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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Systems development and difficulties in implementing procedures for elder abuse prevention among private community general support centers in Japan.
J Elder Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The present study examines differences in systems development and difficulties in implementing procedures for elder abuse prevention in 1,119 private and 606 public community general support centers under the public long-term care insurance program in Japan. The private community general support centers showed more difficulty implementing procedures than the public community general support centers. Controlling for the type of municipality, progress in systems development did not differ between the private and public community general support centers. Further research should examine how the characteristics of municipal governments are related to systems development in community general support centers.
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Akhirin regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in intact and injured mouse spinal cord.
Dev Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Although the central nervous system is considered a comparatively static tissue with limited cell turnover, cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from most neural tissues. The spinal cord ependymal cells show neural stem cell potential in vitro and in vivo in injured spinal cord. However, very little is known regarding the ependymal niche in the mouse spinal cord. We previously reported that a secreted factor, chick Akhirin, is expressed in the ciliary marginal zone of the eye, where it works as a heterophilic cell-adhesion molecule. Here, we describe a new crucial function for mouse Akhirin (M-AKH) in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors in the mouse spinal cord. During embryonic spinal cord development, M-AKH is transiently expressed in the central canal ependymal cells, which possess latent neural stem cell properties. Targeted inactivation of the AKH gene in mice causes a reduction in the size of the spinal cord and decreases BrdU incorporation in the spinal cord. Remarkably, the expression patterns of ependymal niche molecules in AKH knockout (AKH-/-) mice are different from those of AKH+/+, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we provide evidence that AKH expression in the central canal is rapidly upregulated in the injured spinal cord. Taken together, these results indicate that M-AKH plays a crucial role in mouse spinal cord formation by regulating the ependymal niche in the central canal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2014.
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[Electroencephalography, a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of dementia].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Early diagnosis at the prodromal stage of dementing illnesses is an important topic of current clinical research. Remarkable advances of biomarker for the early diagnosis have done with structural MRI imaging, metabolic/amyloid PET imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. However, there still remains a need to develop an efficient, low cost, portable, noninvasive method. Electrophysiological measurements are promising for this point and they have the highest time resolution for reflecting brain dynamics in cognition. Unfortunately, the classification of cognitive impaired subjects at individual level revealed a moderate accuracy with electrophysiological markers. However, cortical functional activity change preceding anatomical and metabolic changes can only be assessed by electrophysiological measurements. Improvement of the accuracy for the early diagnosis of cognitive decline is expected.
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Inhibitory effects of draxin on axonal outgrowth and migration of precerebellar neurons.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The rhombic lip, a dorsal stripe of the neuroepithelium lining the edge of the fourth ventricle, is the site of origin of precerebellar neurons (PCN), which migrate tangentially towards the floor plate. After reaching the floor plate, they project their axons to the cerebellum. Although previous studies have shown that the guidance molecules Netrin/DCC and Slit/Robo have critical roles in PCN migration, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that draxin, a repulsive axon guidance protein, is involved in PCN development. We found that draxin is expressed in the rhombic lip and migratory stream of some PCN in the developing hindbrain of mice. In addition, draxin inhibited neurite outgrowth and nuclei migration from rhombic lip explants. These results suggest that draxin functions as a repulsive guidance cue for PCN migration. However, we observed no significant differences in PCN distribution between draxin(-/-) and wild type embryos. Thus, draxin and other axon guidance cues may have redundant roles in PCN migration.
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Effect of branched-chain amino acids in patients receiving intervention for hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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To investigate the usefulness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) before transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA).
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Reuse of liver grafts following the brain death of the initial recipient.
World J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To determine if there is a reasonable prospect of success of a re-use liver transplantation.
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Primary Stability of a Hybrid Implant Compared with Tapered and Cylindrical Implants in an Ex Vivo Model.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Hybrid implants are thought to offer good stability and bone-implant contact.
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Apoptotic function of tumor-associated antigen RCAS1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cell (RCAS1) is derived from uterine adenocarcinoma and can induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, allowing tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. RCAS1 is reportedly expressed in a membranous pattern on tumor cell or soluble one in serum of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate expression patterns of RCAS1 and the effect on apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines.
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Analysis of new biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most serious diseases in northeast Thailand, where its incidence is reported to be the highest in the world. We tried to develop a new method to detect cholangiocarcinoma in the early stages using serum proteins. We found that after fluorescent labeling of the sugar moiety of serum proteins, a new peak was identified, which might be a promising marker for cholangiocarcinoma.
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Multiple roles of Equarin during lens development.
Dev. Growth Differ.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Since the days of Hans Spemann, the ocular lens has served as one of the most important developmental systems for elucidating the fundamental processes of induction and differentiation. Lens is an important source of signals that influence the eye development and a variety of genes expressed by the lens have been identified. The identification of additional molecule(s), especially secreted ones that might mediate signals, will extend our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of eye and lens development. Here, we will introduce a soluble molecule, Equarin, and discuss its vital role in multiple aspects of lens development.
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Influence of different durations of electroacupuncture stimulation on skin blood flow and muscle blood volume.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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To determine whether skin blood flow (SBF) and muscle blood volume (MBV) responses differ according to the duration of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation.
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Difference between the effects of one-site and three-site abdominal hot-stone stimulation on the skin-temperature changes of the lower limbs.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To determine whether any difference exists in the skin-temperature responses of the lower limbs to hot-stone application relative to one-site and three-site abdominal application.
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Combined Effects of Polymorphisms of DNA-repair Protein Genes and Metabolic Enzyme Genes on the Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Although Opisthorchis viverrini is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma, not all the infected individuals develop cholangiocarcinoma. We investigated whether the base excision repair enzyme gene polymorphisms with differentiated repair capacities of inflammation-related deoxyribonucleic acid damage may play a key role and such possible effects from those genes may be increased or diminished in co-existence of polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes, including glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 and glutathione-S-transferases ?1.
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Effects of the brown rice diet on visceral obesity and endothelial function: the BRAVO study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) produce different glycaemic responses and their consumption may affect the dietary management of obesity. In the present study, the effects of BR and WR on abdominal fat distribution, metabolic parameters and endothelial function were evaluated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome in a randomised cross-over fashion. In study 1, acute postprandial metabolic parameters and flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated dilation (FMD and NMD) of the brachial artery were determined in male volunteers with or without the metabolic syndrome after ingestion of either BR or WR. The increases in glucose and insulin AUC were lower after ingestion of BR than after ingestion of WR (P= 0·041 and P= 0·045, respectively). FMD values were decreased 60 min after ingestion of WR (P= 0·037 v. baseline), but the decrease was protected after ingestion of BR. In study 2, a separate cohort of male volunteers (n 27) with the metabolic syndrome was randomised into two groups with different BR and WR consumption patterns. The values of weight-based parameters were decreased after consumption of BR for 8 weeks, but returned to baseline values after a WR consumption period. Insulin resistance and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced after consumption of BR. In conclusion, consumption of BR may be beneficial, partly owing to the lowering of glycaemic response, and may protect postprandial endothelial function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Long-term beneficial effects of BR on metabolic parameters and endothelial function were also observed.
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[Effects of acupuncture treatment on natural killer cell activity, pulse rate, and pain reduction for older adults: an uncontrolled, observational study].
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to examine the changes in natural killer (NK) cell activity, pulse rate, and pain intensity among older adults before and after acupuncture treatment.
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Possible involvement of ?Np63 downregulation in the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma via induction of a mesenchymal phenotype.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential developmental program, is involved in tumor progression. ?Np63, a homolog of p53, is associated with the EMT program, but the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of ?Np63 in EMT during progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Five OSCC cell lines and specimens from 78 patients with OSCC were used. The expressions of ?Np63, p63?, p63? and epithelial markers (cytokeratins 5 and 14) was detected in the OSCC cells, but not in SQUU-B cells (high metastatic potential). E-cadherin was expressed in all OSCC cells. Mesenchymal markers were strongly expressed in the SQUU-B cells. Knockdown of endogenous ?Np63 in HSC-2 cells induced morphological changes to the spindle shape, decreased the expression of epithelial markers, increased the expression of mesenchymal markers, increased migration and reduced proliferation. By contrast, SQUU-B cells overexpressing ?Np63? showed changed their morphology from stromal cell-like to epithelial cells. However, E-cadherin expression was not affected by ?Np63 knockdown or overexpression. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cancer cells expressing vimentin were found at the invasive front in the OSCC specimens. The intensity of ?Np63 expression was also decreased in these cells. Interestingly, the vimentin positivity or decreased intensity of ?Np63 was positively associated with metastases and poor prognosis in the OSCC patients. These results indicated that ?Np63 downregulation in cancer cells induces a mesenchymal phenotype that is related to tumor progression of OSCC.
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Living-donor liver transplantation with hyperreduced left lateral segment grafts: a single-center experience.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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In the setting of liver transplantation in small infants who receive left lateral segment (LLS) grafts, problems are encountered related to graft-size mismatching in the form of so-called "large-for-size" grafts. To address these problems, the feasibility of further reducing the size of LLS grafts to form hyperreduced LLS (HRLLS) grafts was investigated.
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[Initial experience of split liver transplantation in National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan].
Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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We reviewed our initial experience of deceased split liver transplantation in National Center for Child Health and Development and report the results herein.
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Olive oil enema in a pre-term infant with milk curd syndrome.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Milk curd syndrome was first reported in the 1960s, but was gradually forgotten because of its low incidence thereafter. This condition in pre-term infants has been reported over the last decade and has again attracted neonatologists attention. The present report describes a pre-term infant with milk curd syndrome. Abdominal distension was evident 14 days after the start of feeding with fortified expressed milk. Abdominal X-ray showed multiple intraluminal masses surrounded by a halo of air, and ultrasound indicated hyperechoic masses. Along with that history and the appearance of fecal impaction, the diagnosis of milk curd syndrome was confirmed. This baby was treated with olive oil enemas and successive colonic lavage for 3 days, and the symptoms were relieved. Olive oil enema, which softens hard stools and induces smooth movement of these stools, may be an effective and safe first-line treatment in pre-term infants with milk curd syndrome.
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New features of vault architecture and dynamics revealed by novel refinement using the deformable elastic network approach.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The vault particle, with a molecular weight of about 10 MDa, is the largest ribonucleoprotein that has been described. The X-ray structure of intact rat vault has been solved at a resolution of 3.5 Å [Tanaka et al. (2009), Science, 323, 384-388], showing an overall barrel-shaped architecture organized into two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). The model deposited in the PDB includes 39 MVP copies (half a vault) in the crystal asymmetric unit. A 2.1 Å resolution structure of the seven N-terminal repeats (R1-7) of MVP has also been determined [Querol-Audí et al. (2009), EMBO J. 28, 3450-3457], revealing important discrepancies with respect to the MVP models for repeats R1 and R2. Here, the re-refinement of the vault structure by incorporating the high-resolution information available for the R1-7 domains, using the deformable elastic network (DEN) approach and maintaining strict 39-fold noncrystallographic symmetry is reported. The new refinement indicates that at the resolution presently available the MVP shell can be described well as only one independent subunit organized with perfect D39 molecular symmetry. This refinement reveals that significant rearrangements occur in the N-terminus of MVP during the closing of the two vault halves and that the 39-fold symmetry breaks in the cap region. These results reflect the highly dynamic nature of the vault structure and represent a necessary step towards a better understanding of the biology and regulation of this particle.
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An application of outer membrane protein p6-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of haemophilus influenzae in middle ear fluids and nasopharyngeal secretions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to outer membrane protein P6 (P6-ELISA) was applied for detecting Haemophilus influenzae in middle ear fluids (MEFs) from acute otitis media (AOM) patients and in nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs) from acute rhinosinusitis patients. P6-ELISA had a sensitivity of 83.3% for MEFs and 71.5% for NPSs and a specificity of 85.6% for MEFs and 92.5% for NPSs, respectively. Real-time PCR exhibited significant differences in the number of ompP1 gene copies among samples determined by P6-ELISA to be positive and negative for H. influenzae. However, because the P6-ELISA test has the reactivity in Haemophilus species include two commensals H. haemolyticus and H. parainfluenzae, it is thus a weak method in order to detect only NTHi correctly. Consequently, diagnosis using the P6-ELISA should be based on an overall evaluation, including the results of other related examinations and clinical symptoms to prevent misleading conclusions in clinical setting.
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Branched-chain amino acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and prolongs survival in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05). The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver.
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Is there a difference between the effects of one-point and three-point indirect moxibustion stimulation on skin temperature changes of the posterior trunk surface?
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
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To determine whether any difference exists in responses to indirect moxibustion relative to thermal stimulation sites.
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Pediatric liver-kidney transplantation for hepatorenal fibrocystic disease from a living donor.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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The indications for and the timing of LT and/or KT for the patients with HRFCD are based on the severity of liver and kidney involvement. Most organs come from living donors, because the number of deceased donors is extremely low in Japan. Therefore, patients with HRFCD may need two organs from living donors. Four patients with HRFCD underwent living donor LT and KT from a single donor. The type of transplantation included combined LKT in one case, sequential LKT in two cases, and sequential KLT in one case. Although the case of combined LKT died because of sepsis, the other cases were doing well. Sequential LKT was successfully performed at the proper timing for each transplant; however, both of the donors suffered from a gastroduodenal ulcer after liver donation because of the psychological burden related to the relatively short period between two donations. In conclusion, living donation for LKT with cautious surgical procedures is not harmful for donors and recipients. However, changes in the allocation system established for deceased donors for HRFCD should be considered to avoid the need for two organ donations from the same living donor.
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Sequential liver-kidney transplantation in a boy with congenital hepatic fibrosis and nephronophthisis from a living donor.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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A five-yr-old boy developed chronic liver failure and ESKD because of CHF and juvenile NPHP. He underwent sequential liver and kidney transplantation with a compatible blood type from his father, at five yr, seven months and five yr, 11 months old, respectively. Because the patient was not in ESKD, we initially performed LDLT because of significant portal hypertension. Even after LDLT, his ascites was not ameliorated, and he needed continuous drainage of ascites and daily albumin and gamma globulin infusion. Thereafter, he progressed to ESKD and needed hemodialysis for one month before LDKT. CDC crossmatch for donor B cells in the warm test, FCXM for B cell IgG, and flow PRA for donor class II were positive before LDKT. After pretreatment of three courses of plasma exchange and intravenous gamma globulin, LDKT was performed. Two weeks after LDKT, AIHA concomitant with autoimmune thrombocytopenia, also called Evans syndrome, occurred because of passenger lymphocytes from the donor; however, the patient was successfully treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. Eighteen months have passed since LDKT, and liver and kidney function in both the recipient and donor are normal.
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Draxin inhibits axonal outgrowth through the netrin receptor DCC.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Draxin, a recently identified axon guidance protein, is essential for the formation of forebrain commissures, and can mediate repulsion of netrin-stimulated spinal commissural axons. Here, we report that draxin binds multiple netrin receptors: DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), Neogenin, UNC5s (H1, H2, H3), and DSCAM (Downs syndrome cell adhesion molecule). Since draxin and Dcc knockouts showed similar phenotype in forebrain commissures formation, we show here the functional importance of draxin/DCC interaction. Draxin interacts with subnanomolar affinity to the netrin receptor DCC, in a region of DCC distinct from its netrin-binding domain. In vitro, neurite outgrowth from cortical and olfactory bulb explants of Dcc knock-out mice is significantly less inhibited by draxin, when compared with neurites from explants of wild-type mice. Furthermore, in comparison with wild-type mice, the growth cone collapse in response to draxin is largely abolished in Dcc-deficient cortical neurons. In vivo, double heteros of draxin/Dcc mice show markedly higher frequency of complete agenesis of corpus callosum than either of the single hetero. These results identify DCC as a convergent receptor for netrin and draxin in axon growth and guidance.
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Visceral fat volume predicts new-onset type 2 diabetes in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Ninety seven patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and 72 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled. Increased visceral fat area (VFA) was associated with high values of HbA1c. The variables associated with a high risk of new-onset diabetes had a VFA>101 cm(2) in CHC, but not in NAFLD.
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Assessing interactions in the brain with exact low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Scalp electric potentials (electroencephalogram; EEG) are contingent to the impressed current density unleashed by cortical pyramidal neurons undergoing post-synaptic processes. EEG neuroimaging consists of estimating the cortical current density from scalp recordings. We report a solution to this inverse problem that attains exact localization: exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). This non-invasive method yields high time-resolution intracranial signals that can be used for assessing functional dynamic connectivity in the brain, quantified by coherence and phase synchronization. However, these measures are non-physiologically high because of volume conduction and low spatial resolution. We present a new method to solve this problem by decomposing them into instantaneous and lagged components, with the lagged part having almost pure physiological origin.
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Tsukushi functions as a Wnt signaling inhibitor by competing with Wnt2b for binding to transmembrane protein Frizzled4.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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The Wnt signaling pathway is essential for the development of diverse tissues during embryogenesis. Signal transduction is activated by the binding of Wnt proteins to the type I receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6 and the seven-pass transmembrane protein Frizzled (Fzd), which contains a Wnt-binding site in the form of a cysteine-rich domain. Known extracellular antagonists of the Wnt signaling pathway can be subdivided into two broad classes depending on whether they bind primarily to Wnt or to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6. We show that the secreted protein Tsukushi (TSK) functions as a Wnt signaling inhibitor by binding directly to the cysteine-rich domain of Fzd4 with an affinity of 2.3 × 10(-10) M and competing with Wnt2b. In the developing chick eye, TSK is expressed in the ciliary/iris epithelium, whereas Wnt2b is expressed in the adjacent anterior rim of the optic vesicle, where it controls the differentiation of peripheral eye structures, such as the ciliary body and iris. TSK overexpression effectively antagonizes Wnt2b signaling in chicken embryonic retinal cells both in vivo and in vitro and represses Wnt-dependent specification of peripheral eye fates. Conversely, targeted inactivation of the TSK gene in mice causes expansion of the ciliary body and up-regulation of Wnt2b and Fzd4 expression in the developing peripheral eye. Thus, we uncover a crucial role for TSK as a Wnt signaling inhibitor that regulates peripheral eye formation.
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[Strategy for surgery in neonates with coexisting congenital heart diseases].
Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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To determine the most appropriate treatment strategy for neonates with coexisting congenital heart diseases (CHD) requiring surgery, 408 neonates treated in our department between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 408 neonates, 37 (9.1%) had coexisting CHD. Among the pediatric diseases requiring surgery, esophageal atresia (46.7%), anorectal malformation (24.1%), and tracheobronchial anomalies (75.0%) were frequently associated with CHD, and the survival rate among patients with coexisting CDH was 24.3%, about 2-fold higher than among those without coexisting CHD. Clinical observations in the present series suggested that fatal conditions such as tracheoesophageal fistula should be repaired immediately after birth, followed by palliative cardiac surgery to stabilize the circulatory status if necessary. Thereafter, radical repair of cardiac and pediatric anomalies should be performed, taking into account the balance between surgical stress and cardiac reserve. For this purpose, proper assessment of surgical stress and cardiac function and collaboration among specialists in relevant fields are essential during the perinatal period to determine the treatment strategy for patients with multiple-organ anomalies.
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Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for the assessment of biliary stricture after pediatric living donor liver transplantation for hepaticojejunostomy reconstruction: the value of the excretion rate at 60 min.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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HBS is performed to determine the presence of biliary stricture after liver transplantation. We focused on the Ex-60 after an intravenous injection of tracer during HBS. The aim of this study was to review the cutoff values for the diagnosis of biliary stricture by HBS after pediatric LDLT. We analyzed 114 HBS studies using (99m) Tc-PMT in 80 cases after pediatric LDLT. HBS was performed three months after LDLT on a routine basis and/or was performed when ultrasonography and blood test findings indicated biliary stricture. A ROC curve analysis was performed to identify the cutoff value for the correlation between Ex-60 and biliary stricture. The Ex-60 (mean ± s.d.) in the cases diagnosed as having biliary stricture and in normal subjects were 49.1 ± 20.2% vs. 78.0 ± 9.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. As a result of an ROC curve analysis of the Ex-60, the recommended cutoff value to diagnose biliary stricture was set at 69.2% (sensitivity 87.0%, specificity 81.8%). In cases where the Ex-60 by (99m) Tc-PMT HBS is <69.2%, it is recommended that further treatment for biliary stricture should be provided.
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Is there a difference between the effects of single and triple indirect moxibustion stimulations on skin temperature changes of the posterior trunk surface?
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2011
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To determine whether any difference exists in responses to indirect moxibustion (IM) relative to thermal stimulation duration.
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Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for a portosystemic shunt after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Portosystemic shunts may cause steal phenomenon after liver transplantation, which can lead to graft loss without proper management. Portal vein stenosis is one of the causes for the occurrence of portosystemic shunts after liver transplantation. Recently, new interventional radiologic techniques have been developed in the field of liver transplantation. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) is a novel interventional technique for gastric varices and portosystemic shunts and also is effective for increasing portal vein flow. We herein report a pediatric case of portal vein stenosis with a large shunt successfully treated with a combination of balloon dilatation and B-RTO. If enlarged collateral vessels cause steal phenomenon, then B-RTO should be considered as an additional therapy.
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Selective ligation of portal vein and hepatic artery for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma in a 13-year-old boy.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in children is rare, and the prognosis has been poor because of its advanced stage at diagnosis and unresponsiveness to chemotherapy. We report a 13-year-old boy with ruptured HCC in the left trisegment. When hemostasis of the ruptured surface was achieved in the emergency operation, the left branch of the portal vein and the left hepatic artery were ligated at the same time. The volume of the future liver remnant (FLR), that is, his right posterior sector, increased from 56% on admission to 70% of his standard liver volume on day 2. Blood level of serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist ?? started to decrease immediately. Left trisegmentectomy was successfully performed 10 days later, followed by chemotherapy. He has been well with a 2-year survival without recurrence. When the FLR is considered relatively small for a major hepatic resection, the selective ligation of the portal vein and the hepatic artery, which feed HCC, seems to be beneficial. This is because it may induce enlargement of the FLR, increasing the safety of the hepatectomy as preoperative portal vein embolization does before a major hepatectomy in adult patients with HCC, and the latter suppresses the tumor while waiting for the planned hepatectomy.
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Tsukushi is required for anterior commissure formation in mouse brain.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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The anterior commissure (AC) is one of the important commissure projections in the brain that conveys information from one side of the nervous system to the other. During development, the axons from the anterior AC (aAC) and the posterior AC (pAC) course in the same dorsoventral plane and converge into a common fascicle for midline crossing. Previously, we reported that Tsukushi (TSK), a member of the secreted small leucine rich repeat proteoglycan family, functions as a key coordinator of multiple pathways outside of cells through the regulation of an extracellular signaling network. Here, we show evidence that TSK is critical for the formation of the AC. In mice lacking TSK, the aAC and the pAC axons fail to cross the midline, leading to an almost total absence of the AC in adult mice. DiI labeling indicated that the aAC axons grew out from the anterior olfactory nucleus and migrated along normal pathways but never crossed the midline. Therefore, we have uncovered a crucial role for TSK for AC formation in the mouse brain.
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Restriction of calorie and iron intake results in reduction of visceral fat and serum alanine aminotransferase and ferritin levels in patients with chronic liver disease.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Aim:? To clarify the impact of visceral fat on chronic liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatitis C, we investigated the effects of lifestyle modifications on the amount of visceral fat, liver biochemistry and serum ferritin levels in patients with liver disease. Methods:? Eighty-two patients (NAFLD, n?=?37; hepatitis C, n?=?45) were advised to adopt lifestyle modifications, including dietary changes and exercise, and these were maintained for 6?months. Bodyweight, percentage of body fat, visceral fat area (VFA) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin were measured before and after intervention. Results:? In NAFLD, the mean VFA of 134.5?cm(2) was significantly reduced to 125.3?cm(2) after 6?months (P?
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Monitoring cortical hemodynamic changes after sumatriptan injection during migraine attack by near-infrared spectroscopy.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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The aim of the present study is to provide effective tools for monitoring hemodynamic changes in the cortical and scalp surface during migraine attack and treatment. Using near-infrared spectroscopy system (NIRS) and laser Doppler skin blood flow (SkBF) devices in combination, we monitored changes in extra- and intra-cranial vasculature states upon sumatriptan injection during spontaneous migraine attack. We examined 4 control subjects and 4 migraine patients. Multi-channel NIRS probes were placed over the temporoparietal area bilaterally and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was analyzed. Laser Doppler SkBF was simultaneously recorded to measure scalp surface blood flow changes. All patients were treated with a sumatriptan injection (3 mg), and all control subjects received a saline injection as a control for oxy-Hb/SkBF signals caused by injection pain over the monitoring period. There was a marked reduction of oxy-Hb/SkBF in all patients after sumatriptan injection, consistent with pain relief. Moreover, the changes in oxy-Hb/SkBF were significantly correlated. By contrast, saline injection did not cause any significant changes. These data suggest that sumatriptan induces blood vessel contraction at both cortical and scalp surfaces. Simultaneous oxy-Hb/SkBF recording enables real-time continuous monitoring of the effects of sumatriptan treatment in clinical situations.
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[Present status of pediatric living-donor liver transplantation in National Center for Child Health and Development].
Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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We reviewed our initial experience of pediatric living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in National Center for Child Health and Development and report the results herein.
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ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in Epstein syndrome.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Epstein syndrome (ES) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by hereditary nephritis, sensory deafness, and thrombocytopenia. We herein report the case of a 20-yr-old man with ES who underwent ABO blood type-incompatible living-donor kidney transplantation from his mother. He was given platelet transfusion, and his pre-operative number of platelets were 108 x 10(3)/microL. After transplantation, urine output and the decrease in serum creatinine (sCr) were within the acceptable ranges. On the seventh post-operative day (POD), sCr had risen and urine output decreased. Anti-type A antibody rapidly elevated from <2 times (x2) just before transplantation to 64 times (x64), and the patient required hemodialysis again. Resistance index (RI) by ultrasound increased from an average of 0.5 approximately 0.6 on POD 1 to an average of 0.7 approximately 0.8 on POD 7. However, several biopsies (POD 4, 7, and 10) showed no obvious findings of acute rejection except for intense C4d deposition. Because acute antibody-mediated rejection was not completely ruled out, he was treated with methyl-prednisolone pulse therapy, plasma exchange, cyclophosphamide, and immunoglobulin. Regardless, his titer of anti-type A antibody was still high, and he still presented oliguria. We performed an emergent splenectomy. Consequently, the levels of anti-type A antibody decreased, the RI also dropped to an average of 0.6. However, on POD 19 and 25 (platelets were 27 x 10(3)/microL and 36 x 10(3)/microL), he developed a massive intraperitoneal hematoma around the graft and region of the removed spleen, which pushed the graft out and caused acute tubular necrosis, resulting in anuria. The RI rose to an average of 0.8 approximately 1.0 after these episodes. He also experienced bleeding from a duodenal ulcer on POD 21. However, his renal function has fully recovered after acute hemodialysis for 35 d. The latest sCr was 1.5 mg/dL with a recovery in RI to 0.6. Although his platelet count was maintained at a minimum of 50 x 10(3)/microL, he had several severe bleeding episodes, concluding that sufficient platelets are necessary after transplantation in ES.
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Olfactory bulb axonal outgrowth is inhibited by draxin.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Olfactory bulb (OB) projection neurons receive sensory input from olfactory receptor neurons and precisely relay it through their axons to the olfactory cortex. Thus, olfactory bulb axonal tracts play an important role in relaying information to the higher order of olfactory structures in the brain. Several classes of axon guidance molecules influence the pathfinding of the olfactory bulb axons. Draxin, a recently identified novel class of repulsive axon guidance protein, is essential for the formation of forebrain commissures and can mediate repulsion of diverse classes of neurons from chickens and mice. In this study, we have investigated the draxin expression pattern in the mouse telencephalon and its guidance functions for OB axonal projection to the telencephalon. We have found that draxin is expressed in the neocortex and septum at E13 and E17.5 when OB projection neurons form the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) rostrocaudally along the ventrolateral side of the telencephalon. Draxin inhibits axonal outgrowth from olfactory bulb explants in vitro and draxin-binding activity in the LOT axons in vivo is detected. The LOT develops normally in draxin-/- mice despite subtle defasciculation in the tract of these mutants. These results suggest that draxin functions as an inhibitory guidance cue for OB axons and indicate its contribution to the formation of the LOT.
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Draxin is involved in the proper development of the dI3 interneuron in chick spinal cord.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Generation of the appropriate types, numbers and distribution of neurons during the development of the nervous system requires the careful coordination of proliferation, differentiation, and patterning. In this work, we analyzed the roles of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, on the development of chick spinal cord dI3 interneuron. draxin mRNA and/or protein were detected in the roof plate at first and then the boundary region between the ventricular and the mantle zones in chick spinal cord and dorsal basement membrane of the chick spinal cord. Overexpression of draxin caused the decreased and delayed migration of the dI3 interneuron, the reduction of progenitor cell proliferation, and abnormal localization of some ectopic progenitor-like cells in the mantle zone of the spinal cord. Our data reveal that draxin may be involved in the proper development of the dI3 interneuron in chick spinal cord.
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A hybrid IQ imbalance compensation method for optical OFDM transmission.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Transmitter and receiver IQ imbalance causes image interference that degrades performance in high capacity and high spectral efficiency optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) schemes. Digital compensation is an attractive method to relax component specifications. In this paper we report the details of a hybrid compensation method for IQ imbalance compensation, comprising of orthogonal training symbol-based method for transmitter-side compensation and an iterative image reduction-based method for receiver-side imbalance compensation. We demonstrate performance improvement using the hybrid method in presence of frequency dependent imbalance by both simulation and back-to-back direct detection optical OFDM experiment. We report on the tolerable limit of transmitter IQ imbalance under presence of carrier frequency offset.
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Is there any difference in human pupillary reaction when different acupuncture points are stimulated?
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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To determine if there is any difference in pupillary response among different acupuncture stimulation sites.
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Biliary reconstruction in pediatric live donor liver transplantation: duct-to-duct or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction (DD) is currently a standard procedure in adult live donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Its pediatric feasibility, however, has rarely been reported. The goal of this study is to assess the incidence and treatment of biliary complication after pediatric LDLT with DD or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RY).
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Successful management of a large fetal mediastinal teratoma complicated by hydrops fetalis.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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This report describes a case of fetal mediastinal teratoma complicated by hydrops fetalis managed successfully by aspiration of the tumor cyst fluid. Fetal mediastinal teratomas are rare tumors that cause hydrops fetalis or fetal demise in the prenatal period and respiratory distress in the neonatal period. The patient presented with a large cystic mass in the thoracic cavity complicated by hydrops fetalis. The hydrops resolved after fetal aspiration of the tumor cyst fluid. The infant was born without respiratory distress, and tumor resection was performed at the age of 30 days. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was in good health 6 months postoperatively.
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Living donor liver transplantation for glycogen storage disease type Ib.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b) is due to an autosomal recessive inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by defects in glucose-6-phosphatase translocase. Patients with GSD-1b have severe hypoglycemia with several clinical manifestations of hepatomegaly, obesity, a doll-like face, and neutropenia. Liver transplantation has been indicated for severe glucose intolerance. This study retrospectively reviewed 4 children with a diagnosis of GSD-1b who underwent living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Between November 2005 and June 2008, 96 children underwent LDLT with overall patient and graft survival of 92.3%. Of these, 4 (4.2%) were indicated for GSD-1b. All patients are doing well with an excellent quality of life because of the stabilization of glucose intolerance, decreased hospital admission, and normalized neutrophil count. LDLT appears to be a feasible option and is associated with a better quality of life for patients with GSD-1b. Long-term observation may be necessary to collect sufficient data to confirm the efficacy of this treatment modality.
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Draxin, an axon guidance protein, affects chick trunk neural crest migration.
Dev. Growth Differ.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2009
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The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in the roof plate of the chick trunk spinal cord and around the early migration pathway of neural crest cells. Draxin modulates chick neural crest cell migration in vitro by reducing the polarization of these cells. When exposed to draxin, the velocity of migrating neural crest cells was reduced, and the cells changed direction so frequently that the net migration distance was also reduced. Overexpression of draxin also caused some early migrating neural crest cells to change direction to the dorsolateral pathway in the chick trunk region, presumably due to draxins inhibitory activity. These results demonstrate that draxin, an axon guidance protein, can also affect trunk neural crest migration in the chick embryo.
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Repeat STEP procedure to establish enteral nutrition in an infant with short bowel syndrome.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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The serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure is a safe and successful way to lengthen the small bowel in patients with short bowel syndrome. However, postoperative dilatation of the intestine may occur, which induces bacterial overgrowth and malabsorption leading to liver failure. We describe the case of an infant boy with short bowel syndrome caused by jejunal atresia requiring the STEP procedure twice. The first STEP improved the liver function, and the second STEP allowed 80% of the total calorie intake to be tolerated enterally. One should not hesitate to perform a second STEP if after the initial bowel lengthening procedure the patient develops small bowel dilatation that interferes with enteral nutrition.
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A novel association of duodenal atresia, malrotation, segmental dilatation of the colon, and anorectal malformation.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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We describe two female neonates who suffered from four gastrointestinal anomalies, including duodenal stenosis or atresia, malrotation, segmental dilatation of the colon, and anorectal malformation. Each patient was managed by two or three operations, resulting in good bowel movements. Since this is the first report of four gastrointestinal anomalies, these cases may provide clues to elucidate the etiology of gastrointestinal tract developmental abnormalities.
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Draxin, a repulsive axon guidance protein, is involved in hippocampal development.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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The hippocampus plays an essential role in learning and memory and is one of the major sites implicated in neural diseases. The proper organization of the hippocampus during development is important for its function. We found that draxin, a repulsive axon guidance cue, was widely expressed in the developing hippocampus and draxin deficient mice possessed a smaller hippocampus, particularly in the anterior part of the structure. Quantification of this reduction revealed that the volume of the dentate gyrus of the mutant was significantly smaller compared to the normal counterpart. This size reduction seemed to be dependent on apoptosis rather than due to a decrease in the rate of cell division.
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Value of the extracellular water ratio for assessment of cirrhotic patients with and without ascites.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Aims: Ascites, which often complicates liver cirrhosis, is reported to be a factor that worsens the outcome. The aims of this study were to quantify body water compartment changes in cirrhotic patients, with and without ascites, and to elucidate the value of body water analysis for predicting the development of ascites. Methods: A total of 109 cirrhotic patients, with and without ascites, and 65 controls were studied. Intra- and extracellular water (ECW) in the whole body and in the arm, leg and trunk were measured using the recently developed 8-electrodes multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Furthermore, patients without ascites were followed to an episode of ascites or death. Results: Patients with liver cirrhosis had significantly higher ECW ratios than controls. ECW ratios were increased in cirrhotic patients with moderate and severe disease. The ECW ratio of the trunk showed highly significant changes in cirrhotic patients with ascites. The ECW ratio correlated with age, serum albumin, and prothrombin time. A relative expansion of ECW and low albumin were predictive of further episodes of ascites (log-rank 6.94, P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, the ECW ratio was independently associated with the development of ascites. Conclusion: Liver cirrhosis was characterized by a redistribution of body water. The ECW ratio is a reliable tool for quantification of redistribution of body water and can predict the development of ascites.
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Analysis of a repulsive axon guidance molecule, draxin, on ventrally directed axon projection in chick early embryonic midbrain.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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The mesencephalic V neurons and tectobulbar axons in chick embryo project over long distances that appear during the early development of the chick optic tectum. The mesencephalic V neuron and tectobulbar axonal growth begin at Hamburger and Hamilton stage 14 and stage 18, respectively. Both fibers proceed downward from the dorsal to the ventral side of the lateral wall of the optic tectum and then turn caudally and join the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Their axons appear in the most superficial layer of the tectum at early stages and do not cross the dorsal midline of the tectum. Here, we report the role of draxin, a recently identified axon guidance protein, in the formation of the ventrally directed tectum axonal tracts in chicken embryo. draxin is expressed in a high dorsal to low ventral gradient in chick optic tectum. In vitro experiments show that draxin repels neurite outgrowth from dorsal tectum explants. In vivo overexpression resulted in inhibition or misrouting of axon growth in the tectum. Therefore, draxin may be an important member of the collection of repulsive guidance molecules that regulate the formation of the ventrally directed tectum axon tracts.
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Error positivity is related to attentional control of task switching.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between attentional control and action monitoring in a task-switching paradigm by examining the error-related negativity and positivity, components of event-related potentials that reflect action monitoring, including error detection. This study was designed with both a task-switching condition and a single-task condition and the results were compared between the two conditions. Error-related positivity amplitude decreased in the task-switching condition, whereas error-related negativity amplitude did not change in either condition. The results therefore support the notion that the two error-related components represent different aspects of action monitoring, including error detection.
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Impaired regulation of serum hepcidin during phlebotomy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Aim: This study was conducted to determine the clinical relevance of hepcidin, a recently identified key iron regulatory hormone, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (C-HCV). Methods: Serum hepcidin levels were measured in 9 C-HCV patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), and compared to those of healthy controls. Sequential changes of hepcidin were also investigated during phlebotomy. Results: Serum hepcidin and ferritin were significantly higher in C-HCV than in controls (P = 0.0002), these two variables were strongly related to each other (r = 0.658; P < 0.01), and phlebotomy significantly decreased serum hepcidin in C-HCV (P = 0.0007); all these results recollect the hepcidin response to iron signal. Hepcidin/ferritin ratio, an index of the appropriateness of hepcidin expression relative to iron overload, was significantly lower in C-HCV than in controls (0.33 +/- 0.41 vs. 0.73 +/- 0.36, P = 0.0068). This relative impairment of hepcidin expression was not reversible after phlebotomy (P = NS). Conclusions: Although the hepcidin expression responds to iron conditions in C-HCV, this response is relatively limited. This relative impairment of hepcidin expression may be relevant to disease progression, and thus correction of its regulation may be beneficial for these iron-overloaded C-HCV patients.
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Sofalcone, an anti-ulcer chalcone derivative, suppresses inflammatory crosstalk between macrophages and adipocytes and adipocyte differentiation: implication of heme-oxygenase-1 induction.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Sofalcone, 2-carboxymethoxy-4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)chalcone, has been used as an anti-ulcer agent, although its precise molecular mechanism has not been completely understood. In the current study, we tested the effects of sofalcone on the inflammatory crosstalk between macrophages and adipocytes and on the differentiation of pre-adipocytes. We found that sofalcone has a strong suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in the culture medium of a coculture system containing RAW264.7 macrophages and 3T3-F442A adipocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The suppressive effect of sofalcone on NO production was attenuated by treatment with tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 inhibitor. Western blotting analysis showed that sofalcone increased HO-1 expression in both 3T3-F442A mature adipocytes and undifferentiated fibroblasts. Sofalcone also inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes into adipocytes, which was restored by SnPP treatment. These results suggest that sofalcone has preferable properties for obesity or metabolic syndrome.
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Iron overload is associated with hepatic oxidative damage to DNA in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Several lines of evidence have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therefore, by using immunohistochemical staining of liver biopsy samples, we measured hepatic 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2 deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a DNA base-modified product generated by hydroxyl radicals, of 38 NASH patients and compared with 24 simple steatosis and 10 healthy subjects. Relation of hepatic 8-oxodG with clinical, biochemical, and histologic variables and changes after iron reduction therapy (phlebotomy plus iron-restricted diet) were also examined. Hepatic 8-oxodG levels were significantly higher in NASH compared with simple steatosis (17.5 versus 2.0 8-oxodG-positive cells/10(5) microm(2); P < 0.0001). 8-oxodG was significantly related to iron overload condition, glucose-insulin metabolic abnormality, and severities of hepatic steatosis in NASH patients. Logistic regression analysis also showed that hepatic iron deposit and insulin resistance were independent variables associated with elevated hepatic 8-oxodG. After the iron reduction therapy, hepatic 8-oxodG levels were significantly decreased (from 20.7 to 13.8 positive cells/10(5) microm(2); P < 0.01) with concomitant reductions of serum transaminase levels in NASH patients. In conclusion, iron overload may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH by generating oxidative DNA damage and iron reduction therapy may reduce hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in patients with NASH.
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Draxin, a repulsive guidance protein for spinal cord and forebrain commissures.
Science
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Axon guidance proteins are critical for the correct wiring of the nervous system during development. Several axon guidance cues and their family members have been well characterized. More unidentified axon guidance cues are assumed to participate in the formation of the extremely complex nervous system. We identified a secreted protein, draxin, that shares no homology with known guidance cues. Draxin inhibited or repelled neurite outgrowth from dorsal spinal cord and cortical explants in vitro. Ectopically expressed draxin inhibited growth or caused misrouting of chick spinal cord commissural axons in vivo. draxin knockout mice showed defasciculation of spinal cord commissural axons and absence of all forebrain commissures. Thus, draxin is a previously unknown chemorepulsive axon guidance molecule required for the development of spinal cord and forebrain commissures.
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The structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution.
Science
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Vaults are among the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles and are found in numerous eukaryotic species. Roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, but the cellular function remains unclear. We have determined the x-ray structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution and show that the cage structure consists of a dimer of half-vaults, with each half-vault comprising 39 identical major vault protein (MVP) chains. Each MVP monomer folds into 12 domains: nine structural repeat domains, a shoulder domain, a cap-helix domain, and a cap-ring domain. Interactions between the 42-turn-long cap-helix domains are key to stabilizing the particle. The shoulder domain is structurally similar to a core domain of stomatin, a lipid-raft component in erythrocytes and epithelial cells.
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Cognitive deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evaluated by event-related potentials.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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To determine the cognitive profiles in non-demented, relatively less handicapped patients with early-stage sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by using neuropsychological tests, event-related potentials (ERPs) and clinical scale.
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Congenital prepubic sinus associated with a urachal remnant: report of a case.
Surg. Today
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Congenital prepubic sinus is a rare congenital anomaly situated in the midline of the lower abdomen. We report a case of congenital prepubic sinus, closely associated with a urachal remnant. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed clearly that the sinus tracked the urachus caudally. This finding supports the theory that the anomaly is caused by abnormal remnant tissue originating from the cloacal membrane, which tracks the allantois duct caudally along with fetal longitudinal growth.
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The combinatorial guidance activities of draxin and Tsukushi are essential for forebrain commissure formation.
Dev. Biol.
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We have shown that draxin is a repulsive axon guidance molecule for a variety of neuron classes and that genetic deletion of draxin in mice results in the absence of all forebrain commissures. Moreover, we also identified a secreted molecule, Tsukushi (TSK), that belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family (SLRP) and inhibits signaling molecules, such as BMP and Wnt. TSK knockout mice show malformation of the corpus callosum (CC) and agenesis of the anterior commissure (AC), suggesting the importance of TSK function in forebrain commissure formation. There is a possibility that the combined function of these two proteins is essential for the formation of these commissures. In this study, we investigate this possibility by generating draxin/TSK doubly heterozygous mice and comparing their forebrain commissure phenotypes with those of singly heterozygous mice. We found that, although draxin and TSK did not interact directly, their genetic interaction was evident from the significantly higher prevalence of CC malformation and agenesis of the AC in the draxin/TSK doubly heterozygous mice. Importantly, in this study, we demonstrated a new function of TSK in guiding anterior olfactory neuronal (AON) and cortical axons. TSK bound to and provided growth inhibitory signals dose-dependently to AON and cortical axons in outgrowth assay. TSK also induced growth cone collapse when applied acutely to these cultured neurons. Furthermore, TSK and draxin had additive effects in inhibiting cortical and AON neurite outgrowth. Thus, based on a combination of genetic analyses and in vitro experiments, we propose that the combined guidance activities of draxin and TSK regulate forebrain commissure formation.
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[Monitoring cerebral blood volume changes during migraine attack by using near-infrared spectroscopy].
Rinsho Shinkeigaku
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The pathophysiology of migraine includes the vascular theory, the trigeminovascular theory, and cortical spreading depression; however, the pathophysiology of a spontaneous migraine attack has not yet been clarified. The vascular theory became negative, and it was considered that the pain of migraine was not associated with vascular expansion. However, recent studies have again attracted attention toward the vascular theory of migraine. The aim of the present study was to provide effective tools for monitoring hemodynamic changes in the cortical and scalp surface during migraine attack and treatment. Using a near-infrared spectroscopy system and laser doppler skin blood flow (SkBF) monitoring device in combination, we monitored changes in extra- and intracranial vasculature upon sumatriptan injection during spontaneous migraine attack. There was a marked reduction of oxy-Hb/SkBF in all patients after sumatriptan injection, and this was consistent with pain relief. Moreover, the changes in oxy-Hb and SkBF were significantly correlated. In contrast, saline injection did not cause any significant changes. These data suggest that sumatriptan induces the vasoconstriction of the vascular bed region, including the arteriovenous anastomosis in the scalp and cortex. On the basis of these data, we suggest that it is now justifiable to reconsider the vascular theory of migraine.
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Equarin is involved in cell adhesion by means of heparan sulfate proteoglycan during lens development.
Dev. Dyn.
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Adhesion molecules are known to be instructive for both development and differentiation. During lens differentiation, epithelial cells undergo vertical elongation, with the anterior and posterior tips of the elongating fiber cells sliding along the epithelium and capsule, respectively. These cellular processes are highly coordinated through cell adhesive interactions, actin cytoskeletal reorganization and contractile force generation. Alterations in extracellular matrix composition that interfere with these interactions can lead to defects that alter tissue morphogenesis and the state of differentiation. We have demonstrated that Equarin, which is a secreted molecule expressed in the equator region of the lens, plays an important role in chick lens fiber differentiation through fibroblast growth factor signaling.
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Structural studies of large nucleoprotein particles, vaults.
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.
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Vault is the largest nonicosahedral cytosolic nucleoprotein particle ever described. The widespread presence and evolutionary conservation of vaults suggest important biologic roles, although their functions have not been fully elucidated. X-ray structure of vault from rat liver was determined at 3.5 Å resolution. It exhibits an ovoid shape with a size of 40 × 40 × 67 nm(3). The cage structure of vault consists of a dimer of half-vaults, with each half-vault comprising 39 identical major vault protein (MVP) chains. Each MVP monomer folds into 12 domains: nine structural repeat domains, a shoulder domain, a cap-helix domain and a cap-ring domain. Interactions between the 42-turn-long cap-helix domains are key to stabilizing the particle. The other components of vaults, telomerase-associated proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and small RNAs, are in location in the vault particle by electron microscopy.
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Tsukushi controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling.
Dev. Biol.
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The hair follicle contains stem/progenitor cells that supply progeny for skin development and the hair cycle. Several signaling molecules belonging to the Wnt, BMP, shh, and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling cascades are involved in the normal hair follicle cycle. However, the systemic mechanism of how these humoral factors are controlled remains largely unknown. Previously, we reported that Tsukushi (TSK), a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan family, functions extracellularly as a key coordinator of multiple signaling networks. Here, we show that TSK is expressed at the restricted areas of hair follicle during the morphogenesis and the hair cycle. Targeted disruption of the TSK gene causes the hair cycle to be delayed with low levels of TGF-?1 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) expression. Biochemical analysis indicates that TSK directly binds to TGF-?1. Our data suggest that TSK controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling.
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Development of the dorsal ramus of the spinal nerve in the chick embryo: a close relationship between development and expression of guidance cues.
Brain Res.
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The spinal nerve, which is composed of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axons and spinal motor axons, divides into ventral and dorsal rami. Although the development of the ventral ramus has been examined in considerable detail, that of the dorsal ramus has not. Therefore, we first examined the spatial-temporal pattern of the dorsal ramus formation in the chick embryo, with special reference to the projection to the dermamyotome and its derivatives. Next, we focused on two guidance molecules, chick semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), because these are the best candidates as molecules for controlling the dorsal ramus formation. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry methods, we clearly showed a close relationship between the spatial-temporal expression of SEMA3A/FGF8 and the projection of dorsal ramus fibers to the dorsal muscles. We further examined the axonal response of motor and DRG neurons to SEMA3A and FGF8. We showed that motor axons responded to both SEMA3A-induced repulsion and FGF8-induced attraction. On the other hand, DRG axons responded to SEMA3A-induced repulsion but not to FGF8-induced attraction. These findings suggest that FGF8-induced attraction may guide early motor axons beneath the myotome and that SEMA3A-induced repulsion may prevent these early motor axons from entering the myotome. Our results also imply that the loss of SEMA3A expression in the dorsal muscles may lead to the gross projection of the dorsal ramus fibers into the dorsal muscles. Together, SEMA3A and FGF8 may contribute to the proper formation of the dorsal ramus.
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Brown rice and its component, ?-oryzanol, attenuate the preference for high-fat diet by decreasing hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.
Diabetes
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Brown rice is known to improve glucose intolerance and prevent the onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effect of brown rice and its major component, ?-oryzanol (Orz), on feeding behavior and fuel homeostasis in mice. When mice were allowed free access to a brown rice-containing chow diet (CD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), they significantly preferred CD to HFD. To reduce hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on an HFD, mice were administered with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone, which caused them to prefer the CD. Notably, oral administration of Orz, a mixture of major bioactive components in brown rice, also improved glucose intolerance and attenuated hypothalamic ER stress in mice fed the HFD. In murine primary neuronal cells, Orz attenuated the tunicamycin-induced ER stress. In luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orz suppressed the activation of ER stress-responsive cis-acting elements and unfolded protein response element, suggesting that Orz acts as a chemical chaperone in viable cells. Collectively, the current study is the first demonstration that brown rice and Orz improve glucose metabolism, reduce hypothalamic ER stress, and, consequently, attenuate the preference for dietary fat in mice fed an HFD.
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MetaVelvet: an extension of Velvet assembler to de novo metagenome assembly from short sequence reads.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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An important step in metagenomics analysis is the assembly of multiple genomes from mixed sequence reads of multiple species in a microbial community. Most conventional pipelines use a single-genome assembler with carefully optimized parameters. A limitation of a single-genome assembler for de novo metagenome assembly is that sequences of highly abundant species are likely misidentified as repeats in a single genome, resulting in a number of small fragmented scaffolds. We extended a single-genome assembler for short reads, known as Velvet, to metagenome assembly, which we called MetaVelvet, for mixed short reads of multiple species. Our fundamental concept was to first decompose a de Bruijn graph constructed from mixed short reads into individual sub-graphs, and second, to build scaffolds based on each decomposed de Bruijn sub-graph as an isolate species genome. We made use of two features, the coverage (abundance) difference and graph connectivity, for the decomposition of the de Bruijn graph. For simulated datasets, MetaVelvet succeeded in generating significantly higher N50 scores than any single-genome assemblers. MetaVelvet also reconstructed relatively low-coverage genome sequences as scaffolds. On real datasets of human gut microbial read data, MetaVelvet produced longer scaffolds and increased the number of predicted genes.
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Binding of adiponectin and C1q in human serum, and clinical significance of the measurement of C1q-adiponectin / total adiponectin ratio.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
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Adiponectin and C1q have similar sequences, exist abundantly in blood, and are produced by adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to examine whether adiponectin and C1q form protein-complex in blood and to know the clinical significance of the C1q-adiponectin (C1q-APN) complex in serum.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.