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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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We assessed consumption of raw pig blood, which is a risk factor for Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam, by using a mix-method design. Factors associated with consumption included rural residency, age, sex, occupation, income, and marital status. We identified risk groups and practices and perceptions that should be targeted by communication programs.
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[Antibiotics in low- and middle-income countries].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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In this paper we summarize and discuss the problem of the antibiotic resistance issue and potential intervention strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMILs). In Europe and North America surveillance data are available and research networks are active, however, these are still largely lacking in LMILs. In recent years some initiatives have been set up for LMIL, such as 'Action on Antibiotic Resistance' (ReACT) and the 'Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership' (GARP). While better data on antibiotic resistance and its causes in LMILs are needed, there is a more urgent need for affordable interventions to turn the tide. Unlike programs aimed at combatting bacterial antibiotic resistance, there are already strong global programs to tackle resistance in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. We should learn from these programs to improve efforts to control and treat resistant bacterial infections.
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Scrub typhus in the northern provinces of Vietnam: an observational study of admissions to a national referral hospital.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Scrub typhus is a common cause of fever in parts of South East and Southern Asia. Little is known about the disease burden in Vietnam.
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Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in rural and urban northern Vietnam.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that can colonise the respiratory tract and cause infection. Here we investigate the risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) in Vietnam.
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Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.
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Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 2.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013. This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Although sporadic cases of human infections had been reported worldwide, deadly S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia. The severity of the disease underscores the lack of knowledge on the virulence and zoonotic evolution of this human-infecting agent. The pathogenesis of the infection, interactions with host cells and new avenues for treatments were among the topics discussed during the First International Workshop on S. suis (China 2013).
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CryptoDex: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis: study protocol for a randomised control trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a severe AIDS-defining illness with 90-day case mortality as high as 70% in sub-Saharan Africa, despite treatment. It is the leading cause of death in HIV patients in Asia and Africa.No major advance has been made in the treatment of CM since the 1970s. The mainstays of induction therapy are amphotericin B and flucytosine, but these are often poorly available where the disease burden is highest. Adjunctive treatments, such as dexamethasone, have had dramatic effects on mortality in other neurologic infections, but are untested in CM. Given the high death rates in patients receiving current optimal treatment, and the lack of new agents on the horizon, adjuvant treatments, which offer the potential to reduce mortality in CM, should be tested.The principal research question posed by this study is as follows: does adding dexamethasone to standard antifungal therapy for CM reduce mortality? Dexamethasone is a cheap, readily available, and practicable intervention.
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Hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies and protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza infection.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies correlate with influenza vaccine protection but their association with protection induced by natural infection has received less attention and was studied here.
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Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 1.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013 The first international workshop on Streptococcus suis, which is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent, took place in Beijing, jointly organized by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada and the National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. The aim of the meeting was to gather together, for the first time, more than 80 researchers working on S. suis, from countries including China, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Germany, Thailand, the UK and Vietnam. This article, the first of a two-part report on this First International Workshop, reviews current aspects of the epidemiology and population genomics of S. suis, covers public health concerns and discusses questions about S. suis serotyping and molecular diagnostics.
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The bacterial aetiology of adult community-acquired pneumonia in Asia: a systematic review.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of adult mortality in Asia. Appropriate empirical treatment depends on knowledge of the pathogens commonly responsible. However, assessing the aetiological significance of identified organisms is often difficult, particularly with sputum isolates that might represent contamination with oropharyngeal flora.
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Cardiovascular manifestations of the emerging dengue pandemic.
Nat Rev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Dengue is one of the most important emerging viral diseases globally. The majority of symptomatic infections result in a relatively benign disease course. However, a small proportion of patients develop severe clinical manifestations, including bleeding, organ impairment, and endothelial dysfunction with increased capillary permeability causing hypovolaemic shock that can lead to cardiovascular collapse. Evidence is increasing that dengue can also cause myocardial impairment, arrhythmias and, occasionally, fulminant myocarditis. No antiviral agents or vaccines are licensed for dengue, and treatment remains supportive with judicious fluid replacement for patients with severe disease. Defining the role of cardiac dysfunction in the haemodynamic compromise of severe dengue has potentially important management implications. In this Review, we will outline the current understanding of the cardiovascular manifestations of dengue, including myocardial and vascular involvement, and conclude with a discussion of the available therapeutic options and potential future research directions.
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Investigation of dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus transmission in Hanam, Viet Nam.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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This study investigated whether a large dengue epidemic that struck Hanoi in 2009 also affected a nearby semirural area. Seroconversion (dengue virus-reactive immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was high during 2009 compared with 2008, but neutralization assays showed that it was caused by both dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infections. The findings highlight the importance of continued Japanese encephalitis virus vaccination and dengue surveillance.
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Antibiotic sales in rural and urban pharmacies in northern Vietnam: an observational study.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The irrational overuse of antibiotics should be minimized as it drives the development of antibiotic resistance, but changing these practices is challenging. A better understanding is needed of practices and economic incentives for antibiotic dispensing in order to design effective interventions to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. Here we report on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of antibiotic sales in private pharmacies in northern Vietnam.
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Pandemic H1N1 virus transmission and shedding dynamics in index case households of a prospective Vietnamese cohort.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Influenza household transmission studies are required to guide prevention strategies but most passively recruit index cases that seek healthcare. We investigated A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission in a household-based cohort during 2009.
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Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600?CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease.
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A household survey on screening practices of household contacts of smear positive tuberculosis patients in Vietnam.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Close contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Although passive contact screening guidelines are incorporated in the national TB control program, currently it is unknown how frequent close contacts are screened for TB in Vietnam. This study assesses current contact screening practices in Vietnam and determines the proportion of household contacts screened of newly registered TB patients.
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Patient-based transcriptome-wide analysis identify interferon and ubiquination pathways as potential predictors of influenza a disease severity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The influenza A virus is an RNA virus that is responsible for seasonal epidemics worldwide with up to five million cases of severe illness and 500,000 deaths annually according to the World Health Organization estimates. The factors associated with severe diseases are not well defined, but more severe disease is more often seen among persons aged >65 years, infants, pregnant women, and individuals of any age with underlying health conditions.
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Klebsiella pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage in rural and urban Vietnam and the effect of alcohol consumption.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Community acquired K. pneumoniae pneumonia is still common in Asia and is reportedly associated with alcohol use. Oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, little is known regarding K. pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage rates and risk factors. This population-based cross-sectional study explores the association of a variety of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as alcohol consumption with oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae in Vietnam.
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Antibiotic resistance-the need for global solutions.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2013
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The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex and include human behaviour at many levels of society; the consequences affect everybody in the world. Similarities with climate change are evident. Many efforts have been made to describe the many different facets of antibiotic resistance and the interventions needed to meet the challenge. However, coordinated action is largely absent, especially at the political level, both nationally and internationally. Antibiotics paved the way for unprecedented medical and societal developments, and are today indispensible in all health systems. Achievements in modern medicine, such as major surgery, organ transplantation, treatment of preterm babies, and cancer chemotherapy, which we today take for granted, would not be possible without access to effective treatment for bacterial infections. Within just a few years, we might be faced with dire setbacks, medically, socially, and economically, unless real and unprecedented global coordinated actions are immediately taken. Here, we describe the global situation of antibiotic resistance, its major causes and consequences, and identify key areas in which action is urgently needed.
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Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern Vietnam.
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Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions.Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance.
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Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Tier 1 Select Agent and the cause of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacillus present in the environment in many tropical countries. Defining the global pattern of B. pseudomallei distribution underpins efforts to prevent infection, and is dependent upon robust environmental sampling methodology. Our objective was to review the literature on the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei, update the risk map for melioidosis, and propose international consensus guidelines for soil sampling.
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Diagnostic accuracy of microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) assay for pediatric tuberculosis in Hanoi, Vietnam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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icroscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) has been shown to be an effective and rapid technique for early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Thus far only a limited number of studies evaluating MODS have been performed in children and in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This study aims to assess relative accuracy and time to positive culture of MODS for TB diagnosis in children admitted to a general pediatric hospital in Vietnam.
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Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME) is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam.
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Multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 variant El Tor isolated in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Since 2007, there has been a re-emergence of cholera outbreaks in northern Vietnam. To understand the molecular epidemiological relatedness and determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of responsible V. cholerae O1 outbreak strains, a representative collection of 100 V. cholerae O1 strains was characterized. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010 were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility and characterized by using phenotypic and genotypic tests, including PFGE analysis. Ten clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates from Bangladesh and Zimbabwe were included for comparison. The results revealed that all isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid, 29?% were resistant to tetracycline and 1?% were resistant to azithromycin. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and 95?% were susceptible to azithromycin. MIC values did show reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and 63?% of the strains were intermediately resistant to tetracycline. The isolates expressed phenotypic traits of both serogroup O1 Ogawa and El Tor and harboured an rstR El Tor and ctxB classical biotype. Among the outbreak isolates, only a single PFGE pattern was observed throughout the study period. This study shows that multi-drug resistant V. cholerae altered El Tor producing classical CT strains are now predominant in northern Vietnam.
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Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is one of the most common serious bacterial infections worldwide. In the UK alone, around 12,500 cases each year are reported, with an associated mortality of about 30%, yet the evidence guiding optimum management is poor. To date, fewer than 1500 patients with S aureus bacteraemia have been recruited to 16 controlled trials of antimicrobial therapy. Consequently, clinical practice is driven by the results of observational studies and anecdote. Here, we propose and review ten unanswered clinical questions commonly posed by those managing S aureus bacteraemia. Our findings define the major areas of uncertainty in the management of S aureus bacteraemia and highlight just two key principles. First, all infective foci must be identified and removed as soon as possible. Second, long-term antimicrobial therapy is required for those with persistent bacteraemia or a deep, irremovable focus. Beyond this, the best drugs, dose, mode of delivery, and duration of therapy are uncertain, a situation compounded by emerging S aureus strains that are resistant to old and new antibiotics. We discuss the consequences on clinical practice, and how these findings define the agenda for future clinical research.
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Immunological and viral determinants of dengue severity in hospitalized adults in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The relationships between the infecting dengue serotype, primary and secondary infection, viremia and dengue severity remain unclear. This cross-sectional study examined these interactions in adult patients hospitalized with dengue in Ha Noi.
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Social and environmental determinants of malaria in space and time in Viet Nam.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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The malaria burden in Viet Nam has been in decline in recent decades, but localised areas of high transmission remain. We used spatiotemporal analytical tools to determine the social and environmental drivers of malaria risk and to identify residual high-risk areas where control and surveillance resources can be targeted. Counts of reported Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria cases by month (January 2007-December 2008) and by district were assembled. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were developed in a bayesian framework. Models had the percentage of the districts population living below the poverty line, percent of the district covered by forest, median elevation, median long-term average precipitation, and minimum temperature included as fixed effects, and terms for temporal trend and residual district-level spatial autocorrelation. Strong temporal and spatial heterogeneity in counts of malaria cases was apparent. Poverty and forest cover were significantly associated with an increased count of malaria cases but the magnitude and direction of associations between climate and malaria varied by socio-ecological zone. There was a declining trend in counts of malaria cases during the study period. After accounting for the social and environmental fixed effects, substantial spatial heterogeneity was still evident. Unmeasured factors which may contribute to this residual variation include malaria control activities, population migration and accessibility to health care. Forest-related activities and factors encompassed by poverty indicators are major drivers of malaria incidence in Viet Nam.
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Influenza A H5N1 and HIV co-infection: case report.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The role of adaptive immunity in severe influenza is poorly understood. The occurrence of influenza A/H5N1 in a patient with HIV provided a rare opportunity to investigate this.
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A real-time RT-PCR for detection of clade 1 and 2 H5N1 influenza A virus using locked nucleic acid (LNA) TaqMan probes.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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The emergence and co-circulation of two different clades (clade 1 and 2) of H5N1 influenza viruses in Vietnam necessitates the availability of a diagnostic assay that can detect both variants.
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Stimulating the development of national Streptococcus suis guidelines in Viet Nam through a strategic research partnership.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Streptococcus suis is a common cause of adult bacterial meningitis in Viet Nam, and possibly other parts of Asia, yet this disabling infection has been largely neglected. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment are relatively straightforward and affordable but, in early 2007, no national diagnostic, case management or prevention guidelines existed in Viet Nam.
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Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at increased risk for health care-associated infections with this organism. Decolonization of nasal and extranasal sites on hospital admission may reduce this risk.
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Human immune proteome in experimental colonization with Staphylococcus aureus.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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More than 20% of adults are persistently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. When hospitalized, these carriers have increased risks of infection with their own strains. However, a recent study demonstrated a lower incidence of bacteremia-related death among carriers than among noncarriers, raising the question whether the adaptive immune system plays a protective role. In fact, S. aureus carriers mount a highly specific neutralizing antibody response against superantigens of their colonizing strains. We now used 2-dimensional immunoblotting to investigate the profiles of antibodies from healthy individuals against S. aureus extracellular proteins. Moreover, we tested whether symptom-free experimental colonization of these individuals with an S. aureus strain of low virulence, 8325-4, is sufficient to induce an antibody response. Sera obtained before and 4 weeks after colonization were screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody binding to extracellular staphylococcal proteins. At baseline, most volunteers harbored IgG directed against conserved virulence factors, including alpha-hemolysin (Hla), beta-hemolysin (Hlb), phospholipase C (Plc), staphylococcal serine protease (SspA), and cysteine protease (SspB). However, the variability of spot patterns and intensities was striking and could be important in case of infection. Experimental nasal colonization with S. aureus 8325-4 did not elicit new antibodies or boost the humoral response. Thus, the high antibody prevalence in humans is likely not induced by short-term nasal colonization, and presumably minor infections are required to trigger anti-S. aureus antibody responses.
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Acute febrile myalgia in Vietnam due to trichinellosis following the consumption of raw pork.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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Trichinellosis outbreaks occur occasionally in Vietnam following the consumption of undercooked pork. Diagnosing trichinella can be problematic because fever and myalgia are nonspecific, and diagnosis may be delayed. We describe 5 Vietnamese patients in whom trichinellosis was diagnosed after several weeks of illness.
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Clinical features of human influenza A (H5N1) infection in Vietnam: 2004-2006.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The first cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) in humans in Vietnam were detected in early 2004, and Vietnam has reported the second highest number of cases globally.
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Reclassification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage types.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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Persistent nasal carriers have an increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection, whereas intermittent carriers and noncarriers share the same low risk. This study was performed to provide additional insight into staphylococcal carriage types.
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Genotypes, superantigen gene profiles, and presence of exfoliative toxin genes in clinical methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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We compared genotype and virulence gene profiles for strains from carriers with autologous invasive infection (n = 56), nasal isolates from matched carriers (n = 108), and invasive strains from noncarriers (n = 34). Superantigen gene profiles and presence of exfoliative toxin genes A and D were associated with clonal complex rather than with invasive disease.
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Co-evolutionary aspects of human colonisation and infection by Staphylococcus aureus.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Although Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial species of medical significance, only approximately 30% of all humans carry staphylococcal cells persistently but asymptomatically in their nasopharynx and/or other body sites. This goes largely unnoticed by the host, which shows that in the natural situation the human ecosystem is hospitable or at least receptive to the bacteria and that by a process of co-evolution this has lead to a state of mutual acceptance or tolerance. However, upon disturbance of this balanced, neutral state, localized or disseminated invasive infection can occur. Unfortunately, the events leading to infection are still largely unknown and especially the causal events leading to the transition from colonization to infection are ill-defined in vivo. Whether certain genotypes of S. aureus are more prone to colonise and/or infect humans is still quite heavily debated. The genetic population structure of S. aureus has been largely solved by using a number of different DNA polymorphism-interrogating laboratory methods. However, even this major effort has not (yet) revealed major clues with respect to colonisation and infection potency of the clonal lineages that were thus identified, except for the fact that certain lineages are highly epidemic. The overall picture is that in principle all S. aureus strains can become invasive given the proper circumstances. What these, primarily host-defined circumstances are is still enigmatic. However, a large variety of staphylococcal virulence and colonization factors have been identified as well as a number of host colonisation and infection susceptibility traits. How these are specifically involved in colonisation and infection has been experimentally substantiated in only a limited number of cases. The present review paper will explore the relevance of these and other, for instance environmental factors that define the colonisation or infection state in humans. When the nature of these states would be known in more detail, this knowledge could be used to design novel and empirical, knowledge-driven means of preventing colonisation from proceeding into S. aureus infection.
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Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage: a systematic review.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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A systematic review was performed to determine the effectiveness of different approaches for eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Twenty-three clinical trials were selected that evaluated oral antibiotics (7 trials), topically applied antibiotics (12 trials), or both (4 trials). Because of clinical heterogeneity, quantitative analysis of all studies was deemed to be inappropriate, and exploratory subgroup analyses were performed for studies with similar study populations, methods, and targeted bacteria. The estimated pooled relative risk of treatment failure 1 week after short-term nasal mupirocin treatment, compared with placebo, was 0.10 (range, 0.07-0.14). There was low heterogeneity between study outcomes, and effects were similar for patients and healthy subjects, as well as in studies that included only methicillin-susceptible S. aureus carriers or both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriers. The development of drug resistance during treatment was reported in 1% and 9% of patients receiving mupirocin and oral antibiotics, respectively. Short-term nasal application of mupirocin is the most effective treatment for eradicating methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage, with an estimated success of rate of 90% 1 week after treatment and approximately 60% after a longer follow-up period.
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Streptococcus suis: an emerging human pathogen.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Streptococcus suis infection is acquired through exposure to contaminated pigs or pig meat. Over the past few years, the number of reported S. suis infections in humans has increased significantly, with most cases originating in Southeast Asia, where there is a high density of pigs. Increased awareness, improved diagnostics, and the occurrence of outbreaks have contributed to this increase. Meningitis and sepsis are the most common clinical manifestations of S. suis infection; hearing loss is a frequent complication. In this article, we provide an overview of the emergence and clinical manifestations of S. suis infection.
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Fatal respiratory infections associated with rhinovirus outbreak, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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During an outbreak of severe acute respiratory infections in 2 orphanages, Vietnam, 7/12 hospitalized children died. All hospitalized children and 26/43 children from outbreak orphanages tested positive for rhinovirus versus 9/40 control children (p = 0.0005). Outbreak rhinoviruses formed a distinct genetic cluster. Human rhinovirus is an underappreciated cause of severe pneumonia in vulnerable groups.
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Clonality despite sex: the evolution of host-associated sexual neighborhoods in the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei.
PLoS Pathog.
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Molecular genetic approaches typically detect recombination in microbes regardless of assumed asexuality. However, genetic data have shown the AIDS-associated pathogen Penicillium marneffei to have extensive spatial genetic structure at local and regional scales, and although there has been some genetic evidence that a sexual cycle is possible, this haploid fungus is thought to be genetically, as well as morphologically, asexual in nature because of its highly clonal population structure. Here we use comparative genomics, experimental mixed-genotype infections, and population genetic data to elucidate the role of recombination in natural populations of P. marneffei. Genome wide comparisons reveal that all the genes required for meiosis are present in P. marneffei, mating type genes are arranged in a similar manner to that found in other heterothallic fungi, and there is evidence of a putatively meiosis-specific mutational process. Experiments suggest that recombination between isolates of compatible mating types may occur during mammal infection. Population genetic data from 34 isolates from bamboo rats in India, Thailand and Vietnam, and 273 isolates from humans in China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam show that recombination is most likely to occur across spatially and genetically limited distances in natural populations resulting in highly clonal population structure yet sexually reproducing populations. Predicted distributions of three different spatial genetic clusters within P. marneffei overlap with three different bamboo rat host distributions suggesting that recombination within hosts may act to maintain population barriers within P. marneffei.
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Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study.
Environ Health
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Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam.
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A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite.
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Clinical characteristics and outcome of Penicillium marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients in northern Vietnam.
AIDS Res Ther
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This study reports the clinical characteristics and outcome of HIV-associated Penicilliummarneffei infection in northern Vietnam.
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Prophylactic platelets in dengue: survey responses highlight lack of an evidence base.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue.
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Severe pandemic H1N1 2009 infection is associated with transient NK and T deficiency and aberrant CD8 responses.
PLoS ONE
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It is unclear why the severity of influenza varies in healthy adults or why the burden of severe influenza shifts to young adults when pandemic strains emerge. One possibility is that cross-protective T cell responses wane in this age group in the absence of recent infection. We therefore compared the acute cellular immune response in previously healthy adults with severe versus mild pandemic H1N1 infection.
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Clinical validation of a point-of-care multiplexed in vitro immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies (the MSD influenza test) in four hospitals in Vietnam.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for influenza can considerably shorten the time to clinical decision making. An investigational POC test based on a multiplexed immunoassay was developed by Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC (MSD), with the objective to make a more sensitive rapid test that can also subtype influenza A viruses (1977 H1, H3, and H5). Between February and November 2010, we conducted a prospective multicenter study at four hospitals in Vietnam and compared the performance of this test to that of the WHO/CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasal and throat swab specimens from patients presenting with influenza-like illness. Five hundred sixty-three adults and children with a median age of 25 months were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of the test with combined results from nasal and throat swab samples were 74.0% (131/177) and 99.7% (351/352), respectively, compared to RT-PCR. The POC test was as sensitive for influenza virus B as for influenza virus A (74.4% [64/86] versus 73.6% [67/91]). The positivity rate was associated with lower cycle threshold values (a marker for higher viral loads), sample type (73.6% for nasal swab versus 52.4% for throat swab), and younger age. A total of 210 (18.7%) out of 1,126 MSD tests failed, and for 34 (6%) of patients, both test samples failed (these were excluded from the performance analysis). Subtyping could be assessed only for influenza virus A/H3N2, as 1977 H1N1 was not circulating at the time and no H5N1-infected patients were enrolled, and was successful only in 9/54 patients infected with H3 influenza virus who had a positive POC test result for influenza virus A. This novel POC test provided highly sensitive detection of influenza viruses A and B compared to the reported sensitivities of other rapid tests. However, 18.7% of tests failed for technical reasons and subtyping for H3 was poor. Drawbacks to the technology include the requirement for a dedicated reader instrument and the need for continual updating of subtyping antibodies within the test array.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.