JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase and Bilirubin Are Surrogate End Points of Outcomes of Patients With Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: An International Follow-up Study.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Noninvasive surrogate end points of long-term outcomes of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are needed to monitor disease progression and evaluate potential treatments. We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from cohort studies to evaluate whether patients' levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin correlate with their outcomes and can be used as surrogate end points.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis in the Netherlands.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological data on autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are scarce. In this study, we determined the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of AIH patients in the Netherlands (16.7 million inhabitants).
Related JoVE Video
Predicting outcome in primary biliary cirrhosis.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a slowly progressive autoimmune liver disease that may ultimately result in liver failure and premature death. Predicting outcome is of key importance in clinical management and an essential requirement for patients counselling and timing of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The following factors are associated with progressive disease and worse outcome: young age at diagnosis, male gender, histological presence of cirrhosis, accelerated marked uctopenia in relation to the amount of fibrosis, high serum bilirubin, low serum albumin levels, high serum alkaline phosphatase levels, esophageal varices, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and lack of biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The prognostic significance of symptoms at diagnosis is uncertain. UDCA therapy and liver transplantation have a significant beneficial effect on the outcome of the disease. The Mayo risk score in PBC can be used for estimating individual prognosis. The Newcastle Varices in PBC Score may be a useful clinical tool to predict the risk for development of esophageal varices. Male gender, cirrhosis and non-response to UDCA therapy in particular, are risk factors for development of HCC.
Related JoVE Video
A comparative study of diagnostic scoring systems for autoimmune pancreatitis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several diagnostic scoring systems for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) have been proposed including the Asian, HISORt (Histology, Imaging, Serology, Other organ involvement and Response to therapy), and International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria (ICDC), which have been compared by a few studies. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of these criteria in patients diagnosed with AIP between May 1992 and August 2011.
Related JoVE Video
Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: a case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Comparable efficacy of low- versus high-dose induction corticosteroid treatment in autoimmune pancreatitis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of high versus low doses of prednisone for induction of remission in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).
Related JoVE Video
Quality evaluation through self-assessment: a novel method to gain insight into ERCP performance.
Frontline Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Committee on Outcomes Research has recommended monitoring nine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-specific quality indicators for quality assurance in ERCP. With the development of a self-assessment tool for ERCP (Rotterdam Assessment Form for ERCP-RAF-E), key indicators can easily be assessed.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 +49A/G polymorphism does not affect susceptibility to autoimmune hepatitis.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 gene (CTLA-4) have been associated with several autoimmune diseases including autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH). In this chronic idiopathic inflammatory liver disease, conflicting results have been reported on the association with a SNP at position +49 in the CTLA-4 gene in small patient cohorts. Here, we established the role of this SNP in a sufficiently large cohort of AIH patients.
Related JoVE Video
Population-based epidemiology, malignancy risk, and outcome of primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extensive population-based studies are much needed to accurately establish epidemiology and disease course in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We aimed to obtain population-based prevalence and incidence figures, insight in disease course with regard to survival, liver transplantation (LT), and occurrence of malignancies, as well as risk factors thereof. Four independent hospital databases were searched in 44 hospitals in a large geographically defined area of the Netherlands, comprising 50% of the population. In addition, all PSC patients in the three Dutch liver transplant centers and all inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in the adherence area of a large district hospital were identified. All medical records were reviewed on-site, verifying diagnosis. Five hundred and ninety PSC patients were identified, resulting in an incidence of 0.5 and a point prevalence of 6.0 per 100,000. Median follow up was 92 months. Estimated median survival from diagnosis until LT or PSC-related death in the entire cohort was 21.3 years, as opposed to 13.2 years in the combined transplant centers cohort (n = 422; P < 0.0001). Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) risk was 10-fold increased, as compared to ulcerative colitis controls, and developed at a much younger age (39 years; range, 26-64), compared to IBD controls (59 years; range, 34-73; P = 0.019). Colonoscopic surveillance was associated with significantly better outcome. Conclusion: This study exemplifies that, for relatively rare diseases, it is paramount to collect observational data from large, population-based cohorts, because incidence and prevalence rates of PSC are markedly lower and survival much longer than previously reported. The selection of a bias-free, population-based cohort showed a significantly longer survival, compared to the tertiary referral cohort. CRC can develop at an early age, warranting surveillance from time of PSC diagnosis. (Hepatology 2013; 58:2045-2055).
Related JoVE Video
Discriminant analysis using a multivariate linear mixed model with a normal mixture in the random effects distribution.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed a method to longitudinally classify subjects into two or more prognostic groups using longitudinally observed values of markers related to the prognosis. We assume the availability of a training data set where the subjects allocation into the prognostic group is known. The proposed method proceeds in two steps as described earlier in the literature. First, multivariate linear mixed models are fitted in each prognostic group from the training data set to model the dependence of markers on time and on possibly other covariates. Second, fitted mixed models are used to develop a discrimination rule for future subjects. Our method improves upon existing approaches by relaxing the normality assumption of random effects in the underlying mixed models. Namely, we assume a heteroscedastic multivariate normal mixture for random effects. Inference is performed in the Bayesian framework using the Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology. Software has been written for the proposed method and it is freely available. The methodology is applied to data from the Dutch Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Study.
Related JoVE Video
Relatively high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis not responding to ursodeoxycholic acid.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The reported incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) varies from 0.7-3.8%, whereas in cirrhotic patients the risk is considerably higher. Age, male sex, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension are reported risk factors. It has been suggested that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) may protect against HCC. We aimed to define risk factors for the development of HCC at the time of PBC diagnosis and to identify, among patients treated with UDCA for a long term, a subgroup that could benefit from screening.
Related JoVE Video
Retrograde double balloon enteroscopy: comparing performance of solely retrograde versus combined same-day anterograde and retrograde procedure.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retrograde double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is important for evaluating the distal small bowel, but it is more challenging compared to the oral route. Optimizing small bowel insertion may enhance the diagnostic utility of the examination. We sought to determine if insertion depths achieved with retrograde DBE when performed as an isolated procedure differed significantly from when performed immediately following anterograde DBE.
Related JoVE Video
The potent bile acid sequestrant colesevelam is not effective in cholestatic pruritus: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colesevelam is an anion-exchange resin with a 7-fold higher bile acid-binding capacity and fewer side effects than cholestyramine, the current first-line treatment option for cholestatic pruritus. The aim of this trial was to compare the effects of colesevelam and a placebo in patients with cholestatic pruritus. In a randomized, double-blind, investigator-initiated, multicenter trial, patients with cholestatic pruritus, both treatment-naive and previously treated, received 1875 mg of colesevelam or an identical placebo twice daily for 3 weeks. The effect on pruritus was assessed with daily visual analogue scales, quality-of-life scores, and evaluations of cutaneous scratch lesions. The predefined primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least a 40% reduction in pruritus visual analogue scale scores. Thirty-eight patients were included, and 35 were evaluable: 17 took colesevelam, 18 took the placebo, 22 were female, 8 were treatment-naive, 14 had primary biliary cirrhosis, and 14 had primary sclerosing cholangitis. The mean serum bile acid levels were comparable between the groups before treatment (P = 0.74), but they were significantly different after treatment (P = 0.01) in favor of patients treated with colesevelam. Thirty-six percent of patients in the colesevelam group reached the primary endpoint versus 35% in the placebo group (P = 1.0). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to pruritus scores, quality-of-life scores, and severity of cutaneous scratch lesions. Mild side effects occurred in one colesevelam-treated patient and four placebo-treated patients.
Related JoVE Video
Primary balloon-assisted enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: findings and outcome of therapy.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic outcome of a primary balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) approach in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Validation study of automatically generated codes in colonoscopy using the endoscopic report system Endobase.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastrointestinal endoscopy databases are important for surveillance, epidemiology, quality control and research. A good quality of automatically generated databases to enable drawing justified conclusions based on the data is of key importance. The aim of this study is to validate the correctness of coding of a national automatically generated anonymous endoscopy database.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis in the Netherlands 1988-2008.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A decrease in the need for liver transplantations (LTX) in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC), possibly related to treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has been reported in the USA and UK. The aim of this study was to assess LTX requirements in PBC over the past 20 years in the Netherlands.
Related JoVE Video
Paris criteria are effective in diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) differ in clinical, laboratory, and histologic features as well as in response to therapy. A small subgroup of patients have an overlap syndrome with features of both diseases, although there is no consensus on its definition or diagnostic criteria. We evaluated the significance of the criteria used to diagnose PBC-AIH overlap syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Lysophosphatidic acid is a potential mediator of cholestatic pruritus.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pruritus is a common and disabling symptom in cholestatic disorders. However, its causes remain unknown. We hypothesized that potential pruritogens accumulate in the circulation of cholestatic patients and activate sensory neurons.
Related JoVE Video
[Primary biliary cirrhosis].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the Netherlands there are probably several thousands of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a slowly progressive liver disease mainly affecting middle-aged women. PBC has characteristics of an autoimmune disease but its precise aetiology remains unknown. Fatigue and pruritus are the main symptoms but patients may also be asymptomatic. The diagnosis can be established through the presence of cholestatic liver test abnormalities, antimitochondrial antibodies and diagnostic or compatible findings upon liver biopsy. Currently most patients are diagnosed with early disease. When treated with ursodeoxycholic acid these patients have a normal prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
High lifetime risk of cancer in primary sclerosing cholangitis.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients are at risk for developing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Our aim was to assess the risk of malignancies and their influence on survival.
Related JoVE Video
Improved prognosis of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis that have a biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improves laboratory liver test results in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Few studies have assessed the prognostic significance of biochemical data collected following UDCA treatment. We performed a prospective multicenter study of patients with PBC treated with UDCA to compare prognosis with biochemical response.
Related JoVE Video
Relapse is almost universal after withdrawal of immunosuppressive medication in patients with autoimmune hepatitis in remission.
J. Hepatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current treatment strategies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) include long-term treatment with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine. Here we determined the risk of relapse after drug withdrawal in patients in long-term remission and factors associated with such a relapse.
Related JoVE Video
[A woman with hepatomegaly].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 32-year-old woman was referred because of hepatomegaly of unknown cause. CT and MRI images of the abdomen showed a markedly enlarged right liver lobe extending into the pelvis. A diagnosis of hepatomegaly due to a Riedels lobe was made.
Related JoVE Video
Serum autotaxin is increased in pruritus of cholestasis, but not of other origin, and responds to therapeutic interventions.
Hepatology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pruritus is a seriously disabling symptom accompanying many cholestatic liver disorders. Recent experimental evidence implicated the lysophospholipase, autotaxin (ATX), and its product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), as potential mediators of cholestatic pruritus. In this study, we highlight that increased serum ATX levels are specific for pruritus of cholestasis, but not pruritus of uremia, Hodgkins disease, or atopic dermatitis. Treatment of patients with cholestasis with the bile salt sequestrant, colesevelam, but not placebo, effectively reduced total serum bile salts and fibroblast growth factor 19 levels, but only marginally altered pruritus intensity and ATX activity. Rifampicin (RMP) significantly reduced itch intensity and ATX activity in patients with pruritus not responding to bile salt sequestrants. In vitro, RMP inhibited ATX expression in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and hepatoma cells overexpressing the pregnane X receptor (PXR), but not in hepatoma cells in which PXR was knocked down. Treatment of severe, refractory pruritus by the molecular adsorbents recirculation system or nasobiliary drainage improved itch intensity, which, again, correlated with the reduction of ATX levels. Upon reoccurrence of pruritus, ATX activity returned to pretreatment values. Conclusion: Serum ATX activity is specifically increased in patients with cholestatic, but not other forms of, systemic pruritus and closely correlates with the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The beneficial antipruritic action of RMP may be explained, at least partly, by the PXR-dependent transcriptional inhibition of ATX expression. Thus, ATX likely represents a novel therapeutic target for pruritus of cholestasis.
Related JoVE Video
Pneumothorax following ERCP: report of four cases and review of the literature.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report four patients with pneumothorax as a complication of ERCP with sphincterotomy. With conservative treatment all patients recovered. Previously, 16 comparable cases have been reported in the literature. The main risk factor for this rare complication seems (pre-cut) sphincterotomy. Pneumothorax is usually right-sided or bilateral and accompanied by pneumomediastinum, pneumoretroperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema. The prognosis seems favourable with a non-surgical approach including intravenous antibiotics, fasting and when indicated chest tube drainage.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective group sequential study evaluating a new type of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for the treatment of benign biliary strictures (with video).
Gastrointest. Endosc.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fully-covered self expandable metal stents (fcSEMSs) are an alternative to progressive plastic stenting for the treatment of benign biliary strictures (BBS) with the prospect of a higher treatment efficacy and the need for fewer ERCPs, thereby reducing the burden for patients and possibly costs. Key to this novel treatment is safe stent removal.
Related JoVE Video
Serum IgG4 and IgG1 for Distinguishing IgG4-Associated Cholangitis from Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.
Hepatology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The recent addition of IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC), also called IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IRSC) to the spectrum of chronic cholangiopathies has created the clinical need for reliable methods to discriminate between IAC and the more common cholestatic entities primary (PSC) and secondary (SSC) sclerosing cholangitis. The current AASLD practice guidelines for PSC advise the measurement of sIgG4 in PSC patients, but interpretation of elevated sIgG4 levels remains unclear. We aimed to provide an algorithm to distinguish IAC from PSC using sIgG analyses. We measured total IgG and IgG subclasses in serum samples of IAC (n=73) and PSC (n=310) patients, as well as in serum samples of disease controls (primary biliary cirrhosis; n=22). sIgG4 levels were elevated above the upper limit of normal (ULN=>1.4 g/L) in 45 PSC patients (15%, 95% CI 11-19). The highest specificity and positive predictive value (100%) for IAC were reached when applying the 4x ULN (sIgG4> 5.6 g/L) cut-off with a sensitivity of 42% (95% CI 31-55). However, in patients with a sIgG4 between 1x and 2x ULN (n=38/45) the PPV of sIgG4 for IAC is only 28%. In this subgroup, the sIgG4/sIgG1 ratio cut-off 0.24 yielded a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI 51-95), a specificity of 74% (95% CI 57-86), a PPV of 55% (95% CI 33-75) and a NPV of 90% (95% CI 73-97). Conclusion: Elevated sIgG4 (> 1.4 g/L) occurred in 15% of patients with PSC. In patients with a sIgG4 >1.4 and <2.8 g/L, incorporating the IgG4/IgG1 ratio with a cut-off at 0.24 in the diagnostic algorithm significantly improved PPV and specificity. We propose a new diagnostic algorithm based on IgG4/IgG1 ratio that may be used in clinical practice to distinguish PSC from IAC. (Hepatology 2013;).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.