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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Is axillary lymph node dissection necessary after sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with mastectomy and pathological n1 breast cancer?
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial reported that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) did not change the recurrence and overall survival (OS) rates in patients with lumpectomy and one to two positive nodes detected by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 disease found by SLNB could forego ALND.
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The metabolite ?-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Metabolism and ageing are intimately linked. Compared with ad libitum feeding, dietary restriction consistently extends lifespan and delays age-related diseases in evolutionarily diverse organisms. Similar conditions of nutrient limitation and genetic or pharmacological perturbations of nutrient or energy metabolism also have longevity benefits. Recently, several metabolites have been identified that modulate ageing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are largely undefined. Here we show that ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG), a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, extends the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. ATP synthase subunit ? is identified as a novel binding protein of ?-KG using a small-molecule target identification strategy termed drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS). The ATP synthase, also known as complex V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is the main cellular energy-generating machinery and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Although complete loss of mitochondrial function is detrimental, partial suppression of the electron transport chain has been shown to extend C. elegans lifespan. We show that ?-KG inhibits ATP synthase and, similar to ATP synthase knockdown, inhibition by ?-KG leads to reduced ATP content, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased autophagy in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. We provide evidence that the lifespan increase by ?-KG requires ATP synthase subunit ? and is dependent on target of rapamycin (TOR) downstream. Endogenous ?-KG levels are increased on starvation and ?-KG does not extend the lifespan of dietary-restricted animals, indicating that ?-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by dietary restriction. Our analyses uncover new molecular links between a common metabolite, a universal cellular energy generator and dietary restriction in the regulation of organismal lifespan, thus suggesting new strategies for the prevention and treatment of ageing and age-related diseases.
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Medical complications during inpatient rehabilitation among patients with traumatic disorders of consciousness.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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To assess the incidence of medical complications in patients with recent traumatic disorders of consciousness (DOCs).
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Blood transfusion and infection after cardiac surgery.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Cardiac surgery is the largest consumer of blood products in medicine; although believed life saving, transfusion carries substantial adverse risks. This study characterizes the relationship between transfusion and risk of major infection after cardiac surgery. In all, 5,158 adults were prospectively enrolled to assess infections after cardiac surgery. The most common procedures were isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (31%) and isolated valve surgery (30%); 19% were reoperations. Infections were adjudicated by independent infectious disease experts. Multivariable Cox modeling was used to assess the independent effect of blood and platelet transfusions on major infections within 60 ± 5 days of surgery. Red blood cells (RBC) and platelets were transfused in 48% and 31% of patients, respectively. Each RBC unit transfused was associated with a 29% increase in crude risk of major infection (p < 0.001). Among RBC recipients, the most common infections were pneumonia (3.6%) and bloodstream infections (2%). Risk factors for infection included postoperative RBC units transfused, longer duration of surgery, and transplant or ventricular assist device implantation, in addition to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and elevated preoperative creatinine. Platelet transfusion decreased the risk of infection (p = 0.02). Greater attention to management practices that limit RBC use, including cell salvage, small priming volumes, vacuum-assisted venous return with rapid autologous priming, and ultrafiltration, and preoperative and intraoperative measures to elevate hematocrit could potentially reduce occurrence of major postoperative infections.
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Management options in triple-negative breast cancer.
Breast Cancer (Auckl)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Notorious for its poor prognosis and aggressive nature, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease entity. The nature of its biological specificity, which is similar to basal-like cancers, tumors arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers, and claudin-low cancers, is currently being explored in hopes of finding the targets for novel biologics and chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we aim to give a broad overview of the diseases nomenclature and epidemiology, as well as the basic mechanisms of emerging targeted therapies and their performance in clinical trials to date.
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Proteomic-based biosignatures in breast cancer classification and prediction of therapeutic response.
Int J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Protein-based markers that classify tumor subtypes and predict therapeutic response would be clinically useful in guiding patient treatment. We investigated the LC-MS/MS-identified protein biosignatures in 39 baseline breast cancer specimens including 28 HER2-positive and 11 triple-negative (TNBC) tumors. Twenty proteins were found to correctly classify all HER2 positive and 7 of the 11 TNBC tumors. Among them, galectin-3-binding protein and ALDH1A1 were found preferentially elevated in TNBC, whereas CK19, transferrin, transketolase, and thymosin ?4 and ?10 were elevated in HER2-positive cancers. In addition, several proteins such as enolase, vimentin, peroxiredoxin 5, Hsp 70, periostin precursor, RhoA, cathepsin D preproprotein, and annexin 1 were found to be associated with the tumor responses to treatment within each subtype. The MS-based proteomic findings appear promising in guiding tumor classification and predicting response. When sufficiently validated, some of these candidate protein markers could have great potential in improving breast cancer treatment.
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An empirical analysis of overlap publication in Chinese language and English research manuscripts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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There are a number of sound justifications for publishing nearly identical information in Chinese and English medical journals, assuming several conditions are met. Although overlap publication is perceived as undesirable and ethically questionable in Europe and North America, it may serve an important function in some regions where English is not the native tongue. There is no empirical data on the nature and degree of overlap publication in English and Chinese language journals.
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Female sex worker social networks and STI/HIV prevention in South China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion.
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A twin response to twin epidemics: integrated HIV/syphilis testing at STI clinics in South China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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HIV testing is still stigmatized among many high-risk groups in China, whereas routine syphilis testing has been widely accepted at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. This project used the platform of a rapid syphilis screening test to expand HIV test uptake. The objective of this study was to use multilevel modeling to analyze determinants of syphilis and HIV-testing uptake at STI clinics in China.
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Quality, not volume, determines outcome of coronary artery bypass surgery in a university-based community hospital network.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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The present study examined the relationship between hospital and surgeon coronary artery bypass grafting procedural volume, mortality, morbidity, and National Quality Forum care processes in a university-based community hospital quality improvement program.
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Efficacy and safety study of tazarotene cream 0.1% for the treatment of brittle nail syndrome.
Cutis
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Brittle nail syndrome refers to nails that exhibit surface roughness, raggedness, and peeling. It is a common problem, with a higher prevalence among elderly patients. The goal of this study was to determine if tazarotene cream 0.1% ameliorates the signs and symptoms of brittle nails. In this open-label, single-center trial, participants applied tazarotene cream to the nails twice daily for 24 weeks. Signs and symptoms were rated by the investigators and by the participants during treatment and 12 weeks after discontinuation. Twenty participants were enrolled in the study; 1 participant withdrew prior to the 4-week followup visit. Of the 18 participants available for analysis (1 participant was excluded because baseline photographs were not available) for the primary end point of improvement in the physician global improvement assessment (PGIA), all 18 participants achieved improvement of the target nails at week 12 as well as 16 participants (88.9%) at week 24. All 18 participants had improvement in the PGIA score 12 weeks posttreatment at week 36. The physician global assessment (PGA) improved for 14 of 19 participants (73.7%) at both weeks 12 and 24; at week 24, 4 of 19 participants had achieved a PGA score of none. At week 36, 17 of 19 participants (89.5%) agreed that their nails had improved overall. Only 1 participant (5.3%) reported mild local irritation. This study demonstrated that tazarotene improves some of the changes noted in conjunction with brittle nail syndrome with minimal to no irritation.
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Peer-based behavioral health program for drug users in China: a pilot study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Many injection drug users (IDUs) in China have high risk sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection. Although many IDUs in China move through drug rehabilitation centers, this opportunity for sexual health education has largely been overlooked.
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Hydrophobic Proteome Analysis of Triple Negative and Hormone-Receptor-Positive-Her2-Negative Breast Cancer by Mass Spectrometer.
Clin Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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INTRODUCTION: It is widely believed that discovery of specific, sensitive, and reliable tumor biomarkers can improve the treatment of cancer. Currently, there are no obvious targets that can be used in treating triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). METHODS: To better understand TNBC and find potential biomarkers for targeted treatment, we combined a novel hydrophobic fractionation protocol with mass spectrometry LTQ-orbitrap to explore and compare the hydrophobic sub-proteome of TNBC with another subtype of breast cancer, hormone-receptor-positive-Her2-negative breast cancer (non-TNBC). RESULTS: Hydrophobic sub-proteome of breast cancer is rich in membrane proteins. Hundreds of proteins with various defined key cellular functions were identified from TNBC and non-TNBC tumors. In this study, protein profiles of TNBC and non-TNBC were systematically examined, compared, and validated. We have found that nine keratins are down-regulated and several heat shock proteins are up-regulated in TNBC tissues. Our study may provide insights of molecules that are responsible for the aggressiveness of TNBC. CONCLUSION: The initial results obtained using a combination of hydrophobic fractionation and nano-LC mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins appear promising in the discovery of potential cancer biomarkers and bio-signatures. When sufficiently refined, this approach may prove useful in improving breast cancer treatment.
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Hydrophobic Fractionation Enhances Novel Protein Detection by Mass Spectrometry in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
J Proteomics Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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It is widely believed that discovery of specific, sensitive and reliable tumor biomarkers can improve the treatment of cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel fractionation protocol targeting hydrophobic proteins as possible cancer cell membrane biomarkers. Hydrophobic proteins of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were enriched by polymeric reverse phase columns. The retained proteins were eluted and digested for peptide identification by nano-liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using a hybrid linear ion-trap Orbitrap.Hundreds of proteins were identified from each of these three specimens: tumors, normal breast tissue, and breast cancer cell lines. Many of the identified proteins defined key cellular functions. Protein profiles of cancer and normal tissues from the same patient were systematically examined and compared. Stem cell markers were overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared with non-TNBC samples. Because breast cancer stem cells are known to be resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and can be the source of metastasis frequently seen in patients with TNBC, our study may provide evidence of molecules promoting the aggressiveness of TNBC.The initial results obtained using a combination of hydrophobic fractionation and nano-LC mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins appear promising in the discovery of potential cancer biomarkers. When sufficiently refined, this approach may prove useful for early detection and better treatment of breast cancer.
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Trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Overexpression, or gene amplification, of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is evident in 20% to 25% of breast cancers. The biologic agent trastuzumab is an HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody that inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells and induces tumor cell death through multiple mechanisms of action. Currently, trastuzumab is approved for use in the adjuvant and metastatic settings. Trials combining trastuzumab with neoadjuvant chemotherapy suggest that patients with HER2-positive breast cancer also may benefit from preoperative trastuzumab. For this article, the author reviewed efficacy and safety data from key studies of patients who received neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy. Studies were identified from literature searches of publication and congress databases. The results of 3 large phase 3 trials (the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center neoadjuvant trastuzumab trial, the Neoadjuvant Herceptin [NOAH] trial, and the German Breast Group/Gynecologic Oncology Study Group "GeparQuattro" trial) demonstrated that, compared with chemotherapy alone, neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly increased pathologic complete response rates to as high as 65%. Improvements in disease-free, overall, and event-free survival also were reported in the NOAH trial. In addition to demonstrated efficacy, a low incidence of cardiac dysfunction suggests that neoadjuvant trastuzumab is both effective and well tolerated. Similar results have been reported in a range of phase 2 studies using different trastuzumab-based regimens. These encouraging data led the National Comprehensive Cancer Network to recommend treating patients who have operable, locally advanced, HER2-positive breast cancer with neoadjuvant paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide plus trastuzumab.
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Differential response of triple-negative breast cancer to a docetaxel and carboplatin-based neoadjuvant treatment.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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In this study, the authors evaluated whether a pathologic complete response (pCR) or a clinical complete response (cCR) to neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer differed among the 3 subtypes of breast cancer: triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, and hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. Whether a cCR or a pCR was correlated with fewer recurrences and better survival also was investigated.
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Higher levels of GATA3 predict better survival in women with breast cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. GATA3 in particular is necessary for mammary gland maturation, and its loss has been implicated in breast cancer development. Our goal was to validate the ability of GATA3 expression to predict survival in breast cancer patients. Protein expression of GATA3 was analyzed on a high-density tissue microarray consisting of 242 cases of breast cancer. We associated GATA3 expression with patient outcomes and clinicopathologic variables. Expression of GATA3 was significantly increased in breast cancer, in situ lesions, and hyperplastic tissue compared with normal breast tissue. GATA3 expression decreased with increasing tumor grade. Low GATA3 expression was a significant predictor of disease-related death in all patients, as well as in subgroups of estrogen receptor-positive or low-grade patients. In addition, low GATA3 expression correlated with increased tumor size and estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity. GATA3 is an important predictor of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. This finding has been validated in a diverse set of populations. Thus, GATA3 expression has utility as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer.
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Tumor proteomic profiling predicts the susceptibility of breast cancer to chemotherapy.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Chemotherapy is often used for breast cancer treatment, but individual outcome varies widely. We hypothesized that tumor proteomic profiles obtained prior to chemotherapy may predict the individual tumor response to treatment. The goal of our study was to explore feasibility of using proteomic profiling to preselect patients for an effective chemotherapeutic regimen. Tumors from 52 patients with T2-T4 breast cancer were prospectively collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization/time of flight (SELDI) mass spectrometry. Mass spectral profiles were obtained from tumors with various sensitivities to chemotherapy. Both non-supervised hierarchical clustering and supervised neural network-based classification approaches were employed to compare the profiles. The first two thirds of the enrolled cases (35) were allocated to a training set to select peaks characteristic of resistant tumors. The candidate peaks were used to develop a predicting rule to evaluate the remaining 17 specimens in the validation set. In the training set, the most prominent differences were found between drug resistant and drug susceptible tumors by non-supervised hierarchical clustering. In the validation set, the supervised classification with the K nearest neighbor (KNN) model correctly classified most tumor responses with an accuracy rate of 92.3% [100% of resistant tumors (4/4), and 84.6% of the tumors with favorable response (11/13)]. In the entire group, a single peak at m/z 16,906 correctly separated 88.9% of the tumors with pathologically complete response, and 91.7% of the resistant tumors. The data suggest that breast cancer protein biomarkers may be used to pre-select patients for optimal chemotherapeutic treatment.
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Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) site-mapping of N-glycosylated membrane proteins for breast cancer biomarkers.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Cancer cell membrane proteins are released into the plasma/serum by exterior protein cleavage, membrane sloughing, cellular secretion or cell lysis, and represent promising candidates for interrogation. Because many known disease biomarkers are both glycoproteins and membrane bound, we chose the hydrazide method to specifically target, enrich, and identify glycosylated proteins from breast cancer cell membrane fractions using the LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Our initial goal was to select membrane proteins from breast cancer cell lines and then to use the hydrazide method to identify the N-linked proteome as a prelude to evaluation of plasma/serum proteins from cancer patients. A combination of steps facilitated identification of the glycopeptides and also defined the glycosylation sites. In MCF-7, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-468 cell membrane fractions, use of the hydrazide method facilitated an initial enrichment and site mapping of 27 N-linked glycosylation sites in 25 different proteins. However, only three N-linked glycosylated proteins, galectin-3 binding protein, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1, and oxygen regulated protein, were identified in all three breast cancer cell lines. In addition, MCF-7 cells shared an additional 3 proteins with MDA-MB-453. Interestingly, the hydrazide method isolated a number of other N-linked glycoproteins also known to be involved in breast cancer, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CD44, and the breast cancer 1, and early onset isoform 1 (BRCA1) biomarker. Analyzing the N-glycoproteins from membranes of breast cancer cell lines highlights the usefulness of the procedure for generating a practical set of potential biomarkers.
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Heterotopic breast tissue versus occult metastatic carcinoma in lymph node, a diagnostic dilemma.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2009
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Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in women and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. We report a case of a patient who underwent bilateral simple mastectomies and right sentinel node biopsy for invasive lobular carcinoma in the right breast. An ipsilateral sentinel lymph node showed a microscopic focus of ductal elements. Although residual lobular carcinoma was identified in the right breast, no ductal carcinoma was identified in either breast. The ducts were discrete distributed in a 3-mm focus in the lymph node parenchyma as well as the subcapsular sinus. By immunohistochemistry, the ducts were positive for cytokeratin, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor and did not show a myoepithelial layer by P63 or smooth-muscle myosin heavy-chain staining. The differential diagnosis includes heterotopic epithelial inclusions and benign mechanical transport. Mechanical transport of the breast tissue was ruled out because primary tumor type in the breast and the ductal structures in the lymph nodes were of different types. The diagnosis of occult metastatic tumor was based on the lack of the myoepithelial layers associated with the ductal structures. The diagnostic dilemma of the differential diagnoses is discussed, and pertinent literature is reviewed.
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Accuracy of clinical evaluation of locally advanced breast cancer in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Physical examination (PE), mammography (MG), breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), and pathologic evaluation are used to assess primary breast cancer. To the authors knowledge, their accuracy has not been well studied in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accuracies of each modality in tumor and lymph node assessment in patients with T3/T4 tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were compared.
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Prevalence, laterality, and comorbidity of hippocampal sclerosis in an autopsy sample.
Brain Behav
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Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common and often asymmetric neuropathological finding among elderly persons who experience progressive memory loss, but its cause is unknown and it is rarely diagnosed during life. In order to improve both understanding and diagnosis of late-life HS, bilateral hippocampi and cerebral hemispheres were reviewed in 130 consecutive autopsy cases drawn from a longitudinal study of subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (IVD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal aging. HS was found in 31 of 130 cases (24.5%). Of these, 45% were bilateral, 32% left-sided, and 23% right-sided. The majority of HS cases involved the entire rostral-caudal extent of the hippocampus. However, in 7 cases HS was focal in nature and was only found at or anterior to the lateral geniculate nucleus. In 77% of cases, HS was accompanied by other types of pathology (mixed HS), but in 23% of cases it was the sole neuropathologic finding (pure HS). TDP-43-positive cytoplasmic inclusions were found in dentate granule cells in 93% of all HS cases, 55% of AD cases with no HS, but 0% of IVD cases with no HS. MRI hippocampal volumes were significantly lower in bilateral HS compared to AD (p < 0.001) and in unilateral HS cases compared to cases with intact hippocampi (p < 0.001). Since HS may occur unilaterally in approximately a quarter of cases, its prevalence may be underestimated if only one cerebral hemisphere is examined. The presence of TDP-43 inclusions in HS cases, regardless of accompanying pathologies (e.g., AD, IVD, FTLD), is consistent with an underlying neurodegenerative pathogenetic mechanism. Further studies are warranted to determine whether greater severity of hippocampal atrophy on MRI may assist the clinical differentiation of HS from AD.
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Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified proteomic biosignatures of breast cancer in proximal fluid.
J. Proteome Res.
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We have begun an early phase of biomarker discovery in three clinically important types of breast cancer using a panel of human cell lines: HER2 positive, hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative, and triple negative (HER2-, ER-, PR-). We identified and characterized the most abundant secreted, sloughed, or leaked proteins released into serum free media from these breast cancer cell lines using a combination of protein fractionation methods before LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 249 proteins were detected in the proximal fluid of 7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of a selected group of high abundance and/or breast cancer-specific potential biomarkers including thromobospondin 1, galectin-3 binding protein, cathepsin D, vimentin, zinc-?2-glycoprotein, CD44, and EGFR from the breast cancer cell lines and in their culture media were further validated by Western blot analysis. Interestingly, mass spectrometry identified a cathepsin D protein single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by alanine to valine replacement from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Comparison of each cell line media proteome displayed unique and consistent biosignatures regardless of the individual group classifications, demonstrating the potential for stratification of breast cancer. On the basis of the cell line media proteome, predictive Tree software was able to categorize each cell line as HER2 positive, HER2 negative, and hormone receptor positive and triple negative based on only two proteins, muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and keratin 19. In addition, the predictive Tree software clearly identified MCF-7 cell line overexpresing the HER2 receptor with the SNP cathepsin D biomarker.
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Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in Asia: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
Sex Health
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Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly transmissible. Although there are many studies on HPV infection in general population of women globally, little attention has been paid to female sex workers (FSWs) in Asia. In this study, we used a meta-analytic approach to systematically analyse the literature to elucidate the prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical HPV infection among FSWs in Asia. Fourteen eligible studies were identified in five databases, and data including 4198 FSWs from nine Asian countries were aggregated. Crude estimates of cervical HPV prevalence among FSWs in this region ranged from 12.8% to 84.8%. FSWs had a nearly 10-fold risk of HPV infection than the general population of women. Stratified analysis showed that HPV prevalence was higher in East Asia than other subregions and in younger FSWs than older FSWs. HPV genotype distribution was statistically different between East Asia and South-east Asia. In East Asia, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16 (23.9%), 18 (11.0%), 58 (9.4%), 56 (6.3%) and 52 (5.3%), while they were HPV 52 (12.9%), 16 (8.5%), 58 (5.2%), 18 (5.0%) and 66 (4.9%) in South-east Asia. HPV 31, 33 and 35 were less frequently found in both subregions. HPV infection was substantial among FSWs in some Asian countries. More studies are necessary to illustrate the overall picture of HPV infection in this region.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.