The aim of the present study was to investigate lipid-induced regulation of lipid binding proteins in human skeletal muscle and the impact hereof on insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy male subjects underwent a 3-day hypercaloric and high-fat diet regime. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the diet intervention, and giant sarcolemmal vesicles were prepared. The high-fat diet induced decreased insulin sensitivity, but this was not associated with a relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. However, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm mRNA, but not the proteins, were upregulated by increased fatty acid availability. This suggests a time dependency in the upregulation of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein during high availability of plasma fatty acids. Furthermore, we did not detect FATP1 and FATP4 protein in giant sarcolemmal vesicles obtained from human skeletal muscle. In conclusion, this study shows that a short-term lipid-load increases mRNA content of key lipid handling proteins in human muscle. However, decreased insulin sensitivity after a high-fat diet is not accompanied with relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. Finally, FATP1 and FATP4 protein was located intracellularly but not at the sarcolemma in humans.
The aim was to investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Healthy, physically inactive men (60-72 years old) were randomized to either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250 mg resveratrol or placebo or to 8 weeks of high-intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? co-activator-1? mRNA ~1.5-fold, cytochrome c protein ~1.3-fold, cytochrome c oxidase I protein ~1.5-fold, citrate synthase activity ~1.3-fold, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity ~1.3-fold, inhibitor of ?B-? and inhibitor of ?B-? protein content ~1.3-fold and time to exhaustion in the one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test by ?1.2-fold, with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ~25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably, however, resveratrol blunted an exercise training-induced decrease (~20%) in protein carbonylation and decrease (~40%) in tumour necrosis factor ? mRNA content in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, resveratrol did not elicit metabolic improvements in healthy aged subjects; in fact, resveratrol even impaired the observed exercise training-induced improvements in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle. Collectively, this highlights the metabolic efficacy of exercise training in aged subjects and does not support the contention that resveratrol is a potential exercise mimetic in healthy aged subjects.
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. Nine young healthy physically inactive male subjects completed two trials. In an LPS trial, the subjects received a single LPS injection (0.3 ng/kg body weight) and blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and 2 h after the LPS injection and immediately after a 10-min one-legged knee extensor exercise bout performed approximately 2½?h after the LPS injection. The exercise bout with muscle samples obtained before and immediately after was repeated in a control trial without LPS injection. The plasma tumor necrosis factor ? concentration increased 17-fold 2 h after LPS relative to before. Muscle lactate and muscle glycogen were unchanged from before to 2 h after LPS and exercise increased muscle lactate and decreased muscle glycogen in the control (P?0.05) and the LPS (0.05???P?0.1) trial with no differences between the trials. AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and PDH phosphorylation as well as PDHa activity were unaffected 2 h after LPS relative to before. Exercise decreased (P?0.05) PDH and increased (P?0.05) AMPK and ACC phosphorylation as well as increased (P?0.05) PDHa activity similarly in the LPS and control trial. In conclusion, LPS-induced inflammation does not affect resting or exercise-induced AMPK and PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle. This suggests that metabolic flexibility during exercise is maintained during short-term low-grade inflammation in humans.
Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock is to prepare for the transition from the rest/fasting phase to the active/feeding phase, when glucose becomes the predominant fuel for skeletal muscle.
Expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) associated proteins like uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in inguinal WAT (iWAT) has been suggested to alter iWAT metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in exercise training and cold exposure-induced iWAT UCP1 expression. The effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of IL-6 (3 ng/g) in C57BL/6 mice for 7 days on iWAT UCP1 expression was examined. In addition, the expression of UCP1 in iWAT was determined in response to 3 days of cold exposure (4°C) and 5 weeks of exercise training in wild type (WT) and whole body IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. Repeated injections of IL-6 in C57BL/6 mice increased UCP1 mRNA but not UCP1 protein content in iWAT. Cold exposure increased iWAT UCP1 mRNA content similarly in IL-6 KO and WT mice, while exercise training increased iWAT UCP1 mRNA in WT mice but not in IL-6 KO mice. Additionally, a cold exposure-induced increase in iWAT UCP1 protein content was blunted in IL-6 KO mice, while UCP1 protein content in iWAT was lower in both untrained and exercise trained IL-6 KO mice than in WT mice. In conclusion, repeated daily increases in plasma IL-6 can increase iWAT UCP1 mRNA content and IL-6 is required for an exercise training-induced increase in iWAT UCP1 mRNA content. In addition IL-6 is required for a full induction of UCP1 protein expression in response to cold exposure and influences the UCP1 protein content iWAT of both untrained and exercise trained animals.
Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting.
Deacetylases such as sirtuins (SIRTs) convert NAD to nicotinamide (NAM). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway responsible for converting NAM to NAD to maintain cellular redox state. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SIRT activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits SIRTs, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependent. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein by 16% (P < 0.05) in the trained, but not the untrained leg. Moreover, increases in Nampt mRNA following acute exercise or AICAR treatment (P < 0.05 for both) were maintained in mouse skeletal muscle lacking a functional AMPK ?2 subunit. Nampt protein was reduced in skeletal muscle of sedentary AMPK ?2 kinase dead (KD), but 6.5 weeks of endurance exercise training increased skeletal muscle Nampt protein to a similar extent in both wild-type (WT) (24%) and AMPK ?2 KD (18%) mice. In contrast, 4 weeks of daily AICAR treatment increased Nampt protein in skeletal muscle in WT mice (27%), but this effect did not occur in AMPK ?2 KD mice. In conclusion, functional ?2-containing AMPK heterotrimers are required for elevation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein, but not mRNA induction. These findings suggest AMPK plays a post-translational role in the regulation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein abundance, and further indicate that the regulation of cellular energy charge and nutrient sensing is mechanistically related.
Ageing is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, and improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1 signalling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg m(-2); mean arterial pressure (MAP): 95.8 ± 2.2 mmHg; maximal oxygen uptake: 2488 ± 72 ml O2 min(-1)) were randomized into 8 weeks of either daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n = 14) or of placebo (n = 13) concomitant with high-intensity exercise training. Exercise training led to a 45% greater (P < 0.05) increase in maximal oxygen uptake in the placebo group than in the resveratrol group and to a decrease in MAP in the placebo group only (-4.8 ± 1.7 mmHg; P < 0.05). The interstitial level of vasodilator prostacyclin was lower in the resveratrol than in the placebo group after training (980 ± 90 vs. 1174 ± 121 pg ml(-1); P < 0.02) and muscle thromboxane synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P < 0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and triglyceride concentrations in blood (P < 0.05). Resveratrol did not alter the effect of exercise training on the atherosclerosis marker vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation can blunt these effects.
Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo-controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with saline and one with TNF-?. During the clamp, TNF-? perfusion increased glucose arteriovenous differences (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 0.74 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P = 0.012) and leg glucose uptake rates. Net phenylalanine release was increased by TNF-? perfusion with concomitant increases in appearance and disappearance rates. Free fatty acid kinetics was not affected by TNF-?, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6) release increased. Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-?. TNF-? directly increased net muscle protein loss, which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical interest and may concurrently act to provide adequate tissue fuel supply and contribute to the occurrence of systemic hypoglycemia. This distinct metabolic feature places TNF-? among the rare insulin mimetics of human origin.
Skeletal muscle regulates substrate choice according to demand and availability and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is central in this regulation. Circulating interleukin (IL)-6 increases during exercise and IL-6 has been suggested to increase whole body fat oxidation. Furthermore, IL-6 has been reported to increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and AMPK suggested to regulate PDHa activity. Together, this suggests that IL-6 may be involved in regulating PDH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single injection of IL-6 on PDH regulation in skeletal muscle in fed and fasted mice. Fed and 16-18 h fasted mice were injected with either 3 ng?·?g(-1) recombinant mouse IL-6 or PBS as control. Fasting markedly reduced plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, muscle PDHa activity, as well as increased PDK4 mRNA and protein content in skeletal muscle. IL-6 injection did not affect plasma glucose or muscle glycogen, but increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and tended to decrease p38 protein content in skeletal muscle in fasted mice. In addition IL-6 injection reduced PDHa activity in fed mice and increased PDHa activity in fasted mice without significant changes in PDH-E1? phosphorylation or PDP1 and PDK4 mRNA and protein content. The present findings suggest that IL-6 contributes to regulating the PDHa activity and hence carbohydrate oxidation, but the metabolic state of the muscle seems to determine the outcome of this regulation. In addition, AMPK and p38 may contribute to the IL-6-mediated PDH regulation in the fasted state.
Age-related metabolic diseases are often associated with low-grade inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1? in the potential beneficial effects of exercise training and/or resveratrol in the prevention of age-associated low-grade inflammation. To address this, a long-term voluntary exercise training and resveratrol supplementation study was conducted.
The subcellular distribution and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined in skeletal muscle of healthy humans. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from m.v. lateralis before and after a 2 h bout of cycling exercise. VEGF localization was conducted on preparations of teased muscle fibers by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy (CM). Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled from microdialysis probes placed in the thigh muscle. TEM and CM analysis revealed two primary sites of localization of VEGF: in vesicles located in the subsarcolemmal regions and between the contractile elements within the muscle fibers; and in pericytes situated on the skeletal muscle capillaries. Quantitation of the subsarcolemmal density of VEGF vesicles, calculated on top of myonuclei, in the muscle fibers revealed a ?50% increase (P<0.05) after exercise. The observation of more VEGF vesicles close to sarcolemma after exercise, combined with a 5-fold increase (P<0.05) in VEGF in the interstitial fluid, suggest that VEGF-containing vesicles redistribute to sarcolemma and that VEGF is secreted to the extracellular fluid. This study provides the first evidence in humans for a mechanism by which skeletal muscle fibers can control capillary growth by releasing VEGF from intracellular vesicles during contraction.
Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the ?-isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R(-/-)) fed a standard chow or HFD. We next performed gain-of-function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R(-/-) mice display increased weight gain, ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation, and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL-18 into skeletal muscle activated AMPK and concomitantly inhibited HFD-induced weight gain. In summary, IL-18 enhances AMPK signaling and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle implicating IL-18 in metabolic homeostasis.
Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling. We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 h of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK?1 and -?1 were significantly increased, whereas AMPK?3 levels decreased with training independently of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before training and higher exercise-induced ACC2 Ser(221) phosphorylation both before and after training compared with NBW. Despite exercise being performed at the same relative intensity (65% of Vo2peak), the acute exercise response on AMPK Thr(172), ACC2 Ser(221), AMPK?2?2?1, and AMPK?2?2?3 activities, GS activity, and adenine nucleotides as well as hexokinase II mRNA levels were all reduced after exercise training. Increased exercise-induced muscle AMPK activation and ACC2 Ser(221) phosphorylation in LBW subjects may indicate a more sensitive AMPK system in this population. Long-term exercise training may reduce the need for AMPK to control energy turnover during exercise. Thus, the remaining ?3-associated AMPK activation by acute exercise after exercise training might be sufficient to maintain cellular energy balance.
The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator (PGC)-1? and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (EX) exerts additive effects through PGC-1? in mice.
Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) may create a constant low-grade inflammation, leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. All previous human studies assessing the metabolic actions of LPS have used systemic administration, making discrimination between direct and indirect effects impossible.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that 1) a single exercise bout increases UCP1 mRNA in both inguinal (i)WAT and epididymal (e)WAT, 2) UCP1 expression and responsiveness to exercise are different in iWAT and eWAT, 3) PGC-1? determines the basal levels of UCP1 and PRDM16 in WAT and 4) exercise and exercise training regulate UCP1 and PRDM16 expression in WAT in a PGC-1?-dependent manner.
Vitamin C and E supplementation has been shown to attenuate the acute exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration. Here, we studied the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the regulation of IL-6 expression in muscle and the circulation in response to acute exercise before and after high-intensity endurance exercise training. Twenty-one young healthy men were allocated into either a vitamin (VT; vitamin C and E, n = 11) or a placebo (PL, n = 10) group. A 1-h acute bicycling exercise trial at 65% of maximal power output was performed before and after 12 wk of progressive endurance exercise training. In response to training, the acute exercise-induced IL-6 response was attenuated in PL (P < 0.02), but not in VT (P = 0.82). However, no clear difference between groups was observed (group × training: P = 0.13). Endurance exercise training also attenuated the acute exercise-induced increase in muscle-IL-6 mRNA in both groups. Oxidative stress, assessed by plasma protein carbonyls concentration, was overall higher in the VT compared with the PL group (group effect: P < 0.005). This was accompanied by a general increase in skeletal muscle mRNA expression of antioxidative enzymes, including catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 mRNA expression in the VT group. However, skeletal muscle protein content of catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, or glutathione peroxidase 1 was not affected by training or supplementation. In conclusion, our results indicate that, although vitamin C and E supplementation may attenuate exercise-induced increases in plasma IL-6 there is no clear additive effect when combined with endurance training.
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? coactivator (PGC)-1? plays a role in regulation of several metabolic pathways. By use of whole body PGC-1? knockout (KO) mice, we investigated the role of PGC-1? in fasting, acute exercise and exercise training-induced regulation of key proteins in gluconeogenesis and metabolism in the liver. In both wild-type (WT) and PGC-1? KO mice liver, the mRNA content of the gluconeogenic proteins glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was upregulated during fasting. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) remained unchanged after fasting in WT mice, but it was upregulated in PGC-1? KO mice. In response to a single exercise bout, G6Pase mRNA was upregulated in both genotypes, whereas no significant changes were detected in PEPCK or PC mRNA. While G6Pase and PC protein remained unchanged, liver PEPCK protein content was higher in trained than untrained mice of both genotypes. The mRNA content of the mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c (Cyt c) and cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunit I was unchanged in response to fasting. The mRNA and protein content of Cyt c and COXI increased in the liver in response to a single exercise bout and prolonged exercise training, respectively, in WT mice, but not in PGC-1? KO mice. Neither fasting nor exercise affected the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes in the liver, and knockout of PGC-1? had no effect. In conclusion, these results suggest that PGC-1? plays a pivotal role in regulation of Cyt c and COXI expression in the liver in response to a single exercise bout and prolonged exercise training, which implies that exercise training-induced improvements in oxidative capacity of the liver is regulated by PGC-1?.
The aim was to test the hypothesis that 7 days of bed rest reduces mitochondrial number and expression and activity of oxidative proteins in human skeletal muscle but that exercise-induced intracellular signaling as well as mRNA and microRNA (miR) responses are maintained after bed rest. Twelve young, healthy male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies taken before and after bed rest. In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained from six of the subjects prior to, immediately after, and 3 h after 45 min of one-legged knee extensor exercise performed before and after bed rest. Maximal oxygen uptake decreased by 4%, and exercise endurance decreased nonsignificantly, by 11%, by bed rest. Bed rest reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA content 15%, hexokinase II and sirtuin 1 protein content ?45%, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity ?8%, and miR-1 and miR-133a content ?10%. However, cytochrome c and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein content as well as capillarization did not change significantly with bed rest. Acute exercise increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, and VEGF mRNA content in skeletal muscle before bed rest, but the responses were abolished after bed rest. The present findings indicate that only 7 days of physical inactivity reduces skeletal muscle metabolic capacity as well as abolishes exercise-induced adaptive gene responses, likely reflecting an interference with the ability of skeletal muscle to adapt to exercise.
To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), six healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a one-legged knee extensor exercise bout [45 min at 60% maximal load (W(max))] with muscle biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis before, immediately after exercise, and at 3 h of recovery. Blood samples were taken from the femoral vein and artery before and after 40 min of exercise. Glucose intake elicited a larger (P ? 0.05) insulin response after bed rest than before, indicating glucose intolerance. There were no differences in lactate release/uptake across the exercising muscle before and after bed rest, but glucose uptake after 40 min of exercise was larger (P ? 0.05) before bed rest than after. Muscle glycogen content tended to be higher (0.05< P ? 0.10) after bed rest than before, but muscle glycogen breakdown in response to exercise was similar before and after bed rest. PDH-E1? protein content did not change in response to bed rest or in response to the exercise intervention. Exercise increased (P ? 0.05) the activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) and induced (P ? 0.05) dephosphorylation of PDH-E1? on Ser²?³, Ser²?? and Ser³??, with no difference before and after bed rest. In conclusion, although 7 days of bed rest induced whole body glucose intolerance, exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle was not changed. This suggests that exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle is maintained in glucose-intolerant (e.g., insulin resistant) individuals.
The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is expressed by skeletal muscle and induces proliferation of myoblasts. We hypothesized that LIF is a contraction-induced myokine functioning in an autocrine fashion to activate gene regulation of human muscle satellite cell proliferation. Skeletal muscle LIF expression, regulation, and action were examined in two models: 1) young men performing a bout of heavy resistance exercise of the quadriceps muscle and 2) cultured primary human satellite cells. Resistance exercise induced a ninefold increase in LIF mRNA content in skeletal muscle, but LIF was not detectable in plasma of the subjects. However, electrically stimulated cultured human myotubes produced and secreted LIF, suggesting that LIF is a myokine with local effects. The well established exercise-induced signaling molecules PI3K, Akt, and mTor contributed to the regulation of LIF in cultured human myotubes as chemical inhibition of PI3K and mTor and siRNA knockdown of Akt1 were independently sufficient to downregulate LIF. Human myoblast proliferation was increased by recombinant exogenous LIF and decreased by siRNA knockdown of the endogenous LIF receptor. Finally, the transcription factors JunB and c-Myc, which promote myoblast proliferation, were induced by LIF in cultured human myotubes. Indeed, both JunB and c-Myc were also increased in skeletal muscle following resistance exercise. Our data suggest that LIF is a contraction-induced myokine, potentially acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to promote satellite cell proliferation.
Na,K-ATPase activity, which is crucial for skeletal muscle function, undergoes acute and long-term regulation in response to muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AMP kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1? are underlying factors in long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase isoform (?,? and PLM) abundance and Na(+) affinity. Repeated treatment of mice with the AMPK activator AICAR decreased total PLM protein content but increased PLM phosphorylation, whereas the number of ?- and ?-subunits remained unchanged. The K(m) for Na(+) stimulation of Na,K-ATPase was reduced (higher affinity) after AICAR treatment. PLM abundance was increased in AMPK kinase-dead mice compared with control mice, but PLM phosphorylation and Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity remained unchanged. Na,K-ATPase activity and subunit distribution were also measured in mice with different degrees of PGC-1? expression. Protein abundances of ?1 and ?2 were reduced in PGC-1? +/- and -/- mice, and the ?(1)/?(2) ratio was increased with PGC-1? overexpression (TG mice). PLM protein abundance was decreased in TG mice, but phosphorylation status was unchanged. Na,K-ATPase V (max) was decreased in PCG-1? TG and KO mice. Experimentally in vitro induced phosphorylation of PLM increased Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity, confirming that PLM phosphorylation is important for Na,K-ATPase function. In conclusion, both AMPK and PGC-1? regulate PLM abundance, AMPK regulates PLM phosphorylation and PGC-1? expression influences Na,K-ATPase ?(1) and ?(2) content and ?(1)/?(2) isoform ratio. Phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase subunit PLM is an important regulatory mechanism.
Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance.
The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that 1) skeletal muscles of elderly subjects can adapt to a single endurance exercise bout and 2) endurance trained elderly subjects have higher expression/activity of oxidative and angiogenic proteins in skeletal muscle than untrained elderly people. To investigate this, lifelong endurance trained elderly (ET; n = 8) aged 71.3 ± 3.4 years and untrained elderly subjects (UT; n = 7) aged 71.3 ± 4 years, performed a cycling exercise bout at 75% VO(2max) with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained before (Pre), immediately after exercise (0 h) and at 2 h of recovery. Capillarization was detected histochemically and oxidative enzyme activities were determined on isolated mitochondria. GLUT4, HKII, Cyt c and VEGF protein expression was measured on muscle lysates from Pre-biopsies, phosphorylation of AMPK and P38 on lysates from Pre and 0 h biopsies, while PGC-1?, VEGF, HKII and TFAM mRNA content was determined at all time points. ET had ~40% higher PDH, CS, SDH, ?-KG-DH and ATP synthase activities and 27% higher capillarization than UT, reflecting increased skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with lifelong endurance exercise training. In addition, acute exercise increased in UT PGC-1? mRNA 11-fold and VEGF mRNA 4-fold at 2 h of recovery, and AMPK phosphorylation ~5-fold immediately after exercise, relative to Pre, indicating an ability to adapt metabolically and angiogenically to endurance exercise. However, in ET PGC-1? mRNA only increased 5 fold and AMPK phosphorylation ~2-fold, while VEGF mRNA remained unchanged after the acute exercise bout. P38 increased similarly in ET and UT after exercise. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that lifelong endurance exercise training ensures an improved oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, and that skeletal muscle of elderly subjects maintains the ability to respond to acute endurance exercise.
The chemokine CXC ligand-1 (CXCL-1) is a small cytokine that elicits effects by signalling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. CXCL-1 has neutrophil chemoattractant activity, is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, inflammation and wound healing, and may possess neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms whereby CXCL-1 is regulated by exercise inmice. After a single bout of exercise, CXCL-1 protein increased in serum(2.4-fold), and CXCL-1 mRNA in muscle (6.5-fold) and liver (41-fold). These increases in CXCL-1 were preceded by increases in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and muscle IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, exercise-induced regulation of liver CXCL-1 mRNA expression was completely blunted in IL-6 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we examined the possible existence of a muscle-to-liver axis by overexpressing IL-6 in muscles. This resulted in increases in serum CXCL-1 (5-fold) and liver CXCL-1 mRNA expression (24-fold) compared with control. Because IL-6 expression and release are known to be augmented during exercise in glycogen-depleted animals, CXCL-1 and IL-6 expression were examined after exercise in overnight-fasted mice.We found that fasting significantly augmented serum CXCL-1, and CXCL-1 expression in liver and muscle. Taken together, these data indicate that liver is the main source of serum CXCL-1 during exercise in mice, and that the CXCL-1 expression in the liver is regulated by muscle-derived IL-6.
We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin-stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. Women also express higher muscle mRNA levels of proteins related to lipid metabolism than men. We therefore hypothesized that women would be less prone to lipid-induced insulin resistance.
The aim of this study was to test whether the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? coactivator (PGC)1? regulates the content of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1? and influences PDH activity through regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) expression and subsequently PDH phosphorylation. PGC-1? whole body knockout (KO), muscle-specific PGC-1? overexpressing mice (MCK PGC-1?), and littermate wild-type (WT) mice underwent two interventions known to affect PDH. Quadriceps muscles were removed from fed and 24-h fasted mice as well as at 6 h of recovery after 1-h running and from mice that did not run acutely. PDH-E1? protein content and PDH-E1? phosphorylation were lower in PGC-1? KO and higher in MCK PGC-1? mice at rest, but, while MCK PGC-1? had higher PDK4 protein content, KO of PGC-1? had no effect on PDK4 protein content. The differences in phosphorylation partly vanished when expressing phosphorylation relative to the PDH-E1? content with only a maintained elevated phosphorylation in MCK PGC-1? mice. Fasting upregulated PDK4 protein in PGC-1? KO, MCK PGC-1? and WT mice, but this was not consistently associated with increased PDH-E1? phosphorylation. Downregulation of the activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) at 6-h recovery from exercise in both the PGC-1? KO and MCK PGC-1? mice and the association between PDH-E1? phosphorylation and PDHa activity in PGC-1? KO mice indicate that PGC-1? is not required for these responses. In conclusion, PGC-1? regulates PDH-E1? protein content in parallel with mitochondrial oxidative proteins, but does not seem to influence PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle in response to fasting and in recovery from exercise.
We tested the hypothesis that repeated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) induces mitochondrial and glucose membrane transporter mRNA/protein expression via a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha)-dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha-knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were given either single or repeated subcutaneous injections of the AMPK activator AICAR or saline. Skeletal muscles were removed either 1 or 4 h after the single AICAR treatment or 24 h after the last injection following repeated AICAR treatment. Repeated AICAR treatment increased GLUT4, cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase I, and (cyt) c protein expression approximately 10-40% relative to saline in white muscles of WT but not of PGC-1alpha-KO mice, whereas fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36) protein expression was unaffected by AICAR treatment in both genotypes. GLUT4, cyt c, and FAT/CD36 mRNA content increased 30-60% 4 h after a single AICAR injection relative to saline in WT, and FAT/CD36 mRNA content decreased in PGC-1alpha-KO mice. One hour after a single AICAR treatment, phosphorylation of AMPK and the downstream target acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase increased in all muscles investigated independent of genotype, indicating normal AICAR-induced AMPK signaling in the absence of PGC-1alpha. The hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein response was similar in muscles of WT and PGC-1alpha-KO mice after single and repeated AICAR treatments, respectively, confirming that HKII is regulated independently of PGC-1alpha in response to AICAR. In conclusion, here we provide genetic evidence for a role of PGC-1alpha in AMPK-mediated regulation of mitochondrial and glucose membrane transport protein expression in skeletal muscle.
Lifestyle-related diseases are rapidly increasing at least in part due to less physical activity. The health beneficial effects of regular physical activity include metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, which are thought to be elicited by cumulative effects of transient gene responses to each single exercise, but how is this regulated? A potential candidate in this is the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, which has been identified as a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, but also been shown to regulate proteins involved in angiogenesis and the anti-oxidant defence as well as to affect expression of inflammatory markers. Exercise increases PGC-1alpha transcription and potentially PGC-1alpha activity through post-translational modifications, and concomitant PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation is suggested to be an underlying mechanism for adaptations in skeletal muscle, when exercise is repeated. The current review presents some of the key findings in PGC-1alpha-mediated regulation of metabolically related, anti-oxidant and inflammatory proteins in skeletal muscle in the basal state and in response to exercise training, and describes functional significance of PGC-1alpha-mediated effects in skeletal muscle. In addition, regulation of PGC-1alpha expression and activity in skeletal muscle is described. The impact of changes in PGC-1alpha expression in mouse skeletal muscle and the ability of PGC-1alpha to regulate multiple pathways and functions underline the potential importance of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle adaptations in humans. The absence of exercise-induced PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation during a physical inactive lifestyle is suggested to lead to reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle and concomitant impaired metabolism.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training prevents an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes through a PGC-1alpha dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knock-out (KO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice were submitted to long term running wheel exercise training or a sedentary lifestyle from 2 to 13 month of age. Furthermore, a group of approximately 4-month-old mice was used as young untrained controls. There was in both genotypes an age-associated approximately 30% decrease in citrate synthase (CS) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)2 protein content in 13-month-old untrained mice compared with young untrained mice. However, training prevented the age-associated decrease in CS activity and SOD2 protein content only in WT mice, but long term exercise training did increase HKII protein content in both genotypes. In addition, while CS activity and protein expression of cytc and SOD2 were 50-150% lower in skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha mice than WT mice, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 was approximately 30% elevated in PGC-1alpha KO mice. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that PGC-1alpha is required for training-induced prevention of an age-associated decline in CS activity and SOD2 protein expression in skeletal muscle.
The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P < 0.05), with no significant change in the control subjects, but there was no training-induced increase in the release of BDNF during exercise. Additionally, eight mice completed a 5-wk treadmill running training protocol that increased the BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus (4.5 + or - 1.6 vs. 1.4 + or - 1.1 mRNA/ssDNA; P < 0.05), but not in the cerebral cortex (4.0 + or - 1.4 vs. 4.6 + or - 1.4 mRNA/ssDNA) compared with untrained mice. The increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus and the enhanced release of BDNF from the human brain following training suggest that endurance training promotes brain health.
Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Diabetes induces cardiovascular dysregulation, but the extent to which the vasodilatatory capacity of nucleotides and nucleosides is affected in type 2 diabetes is unknown. The present study investigated 1) the vasodilatatory effect of ATP, uridine-triphosphate (UTP), and adenosine (ADO) and 2) the expression and distribution of P2Y(2) and P2X(1) receptors in skeletal muscles of diabetic subjects.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has an important role in regulating maintenance, growth and survival of neurons. However, the main source of circulating BDNF in response to exercise is unknown. To identify whether the brain is a source of BDNF during exercise, eight volunteers rowed for 4 h while simultaneous blood samples were obtained from the radial artery and the internal jugular vein. To further identify putative cerebral region(s) responsible for BDNF release, mouse brains were dissected and analysed for BDNF mRNA expression following treadmill exercise. In humans, a BDNF release from the brain was observed at rest (P < 0.05), and increased two- to threefold during exercise (P < 0.05). Both at rest and during exercise, the brain contributed 70-80% of circulating BDNF, while that contribution decreased following 1 h of recovery. In mice, exercise induced a three- to fivefold increase in BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus and cortex, peaking 2 h after the termination of exercise. These results suggest that the brain is a major but not the sole contributor to circulating BDNF. Moreover, the importance of the cortex and hippocampus as a source for plasma BDNF becomes even more prominent in response to exercise.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation.
Mitochondria are critical for cellular bioenergetics, and they mediate apoptosis within cells. We used whole body peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) knockout (KO) animals to investigate its role on organelle function, apoptotic signaling, and cytochrome-c oxidase activity, an indicator of mitochondrial content, in muscle and other tissues (brain, liver, and pancreas). Lack of PGC-1alpha reduced mitochondrial content in all muscles (17-44%; P < 0.05) but had no effect in brain, liver, and pancreas. However, the tissue expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA maintenance [transcription factor A (Tfam)], import (Tim23), and remodeling [mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)] did not parallel the decrease in mitochondrial content in PGC-1alpha KO animals. These proteins remained unchanged or were upregulated (P < 0.05) in the highly oxidative heart, indicating a change in mitochondrial composition. A change in muscle organelle composition was also evident from the alterations in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial respiration, which was impaired in the absence of PGC-1alpha. However, endurance-trained KO animals did not exhibit reduced mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was not affected by the lack of PGC-1alpha, but subsarcolemmal mitochondria from PGC-1alpha KO animals released a greater amount of cytochrome c than in WT animals following exogenous ROS treatment. Our results indicate that the lack of PGC-1alpha results in 1) a muscle type-specific suppression of mitochondrial content that depends on basal oxidative capacity, 2) an alteration in mitochondrial composition, 3) impaired mitochondrial respiratory function that can be improved by training, and 4) a greater basal protein release from subsarcolemmal mitochondria, indicating an enhanced mitochondrial apoptotic susceptibility.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1alpha is required for exercise-induced VEGF expression in both young and old mice and that AMPK activation leads to increased VEGF expression through a PGC-1alpha-dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were submitted to either 1) 5 wk of exercise training, 2) lifelong (from 2 to 13 mo of age) exercise training in activity wheel, 3) a single exercise bout, or 4) 4 wk of daily subcutaneous AICAR or saline injections. In skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha KO mice, VEGF protein expression was approximately 60-80% lower and the capillary-to-fiber ratio approximately 20% lower than in WT. Basal VEGF mRNA expression was similar in WT and PGC-1alpha KO mice, but acute exercise and AICAR treatment increased the VEGF mRNA content in WT mice only. Exercise training of young mice increased skeletal muscle VEGF protein expression approximately 50% in WT mice but with no effect in PGC-1alpha KO mice. Furthermore, a training-induced prevention of an age-associated decline in VEGF protein content was observed in WT but not in PGC-1alpha KO muscles. In addition, repeated AICAR treatments increased skeletal muscle VEGF protein expression approximately 15% in WT but not in PGC-1alpha KO mice. This study shows that PGC-1alpha is essential for exercise-induced upregulation of skeletal muscle VEGF expression and for a training-induced prevention of an age-associated decline in VEGF protein content. Furthermore, the findings suggest an AMPK-mediated regulation of VEGF expression through PGC-1alpha.
We examined acute molecular responses in skeletal muscle to divergent exercise stimuli by combining consecutive bouts of resistance and endurance exercise. Eight men [22.9 +/- 6.3 yr, body mass of 73.2 +/- 4.5 kg, peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2peak)) of 54.0 +/- 5.7 ml.kg(-1) x min(-1)] were randomly assigned to complete trials consisting of either resistance exercise (8 x 5 leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by a bout of endurance exercise (30 min cycling, 70% Vo(2peak)) or vice versa. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest, 15 min after each exercise bout, and after 3 h of passive recovery to determine early signaling and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt and Akt1(Ser473) were elevated 15 min after resistance exercise compared with cycling, with the greatest increase observed when resistance exercise followed cycling ( approximately 55%; P < 0.01). TSC2-mTOR-S6 kinase phosphorylation 15 min after each bout of exercise was similar regardless of the exercise mode. The cumulative effect of combined exercise resulted in disparate mRNA responses. IGF-I mRNA content was reduced when cycling preceded resistance exercise (-42%), whereas muscle ring finger mRNA was elevated when cycling was undertaken after resistance exercise ( approximately 52%; P < 0.05). The hexokinase II mRNA level was higher after resistance cycling ( approximately 45%; P < 0.05) than after cycling-resistance exercise, whereas modest increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha mRNA did not reveal an order effect. We conclude that acute responses to diverse bouts of contractile activity are modified by the exercise order. Moreover, undertaking divergent exercise in close proximity influences the acute molecular profile and likely exacerbates acute "interference."
Plasma ATP is thought to contribute to the local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Intravascular ATP infusion can induce profound limb muscle vasodilatation, but the purinergic receptors and downstream signals involved in this response remain unclear. This study investigated: 1) the role of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and adenosine as mediators of ATP-induced limb vasodilation and 2) the expression and distribution of purinergic P(2) receptors in human skeletal muscle. Systemic and leg hemodynamics were measured before and during 5-7 min of femoral intra-arterial infusion of ATP [0.45-2.45 micromol/min] in 19 healthy male subjects with and without coinfusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA; NO formation inhibitor; 12.3 +/- 0.3 (SE) mg/min), indomethacin (INDO; prostaglandin formation blocker; 613 +/- 12 microg/min), and/or theophylline (adenosine receptor blocker; 400 +/- 26 mg). During control conditions, ATP infusion increased leg blood flow (LBF) from baseline conditions by 1.82 +/- 0.14 l/min. When ATP was coinfused with either l-NMMA, INDO, or l-NMMA + INDO combined, the increase in LBF was reduced by 14 +/- 6, 15 +/- 9, and 39 +/- 8%, respectively (all P < 0.05), and was associated with a parallel lowering in leg vascular conductance and cardiac output and a compensatory increase in leg O(2) extraction. Infusion of theophylline did not alter the ATP-induced leg hyperemia or systemic variables. Real-time PCR analysis of the mRNA content from the vastus lateralis muscle of eight subjects showed the highest expression of P(2Y2) receptors of the 10 investigated P(2) receptor subtypes. Immunohistochemistry showed that P(2Y2) receptors were located in the endothelium of microvessels and smooth muscle cells, whereas P(2X1) receptors were located in the endothelium and the sacrolemma. Collectively, these results indicate that NO and prostaglandins, but not adenosine, play a role in ATP-induced vasodilation in human skeletal muscle. The expression and localization of the nucleotide selective P(2Y2) and P(2X1) receptors suggest that these receptors may mediate ATP-induced vasodilation in skeletal muscle.
The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16 healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed ~7?hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism. In contrast, prolonged general fitness as well as specific strength training decreased mRNA content of heat shock protein while the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was increased only after specific strength training.
Sarcoplasmic and t-tubule membrane proteins regulating sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration exhibit fibre-type-dependent isoform expression, and play central roles in muscle contraction and relaxation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro electrical stimulation on the mRNA expression of components involved in Ca(2+) regulation in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle. The mRNA level of Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1, 2), calsequestrin (CASQ1, 2), ryanodine receptor (RyR1), and dihydropyridine receptor (Cacna1) was assessed in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles at 4 h of recovery following in vitro stimulations (either short intensive (SHO) 60 Hz, 5 min, or prolonged moderate (PRO) 20 Hz, 40 min). Stimulation induced acute regulation of the mRNA level of Ca(2+)-regulating proteins in a manner that does not follow typical fibre-type-specific transitions. In general, stimulation decreased mRNA content of all proteins studied. Most prominent down-regulation was observed for Cacna1 (26 and 32 % after SHO and PRO, respectively, in SOL; 19 % after SHO in EDL). SERCA1, SERCA2, CASQ1, CASQ2, and RyR1 mRNA content also decreased significantly in both muscles relative to resting control. Of notice is that hexokinase II mRNA content was increased in EDL and unchanged in SOL underlining the specificity of the down-regulation of mRNA of Ca(2+) regulatory proteins. The results demonstrate contraction-induced down-regulation of mRNAs for the main components of Ca(2+)-regulating system in skeletal muscle. The down-regulation of both isoforms of SERCA and CASQ after a single electrical stimulation session suggests that adaptations to repeated stimulation involve further regulatory mechanisms in addition to acute mRNA responses.
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, 12 young, healthy male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained before and after. In six of the subjects, muscle biopsies were taken from both legs before and after a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp performed 3 h after a 45-min, one-legged exercise. Blood samples were obtained from one femoral artery and both femoral veins before and during the clamp. Glucose infusion rate and leg glucose extraction during the clamp were lower after than before bed rest. This bed rest-induced insulin resistance occurred together with reduced muscle GLUT4, hexokinase II, protein kinase B/Akt1, and Akt2 protein level, and a tendency for reduced 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. The ability of insulin to phosphorylate Akt and activate glycogen synthase (GS) was reduced with normal GS site 3 but abnormal GS site 2+2a phosphorylation after bed rest. Exercise enhanced insulin-stimulated leg glucose extraction both before and after bed rest, which was accompanied by higher GS activity in the prior-exercised leg than the rested leg. The present findings demonstrate that physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in muscle is associated with lower content/activity of key proteins in glucose transport/phosphorylation and storage.
Many lifestyle-related diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? coactivator (PGC)-1? has been suggested to be protective against low-grade inflammation. However, whether these anti-inflammatory properties affect acute inflammation is not known. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the role of muscle PGC-1? in acute inflammation. Quadriceps muscles were removed from 10-week old whole body PGC-1? knockout (KO), muscle specific PGC-1? KO (MKO) and muscle-specific PGC-1? overexpression mice (TG), 2 hours after an intraperitoneal injection of either 0.8 µg LPS/g body weight or saline. Basal TNF? mRNA content was lower in skeletal muscle of whole body PGC-1? KO mice and in accordance TG mice showed increased TNF? mRNA and protein level relative to WT, indicating a possible PGC-1? mediated regulation of TNF?. Basal p65 phosphorylation was increased in TG mice possibly explaining the elevated TNF? expression in these mice. Systemically, TG mice had reduced basal plasma TNF? levels compared with WT suggesting a protective effect against systemic low-grade inflammation in these animals. While TG mice reached similar TNF? levels as WT and showed more marked induction in plasma TNF? than WT after LPS injection, MKO PGC-1? mice had a reduced plasma TNF? and skeletal muscle TNF? mRNA response to LPS. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that PGC-1? enhances basal TNF? expression in skeletal muscle and indicate that PGC-1? does not exert anti-inflammatory effects during acute inflammation. Lack of skeletal muscle PGC-1? seems however to impair the acute TNF? response, which may reflect a phenotype more susceptible to infections as also observed in type 2 diabetes patients.
Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle.
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