukemia-free and overall survival in AML in first remission following cyclophosphamide in combination with busulfan compared with TBI.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cyclophosphamide combined with total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) or busulfan (BuCy) are the most widely used myeloablative conditioning regimens for allotransplants. Recent data regarding their comparative effectiveness are lacking. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for 1230 subjects receiving a first hematopoietic cell transplant from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or from an unrelated donor during the years 2000 to 2006 for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) after conditioning with Cy/TBI or oral or intravenous (IV) BuCy. Multivariate analysis showed significantly less nonrelapse mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.86; P = .007), and relapse after, but not before, 1 year posttransplant (RR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .006), and better leukemia-free survival (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.88; P = .003) and survival (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52-0.88; P = .003) in persons receiving IV, but not oral, Bu compared with TBI. In combination with Cy, IV Bu is associated with superior outcomes compared with TBI in patients with AML in first CR.
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Effect of Postremission Therapy before Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The impact of pretransplant (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post-HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received a reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or umbilical cord blood donor from 2000 to 2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine postremission consolidation. Three-year survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 43%) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (95% CI, 37% to 47%) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (P = .16). Disease-free survival was 34% (95% CI, 27% to 41%) and 41% (95% CI, 35% to 46%; P = .15), respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (95% CI, 30% to 44%) and 38% (95% CI, 33% to 43%), respectively (P = .80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, disease-free survival, and survival. Before reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant treatment-related mortality and is reasonable if required.
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Impact of postremission consolidation chemotherapy on outcome after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: A report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of postremission consolidation chemotherapy before reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1).
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Indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma: a consensus project of the EBMT-Lymphoma Working Party.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The aim of this project was to define indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in follicular lymphoma in Europe. In the absence of evidence-based data, a RAND-modified Delphi procedure was used by an expert panel. After pre-defining statements, these were individually/anonymously scored by each participant using a 9-point scale. Consensus was reached that: 1) high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue is not an appropriate option to consolidate first remission in patients responding to immuno-chemotherapy outside clinical trials; 2) in patients with first chemo-sensitive relapse, high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue is an appropriate option to consolidate remission, especially in patients with a short response after immuno-chemotherapy or with high-risk FLIPI; 3) high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue is also appropriate in second/subsequent chemo-sensitive relapses; 4) allotransplant (preferably a reduced intensity conditioning-allotransplant) should be considered at relapse after high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue. No consensus was reached on the role of high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue in low-risk first relapse, or on when an allotransplant should be preferred over high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue. In the absence of evidence-based data, the consensus method used was a valuable tool to define indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplant in follicular lymphoma.
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Reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with primary myelofibrosis: a cohort analysis from the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We evaluated outcomes and associated prognostic factors in 233 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for primary myelofibrosis (MF) using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The median age at RIC HCT was 55 yr. Donors were a matched sibling donor (MSD) in 34% of RIC HCTs, an HLA well-matched unrelated donor (URD) in 45%, and a partially matched/mismatched URD in 21%. Risk stratification according to the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) was 12% low, 49% intermediate-1, 37% intermediate-2, and 1% high. The probability of survival at 5 yr was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40% to 53%). In a multivariate analysis, donor type was the sole independent factor associated with survival. Adjusted probabilities of survival at 5-yr were 56% (95% CI, 44% to 67%) for MSD, 48% (95% CI, 37% to 58%) for well-matched URD, and 34% (95% CI, 21% to 47%) for partially matched/mismatched URD (P = .002). The relative risk (RR) for NRM was 3.92 (P = .006) for well-matched URD and 9.37 (P < .0001) for partially matched/mismatched URD. Trends toward increased NRM (RR, 1.7; P = .07) and inferior survival (RR, 1.37; P = .10) were observed in DIPSS intermediate-2/high-risk patients compared with DIPSS low/intermediate-1 risk patients. Our data indicate that RIC HCT is a potentially curative option for patients with MF, and that donor type is the most important factor influencing survival in these patients.
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Providing personalized prognostic information for adult leukemia survivors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Prediction of subsequent leukemia-free survival (LFS) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in adults with acute leukemia who survived at least 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is difficult. We analyzed 3339 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 1434 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received myeloablative conditioning and related or unrelated stem cells from 1990 to 2005. Most clinical factors predictive of LFS in 1-year survivors were no longer significant after 2 or more years. For acute myeloid leukemia, only disease status (beyond first complete remission) remained a significant adverse risk factor for LFS 2 or more years after transplantation. For lymphoblastic leukemia, only extensive chronic GVHD remained a significant adverse predictor of LFS in the second and subsequent years. For patients surviving for 1 year without disease relapse or extensive chronic GVHD, the risk of developing extensive chronic GVHD in the next year was 4% if no risk factors were present and higher if noncyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis, an HLA-mismatched donor, or peripheral blood stem cells were used. Estimates for subsequent LFS and extensive chronic GVHD can be derived for individual patients or populations using an online calculator (http://www.cibmtr.org/LeukemiaCalculators). This prognostic information is more relevant for survivors than estimates provided before transplantation.
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Trends in utilization and outcomes of autologous transplantation as early therapy for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The impact of novel drugs for treating multiple myeloma (MM) on the utilization and outcomes of autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHPCT) is unknown. We reviewed characteristics and outcomes of 20,278 patients who underwent AHPCT within 12 months of diagnosis of MM in the United States and Canada and registered at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) in 3 time cohorts reflecting the increasing availability of novel drugs: 1995 to 1999 (n = 2226), 2000 to 2004 (n = 6408), and 2005 to 2010 (n = 11,644). In the United States, the number of AHPCTs performed increased at a greater rate than new MM cases. Patients in recent cohorts were older, less likely to have stage 3 MM, and more likely to have received previous thalidomide, lenalidomide, or bortezomib. On multivariate analysis, AHPCT in the 2000 to 2004 cohort (HR = 0.77) or in the 2005 to 2010 cohort (HR = 0.68) were associated with lower risk of death. Survival at 60 months post-AHPCT improved from 47% in 1995 to 1999 to 55% in 2000 to 2004 and to 57% in 2005 to 2010, owing less to improvement in progression-free survival (50% versus 55% versus 57% at 24 months) than to postrelapse/progression survival (58% versus 65% versus 72% at 24 months). AHPCT and new biological agents are complementary, nonredundant therapies and should be combined in the management of MM in suitable patients.
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Medication surveillance on intravenous cytotoxic agents: a retrospective study.
Int J Clin Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Medication surveillance is not commonly performed for cytotoxic agents. Cytotoxic agents generally have a narrow therapeutic range and therefore it might be necessary to adjust the dose. Interactions may not only cause supratherapeutic ranges, but can also lead to subtherapeutic levels. Up till now, only a few studies have demonstrated the value and importance of medication surveillance in ambulatory cancer patients.
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Anti-Apoptotic Pathways in Bone Marrow and Megakaryocytes in Myeloproliferative Neoplasia.
Pathobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Objective: Proliferative activity contributes to bone marrow cellularity in myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN). Megakaryocytes are the most important cells in MPN bone marrow pathology. JAK2(V617F) mutation constitutively activates JAK2, pErk (phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-Akt signaling. Erk is involved in megakaryocyte differentiation, PI3K-Akt inhibits megakaryocyte apoptosis via Bcl-xL and two downstream effectors (p70S6k and Bnip3). Immunohistochemic expression of phosphorylated Erk, Akt, p70S6k and Bnip3 was studied along with microvessel density (MVD) in MPN bone marrow and megakaryocytes. Methods: 36 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 25 polycythemia vera and 45 primary myelofibrosis patients were analyzed for pErk, pAkt, Bnip3, p70S6k and MVD expression by immunostaining bone marrow biopsy sections followed by automated image analysis. JAK2(V617F) was analyzed through real-time PCR in blood samples. Results: pErk and pAkt were significantly higher expressed in MPN megakaryocytes, mainly in ET patients, compared to controls. Bnip3 was higher expressed in bone marrow of control patients and in MPN megakaryocytes. Mainly in ET patients, MPN megakaryocytes showed higher p70S6k expression compared to controls. Conclusion: Increased bone marrow cellularity in MPN patients might be influenced by increased pErk, pAkt and decreased Bnip3 expression. A dominant role for megakaryocytes in ET patients was shown. Increased amounts of megakaryocytes in MPN patients can be due to increased pAkt and p70S6k. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms: results of the Netherlands cohort study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Results from epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol drinkers have a decreased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, whereas results for myeloid neoplasms are inconsistent. However, most of these studies have used retrospective data. We examined prospectively whether alcohol consumption decreases the risk of both lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms, including most common subtypes. Moreover, we investigated whether this decreased risk is due to ethanol or other contents of specific alcoholic beverages (i.e., beer, wine and liquor). The Netherlands cohort study consisted of 120,852 individuals who completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 1,375 cases of lymphoid and 245 cases of myeloid neoplasms with complete exposure information were available for analysis. Compared with abstinence, we observed for plasma cell neoplasms hazard rate ratios (HR) of 1.66 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.29), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.17-2.27), 1.11 (95% CI, 0.75-1.64) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.51-1.42) with daily ethanol consumption of 0.1-<5, 5-<15, 15-<30 and ?30 g, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. No associations were observed for other subtypes and for myeloid neoplasms. When results were analyzed by beverage type, no clear associations were observed. In conclusion, our study did not show an inverse association between alcohol consumption and lymphoid neoplasms. Also, no inverse association was observed with myeloid neoplasms. If any association between alcohol consumption and lymphoid neoplasms exists, our study suggests an increased risk rather than a decreased risk.
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Impact of pretransplantation conditioning regimens on outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for chemotherapy-unresponsive diffuse large B cell lymphoma and grade III follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Patients with chemorefractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas generally have a poor prognosis. We used the observational database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to study the outcome of 533 patients with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or grade III follicular lymphoma (FL-III) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA; n = 307) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST; n = 226) between 1998 and 2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Only 45% of the patients at transplantation had a Karnofsky performance score of ?90%. Median follow-up of surviving patients after MA and RIC/NST allo-HCT is 35 months and 30 months, respectively. At 3 years, MA allo-HCT was associated with a higher NRM compared with RIC/NST (53% versus 42%; P = .03), similar PFS (19% versus 23%; P = .40), and lower OS (19% versus 28%; P = .02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, FL-III histology was associated with lower NRM (relative risk [RR], .52), reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .42), and superior PFS (RR, .51) and OS (RR, .53), whereas MA conditioning was associated with reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .66). Despite a refractory state, a small subset of DLBCL and FL-III patients can attain durable remissions after allo-HCT. Conditioning regimen intensity was not associated with PFS and OS despite a higher risk of relapse/progression with RIC/NST allo-HCT.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chemotherapy-unresponsive mantle cell lymphoma: a cohort analysis from the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Patients with chemorefractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) have a poor prognosis. We used the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to study the outcome of 202 patients with refractory MCL who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST), during 1998-2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Seventy-four patients (median age, 54 years) received MA, and 128 patients (median age, 59 years) received RIC/NST. Median follow-up after allo-HCT was 35 months in the MA group and 43 months in the RIC/NST group. At 3 years post-transplantation, no significant between-group differences were seen in terms of NRM (47% in MA versus 43% in RIC/NST; P = .68), relapse/progression (33% versus 32%; P = .89), PFS (20% versus 25%; P = .53), or OS (25% versus 30%; P = .45). Multivariate analysis also revealed no significant between-group differences in NRM, relapse, PFS, or OS; however, receipt of a bone marrow or T cell-depleted allograft was associated with an increased risk of NRM and inferior PFS and OS. Our data suggest that despite a refractory disease state, approximately 25% of patients with MCL can attain durable remission after allo-HCT, and conditioning regimen intensity does not influence outcome of allo-HCT.
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Salvage second hematopoietic cell transplantation in myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) as initial therapy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) improves survival. However, data to support this approach for relapsed/progressive disease after initial AHCT (AHCT1) are limited. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we report the outcomes of 187 patients who underwent a second AHCT (AHCT2) for the treatment of relapsed/progressive MM. Planned tandem AHCT was excluded. Median age at AHCT2 was 59 years (range, 28 to 72), and median patient follow-up was 47 months (range, 3 to 97). Nonrelapse mortality after AHCT2 was 2% at 1 year and 4% at 3 years. Median interval from AHCT1 to relapse/progression was 18 months, and median interval between transplantations was 32 months. After AHCT2, the incidence of relapse/progression at 1 and 3 years was 51% and 82%, respectively. At 3 years after AHCT2, progression-free survival was 13%, and overall survival was 46%. In multivariate analyses, those relapsing ?36 months after AHCT1 had superior progression-free (P = .045) and overall survival (P = .019). Patients who underwent AHCT2 after 2004 had superior survival (P = .026). AHCT2 is safe and feasible for disease progression after AHCT1. In this retrospective study, individuals relapsing ?36 months from AHCT1 derived greater benefit from AHCT2 compared with those with a shorter disease-free interval. Storage of an adequate graft before AHCT1 will ensure that the option of a second autologous transplantation is retained for patients with relapsed/progressive MM.
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Outcome of lower-intensity allogeneic transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous transplantation failure.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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We studied the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning regimens (reduced-intensity conditioning and nonmyeloablative) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who relapsed after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonrelapse mortality, lymphoma progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were analyzed in 263 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. All 263 patients had relapsed after a previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and then had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a related (n = 26) or unrelated (n = 237) donor after reduced-intensity conditioning (n = 128) or nonmyeloablative (n = 135) and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1996 and 2006. The median follow-up of survivors was 68 months (range, 3-111 months). Three-year nonrelapse mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-50%). Lymphoma progression/relapse at 3 years was 35% (95% CI, 29%-41%). Three-year probabilities of PFS and overall survival were 21% (95% CI, 16%-27%) and 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), respectively. Superior Karnofsky Performance Score, longer interval between transplantations, total body irradiation-based conditioning regimen, and lymphoma remission at transplantation were correlated with improved PFS. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning is associated with significant nonrelapse mortality but can result in long-term PFS. We describe a quantitative risk model based on pretransplantation risk factors to identify those patients likely to benefit from this approach.
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Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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We report the results of a prospective, randomized phase 3 trial evaluating autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) versus intensive consolidation chemotherapy in newly diagnosed AML patients in complete remission (CR1). Patients with AML (16-60 years) in CR1 after 2 cycles of intensive chemotherapy and not eligible for allogeneic SCT were randomized between intensive chemotherapy with etoposide and mitoxantrone or ASCT ater high-dose cyclophosphamide and busulfan. Of patients randomized (chemotherapy, n = 259; ASCT, n = 258), more than 90% received their assigned treatment. The 2 groups were comparable with regard to prognostic factors. The ASCT group showed a markedly reduced relapse rate (58% vs 70%, P = .02) and better relapse-free survival at 5 years (38% vs 29%, P = .065, hazard ratio = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.1) with nonrelapse mortality of 4% versus 1% in the chemotherapy arm (P = .02). Overall survival was similar (44% vs 41% at 5 years, P = .86) because of more opportunities for salvage with second-line chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation in patients relapsing on the chemotherapy arm. This large study shows a relapse advantage for ASCT as postremission therapy but similar survival because more relapsing patients on the chemotherapy arm were salvaged with a late transplantation for relapse. This trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as #NTR230 and #NTR291.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Cytarabine dose for acute myeloid leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Cytarabine (ara-C) is an important drug in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-dose cytarabine (2000 to 3000 mg per square meter of body-surface area) is toxic but results in higher rates of relapse-free survival than does the conventional dose of 100 to 400 mg per square meter. Intermediate dose levels have not been thoroughly evaluated.
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Development and measurement of guideline-based indicators for patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Patients with cancer are not always treated according to available guidelines. Factors such as age and comorbidities are frequently used as arguments for nonadherence. The aim of this study was to measure guideline adherence with guideline-based indicators for patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) and to examine the need for improvement, considering relevant arguments.
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Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation as salvage therapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma relapsing after an autologous stem-cell transplantation: an analysis of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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To analyze the outcome, including nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (DLBCL) relapsed after an autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) and treated with an allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT).
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Elimination of the chemotherapy resistant subpopulation of 4T1 mouse breast cancer by haploidentical NK cells cures the vast majority of mice.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Metastatic breast cancer is currently incurable despite initial responsiveness, assumingly due to the presence of chemoresistant subpopulations that can be characterized as label retaining cells (LRC). In the 4T1 mouse breast cancer model, we previously achieved cure after Cyclophosphamide and Total Body Irradiation (CY + TBI) followed by haploidentical bone marrow and spleen transplantation (BMSPLT). CY + TBI without transplantation induced only transient impaired tumor growth indicating a critical role of donor immune cells. As it remained unknown if the 4T1 model resembles human disease with respect to the presence of subpopulations of chemoresistant LRC, we now demonstrate this is indeed the case. Chemoresistance of 4T1 LRC was demonstrated by in vitro co-incubation of fluorescently labeled 4T1 cells in limiting dilution with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or cisplatinum, after which only LRC containing colonies remained. LRC also remain in vivo after treatment with CY + TBI. Succeeding experiments set up to identify the haploidentical effector cell responsible for cure and, therefore, for the elimination of chemoresistant LRC designate donor NK cells crucial for the anti-tumor effect. NK cell depletion of the haploidentical graft fully abrogated the anti-tumor effect. Increased disease-free survival retained after transplantation of haploidentical bone marrow and NK cell-enriched spleen cell grafts, even in the absence of donor T-cells or of donor bone marrow. Tumor growth analysis indicates the anti-tumor effect being immediate (days). Based on these data, it is worthwhile to explore alloreactive adoptive NK cell therapy as consolidation for patients with metastasized breast cancer.
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Congenital thrombophilia and central venous catheter-related thrombosis in patients with cancer.
Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis is a frequently occurring complication and may cause significant morbidity in patients with cancer. The aim of this review is to discuss the main studies that examined whether a state of thrombophilia increases the risk of CVC-related thrombosis in patients with cancer. The studies were retrieved by an extensive Medline search. Patients with cancer with a CVC and a factor V Leiden mutation have a higher risk of developing CVC-related thrombosis than patients with cancer having a CVC without the mutation. The scarce information available suggests hyperhomocysteinemia to be a risk factor for CVC-related thrombosis. For other congenital thrombophilia factors, the available data are too limited to allow for any definitive conclusions to be made. Because the clinical implications of all these findings remain to be clarified, routine screening of patients with cancer having a CVC for thrombophilia cannot yet be recommended on the basis of the studies discussed.
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Value of allogeneic versus autologous stem cell transplantation and chemotherapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Final results of a prospective randomized European Intergroup Trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is usually considered the only curative treatment option for patients with advanced or transformed myelodysplastic syndromes in complete remission, but post-remission chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation are potential alternatives, especially in patients over 45 years old.
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Pregnancy after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the late effects working committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Preservation of fertility after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have a significant influence on the quality of life of transplant survivors. We describe 178 pregnancies in HCT recipients that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 2002 and 2007. There were 83 pregnancies in female HCT recipients and 95 pregnancies in female partners of male HCT recipients. Indications for transplantation included hematologic and other malignancies (N = 99) and nonmalignant disorders (N = 79, of which 75 patients had severe aplastic anemia). The cohort included recipients of autologous HCT (20 women, 13 men), myeloablative (MA) allogeneic HCT (12 women, 50 men), and nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (2 women, 2 men). Age at HCT was <20 years for 50% of women and 19% of men. Conditioning regimens included total body irradiation (TBI) in 16% of women and 19% of men; doses were MA in 10% of women and in 16% of men. Live births were reported in 86% of pregnancies in partners of male transplant patients and 85% of pregnancies in female transplant patients, with most pregnancies occurring 5 to 10 years after HCT. We conclude that some HCT recipients can retain fertility, including patients who have received TBI and/or MA conditioning. Young patients undergoing HCT should be counseled both before and after HCT about potential loss of fertility, methods for preserving fertility, and planning for future pregnancy. Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after HCT need prospective evaluation in large transplant cohorts.
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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin as postremission treatment in AML at 60 years of age or more: results of a multicenter phase 3 study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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In older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the prevention of relapse has remained one of the major therapeutic challenges, with more than 75% relapses after complete remission. The anti-CD33 immunotoxin conjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) has shown antileukemic remission induction activity in patients with relapsed AML. Patients with AML or refractory anemia with excess blasts in first complete remission attained after intensive induction chemotherapy were randomized between 3 cycles of GO (6 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks) or no postremission therapy (control) to assess whether GO would improve outcome. The 2 treatment groups (113 patients receiving GO vs 119 control patients) were comparable with regard to age (60-78 years, median 67 years), performance status, and cytogenetics. A total of 110 of 113 received at least 1 cycle of GO, and 65 of 113 patients completed the 3 cycles. Premature discontinuation was mainly attributable to incomplete hematologic recovery or intercurrent relapse. Median time to recovery of platelets 50 x 10(9)/L and neutrophils 0.5 x 10(9)/L after GO was 14 days and 20 days. Nonhematologic toxicities were mild overall, but there was 1 toxic death caused by liver failure. There were no significant differences between both treatment groups with regard to relapse probabilities, nonrelapse mortality, overall survival, or disease-free survival (17% vs 16% at 5 years). Postremission treatment with GO in older AML patients does not provide benefits regarding any clinical end points. The HOVON-43 study is registered at The Netherlands Trial Registry (number NTR212) and at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN77039377.
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Identifying an accurate pre-screening tool in geriatric oncology.
Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The use of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in cancer patients older than 70 is recommended. Three pre-screening instruments have been proposed: the abbreviated comprehensive geriatric assessment (aCGA), the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13), and the Groningen frailty index (GFI). The objective of the study was to identify the most efficient pre-screening tool that accurately determines individuals who may benefit from the entire CGA. A total of 113 elderly cancer patients were assessed by means of the aCGA, VES-13, GFI and the full CGA. The sensitivity, specificity of the three instruments was calculated, using the results from the entire CGA as the gold standard for the GFI and the VES-13. The aCGA was assessed whether each sub-component reliably predicts impairment on each sub-component of the full CGA. The majority of the participants were defined as being at risk of vulnerability: 68.14% had two or more impairments of the CGA or were cognitively impaired. The physical and disability questions are useful, but all other screening instruments miss too many cases.
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High-dose daunorubicin in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2009
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A complete remission is essential for prolonging survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Daunorubicin is a cornerstone of the induction regimen, but the optimal dose is unknown. In older patients, it is usual to give daunorubicin at a dose of 45 to 50 mg per square meter of body-surface area.
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Randomized clinical trial of an intensive nursing-based pain education program for cancer outpatients suffering from pain.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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The prevalence of pain in patients with cancer is still too high. Factors relating to ineffective pain treatment fall into three categories: the health care system, professional care providers, and patients. In patients, various barriers lead to noncompliance. Previous educational interventions have increased their knowledge of pain and decreased short-term pain levels. In this randomized controlled trial, the authors investigated how an intensive home-based education program given by nurses affected short-term and long-term pain levels.
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Outcome of transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder incurable with conventional strategies. Several small series have reported long-term disease-free survival (DSF) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we analyze the outcomes of 289 patients receiving allogeneic transplantation for primary myelofibrosis between 1989 and 2002, from the database of the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The median age was 47 years (range: 18-73 years). Donors were HLA identical siblings in 162 patients, unrelated individuals in 101 patients, and HLA nonidentical family members in 26 patients. Patients were treated with a variety of conditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. Splenectomy was performed in 65 patients prior to transplantation. The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 18% for HLA identical sibling transplants, 35% for unrelated transplants, and 19% for transplants from alternative related donors. Corresponding 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 37%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. DFS rates were 33%, 27%, and 22%, respectively. DFS for patients receiving reduced-intensity transplants was comparable: 39% for HLA identical sibling donors and 17% for unrelated donors at 3 years. In this large retrospective series, allogeneic transplantation for myelofibrosis resulted in long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) in about one-third of patients.
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A comparison of HLA-identical sibling allogeneic versus autologous transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a report from the CIBMTR.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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We compared outcomes of 916 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients aged >or=18 years undergoing first autologous (n = 837) or myeloablative (MA) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (n = 79) between 1995 and 2003 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Median follow-up was 81 months for allogeneic HCT versus 60 months for autologous HCT. Allogeneic HCT recipients were more likely to have high-risk disease features including higher stage, more prior chemotherapy regimens, and resistant disease. Allogeneic HCT was associated with a higher 1 year treatment-related mortality (TRM) (relative risk [RR] 4.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.21-7.40, P < .001), treatment failure (RR 2.06, 95% CI, 1.54-2.75, P < .001), and mortality (RR 2.75, 95% CI, 2.03-3.72, P < .001). Risk of disease progression was similar in the 2 groups (RR 1.12, 95% CI, 0.73-1.72, P = .59). In fact, for 1-year survivors, no significant differences were observed for TRM, progression, progression-free (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Increased risks of TRM and mortality were associated with older age (>50 years), lower performance score, chemoresistance, and earlier year of transplant. In a cohort of mainly high-risk DLBCL patients, upfront MA allogeneic HCT, although associated with increased early mortality, was associated with a similar risk of disease progression compared to lower risk patients receiving autologous HCT.
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Quality of life and non-pain symptoms in patients with cancer.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2009
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To measure the prevalence of non-pain physical symptoms and psychological symptoms in patients with cancer, to investigate the impact of physical and psychological symptoms on their quality of life (QoL), and to inquire whether treatment had been received for the complaints/symptoms, a representative sample of 1,429 cancer patients were recruited and classified according to tumor type and treatment status [i.e., (1a) curative treatment >6 months ago, (1b) curative treatment
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Body mass index, height, and risk of lymphatic malignancies: a prospective cohort study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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The association among body mass index (BMI), height, and the risk of lymphatic malignancies was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. The participants (n = 120,852), Dutch men and women aged 55-69 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline in 1986. After 13.3 years of follow-up, data on 1,042 lymphatic malignancy cases (including diffuse large-cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and other subtypes) and 4,588 subcohort members were available. Incidence rate ratios were estimated by using Cox regression models. BMI at baseline and BMI change since the age of 20 years were not associated with lymphatic malignancy risk. However, the rate ratio of lymphatic malignancies per 4-unit increase in BMI at 20 years of age was 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.25). The rate ratio of lymphatic malignancies per 5-cm increase in height was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.15). For diffuse large-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the relative risks were 1.19 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.33), 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.40), and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.26), respectively, for each 5-cm increase in height. The positive associations among BMI at 20 years of age, height, and the risk of lymphatic malignancies suggest that exposures during early life play a role in the etiology of lymphatic malignancies.
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The graft-versus-leukemia effect using matched unrelated donors is not superior to HLA-identical siblings for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Do some patients benefit from an unrelated donor (URD) transplant because of a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect? We analyzed 4099 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) undergoing a myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an URD (8/8 human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-matched, n=941) or HLA-identical sibling donor (n=3158) between 1995 and 2004 reported to the CIBMTR. In the Cox regression model, acute and chronic GVHD were added as time-dependent variables. In multivariate analysis, URD transplant recipients had a higher risk for transplantation-related mortality (TRM; relative risk [RR], 2.76; P< .001) and relapse (RR, 1.50; P< .002) in patients with AML, but not ALL or CML. Chronic GVHD was associated with a lower relapse risk in all diagnoses. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was decreased in patients with AML without acute GVHD receiving a URD transplant (RR, 2.02; P< .001) but was comparable to those receiving HLA-identical sibling transplants in patients with ALL and CML. In patients without GVHD, multivariate analysis showed similar risk of relapse but decreased LFS for URD transplants for all 3 diagnoses. In conclusion, risk of relapse was the same (ALL, CML) or worse (AML) in URD transplant recipients compared with HLA-identical sibling transplant recipients, suggesting a similar GVL effect.
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The effect of smoking on allogeneic transplant outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) data, we compared the transplant outcomes of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who were nonsmokers (NS) and past or current smokers (PCS). There were 2193 NS and 625 PCS who received matched sibling and unrelated donor allografts for CML in first chronic phase. We looked for dose effects and identified low and high dose smoking groups (>10 pack years, >1 pack per day). Outcomes were adjusted for known prognostic variables including the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) risk score. In multivariate analyses of sibling allograft recipients, relapse risk (RR) was higher (RR=1.67, P=.003) in smokers than NS, but the dose effects were not consistent. High-dose smokers experienced a 50% treatment-related mortality (TRM) versus 28% in the NS group at 5 years on univariate analysis, and the RR was 1.57 (P=.005) on multivariate analysis. Overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 68% in NS versus 62% in the low-dose smoking group versus 50% in the high-dose smoking group (P < .001). Smoking did not significantly affect outcomes in unrelated donor recipients, but numbers were smaller. High-dose smoking is associated with a reduction in OS in patients having sibling allografts for CML. A prospective study with detailed demographic, pulmonary function, and quality-of-life data would improve our understanding of this issue.
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Myeloablative allogeneic versus autologous stem cell transplantation in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: a prospective sibling donor versus no-donor comparison.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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While commonly accepted in poor-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is still disputed in adult patients with standard-risk ALL. We evaluated outcome of patients with ALL in first complete remission (CR1), according to a sibling donor versus no-donor comparison. Eligible patients (433) were entered in 2 consecutive, prospective studies, of whom 288 (67%) were younger than 55 years, in CR1, and eligible to receive consolidation by either an autologous SCT or an allo-SCT. Allo-SCT was performed in 91 of 96 patients with a compatible sibling donor. Cumulative incidences of relapse at 5 years were, respectively, 24 and 55% for patients with a donor versus those without a donor (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; 0.23-0.60; P < .001). Nonrelapse mortality estimated 16% (+/- 4) at 5 years after allo-SCT. As a result, disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was significantly better in the donor group: 60 versus 42% in the no-donor group (HR: 0.60; 0.41-0.89; P = .01). After risk-group analysis, improved outcome was more pronounced in standard-risk patients with a donor, who experienced an overall survival of 69% at 5 years (P = .05). In conclusion, standard-risk ALL patients with a sibling donor may show favorable survival following SCT, due to both a strong reduction of relapse and a modest nonrelapse mortality. This trial is registered with http://www.trialregister.nl under trial ID NTR228.
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Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia at older age: a randomized phase 2 trial of the Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hemato-Oncology (HOVON) and the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).
Blood
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An urgent need for new treatment modalities is emerging in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that targeting VEGF might furnish an effective treatment modality in this population. Elderly patients with AML were randomly assigned in this phase 2 study (n = 171) to receive standard chemotherapy (3 + 7) with or without bevacizumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously at days 1 and 15. In the second cycle, patients received cytarabine 1000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-6 with or without bevacizumab. The complete remission rates in the 2 arms were not different (65%). Event-free survival at 12 months was 33% for the standard arm versus 30% for the bevacizumab arm; at 24 months, it was 22% and 16%, respectively (P = .42). The frequencies of severe adverse events (SAEs) were higher in the bevacizumab arm (n = 63) compared with the control arm (n = 28; P = .043), but the percentages of death or life-threatening SAEs were lower in the bevacizumab arm (60% vs 75% of SAEs). The results of the present study show that the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy does not improve the therapeutic outcome of older AML patients. This trial is registered as number NTR904 in The Nederlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl).
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Conditioning regimens for allotransplants for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: myeloablative or reduced intensity?
Blood
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The best conditioning regimen before allogeneic transplantation for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains to be clarified. We analyzed data from 396 recipients of allotransplants for DLBCL receiving myeloablative (MAC; n = 165), reduced intensity (RIC; n = 143), or nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMAC; n = 88) regimens. Acute and chronic GVHD rates were similar across the groups. Five-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was higher in MAC than RIC and NMAC (56% vs 47% vs 36%; P = .007). Five-year relapse/progression was lower in MAC than in RIC/NMAC (26% vs 38% vs 40%; P = .031). Five-year progression-free survival (15%-25%) and overall survival (18%-26%) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. In multivariate analysis, NMAC and more recent transplant year were associated with lower NRM, whereas a lower Karnofsky performance score (< 90), prior relapse resistant to therapy, and use of unrelated donors were associated with higher NRM. NMAC transplants, no prior use of rituximab, and prior relapse resistant to therapy were associated with a greater risk of relapse/progression. In conclusion, allotransplantation with RIC or NMAC induces long-term progression-free survival in selected DLBCL patients with a lower risk of NRM but with higher risk of lymphoma progression or relapse.
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The involvement of Galectins in the modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in myeloproliferative neoplasia.
Am J Blood Res
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In patients with myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN) the development of fibrosis and increased vessel density correlate with poor prognosis. The JAK2(V617F) mutation constitutively activates JAK2, which phosphorylates signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT), up-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which might be responsible for angiogenesis in MPN. Galectins are involved in the development of fibrosis and angiogenesis and might also be involved in activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in MPN.
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Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies: the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.
PLoS ONE
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Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in many everyday foods. Since the finding of its presence in foods in 2002, epidemiological studies have found some suggestive associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk of various cancers. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate for the first time the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of several histological subtypes of lymphatic malignancies.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for advanced polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for selected patients with advanced essential thrombocythemia (ET) or polycythemia vera (PV). From 1990 to 2007, 75 patients with ET (median age 49 years) and 42 patients with PV (median age 53 years) underwent transplantations at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC; n = 43) or at other Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) centers (n = 74). Thirty-eight percent of the patients had splenomegaly and 28% had a prior splenectomy. Most patients (69% for ET and 67% for PV) received a myeloablative (MA) conditioning regimen. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at 28 days was 88% for ET patients and 90% for PV patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II to IV occurred in 57% and 50% of ET and PV patients, respectively. The 1-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 27% for ET and 22% for PV. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 13% for ET and 30% for PV. Five-year survival/progression-free survival (PFS) was 55%/47% and 71%/48% for ET and PV, respectively. Patients without splenomegaly had faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment, but there were no differences in TRM, survival, or PFS. Presence of myelofibrosis (MF) did not affect engraftment or TRM. Over 45% of the patients who undergo transplantations for ET and PV experience long-term PFS.
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Favorable effect of priming with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in remission induction of acute myeloid leukemia restricted to dose escalation of cytarabine.
Blood
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The clinical value of chemotherapy sensitization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with G-CSF priming has remained controversial. Cytarabine is a key constituent of remission induction chemotherapy. The effect of G-CSF priming has not been investigated in relationship with variable dose levels of cytarabine. We randomized 917 AML patients to receive G-CSF (456 patients) or no G-CSF (461 patients) at the days of chemotherapy. In the initial part of the study, 406 patients were also randomized between 2 cytarabine regimens comparing conventional-dose (199 patients) versus escalated-dose (207 patients) cytarabine in cycles 1 and 2. We found that patients after induction chemotherapy plus G-CSF had similar overall survival (43% vs 40%, P = .88), event-free survival (37% vs 31%, P = .29), and relapse rates (34% vs 36%, P = .77) at 5 years as those not receiving G-CSF. However, patients treated with the escalated-dose cytarabine regimen benefited from G-CSF priming, with improved event-free survival (P = .01) and overall survival (P = .003), compared with patients without G-CSF undergoing escalated-dose cytarabine treatment. A significant survival advantage of sensitizing AML for chemotherapy with G-CSF was not apparent in the entire study group, but it was seen in patients treated with escalated-dose cytarabine during remission induction. The HOVON-42 study is registered under The Netherlands Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl) as #NTR230.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.