JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inflammatory bowel disease in subfertile men and the effect of mesalazine on fertility.
Syst Biol Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract This study aimed to examine the effect of mesalazine on fertility. In this retrospective analysis of 1,225 male subfertile patients, we reviewed the cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the medical records and evaluated the prevalence of the disease in our reproduction center. Specifically, we examined IBD patients who ceased mesalazine during male infertility treatment, and compared the seminogram of these patients before and after discontinuation of mesalazine. We also analyzed pregnancy outcome after discontinuation. The prevalence rate of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in our male infertile patients was 163 per 100,000 men and 490 per 100,000 men, respectively. Seven patients had taken mesalazine and six of them subsequently stopped the medication. The mean values of sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage of normal formed sperm, semen volume, and total motile sperm count taken before discontinuation increased after discontinuation of mesalazine. Among these parameters, the sperm motility and total motile sperm count were significantly improved (p?
Related JoVE Video
Kinetic study of the Diels-Alder reaction of Li?@C?? with cyclohexadiene: greatly increased reaction rate by encapsulated Li?.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We studied the kinetics of the Diels-Alder reaction of Li(+)-encapsulated [60]fullerene with 1,3-cyclohexadiene and characterized the obtained product, [Li(+)@C60(C6H8)](PF6(-)). Compared with empty C60, Li(+)@C60 reacted 2400-fold faster at 303 K, a rate enhancement that corresponds to lowering the activation energy by 24.2 kJ mol(-1). The enhanced Diels-Alder reaction rate was well explained by DFT calculation at the M06-2X/6-31G(d) level of theory considering the reactant complex with dispersion corrections. The calculated activation energies for empty C60 and Li(+)@C60 (65.2 and 43.6 kJ mol(-1), respectively) agreed fairly well with the experimentally obtained values (67.4 and 44.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively). According to the calculation, the lowering of the transition state energy by Li(+) encapsulation was associated with stabilization of the reactant complex (by 14.1 kJ mol(-1)) and the [4 + 2] product (by 5.9 kJ mol(-1)) through favorable frontier molecular orbital interactions. The encapsulated Li(+) ion catalyzed the Diels-Alder reaction by lowering the LUMO of Li(+)@C60. This is the first detailed report on the kinetics of a Diels-Alder reaction catalyzed by an encapsulated Lewis acid catalyst rather than one coordinated to a heteroatom in the dienophile.
Related JoVE Video
Supramolecular Formation of Li(+) @PCBM Fullerene with Sulfonated Porphyrins and Long-Lived Charge Separation.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lithium-ion-encapsulated [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester fullerene (Li(+) @PCBM) was utilized to construct supramolecules with sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins (MTPPS(4-) ; M=Zn, H2 ) in polar benzonitrile. The association constants were determined to be 1.8×10(5) ?M(-1) for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and 6.2×10(4) ?M(-1) for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM. From the electrochemical analyses, the energies of the charge-separated (CS) states were estimated to be 0.69?eV for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and 1.00?eV for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM. Upon photoexcitation of the porphyrin moieties of MTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM, photoinduced electron transfer occurred to produce the CS states. The lifetimes of the CS states were 560??s for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and 450??s for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM. The spin states of the CS states were determined to be triplet by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements at 4?K. The reorganization energies (?) and electronic coupling term (V) for back electron transfer (BET) were determined from the temperature dependence of kBET to be ?=0.36?eV and V=8.5×10(-3) ?cm(-1) for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and ?=0.62?eV and V=7.9×10(-3) ?cm(-1) for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM based on the Marcus theory of nonadiabatic electron transfer. Such small V values are the result of a small orbital interaction between the MTPPS(4-) and Li(+) @PCBM moieties. These small V values and spin-forbidden charge recombination afford a long-lived CS state.
Related JoVE Video
Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.
Accid Anal Prev
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using an adult headform onto a relatively rigid hard surface, i.e., simulating a road surface or concrete path. However, when the impact tests are into softer surfaces, the child helmet's capacity to decrease accelerations is accordingly reduced. Impacts into the windshield, while below the critical HIC value of 1000, indicated higher HIC values for a headform with a child helmet compared to an adult headform without a child helmet. The unpredictable nature of the results indicates further research work is required to assess how representative the stiffness of an adult headform is when compared to an actual head.
Related JoVE Video
Microwave-driven enzyme deactivation using imidazolium salt-presenting silica nanoparticles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thermal enzyme deactivation by the imidazolium-presenting silica nanoparticles with the microwave irradiation is presented in this manuscript. The modified nanoparticles were synthesized, and it was observed that the modified nanoparticles can be a heat source in the buffer under the weak-power microwave irradiation. Finally, based on the heat-generating ability of these nanoparticles, deactivation of glutathione reductase and alkaline phosphatase with the modified nanoparticles were demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
Perigraft seroma with minute observations after Gore-Tex graft implantation.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perigraft seroma is a very rare postoperative complication following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A 74-year-old man with history of esophageal cancer surgery, underwent Gore-Tex graft replacement for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. A 50-mm perigraft seroma was noted one year later, increasing to over 70?mm in the next 6 months. We resected the Gore-Tex graft and replaced it with a Dacron graft via a repeat laparotomy. We observed the resected Gore-Tex graft in detail using electron microscopy to investigate the mechanism of perigraft seroma.
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidant cosupplementation therapy with vitamin C, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia.
Arch Ital Urol Androl
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that damages cell structure as well as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Oxidative stress plays a major role in various human diseases, such as oligoasthenozoospermia syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Photo-triggered molecular release based on auto-degradable polymer-containing organic-inorganic hybrids.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The photo-triggered molecular release from the organic-inorganic polymer hybrids is presented in this manuscript. Initially, the preparation of the auto-degradable polymer is explained with the photo-cleavable group at the end of the polymer main-chain. The silica-based dye-loaded hybrids containing these polymers were fabricated. It was found that by UV irradiation, the end capping was removed, and then the auto-degradation occurs through the polymer main-chain. Finally, the molecular release of the loaded dyes was accomplished in various media by the UV irradiation. In particular, it was shown that both of hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes can be applied in this system.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material.
Related JoVE Video
Low serum bilirubin concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. It is very important to identify the factors that affect CKD. Previous studies have reported that serum bilirubin concentration was positively correlated with renal function in a cross-sectional study. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and the progression of CKD.
Related JoVE Video
The inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that the inter-arm blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether the IAD could be a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a cross-sectional retrospective study of 206 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 49-76 years, we examined the correlation of the IAD with the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) or cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI). The IAD was positively correlated with the maximum IMT (r=0.266, P<0.0001), mean IMT (r=0.209, P=0.00726) or CAVI (r=0.240, P=0.0005). The IAD was higher in patients with CVD than in those without (P=0.0020). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the IAD was an independent determinant of maximum IMT (?=0.169, P=0.0167), mean IMT (?=0.178, P=0.0153), ABI (?=-0.222, P=0.0033) or CAVI (?=0.213, P=0.0011) after adjusting for known risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the IAD as a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis was similar to the AUC of the Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk score. In conclusion, the IAD could be a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Role of male pelvic floor muscles and anterior fibromuscular stroma in males on ?(1)-blocker treatment: a magnetic resonance imaging study.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dynamic motion of the pelvic floor muscles during voiding was analyzed using real-time magnetic resonance imaging. To evaluate the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, striated urethral sphincter distance, levator ani muscle thickness and anterior fibromuscular stroma distance were measured. The percent contraction of the striated urethral sphincter from before voiding to just before initiation of voiding was 14% in the normal group and 5% in the voiding dysfunction group. The percent contraction of the anterior fibromuscular stroma from before voiding to just before initiation of voiding was 11% in the normal group and 1% in the voiding dysfunction group; the percent contraction of the muscles was significantly greater in the normal group (P?
Related JoVE Video
Lineage diversification and hybridization in the Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex (Vitaceae) is distributed from temperate to tropical East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. The spatiotemporal diversification history of this complex was assessed through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods were used to analyze sequences of one nuclear (AS1) and two plastid regions (trnL-F and trnC-petN). Bayesian dating analysis was conducted to estimate the divergence times of clades. The likelihood method LAGRANGE was used to infer ancestral areas. The Asian C. japonica and C. tenuifolia should be treated as an unresolved complex, and Australian C. japonica is distinct from the Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex and should be treated as separate taxa. The Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex was estimated to have diverged from its closest relatives during the Late Eocene (35.1 million years ago [Ma], 95% highest posterior densities [HPD]=23.3-47.3Ma) and most likely first diverged in mid-continental Asia. This complex was first divided into a northern clade and a southern clade during the middle Oligocene (27.3Ma; 95% HPD=17.4-38.1Ma), which is consistent with a large southeastward extrusion of the Indochina region relative to South China along the Red River. Each of the northern and southern clades then further diverged into multiple subclades through a series of dispersal and divergence events following significant geological and climatic changes in East and Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Multiple inter-lineage hybridizations among four lineages were inferred to have occurred following this diversification process, which caused some Asian lineages to be morphologically cryptic.
Related JoVE Video
Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient Diels-Alder addition of cyclopentadiene to lithium ion encapsulated [60]fullerene.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Much higher reactivity of [Li(+)@C60]PF6(-) for Diels-Alder cycloaddition toward cyclopentadiene (CpH), in comparison with that of empty C60, was observed. The synthetic method, electrochemical and light absorption properties, and X-ray crystal structure of the product [Li(+)@C60(CpH)]PF6(-) are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Low serum bilirubin concentration is a novel risk factor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bilirubin has been recognized as an important endogeneous antioxidant. Previous studies reported that bilirubin could prevent atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if serum bilirubin concentration could be a predictor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
[Role of androgen in the elderly. The role of androgen on metabolic parameters].
Clin Calcium
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low concentrations of endogenous androgens have been linked with insulin resistance, which is an important upstream driver for metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia or hypertension. Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, administration of testosterone to hypogonadal men improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Men with diabetes have been reported to have lower serum testosterone concentrations than non-diabetic men, which lead to insulin resistance, depression, cognitive dysfunction, sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Further basic and clinical studies investigating the role for androgen on metabolic parameters and atherosclerosis are needed.
Related JoVE Video
[Open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia(HIT)].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life-threatening side effect of heparin therapy. We report an open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass( CPB) using argatroban as an anticoagulant for a patient with HIT. A 72-year-old male with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention 5 years ago, was admitted to our hospital due to congestive heart failure and heparin 10,000 units/day was administered. At 10th hospital day, his platelet count was significantly decreased and antibodies positive for type II HIT was found, so he was diagnosed HIT. Echocardiogram and coronary angiography revealed severe functional mitral regurgitation and coronary stenosis. At 24th hospital day we performed coronary artery bypass grafting( CABG) and mitral valve replacement (MVR) with CPB using argatroban as an anticoagulant. During CPB, we monitored the activated clotting time (ACT) to adjust the dose of argatroban. Though the surgical procedure itself was uneventful. We required about 4 hours to achieve adequate hemostasis after CPB. Postoperative course was uneventful.
Related JoVE Video
A difference in systolic blood pressure between arms is a novel predictor of the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between arms is associated with both vascular disease and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a difference in SBP between arms and change in urinary albumin excretion or development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk factor for the progression of coronary artery calcification.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that variability in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between variability in the SBP and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), which is a useful marker for CVD. We measured SBP in 164 consecutive patients at every visit over the course of a year and calculated the coefficient of variation and s.d. of the SBP. We performed a follow-up study using multislice computed tomography to assess the progression of the CAC score, the mean interval of which was 3.93 ± 1.36 years. We then evaluated the relationship between variability in the SBP and progression of the CAC score. The coefficient of variation for the SBP correlated positively with the progression of the CAC score (r=0.4382, P<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the coefficient of variation of the SBP (?=0.3826, P<0.0001) was independently associated with the progression of the CAC score. The visit-to-visit variability in SBP could be a novel risk factor for the progression of CAC.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of liraglutide on postprandial insulin and glucagon responses in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study assessed the endocrine pancreatic responses to liraglutide (0.9 mg once a day) during normal living conditions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 14 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Meal tests were performed after improvement of glycemic control achieved by two weeks of multiple insulin injection therapy and after approximately two weeks of liraglutide treatment. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed to compare daily variation in glycemic control between multiple insulin injection therapy and liraglutide treatment. Liraglutide reduced plasma glucose levels after the test meals (60-180 min; p<0.05), as a result of significant increases in insulin secretion (0-180 min; p<0.05) and decreases in the incremental ratio of plasma glucagon (15-60 min; p<0.05). Continuous glucose monitoring showed that liraglutide treatment was also associated with a decrease in glucose variability. We also demonstrated that optimal glycemic control seen as a reduction in 24-h mean glucose levels and variability was obtained only with liraglutide monotherapy. In conclusion, liraglutide treatment increases insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon secretion in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under normal living conditions. The main therapeutic advantages of liraglutide are its use as monotherapy and its ability to decrease glucose variability.
Related JoVE Video
Hypoxic condition-selective upconversion via triplet-triplet annihilation based on POSS-core dendrimer complexes.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The influence on the efficiencies of the triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA)-supported upconversion by oxygen under biomimetic conditions was investigated. From the solution containing the dendrimer complexes based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-core dendrimer with the Pt complex of octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) and anthracene in PBS, the fluorescence emission of anthracene depending on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations via the TTA-supported upconversion was obtained with the excitation light at 540 nm. In particular, we observed strong emission only under hypoxic conditions. In addition, it was found that the emission intensity via TTA-supported upconversion can be reversibly regulated by the DO concentrations in the solution.
Related JoVE Video
Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a novel risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent study has suggested that not only the presence of hypertension but also the variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) are risk factors for vascular disease and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between visit-to-visit variability in SBP and change in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) or development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
A difference in systolic blood pressure between arms and between lower limbs is a novel risk marker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between arms is associated with both vascular disease and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs and the degree of albuminuria, which is an established marker for cardiovascular disease and diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. We measured blood pressure in the arms and lower limbs of 314 consecutive patients with Type 2 diabetes, and we calculated a difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs. We then evaluated the relationship of the difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs to the degree of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). The average difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs was 3.52±3.94 and 9.66±14.1?mm?Hg, respectively. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that a difference in SBP between arms (?=0.172, P=0.0239) and between lower limbs (?=0.238, P=0.0033) independently correlated with the logarithm of the UAE. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that a difference in SBP of ?10?mm?Hg between arms (odds ratio 12.23 (95% CI 1.130-132.35), P<0.0393) and a difference in SBP of ?15?mm?Hg between lower limbs (odds ratio 4.291 (95% CI 1.403-13.123), P<0.0106) correlated with the risk of albuminuria. A difference in SBP between arms and between lower limbs, therefore, could be a novel risk marker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Testosterone deficiency induces markedly decreased serum triglycerides, increased small dense LDL, and hepatic steatosis mediated by dysregulation of lipid assembly and secretion in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although low serum testosterone (T) is associated with metabolic disorders, the mechanism of this association is unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of T deficiency and a high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic lipid homeostasis in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Fluid structure interaction simulation in three-layered aortic aneurysm model under pulsatile flow: comparison of wrapping and stenting.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One treatment method for aortic aneurysm is the invasive insertion of a stent into the aneurysm. Another method is wrapping the aneurysm using newly developed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. A virtual stented aneurysm model and a wrapped aneurysm model were created to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fluid-structure interaction analyses. The flow velocity and pressure distribution as well as the deformation and wall stress were investigated. Stenting significantly changed the blood flow pattern and the vortexes in the aneurysm. Wrapping increased the thickness of the aneurysm wall and increased the strength of the vessel wall. The maximum von Mises stress in the stented model was found to be 220,494 Pa and 228,218 Pa at the time of peak flow and peak pressure, respectively. This was reduced by 37.8% and 36.7% to 137,200 and 144,354 Pa, respectively, in the wrapped model. Our results provide information that may improve the understanding of the biomechanics of stenting and wrapping.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Lepr(db/db) Mice with senescence marker protein-30 knockout (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-)) exhibit increases in small dense-LDL and severe fatty liver despite being fed a standard diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a 34 kDa protein originally identified in rat liver that shows decreased levels with age. Several functional studies using SMP30 knockout (Smp30(Y/-) ) mice established that SMP30 functions as an antioxidant and protects against apoptosis. To address the potential role of SMP30 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis, we established Smp30(Y/-) mice on a Lepr(db/db) background (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice). RESEARCH DESIGN/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice were fed a standard diet (340 kcal/100 g, fat 5.6%) for 16 weeks whereupon the lipid/lipoprotein profiles, hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were analyzed by HPLC, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Changes in the liver at a histological level were also investigated. The amount of SMP30 mRNA and protein in livers was decreased in Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice compared with Lepr(db/+)Smp30(Y/+) mice. Compared with Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice, 24 week old Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice showed: i) increased small dense LDL-cho and decreased HDL-cho levels; ii) fatty liver accompanied by numerous inflammatory cells and increased oxidative stress; iii) decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (PPAR?) and lipoprotein uptake (LDLR and VLDLR) but increased CD36 levels; and iv) increased endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Related JoVE Video
Five-item version of the international index of erectile function correlated with albuminuria and subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is increasing evidence of a strong link between erectile dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score and albuminuria as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure is correlated with diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies make remarks on the effect of variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the variability in SBP and the degree of diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
A hypothesis on the origin of genetic heterozygosity in diploids and triploids in Japanese Cayratia japonica species complex (Vitaceae).
J. Plant Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously reported the occurrence of triploid strains in Japanese populations of Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. Interestingly, the triploid and most diploid strains had variably reduced pollen fertility. Two questions emerged from this earlier work: (1) How do triploids arise, and are they allotriploids or autotriploids? and (2) Why is there low pollen fertility in some diploid plants? We used a molecular genetic approach to determine the phylogenetic origins of triploids in C. japonica and the closely related species Cayratia tenuifolia (Wight & Arn.) Gagnep. In our analysis, we compared the sequences of the nuclear single-copy genes LEAFY and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1. As a result, most triploids and diploids were heterozygous for the loci examined; the triploid genome shared an allele with the diploid genome, but other alleles differed between the ploidies. Therefore, Japanese populations of C. japonica and C. tenuifolia almost certainly arose from repeated hybridization events among genetically differentiated strains. Using our sequence data, we discuss possible scenarios accounting for the occurrence of triploids in the two species of Cayratia.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of solifenacin on nocturia in Japanese patients with overactive bladder: impact on sleep evaluated by bladder diary.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared changes in nocturia and sleep related parameters between the anticholinergic solifenacin and placebo in patients with overactive bladder associated with nocturia.
Related JoVE Video
Pancreatic insulin release in vitamin C-deficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We recently identified senescence marker protein-30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase, which is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells using senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, vitamin C-deficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance with significantly lower blood insulin levels at 30 and 120 min post-challenge than in wild type mice (p<0.01-0.05). In contrast, vitamin C-sufficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice demonstrated significantly higher blood glucose and lower insulin only at the 30 min post-challenge time point (p<0.05). Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice showed enhanced insulin sensitivity regardless of vitamin C status. Static incubation of islets revealed that 20 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet ATP production were significantly decreased at 60 min only in vitamin C-deficient SMP30/GNL knockout mice relative to wild type mice (p<0.05). These results indicate that the site of vitamin C action lies between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, while SMP30 deficiency itself impairs the distal portion of insulin secretion pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol: a significant component of serum cholesterol.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is known to be a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein, however, the contribution of Lp(a)-cholesterol [Lp(a)-C] to the serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels has not yet been fully evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Observable T7 lepton flavor symmetry at the Large Hadron Collider.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More often than not, models of flavor symmetry rely on the use of nonrenormalizable operators (in the guise of flavons) to accomplish the phenomenologically successful tribimaximal mixing of neutrinos. We show instead how a simple renormalizable two-parameter neutrino mass model of tribimaximal mixing can be constructed with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry T(7) and the gauging of B-L. This is also achieved without the addition of auxiliary symmetries and particles present in almost all other proposals. Most importantly, it is verifiable at the Large Hadron Collider.
Related JoVE Video
Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.
Stapp Car Crash J
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a childs head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummys head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior.
Related JoVE Video
Low insulin level is associated with aortic stiffness.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum insulin level and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), which was developed as a marker of arterial stiffness. We performed a cross-sectional study of 260 consecutive and nondiabetic subjects with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease. We measured CAVI in all subjects. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured in venous blood collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after the test. Statistical analyses were conducted for four subgroups according to the insulin area under the concentration time curve (InsAUC). Mean CAVI and InsAUC were 8.7 and 109.5 ?IUml(-1)h(-1), respectively. Unadjusted analysis demonstrated that the InsAUC quartiles were significantly associated with CAVI (P<0.0001), and the lowest InsAUC quartile (P=0.001) had a lower glucose AUC. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that the lowest InsAUC quartile had the highest CAVI, and, after adjusting for several coronary risk factors, the highest InsAUC quartile had a higher CAVI than the second and third InsAUC quartiles (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the lowest InsAUC quartile was related to CAVI, although the lowest InsAUC quartile maintained glucose homeostasis in this study population. Both hyperinsulinemia and low insulin level are independently associated with CAVI.
Related JoVE Video
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with meningitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of persistent fever, headache and fatigue for several weeks. On admission, she was diagnosed as having meningitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare (M. intracellulare) detected in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. Even though anti-tuberculous therapy improved her CSF findings, her condition was not restored. Brain MRI showed multifocal and asymmetrical increases in T2 signals involving white matter and cortical gray-white junction of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and brainstem. Based on the progression of clinical symptoms and radiological features, we diagnosed her illness as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with meningitis due to M. intracellulare. Steroid therapy dramatically improved her condition. This is the first report of ADEM following meningitis due to M. intracellulare in a non-immunocompromized host.
Related JoVE Video
A layered ionic crystal of polar Li@C(60) superatoms.
Nat Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
If the physical properties of C(60) fullerene molecules can be controlled in C(60) products already in use in various applications, the potential for industrial development will be significant. Encapsulation of a metal atom in the C(60) fullerene molecule is a promising way to control its physical properties. However, the isolation of C(60)-based metallofullerenes has been difficult due to their insolubility. Here, we report the complete isolation and determination of the molecular and crystal structure of polar cationic Li@C(60) metallofullerene. The physical and chemical properties of Li@C(60) cation are compared with those of pristine C(60). It is found that the lithium cation is located at off-centre positions in the C(60)-I(h) cage interior and that the [Li(+)@C(60)] salt has a unique two-dimensional structure. The present method of purification and crystallization of C(60)-based metallofullerenes provides a new C(60) fullerene material that contains a metal atom.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic relationships among subgenera, species, and varieties of Japanese Salvia L. (Lamiaceae).
J. Plant Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine evolutionary relationships among all Japanese members of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae), we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (rbcL and the intergenic spacer region of trnL-trnF:trnL-trnF) and one nuclear DNA (nrDNA) region (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). In cpDNA, nrDNA, and cpDNA+nrDNA trees, we found evidence that all Japanese and two Taiwanese Salvia species are included in a clade with other Asian Salvia, and Japanese Salvia species were distributed among three subclades: (1) S. plebeia (subgenus Sclarea), (2) species belonging to subg. Salvia, and (3) species belonging to subg. Allagospadonopsis. At the specific level our findings suggest: a close relationship between S. nipponica and S. glabrescens, no support for monophyly of S. lutescens and its varieties in cpDNA, nrDNA and cpDNA+nrDNA trees, and that S. pygmaea var. simplicior may be more closely related to S. japonica than to other varieties of S. pygmaea.
Related JoVE Video
A healthy birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using ejaculated spermatozoa from a patient with Kartageners syndrome.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report a healthy birth that was achieved by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with use of ejaculated spermatozoa from a patient with Kartageners syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
[Application of PET in radiation oncology].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Positron emission tomography (PET), especially F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, has been recently used to verify the target volume in radiation treatment planning (RTP) for malignancies. The utility of FDG-PET/CT in defining gross tumor volume (GTV) has been shown in many studies, and the target delineation by a fixed threshold of the maximum standardized uptake value (40-50%) is suggested to be useful in RTP for lung cancer, head and neck cancer, etc. But, the spatial resolution, sensitivity, and specificity of PET are not always enough to define the difference between the GTV and the clinical target volume(CTV). Furthermore, FDG-PET is frequently used in the clinical staging before the treatment, and is also applied to the response evaluation after the treatment. This review focuses on the developing applications of PET in radiation oncology.
Related JoVE Video
A combined analysis of data to identify predictive factors for spermatogenesis in men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism treated with recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) and hCG treatment for male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in different populations and to identify characteristics predictive of spermatogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Thyrotoxicosis complicated with dysphagia.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 36-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue and dysphagia. He had experienced progression of thyrotoxic symptoms of weight loss, palpitation and sweating for several months. On admission, he showed thyroid storm associated with dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia was restored completely with 2 months after intensive treatment with anti-thyroid agent, beta-blocker, potassium iodide and glucocorticoid for thyroid storm. Although dysphagia is an uncommon manifestation, we should keep in mind that dysphagia may be one of symptoms of thyrotoxic myopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Micro-shear bond strength of current one-step adhesives to cementum and dentin.
Am J Dent
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the bonding performance of current one-step adhesives to human cementum and compare the results with those of two-step adhesives.
Related JoVE Video
Drug interaction between tacrolimus and carbamazepine in a Japanese heart transplant recipient: a case report.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article reports changes in tacrolimus (FK506) blood levels connected with carbamazepine (CBZ). A drug interaction between FK506 and CBZ was investigated in a woman, who was in her 40s, who underwent heart transplantation. Pharmacokinetic parameters were measured, including dose and trough blood levels (C(0)), area under the serum concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(0-12h)), and apparent clearance of oral FK506 (CL/F) for FK506 alone (about 3 months before starting CBZ) and combined with CBZ (11 days and about 3 months after starting CBZ). FK506 C(0) levels were decreased within 7 days of CBZ treatment. FK506 dosing required a 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase to maintain adequate blood levels while taking 200 mg CBZ daily. The AUC(0-12h)/dose 11 days after CBZ treatment was about 50% of the value before CBZ, and was about 70% at 3 months after CBZ treatment. The CL/F at 11 days and about 3 months after starting CBZ treatment was about 2 times higher than before CBZ therapy. FK506 C(0) levels are decreased by CBZ treatment, and blood levels should be closely monitored.
Related JoVE Video
Useful application of the neuropad test for assessment of diabetic polyneuropathy.
Intern. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Examination of sudomotor function is now recommended to assess peripheral autonomic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Neuropad, a simple visual indicator test, for assessment of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN).
Related JoVE Video
Computational study of stented and wrapped aortic aneurysms.
Mol Cell Biomech
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aortic aneurysm is a pathology that involves the enlargement of the aortic diameter and has risk factors including aortic dissection. Aneurysm wrapping and stent placement has been used in the treatment of aneurysms. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects of wrapping and stenting on aneurysm. The three-layered aortic aneurysm were created and fluid structure interaction were simulated in wrapped model and stented model. The results provide quantitative predictions of flow patterns and wall mechanics as well as the effects of wrapping and stenting.
Related JoVE Video
[Rehabilitation for intravaginal ejaculatory dysfunction with using a masturbation aid].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently the incidence of intravaginal ejaculatory dysfunction is increasing among infertile couples in Japan. Some unusual ways of masturbation and psychogenic issues were reported to cause this disorder. Patients, who had done masturbation in an unusual way for long time since their adolescence, were difficult to gain normal intravaginal ejaculation by the behavior therapy which was used for erectile dysfunction. We, therefore, used a masturbation aid (TENGA) for rehabilitation of ejaculation to overcome this condition.
Related JoVE Video
[Effusive constrictive pericarditis successfully treated by partial pericardiectomy with left thoracotomy; report of a case].
Kyobu Geka
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 72-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to high fever and dyspnea. Echocardiography and bacterial culture of pericardial fluid revealed purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus. Despite pericardial drainage and antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic instability due to constriction persisted. At 12th hospital day, partial pericardiectomy with left thoracotomy was performed. After the operation, his hemodynamics improved gradually, and was discharged from the hospital on the 54th post operative day without recurrence of infection nor constriction.
Related JoVE Video
Covalently Chemical Modification of Lithium Ion-Encapsulated Fullerene: Synthesis and Characterization of [Li(+)@PCBM]PF6(-).
Org. Lett.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Covalently organic derivatization of [Li(+)@C60]PF6(-) to obtain Li(+)-encapsulated PCBM, [Li(+)@PCBM]PF6(-), is described. Synthetic procedures, electrochemical properties, light absorption properties, details of isomerization from [5,6]- to [6,6]-isomer, and X-ray crystal structure of [Li(+)@PCBM]PF6(-) are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
[An investigation on prognostic diagnosis and therapeutic effects for peripheral facial nerve palsy].
Masui
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prognostic examinations and therapeutic strategy for peripheral facial nerve palsy are still obscure. We investigated the utility of examinations and the effects of treatment in these patients retrospectively.
Related JoVE Video
[Diagnostic study of the usefulness of virtual endoscopic images and 3-D modeling for lower urinary tract obstruction].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
I observed bladder and urethral morphology and lumen by making a virtual endoscopy (VE) of the bladder and a urethra for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. I have herein reported the procedures to use this model to evaluate the condition of patients more precisely.
Related JoVE Video
Rock-salt-type crystal of thermally contracted C60 with encapsulated lithium cation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rock solid: fullerene-encapsulated Li(+) (Li(+)@C(60)) is an alkaline cation owing to the spherical shape and positive charge. Li(+)@C(60) crystallizes as a rock-salt-type crystal in the presence of PF(6)(-). The orientations of C(60) and PF(6)(-) (orange) are perfectly ordered below 370 K, and Li(+) (purple) hops within the cage. At temperatures below 100 K two Li(+) units are localized at two polar positions within each C(60) .
Related JoVE Video
[Testicular germ cell tumor arising in the male with a chromosomal abnormality of 45,X/46,X,del(Y)].
Hinyokika Kiyo
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 25-year-old-man came to our outpatient clinic complaining of swelling of the left scrotal contents. He had a past history of 3 surgeries for hypospadia. His left testis was stony hard and testicular tumor was suspected. High orchiectomy was performed under general anesthesia. The pathological diagnosis was mixed type testicular germ cell tumor. Chromosomal analysis revealed a karyotype of 45,X/46,X,del(Y). Most of the long arm of the Y chromosome was missing. Prophylactic chemotherapy was performed. Treatment options for genetically high risk patients of testicular malignancies were discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Changes of tumor size and tumor contrast enhancement during radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer may be suggestive of treatment response.
J. Radiat. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated sequential dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) scans to assess the possibility of early prediction of treatment responses by quantifying the tumor size reduction and the change in tumor enhancement during and after a course of radiotherapy (RT). Thirty-nine patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were treated with RT for initial treatment. DCE-CT scan was performed within one week before the beginning of treatment, after 17 or 18 fractions (34 or 36 Gy), and 1 week and 1 month after the end of RT. The correlation between the relative decrease in tumor diameter and that in the attenuation value was evaluated. Nineteen patients were evaluated in this study. The median tumor size was 39.5 mm at the start of treatment, 30.8 mm at 34-36 Gy, and 16.1 mm 1 month after the end of RT. The relative decrease in tumor diameter at 34-36 Gy well correlated with that 1 month after treatment (r = 0.85, r: Pearsons correlation coefficient, p < 0.001). Relative change in the attenuation value at the rim of the tumor at 34-36 Gy did not significantly correlate with the change in tumor diameter 1 month after the completion of RT, but in the center of the tumor, the change of the attenuation value in the delayed phase correlated with the change in tumor diameter. The decrease of tumor diameter during RT may be predictive of treatment response. The relative change of tumor enhancement in the center of the tumor in the delayed phase correlated with tumor shrinkage 1 month after the completion of RT.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.