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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Jasmonates Induce Both Defensive and Infochemical Strategies in Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous Plants.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates: JAs) are phytohormones with essential roles in plant defense against pathogenesis and herbivorous arthropods. Both the up- and down-regulation of defense responses are dependent on signaling pathways mediated by JAs as well as other stress hormones (for example, salicylic acid), generally those involving the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors via protein modification and epigenetic regulation. In addition to the typical model plant Arabidopsis (a dicotyledon), advances in genetics research have made rice a model monocot in which innovative pest control traits can be introduced and whose JA signaling pathway can be studied. In this review, we introduce the dynamic functions of JAs in plant defense strategy using defensive substances (e.g., indole alkaloids and terpenoid phytoalexins) and airborne signals (e.g., green leaf volatiles and volatile terpenes) in response to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens as well as aboveground and belowground herbivores. We then discuss the important issue of how the mutualism of herbivorous arthropods with viruses or bacteria can cause cross-talk between JA and other phytohormones to counter the defense systems.
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Site- and stage-dependent differences in vascular density of the human fetal brain.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Less information is available about site-dependent differences in fetal intrabrain angiogenesis. Quantitative evaluation is especially limited, with the measured area limited to the cerebral gray and white matters and the periventricular germinal matrix.
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Human fetal topographical anatomy of the femoral triangle in relation with change in the hip joint position.
Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Fetal hip joint is characterized by its highly flexion and lateral rotation although adult anatomy of the femoral nerve and iliofemoral ligament suggested the medial rotation. To investigate topographical anatomy of the femoral nerve, artery and vein in the femoral triangle, we histologically examined 11 fetuses (15-37 weeks). The nerve-vessel topographical relation was basically similar to that in adults, but the fan-like nerve division was seen in the horizontal plane in the smaller specimens in contrast to that included in the sagittal plane in the larger specimens. The medial or internal rotation of the nerve division seemed to occur in late stage fetuses, at birth and at infancy. Blood supply to the head of the femur might be also accelerated by changes in the hip joint position.
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Impact of IL28B polymorphisms on 24-week telaprevir-based combination therapy for Asian chronic hepatitis C patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to clarify which or how factors could influence the probability of sustained virological response (SVR) in 24-week telaprevir-based triple combination therapy for East Asian chronic hepatitis C patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b.
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Sensory pathways in the human embryonic spinal accessory nerve with special reference to the associated lower cranial nerve ganglia.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Muscles supplied by the spinal accessory nerve are particularly prone to the development of trigger points characteristic of myofascial pain. This study aimed to confirm sensory pathways in the spinal accessory nerve and to describe sensory ganglion cell distributions along the lower cranial nerve roots.
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Synthesis of 3',4'-difluoro-3'-deoxyribonucleosides and its evaluation of the biological activities: Discovery of a novel type of anti-HCV agent 3',4'-difluorocordycepin.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Upon reacting 3',4'-unsaturated cytosine (8 and 9) and adenine nucleosides (13 and 14) with XeF2/BF3·OEt2, the respective novel 3',4'-difluoro-3'-deoxyribofuranosyl nucleosides (10-12 and 15-18) could be obtained. Formation of anti-adducts (11, 16 and 18) revealed that the fluorination involved oxonium ions as incipient intermediates. TBDMS-protected 3',4'-unsaturated adenosine provided the ?-face adducts as sole stereoisomers whereas ?-face-selectivity was observed with the TBDPS-protected adenosine 14. The evaluation of the novel 3'-deoxy-3',4'-difluororibofuranosylcytosine-(19-21) and adenine nucleosides (22-25) against antitumor and antiviral activities revealed that 3',4'-difluorocordycepin (24) was found to possess anti-HCV activity. The SI of 24 was comparable to that of the anti-HCV drug ribavirin. However, sofosbuvir, FDA-approved novel anti-HCV drug, showed better SI value. Our finding revealed that the introduction of the fluoro-substituent into the 4'-position of cordycepin derivatives decreased the cytotoxicity to the host cell with retention of the antiviral activity.
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Job-related stress in psychiatric nurses in Japan caring for elderly patients with dementia.
Environ Health Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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We investigated the specificity and structures of job-related stress in psychiatric dementia nurses (PDNs) caring for elderly patients with serious behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia who required substantial assistance with activities of daily living, in order to obtain fundamental knowledge toward providing mental health care for these nurses.
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Endoscopic endonasal surgical approach to the oculomotor trigone from the cavernous sinus.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Knowledge of anatomy visualized endoscopically is necessary to perform endoscopic surgical procedures safely. The cavernous sinuses are complicated structures with major blood vessels and nerves seated deeply in the center of the skull base. Anatomical orientation during surgery is essential for deep and narrow skull base surgery. While performing surgery involving the cavernous sinuses, understanding of the structures identifiable via a transsphenoidal view can allow comprehension of the relationship between a lesion and the surrounding structures, thus preventing intraoperative complications. The objective of this study was to dissect the neurovascular structures in the cavernous sinus deeply inside the oculomotor trigone through a transsphenoidal view, and to determine the relationships among anatomical landmarks in the path of surgery. Ten fresh silicone-injected cadaveric heads were evaluated. Four millimeter-diameter rigid endoscopes with 0° and 30° rod-lenses were utilized to perform an endonasal transsphenoidal approach. The detailed position and course of the major components in each cavernous sinus were assessed under panoramic view. We also validated the utility of this approach by successfully excising a huge pituitary adenoma.
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Effects of cabergoline and rotigotine on tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements in rats.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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We examined the effects of two dopamine agonists, cabergoline and rotigotine, on tacrine-induced tremor and c-Fos expression in rats.
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Conformationally Restricted GABA with Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane Backbone as the First Highly Selective BGT-1 Inhibitor.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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On the basis of the three-dimensional diversity-oriented conformational restriction strategy using key chiral cyclopropane units, we previously identified 3 ((2S,3R)-4-amino-3,4-methanobutyric acid) with a chiral trans-cyclopropane structure as a ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter inhibitor selective for GABA transporter (GAT) subtypes GAT-3 and BGT-1 (betaine/GABA transporter-1). Further conformational restriction of 3 with the rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane backbone led to the successful development of the first highly potent and selective BGT-1 inhibitor 4 (IC50 = 0.59 ?M). The bioactive conformation of 3 for BGT-1 was also identified.
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Do Characteristics of Dissection Differ Between the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery and the Vertebral Artery?
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The purpose of this study was to clarify the features of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) dissection.
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Differences in job stress experienced by female and male Japanese psychiatric nurses.
Int J Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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In psychiatric nursing, female nurses tend to spend more time building rapport with patients and developing cooperative working relationships with colleagues; they encounter more sexual harassment by patients. In contrast, male nurses respond to aggressive patients and tend to resist physically caring for female patients; they encounter more physical and verbal assault from patients. These gender differences might result in differences in job-related stress. We quantitatively examined gender differences in psychiatric nurses' job stress. The Psychiatric Nurse Job Stressor Scale and the Stress Reaction Scale of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire were administered to 159 female and 85 male Japanese psychiatric nurses. The results indicated that female nurses had significantly higher stress levels than males related to psychiatric nursing ability, attitude towards nursing, and stress reactions of fatigue and anxiety. Moreover, the factors affecting stress reactions differed somewhat between sexes. In particular, male nurses reported that greater irritability was affected by patients' attitudes. Their anxiety and somatic symptoms were affected by their attitude towards nursing, and depressed mood was affected by psychiatric nursing ability. Knowledge of these differences can lead to better mental health-care interventions for psychiatric nurses.
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Automatic pseudorotaxane formation targeting on nucleic acids using a pair of reactive oligodeoxynucleotides.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Here we report a novel method to form a pseudorotaxane architecture using only a pair of reactive oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), which we designed and synthesized, and then performed the pseudorotaxane formation reaction with both DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. The reaction proceeded smoothly without any extra reagents at 37 °C and pH 7.2, leading to the formation of a stable complex on a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Interestingly, the pseudorotaxane was formed with the cyclized ODN reversibly by the slipping process. This new pseudorotaxane formation represents a promising method for developing new DNA nanotechnologies and antisense oligonucleotides.
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Identification of plaque location using indocyanine green videoangiography during carotid endarterectomy.
Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess whether surgical microscope-based indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography (ICG-VA) using FLOW 800 software provides useful evaluation of blood flow during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Methods: Twenty CEA procedures were performed in 19 patients between July 2011 and January 2012. ICG was injected intravenously before and after CEA, and ICG-VA video sequences were analyzed using FLOW 800. Regions of interest were identified in the common carotid artery, plaque, internal carotid artery, and external carotid artery, and changes in intensity values were evaluated. Results: The distal and proximal ends of the carotid plaque were identified in 87.5 and 75 % of cases, respectively. After CEA, intensity values in the common carotid artery, plaque, internal carotid artery, and external carotid artery had increased by 162 ± 129, 337 ± 212, 139 ± 151, and 177 ± 143, respectively. The intensity values in the region of the plaque showed the greatest improvement. Conclusions: ICG-VA can provide information regarding plaque location vessel patency during CEA. FLOW 800 software provides semiquantitative information regarding blood flow, especially in cases of severe stenosis with collapse of the internal carotid artery.
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Intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon improve allodynia-like withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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We previously reported that a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease showed allodynia-like withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation of the ipsilateral side of the rat hindpaw. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM) on the withdrawal response in 6-OHDA rats. The withdrawal threshold in response to the mechanical stimulation of the rat hindpaw was measured using von Frey filaments. In the ipsilateral side of the 6-OHDA lesions, the withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation significantly increased in 6-OHDA rats with VM grafts compared with those with sham grafts, but did not change in the contralateral side at 5 weeks after transplantation. The present results suggest that the intrastriatal grafts of fetal VM may relieve pain sensation induced by mechanical stimulation in 6-OHDA rats.
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Factors associated with sustained virological response in 24-week telaprevir-based triple therapy for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1b patients with the IL28B minor genotype.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) near the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene affect the outcome of 24-week telaprevir-based triple therapy with telaprevir, pegylated interferon-? and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b patients. We aimed to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes in patients with the unfavorable minor IL28B SNP genotype, who have poor response to combination therapy.
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Predictors of the Emergence of Apathy After Bilateral Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.
Neuromodulation
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is a valid therapeutic tool that ameliorates motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, apathy is one of the neuropsychiatric complications that may occur after STN-DBS surgery, and this may adversely influence the quality of life of patients despite significant motor improvement.
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Weight control in schizophrenic patients through Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern and its associations with temperament and character.
Asian J Psychiatr
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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This study examined whether daily self-monitoring of weight and monthly interviews with a doctor improved eating habits and led to weight loss, and whether temperament and character traits affect weight change in persons with schizophrenia.
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Plant vacuolar trafficking occurs through distinctly regulated pathways.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The multifunctional vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells, and many proteins are transported to and stored in this organelle; thus, the vacuole has great physiological and agronomical importance. However, the molecular mechanism and regulation of plant vacuolar traffic remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that multiple vacuolar trafficking pathways operate in plants. RAB5 and RAB7 are evolutionarily conserved subfamilies of Rab GTPase, whose animal and yeast counterparts regulate vacuolar/endosomal trafficking in a sequential manner. Functional analyses of a putative activating complex for RAB7 indicated that this complex is responsible for maturation from RAB5- to RAB7-positive endosomes in plant cells. Moreover, these machinery components are recruited to a more complex trafficking network. Mutations in RAB5 and RAB7 conferred counteracting effects on the vti11 mutant. Furthermore, impairment of RAB5- and RAB7-dependent pathways differentially affected the transport of distinctive cargos. These results indicate that plants have developed a complex vacuolar transport system distinct from that of nonplant systems by assigning evolutionarily conserved machinery to unique trafficking pathways. These pathways provide a fundamental basis for plant development at the cellular and higher-ordered levels.
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Predictors of response to 24-week telaprevir-based triple therapy for treatment-naïve genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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We evaluated the genetic variation in rs8099917, substitutions in core amino acid (aa) 70, and the number of aa substitutions in the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) on the prediction of sustained virological response (SVR) in treatment-naïve hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (G1b) patients. This multicenter study involved 150 Asian treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV G1b who received 12 weeks of telaprevir in combination with 24 weeks of peginterferon-?-2b and ribavirin. The baseline and treatment-related factors potentially associated with SVR were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Virological response was analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Cessation of the therapy due to adverse effects occurred in only 2 patients, who discontinued the trial at 10 weeks and at 2 weeks due to cerebral infarction and renal impairment, respectively. Among the 150 patients in whom the final virological response was determined, only genotype TT in rs8099917 was identified as a pretreatment predictor (P = 7.38 × 10(-4)). Achievement of a rapid virological response (RVR), defined as undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 of treatment, was identified as an after-starting-treatment predictor (P = 2.47 × 10(-5)). However, neither a substitution in core aa 70 nor the number of substitutions in the ISDR affected treatment outcome.
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A 48-week telaprevir-based triple combination therapy improves sustained virological response rate in previous non-responders to peginterferon and ribavirin with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C: A multicenter study.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The sustained virological response (SVR) rate of non-responders to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy (PR) is low for 24-week telaprevir-based triple combination therapy (T12PR24), compared to that of treatment-naïve patients or previous-treatment relapsers. This study investigated which characteristics of non-responders were associated with a better SVR rate to 48-week therapy (T12PR48).
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The habenulo-interpeduncular and mammillothalamic tracts: early developed fiber tracts in the human fetal diencephalon.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The habenulo-interpeduncular (HI) and mammillothalamic (MT) tracts are phylogenetically ancient. The clinical relevance of these tracts has recently received attention. In this work, we map the anatomy the developing HI and MT.
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Improvement of cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy--a new strategy for the evaluation of cognitive function.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Significant carotid stenosis is known to cause ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment. However, it remains controversial whether carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can improve cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to compare cognitive function between before and after CEA. Patients were prospectively registered to evaluate cognitive function from October 2011 to December 2012 after we determined them to have significant carotid stenosis. Patients were examined by 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or digital subtraction angiography. Although symptomatic cases were included, their modified Rankin Scale was grade 0 or 1 before CEA. All CEA procedures were performed by the same neurosurgical team. Cognitive function was evaluated by MoCA and MMSE performed before and after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six patients were included in this study. The MoCA score after surgery, whereas the MMSE score was not. After surgery, the MoCA score improved in patients who were 73 years or younger, who underwent CEA in the left side of their carotid lesion, who had severe carotid stenosis of more than 80%, who had bilateral lesion, who did not have abnormal lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging after surgery, or who had cerebral blood flow of pre-CEA over 34.5 mL. In conclusion, MoCA was feasible in patients soon after undergoing CEA. Using MoCA not MMSE, CEA may improve cognitive function in patients with significant carotid stenosis.
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Serum 25(OH)D3 levels affect treatment outcomes for telaprevir/peg-interferon/ribavirin combination therapy in genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Close relationships between chronic hepatitis C and vitamin D levels have been reported. For genotype 1b infection, the current standard of care is pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy combined with a protease inhibitor. The present study analyzed the relationship between outcomes of triple therapy and serum 25(OH)D3 levels.
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[A case of STA-A3 bypass with a STA interposition graft and endovascular trapping for a ruptured A2 dissecting aneurysm].
No Shinkei Geka
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A 57-year-old man presented with sudden-onset consciousness disturbance. He had a 10-year history of a subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)caused by a ruptured aneurysm in the right middle cerebral artery, and had undergone aneurysmal clipping. He could perform all his daily life activities independently. Computed tomography showed diffuse SAH with intraventricular hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography(DSA)demonstrated mild fusiform dilatation of the left A2 portion of the left anterior cerebral artery(ACA)and the terminal portion of the left internal carotid artery with no sign of right middle cerebral artery(MCA)aneurysm recurrence. We could not identify the bleeding lesion at that time; therefore, conservative treatment was selected in the acute phase. Fourteen days later, repeated DSA showed fusiform dilatation of the left A2 portion leading to a diagnosis of ACA dissection. We initially performed superficial temporal artery(STA)-ACA anastomosis and secondary internal trapping with detachable coils in the operating room. Postoperative DSA revealed complete obliteration of the dissection and parent artery. Endovascular treatment with STA-ACA bypass is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of ACA dissection.
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[A Patient with Vertebral Artery Dissection who Initially Suffered from Pharyngeal Pain].
No Shinkei Geka
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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We have encountered a case of a patient with bilateral vertebral artery(VA)dissection who suffered from severe pharyngeal pain. A 61-year-old man, who initially visited a nearby hospital for investigation of mild headache, was pointed out to have a left VA aneurysm. The next morning, severe pharyngeal pain on the right side suddenly occurred. The cause was unknown even when consultation was made to an otolaryngology and oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Sore throat improved in two days. On the 12th day after pharyngeal pain, the patient entered our hospital with a diagnosis of VA dissection. Imaging studies indicated severe stenosis of the right VA and an aneurysm of the left VA which confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral VA dissection. After severe stenosis of the right VA improved a little, the trapping of the left VA aneurysm was performed with bypass surgery of the occipital artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Although there have been reports of glossopharyngeal neuralgia due to compression of dissective aneurysms of VA, no report exists in terms of a sore throat due to VA dissection without glossopharyngeal neuralgia. This symptom was considered to be involved in the referred pain.
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Triphenylphosphinecarboxamide: An Effective Reagent for the Reduction of Azides and Its Application to Nucleic Acid Detection.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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A series of triphenylphosphinecarboxamide (TPPc) derivatives were designed and synthesized as alternative reagents to triphenylphosphine for the facile reduction of azides. The TPPc derivatives performed as efficient reducing agents for the synthesis of primary amines without the need for an additional hydrolysis procedure. The TPPc derivatives were also applied to nucleic acid sensing using a RhAz-oligonucleotide conjugate in a DNA-templated fluorogenic reaction.
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Transmembrane molecular transport through nanopores formed by protein nanotubes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Protein nanotubes formed by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly can penetrate cells and act as nanopores for direct transmembrane delivery of chemical compounds.
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Fluorogenic probes using 4-substituted-2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl derivatives as caging groups for the analysis of human glutathione transferase catalyzed reactions.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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We have synthesized a series of 4-substituted-2-nitrobenzene-sulfonyl compounds for caged fluorogenic probes and conducted a Hammett plot analysis using the steady-state kinetic parameters. The results revealed that the glutathione transferase (GST) alpha catalyzed reaction was dependent on the ? value in the same way as the non-enzymatic reaction, whereas the dependence of the ? value of the GST mu and pi was not as pronounced as that of GST alpha.
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?-Fetoprotein is a surrogate marker for predicting treatment failure in telaprevir-based triple combination therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C Japanese patients with the IL28B minor genotype.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Even when treated with telaprevir-based triple therapy, some patients fail to achieve a sustained virological response. This study identified factors related closely to treatment failure. A total of 146 Japanese genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter study and received a 24-week regimen of triple therapy. The end-of-treatment response rate was significantly lower in patients with the interleukin 28B (IL28B) (rs8099917) non-TT genotype (85.2%) than in those with the TT genotype (100%, P?=?0.0002). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified high ?-fetoprotein levels as an independent factor related to non-end-of-treatment response in patients with the non-TT genotype. A cut-off value of 20?ng/ml was determined for a non-end-of-treatment response; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 75.0%, 95.7%, 75.0%, 75.0%, and 92.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis for a sustained virological response identified the IL28B TT genotype, low ?-fetoprotein levels, non-responders, and a rapid virological response. The sustained virological response rate was significantly lower in patients with the non-TT genotype (59.3%) than in those with the TT genotype (96.7%, P?
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Superpressing of a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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We have investigated the phase behavior of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]) at 298 K under high pressure conditions. We found that [emim][BF4] can be superpressed without crystallization up to ?7 GPa. We propose that [emim][BF4] behaves as a superpressurized glass above 2.8 GPa. In view of the results, the environment around the alkyl-chain (C6 and C7-C8) of [emim][BF4] is largely perturbed rather than that around the imidazolium-ring in the superpressed state. We also discussed the results in view of the conformational isomerism of [emim](+) cation. Remarkably, as an alternative to pressure-induced crystallization, we have found that such a metastable liquid shows crystal polymorphism around 2.0 and 1.0 GPa upon decompression. The behavior is in contrast with the earlier results of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]).
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Disarming the jasmonate-dependent plant defense makes nonhost Arabidopsis plants accessible to the American serpentine leafminer.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers.
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Very rapid DNA-templated reaction for efficient signal amplification and its steady-state kinetic analysis of the turnover cycle.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are powerful tools for the detection of nucleic acid sequences. One of the major scientific challenges associated with this technique is the rational design of non-enzyme-mediated catalytic templated reactions capable of multiple turnovers that provide high levels of signal amplification. Herein, we report the development of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction-triggered fluorescent probe. The probe underwent a rapid templated reaction without any of the undesired background reactions. The fluorogenic reaction conducted in the presence of a template provided a 223-fold increase in fluorescence after 30 s compared with the nontemplated reaction. The probe provided an efficient level of signal amplification that ultimately enabled particularly sensitive levels of detection. Assuming a simple model for the templated reactions, it was possible to estimate the rate constants of the chemical reaction in the presence and in the absence of the template. From these kinetic analyses, it was possible to confirm that an efficient turnover cycle had been achieved, on the basis of the dramatic enhancement in the rate of the chemical reaction considered to be the rate-determining step. With maximized turnover efficiency, it was demonstrated that the probe could offer a high turnover number of 1500 times to enable sensitive levels of detection with a detection limit of 0.5 pM in the catalytic templated reactions.
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Long-lived luminogenic probe for detection of RNA in a crude solution of living bacterial cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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A pre-type sensitizer for a lanthanide complex on an oligonucleotide was successfully converted to a perfect final structure in a target DNA/RNA-templated reaction, without any chemical reagent or enzyme, under neutral conditions. The final form of the lanthanide-oligonucleotide provided a long-lived luminescence signal, appropriate for time-gated luminescence analysis and signal amplification. Target DNA/RNA-assisted time-gated luminescence analysis is a powerful tool for elimination of autofluorescence and detection of target RNA in living bacterial cells.
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Ionic liquid-induced formation of the ?-helical structure of ?-lactoglobulin.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Structural modification of bovine milk ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([bmim][NO3]) and ethylammonium nitrate ([EAN][NO3]) solutions has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Remarkably, high ionic liquid (IL) concentrations (>15 mol %IL) caused formation of a non-native ?-helical structure of ?-LG and disruption of its tertiary structure. Furthermore, while [bmim][NO3] promoted protein aggregation, [EAN][NO3] inhibited it probably owing to differences in the unique solution structure (nanoheterogeneity) of the ILs by the different cationic species. The IL-induced ?-helical formation of ?-LG shows a behavior similar to the alcohol denaturation, but a disordered structure-rich state was observed in the ?-? transition process by adding IL, in contrast to the case of an aqueous alcohol solution of protein. We propose that the molten salt-like property of aqueous IL solutions strongly support ?-helical formation of proteins.
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An epidermal growth factor derivative with binding affinity for hydroxyapatite and titanium surfaces.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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An epidermal growth factor (EGF) derivative with affinity for apatite and titanium surfaces was designed using a peptide moiety derived from salivary statherin, a protein that adheres to hydroxyapatite. Since the active sequence has two phosphoserine residues, the EGF derivative was prepared by organic synthesis, and a 54 residue peptide was successfully prepared using this method. Circular dichroism spectra indicated that the conformation of EGF was not significantly altered by the addition of the affinity peptide sequence and the mitogenic activity was only slightly reduced when compared with the wild-type protein. However, the binding affinity of the modified EGF to hydroxyapatite and titanium was significantly higher than the unmodified EGF. The phosphate groups in the affinity sequence contributed to the affinity of modified EGF to both apatite and titanium. The modified EGF significantly enhanced the growth of cells on hydroxyapatite and titanium. It was also demonstrated that the bound EGF enhanced the signal transduction for longer periods than unbound EGF. In conclusion, the modified EGF had significantly higher binding affinity for apatite and titanium than soluble EGF, and the bound EGF significantly enhanced cell growth by long-lasting activation of intracellular signal transduction.
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Safety and feasibility of combined coiling and neuroendoscopy for better outcomes in the treatment of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage accompanied by massive intraventricular hemorrhage.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of combined coiling and neuroendoscopy for treating severe SAH with massive IVH. Between April 2008 and June 2011, 49 patients with a severe SAH were treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Fukuoka University, Japan; 10 of these patients had a massive IVH with a ruptured aneurysm. All 10 patients (three men and seven women; mean age, 63.1±8.5 years) were treated with coiling and neuroendoscopic removal of the IVH within 2 days of onset. Coiling was successfully performed at a mean volume embolization ratio of 21.8±5.5%. Neuroendoscopic removal of the IVH reduced the mean Graeb score from 10.5±2.0 to 4.8±2.5 (p=0.005). All external drains were removed on day 3. No rebleeding or acute hydrocephalus was noted. The Glasgow Outcome Scale scores at discharge indicated two patients with good recovery, three with moderate disability, four in a vegetative state, and one dead. A good modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (0-2) at least 6 months later (mean follow-up period, 15.4±9.2 months) was observed for five patients (50%), and a poor mRS score (3-6) was observed for the remaining four patients. Neuroendoscopically removing the IVH from all of the ventricles between the lateral and the fourth ventricle and coiling the ruptured aneurysm is a safe, feasible approach for treating severe SAH with massive IVH.
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Bronchiolitis obliterans associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: histopathological bronchial reconstruction of the whole lung and immunohistochemical study.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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This study presents an extremely rare case of constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) provides the morphological and immunohistochemical features using histopathological bronchial reconstruction technique. A 27-year-old female developed progressive dyspnea after SJS induced by taking amoxicillin at the age of 10. Finally, she died of exacerbation of type II respiratory failure after 17 years from clinically diagnosed as having BO. Macroscopic bronchial reconstruction of the whole lungs at autopsy showed the beginning of bronchial obliterations was in the 4th to 5th branches, numbering from each segmental bronchus. Once they were obliterated, the distal and proximal bronchi were dilated. Microscopic bronchial reconstruction demonstrated the localization of obliteration was mainly from small bronchi to membranous bronchioli with intermittent airway luminal narrowing or obliteration. Moreover, CD3-, CD20-, and CD68-positive cells were found in the BO lesions. CD34- and D2-40-positive cells were mainly distributed in the peribronchiolar lesions and bronchiolar lumens, respectively. SMA- and TGF-?-positive cells were seen in the fibrous tissue of BO lesions.
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Elevation in Serum Concentration of Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase without Elevation in Serum Creatinine Concentration Secondary to Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.
Hepat Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100?mg of lamivudine plus 10?mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (ADV group) and 124 patients who had received 0.5?mg/day of entecavir or 100?mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group) for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate (P = 0.0424) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) (P = 0.0228) concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (P = 0.0001), although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ?BAP (R (2) = 0.2959, P = 0.0160). Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.
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Polycation-assisted DNA detection by reduction triggered fluorescence amplification probe.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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We have developed a fluorescence detection system for DNA, assisted by a comb-type cationic polymer (PLL-g-DX), for accelerating the reaction turnover. The combination of fluorogenic DNA probes with a comb-type cationic polymer has been demonstrated to be an effective means of signal amplification during the detection process. The method described herein represents a simple and enzyme-free detection.
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Serum lipoprotein profiles and response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Abnormal serum lipid profiles have been noted in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Moreover, many reports suggest that serum lipoprotein profiles are more profoundly distorted in patients with HCV G1b infection who have an unfavorable response to pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy. However, after the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms near the IL28B gene (rs8099917 and rs12979860) as potent predictive factors affecting the response to peg-IFN plus RBV, lipid factors are thought to be confounding factors.
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Activation of ADF/cofilin by phosphorylation-regulated Slingshot phosphatase is required for the meiotic spindle assembly in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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We identify Xenopus ADF/cofilin (XAC) and its activator, Slingshot phosphatase (XSSH), as key regulators of actin dynamics essential for spindle microtubule assembly during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Phosphorylation of XSSH at multiple sites within the tail domain occurs just after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and is accompanied by dephosphorylation of XAC, which was mostly phosphorylated in immature oocytes. This XAC dephosphorylation after GVBD is completely suppressed by latrunculin B, an actin monomer-sequestering drug. On the other hand, jasplakinolide, an F-actin-stabilizing drug, induces dephosphorylation of XAC. Effects of latrunculin B and jasplakinolide are reconstituted in cytostatic factor-arrested extracts (CSF extracts), and XAC dephosphorylation is abolished by depletion of XSSH from CSF extracts, suggesting that XSSH functions as an actin filament sensor to facilitate actin filament dynamics via XAC activation. Injection of anti-XSSH antibody, which blocks full phosphorylation of XSSH after GVBD, inhibits both meiotic spindle formation and XAC dephosphorylation. Coinjection of constitutively active XAC with the antibody suppresses this phenotype. Treatment of oocytes with jasplakinolide also impairs spindle formation. These results strongly suggest that elevation of actin dynamics by XAC activation through XSSH phosphorylation is required for meiotic spindle assembly in Xenopus laevis.
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Expression of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in the developing laminar architecture of the human fetal brain.
Ann. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or HA) plays a key role in the morphogenesis of the brain, but little is known about its expression in the human fetal neocortex. Using immunohistochemical methods, we assayed the expression of HA, glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, nestin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in paraffin-embedded histologic sections of 8 mid-term fetuses (estimated gestational age, 12-16 weeks; crown-rump length, 75-120mm). At 12-13 weeks, HA was expressed strongly along the membranes of many cells in the cortical plate and the layer 1 or marginal zone, but showed weak, spotty expression in a fiber-rich layer adjacent to the cortical plate, called the cortical stratified transitional field-1 (STF-1 or a primitive form of the subplate). At 15-16 weeks, HA was expressed in the layer 1 and in the early subplate or presubplate, but less strongly in cells of the possible STF-5 near the subventricular zone. However, the positive observation in STF-5 was probably a result of individual difference in development. The developing cortical plate seemed to produce HA in the presubplate to harbor axonal plexus of various afferent systems, while Cajal-Retzius cells were likely to accumulate HA in the layer 1. The HA-rich zones, those sandwiched the cortical plate, might avoid further migration of cortical cells.
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Long-term Morbidity and Mortality of Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease Receiving Hemodialysis.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Renal insufficiency is a known risk factor for stroke. However, the impact of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on stroke incidence in patients requiring dialysis remains controversial. We hypothesized that patients undergoing dialysis have no greater risk for periprocedural adverse events.
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Female longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats extend into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule: a histological study using human fetuses.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor.
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Effect of blonanserin on methamphetamine-induced disruption of latent inhibition and c-Fos expression in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To clarify the psychopharmacological profile of blonanserin, a novel antipsychotic, we examined its effect on the methamphetamine-induced disruption of latent inhibition (LI) and the neural activation related to this effect in rats. To evaluate the LI, we used a conditioned emotional response in which a tone (conditioned stimulus) was paired with a mild foot shock (unconditioned stimulus). This paradigm was presented to rats licking water. Methamphetamine-induced (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) disruption of LI was significantly improved by the administration of a higher dose (3.0mg/kg, i.p.) of blonanserin and tended to be improved by 1.0-mg/kg blonanserin and 0.2-mg/kg haloperidol but not by a lower dose (0.3mg/kg) of blonanserin. Immunohistochemical examination showed blonanserin (3.0mg/kg, i.p.) increased c-Fos expression in the shell area but not in the core area of the nucleus accumbens while methamphetamine (3.0mg/kg, i.p.) produced the opposite expression pattern. Blonanserin also increased the number of c-Fos expressions in the central amygdala nucleus but not in the basolateral amygdala nucleus or the prefrontal cortex. Blonanserin ameliorates the methamphetamine-induced disruption of LI, as other antipsychotics do, and a neuronal activation and/or modulation of neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is related to the disruption of LI by methamphetamine and to its amelioration by blonanserin.
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New proposal for response-guided peg-interferon-plus-ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 2 infection.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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This study aimed to determine the most suitable duration of pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN)-plus-ribavirin combination therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 who had not achieved rapid virological response (serum HCV RNA disappearance after 4 weeks of therapy). HCV genotype 2 patients (n?=?182) with a high viral load received >80% of the standard Peg-IFN-plus-ribavirin dose for at least 24 weeks, and their final virological responses were studied. Patients were classified into "rapid virological response" and "non-rapid virological response" groups. The non-rapid virological response group was further divided into a "virological response at 8 weeks" (serum HCV RNA disappearance after 8 weeks of therapy) and a "non-virological response at 8 weeks" group. Factors related to rapid virological response and optimal therapy duration in the non-rapid virological response group were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that subtype HCV genotype 2a (P?=?0.0015) and low concentration of pretreatment serum HCV RNA (P?=?0.0058) were independent factors in a rapid virological response. In the virological response at 8 weeks group, the sustained virological response rate after 24 weeks of therapy was significantly lower than after 36 weeks (P?=?0.044) or after 48 weeks (P?=?0.006), and was similar for 36- and 48-weeks. The cost for achieving (CAS) one sustained virological response was lowest with 36-week therapy. Prolongation of Peg-IFN-plus-ribavirin combination therapy to 36 weeks is suitable for achieving virological response at 8 weeks, given the high, sustained virological response rate and cost benefit.
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Early fetal development of the human vertebral artery especially at and above the occipitovertebral junction.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Little is known about the chronological changes that occur in the topographical anatomy of the fetal vertebral artery (VA), especially at and above the occipitovertebral junction. We histologically examined paraffin-embedded horizontal, sagittal and frontal sections of the heads of 25 human embryos and fetuses of crown-rump length 20-110 mm, corresponding to 6-15 weeks of gestation. At 6 weeks, the VA ran anterosuperiorly through a large intracranial subdural space filled with loose mesenchymal tissue. This intracranial course was distant from the brain stem, suggesting that the developing brain did not "guide" the VA. Before 8-9 weeks, the VA appeared to take an almost straight upward course at the occipitovertebral junction. Later, however, the atlanto-occipital joint growing along the mediolateral axis caused the VA to curve at the junction area. In specimens before 10 weeks, the terminal of the VA, or the origin of the basilar artery, was on the anterior side of the inferior olive and near the jugular foramen. The fetal posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated at the same caudal site distant from the primitive cerebellum. Later, the terminal or origin moved rostrally to the level of the pons. These findings indicate that the basic branching pattern of the VA-basilar artery is independent of the developing brain, whereas the arterial courses are secondarily "corrected" by the growing brain and atlanto-occipital joint.
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[Hemifacial spasm caused by a dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery, and resulting in acute exacerbation].
No Shinkei Geka
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The authors report a rare case of a symptomatic hemifacial spasm caused by a dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm and by an anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA). A 54-year-old man presented with left hemifacial spasm persisting for 5 years, and the spasm had undergone acute aggravation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography showed a vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and an AICA compressing the root exit zone of the left facial nerve. Microvascular decompression of the facial nerve with proximal clipping of the vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm was successfully performed. The hemifacial spasm disappeared immediately after the surgery.
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Decompression-induced crystal polymorphism in a room-temperature ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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We explore the phase behavior of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) compressed under high pressure to determine whether they crystallize or hold a liquid state. RTILs have attractive supercooling properties compared with ordinary molecular liquids, which easily become a glassy state without crystallizing at ambient pressure. Thus, phase behavior under extreme stress, such as pressure, might yield interesting results. Here, we show that N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate ([DEME][BF4]) could be crystallized upon compression, but it usually formed a superpressed liquid. Alternatively, unusual crystallization could be induced by releasing the pressure on the superpressed liquid. Notably, crystal polymorphism was observed in the decompression process. These facts along with visual observations indicate the possibility of [DEME][BF4] serving as a superpressurized glass. Our findings may facilitate the development of a new range of applications for RTILs that have undergone high-pressure recrystallization.
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[Nanostructured RNA for RNA interference].
Yakugaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent and highly specific gene-silencing phenomenon which is initiated or triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Shortly after the development of RNAi, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are 21 nucleotides in length with a 3 nucleotide overhang were shown to be very effective in mammalian cells. Much effort has been dedicated to the application of siRNAs, both as biological tools and as therapeutic agents. Currently, synthetic siRNA would be the method of choice for clinical purposes. However, natural RNA strands are quickly degraded in biological fluids. Chemically synthesized unnatural nucleotides have been developed and introduced into the siRNA strand. For example, modification of the ribose moiety with a 2-deoxy, 2-O-methyl, or 2-fluoro group, or modification of the phosphate backbone have been examined. Although these modifications improve the stability of siRNA in serum, they often cause a decrease in RNAi activity. There is also concern that unnatural RNA derivatives are toxic in the human body. A method to stabilize nontoxic natural RNA strands should be very useful for applications in RNAi technology. We came up with an idea that nano-structural design stabilizes natural RNA. We tested several new designs such as dumbbell RNA, double stranded circular RNA, or branched RNA in biological stability and RNA interference activity. Consequently, dumbbell or branched design offered prolonged RNAi effect due to high biological stability.
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Does motor dysfunction after cerebral infarction impede the development of angina symptoms? A comparison of coronary angiographic findings in patients with and without prior cerebral infarction.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Previous studies based on coronary angiography or computed tomography coronary angiography have demonstrated a high prevalence of coronary stenosis in patients with cerebral infarction and no prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of the present study was to compare the coronary angiographic findings of patients with prior cerebral infarction with those of patients with no prior cerebral infarction. Consecutive patients (n = 126) who underwent a first coronary angiography for suspected CAD but had no prior history of CAD were classified into 2 groups, those with a clinical history of cerebral infarction (cerebral infarction group) and those without a clinical history of cerebral infarction (noncerebral infarction group). The incidences of diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, coronary stenosis, and multivessel disease were significantly higher in the cerebral infarction group than in the noncerebral infarction group. Multiple logistic regression analysis relating to coronary stenosis identifi ed prior cerebral infarction (P = 0.0027, odds ratio = 4.414) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.0446, odds ratio = 2.619) as explanatory factors. Thirty-four of 78 patients (44%) with coronary stenosis did not have angina symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis regarding the lack of angina symptoms identified motor dysfunction (modified Rankin scale ? 2) (P = 0.0028, odds ratio = 8.323) as an explanatory factor. The results of the present study suggest that compared with patients without cerebral infarction those with the disorder have a high prevalence of coronary stenosis, and indicate that the development of angina symptoms is influenced by the severity of motor dysfunction.
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Serum apolipoprotein B-100 concentration predicts the virological response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Host lipoprotein metabolism is associated closely with the life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and serum lipid profiles have been linked to the response to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Polymorphisms in the human IL28B gene and amino acid substitutions in the core and interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) in NS5A of HCV genotype 1b (G1b) were also shown to strongly affect the outcome of Peg-IFN plus RBV therapy. In this study, an observational cohort study was performed in 247 HCV G1b-infected patients to investigate whether the response to Peg-IFN and RBV combination therapy in these patients is independently associated with the level of lipid factors, especially apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), an obligatory structural component of very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. The multivariate logistic analysis subsequently identified apoB-100 (odds ratio (OR), 1.602; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.046-2.456), alpha-fetoprotein (OR, 0.764; 95% CI, 0.610-0.958), non-wild-type ISDR (OR, 5.617; 95% CI, 1.274-24.754), and the rs8099917 major genotype (OR, 34.188; 95% CI, 10.225-114.308) as independent factors affecting rapid initial virological response (decline in HCV RNA levels by ?3-log10 at week 4). While lipid factors were not independent predictors of complete early or sustained virological response, the serum apoB-100 level was an independent factor for sustained virological response in patients carrying the rs8099917 hetero/minor genotype. Together, we conclude that serum apoB-100 concentrations could predict virological response to Peg-IFN plus RBV combination therapy in patients infected with HCV G1b, especially in those with the rs8099917 hetero/minor genotype.
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Posterior Circulation Hyperperfusion Syndrome after Superficial Temporal Artery-Superior Cerebellar Artery Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissection.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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A 68-year-old man was diagnosed with infarction of the cerebellum and medulla oblongata caused by vertebral artery dissection manifesting as severe stenosis with poor collateral flow. He underwent superficial temporal artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypass for the prevention of fatal brain stem infarction. He had consciousness disturbance 2 days postoperatively. Single-photon emission computed tomography revealed hyperperfusion in the posterior circulation. His consciousness improved as hyperperfusion improved. We report the first case of posterior circulation hyperperfusion syndrome after STA-SCA bypass and provide a review of the relevant literature.
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Qualitative changes in fetal trabecular meshwork fibers at the human iridocorneal angle.
Anat Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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We examined a series of changes that occur in the trabecular meshwork fibers of human eyes during fetal development at 12-30 weeks of gestation. At 12 and 15 weeks, the uveal meshwork was stained black with silver impregnation (indicating the predominance of collagen types III and IV) in the endomysium of the ciliary muscle. At 20 weeks, in combination with Schlemms canal, a dense fibrous tissue mass corresponding to the trabecular meshwork anlage appeared and was colored black. The anlage was continuous with the corneal endothelium rather than with the ciliary muscle. Until 25 weeks, the trabecular meshwork was identifiable as fragmented fiber bundles that stained red-black, suggesting a mixture of collagen types I, III, and IV. At 30 weeks, half of the ciliary muscle fibers were inserted into the scleral spur and not into the meshwork. Therefore, any contribution of ciliary muscle contraction to the differentiation of the trabecular meshwork would appear to be limited. We hypothesize that an uneven distribution of mechanical stresses in the area of the cornea-sclera junction causes a tear thereby creating Schlemms canal and is accompanied by a change in the collagen fiber types comprising the meshwork.
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Arterial system of the atrium in the human heart.
Anat Sci Int
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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We dissected the atrial arterial system of 22 adult human hearts from donated cadavers. Atrial branches (ABs) of coronary arteries, more than 0.5 mm in diameter at their origin, were selected to trace systematically their origin and course. A total of 135 ABs were observed, of which 68 were from the circumflex branch, and 67 from the right coronary artery. The origins of ABs were classified into the following five regions where they arose from coronary arteries: (A) from the left aortic bulb to the one-third of the left auricle, (B) from the end of region A to the point of anastomosis of the coronary sinus (CS) with an oblique vein of the left atrium (OVLA), (C) from the end of region B to the opening of the CS, (D) from the end of region C to two-thirds of the right auricle, (E) from the end of region D to the right aortic bulb. With regard to the course of the ABs, they were classified according to the following 8 areas where they passed: (I) underneath Bachmanns bundle (BB); (II) the area connecting the right and left superior pulmonary veins; (III) the dorsal part of the interatrial septum; (IV) beside the OVLA; (V) the atrial side beside the CS; (VI) the ventral part of the interatrial septum; (VII) the dorsal wall of the left atrium; (VIII) on the dorsal surface of the right atrium. Thus, ABs showed various combinations of regions and courses.
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The intercalated cells of the mouse kidney OMCDis are the target of the vasopressin V1a receptor axis for urinary acidification.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) null mice have insufficient acid-base balance, but the target cell for V1aR signaling which results in the urinary acidification has not been identified.
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Transsphenoidal meningocele: an anatomical study using human fetuses including report of a case.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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An asymptomatic transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele was discovered incidentally by fiber laryngoscopic examination in a 62-year-old man suffering from hoarseness due to dysplasia of the vocal cord epithelium. To provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this anomaly, we performed histologic observations of paraffin-embedded specimens of 42 human fetal heads at 12-16 weeks of gestation. At these stages, ossification had started in the clivus but the sphenoid sinus was not developed. In contrast to the very low incidence of the intra- or trans-sphenoidal remnant of Rathkes pouch after birth, we found (1) the typical mid-line cleft of the sphenoid body in two specimens (2/42 or 4.8 %) and (2) a duct-like, sellar inferior protrusion ending in the sphenoid body in 12 specimens (12/42 or 28.6 %). The cyst-like structure in the protrusion (two specimens) seemed to be composed of obstructed veins. The intra- and trans-sphenoidal anomalies were observed more frequently in specimens without ossification of the sphenoid body than in those with ossification. However, irrespective of ossification, a cyst-like remnant of the most upper part of Rathkes pouch was always seen between the anterior and posterior lobes of the developing pituitary gland. In addition, the bursa pharyngea was seen in four specimens and we confirmed that the notochord was attached to the bursa in each case. The consistent remnant of the intrasellar Rathkes pouch appeared to explain the high incidence of Rathkes cleft cyst in adults. The relatively high incidence of intrasphenoidal anomalies in fetuses (14/42) suggested that the intra- or trans-sphenoidal remnant of Rathkes pouch was physiologically closed by ossification of the sphenoid body.
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CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NQO1 polymorphisms and colorectal adenomas in Japanese men.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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To investigate the role of functional genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes of tobacco carcinogens in the development of colorectal adenomas.
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Noninvasive assessment of insulin resistance in the liver using the fasting (13)C-glucose breath test.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Evaluating hepatic insulin resistance (IR) is the key to making a sensitive an accurate diagnosis of glucose intolerance. However, there is currently no suitable method to perform this procedure. This study was conducted to investigate whether the fasting (13)C-glucose breath test (FGBT) is useful as a convenient and highly sensitive clinical test for evaluating hepatic IR. Healthy nonobese subjects and a disease group consisting of patients with mild glucose intolerance were administered 100 mg (13)C-glucose after an overnight fast. A series of breath samples was collected until 360 minutes after ingestion, and the (13)CO2-to-(12)CO2 ratio was measured using an infrared spectrometer and was plotted as a kinetic curve of (13)C excretion. The area under the curve until 360 minutes (AUC360) of the (13)C excretion kinetic curve of the FGBT reflects the efficiency of energy production in the liver. First, we assessed the correlations between the AUC360 (or the (13)C excretion rate at 120 minutes) and the HOMA-IR and HbA1c levels as standard measurements of IR and diabetes mellitus (DM). There were relatively strong correlation coefficients (r = -0.49 to -0.81, r(2) = 0.24-0.66, P < 0.01; n = 35 males, n = 33 females). Second, we compared the AUC360 of healthy subjects and that of the patients with mild glucose intolerance. The AUC360 of the healthy subjects was consistently higher than that of the patients with mild glucose intolerance. The presence of IR or DM in males and females was diagnosed using cutoff values. The FGBT is a novel glucose metabolism test that can be used conveniently and safely to evaluate the balance of glucose metabolism in the liver. This test has excellent sensitivity for diagnosing alterations in hepatic glucose metabolism, particularly hepatic IR.
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Alcohol, postprandial plasma glucose, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To identify factors associated with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after initial therapy.
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Fetal development of ligaments around the tarsal bones with special reference to contribution of muscles.
Clin Anat
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Through a histological examination of eight mid-term human fetuses (10-15 weeks) and seven late-stage fetuses (30-34 weeks), we attempted to determine how and when fetal ligaments around the tarsal bones form the regular arrangement seen in adults. Ligaments along the dorsal aspect of the tarsal bones developed early as an elongation of the perichondrium, in contrast to the late development of the plantar-sided ligaments. In contrast, a distal elongation of the tibialis posterior tendon was a limited plantar ligament in the early stage; finally, it extended from the navicular, ran obliquely to cross the dorsal side of the fibularis longus tendon, and inserted to the lateral cuneiform and fourth metatarsal. In the late stage, the adductor hallucis muscle origin provided multiple ligamentous structures along the cuneiforms and metatarsals. The tarsal sinus contained multiple fibrous bundles (possibly, the putative interosseous talocalcanean ligaments) that were derived from (1) insertion tendons of the extensor digitorus brevis muscle and (2) the fibrous sheath of the extensor digitorus longus tendon. The aponeurotic origin of the quadratus plantae muscle seemed to contribute to formation of the long plantar ligament. Therefore, tarsal ligaments appeared likely to develop from the long tendons, their fibrous sheaths and aponeuroses and intramuscular tendons of the proper foot muscles. Under in utero conditions with little or no stress from the plantar side of the foot, the muscle-associated connective tissue seems to play a crucial role in providing a regular arrangement of the ligaments in accordance with tensile stress from muscle contraction. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Coffee consumption, serum ?-glutamyltransferase, and glucose tolerance status in middle-aged Japanese men.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Recently, coffee consumption has been related to decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among those with high levels of serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). We examined the association between coffee and glucose tolerance, determined by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, and the effect modification of serum GGT on the association.
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Identification of venous sinus, tumor location, and pial supply during meningioma surgery by transdural indocyanine green videography.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Indocyanine green (ICG) videography is commonly used in the neurosurgical field for minimally invasive neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new intraoperative imaging modality by performing transdural ICG videography during surgery for meningiomas.
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Cationic cholesterol-modified gelatin as an in vitro siRNA delivery vehicle.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Polymeric micelle prepared through the self-assembly of cationic cholesterol-modified gelatin was tested for siRNA delivery. It exerted the desired effect of gene knockdown in HeLa cells stably expressing the luciferase gene and achieved a two-fold increase in the knockdown ability when compared to Lipofectamine® 2000. It was found that the polymeric micelle exhibited excellent stability and increased the biological stability of the siRNA in serum.
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Global metabolomic analysis of heart tissue in a hamster model for dilated cardiomyopathy.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a common cause of heart failure, is characterized by cardiac dilation and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate the mechanistic basis, we performed global metabolomic analysis of myocardial tissues from the left ventricles of J2N-k cardiomyopathic hamsters. This model exhibits symptoms similar to those of human DCM, owing to the deletion of the ?-sarcoglycan gene. Charged and lipid metabolites were measured by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography MS(/MS), respectively, and J2N-k hamsters were compared with J2N-n healthy controls at 4 (presymptomatic phase) and 16weeks (symptomatic) of age. Disturbances in membrane phospholipid homeostasis were initiated during the presymptomatic phase. Significantly different levels of charged metabolites, occurring mainly in the symptomatic phase, were mapped to primary metabolic pathways. Reduced levels of metabolites in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, together with large decreases in major triacylglycerol levels, suggested that decreased energy production leads to cardiac contractile dysfunction in the symptomatic phase. A mild reduction in glutathione and a compensatory increase in ophthalmate levels suggest increased oxidative stress in diseased tissues, which was confirmed by histochemical staining. Increased levels of 4 eicosanoids, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-PGF1?, in the symptomatic phase suggested activation of the protective response pathways. These results provide mechanistic insights into DCM pathogenesis and may help identify new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnosis.
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Sustained delivery of siRNA from dopamine-coated stainless steel surfaces.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Dopamine, an adhesive protein can be covalently deposited onto biomaterials. In this study, we evaluated the ability of dopamine-coated surfaces for small interfering RNA (siRNA) immobilization and release. Dopamine was deposited onto 316L stainless steel discs either as a monolayer at acidic pH or as polydopamine at alkaline pH, following which siRNA was immobilized onto these discs. To investigate the RNA interference ability of immobilized siRNA, reduction of luciferase expression in HeLa, and reduction of Egr-1 expression and cell proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) were determined. Dopamine treatment of 316L stainless steel discs under both the acidic and alkaline conditions resulted in the deposition of amino (NH2) groups, which enabled electrostatic immobilization of siRNA. The immobilized siRNA was released from both types of coatings, and enhanced the percent suppression of firefly luciferase activity of HeLa significantly up to ~96.5% compared to HeLa on non-dopamine controls (18%). Both the release of siRNA and the percent suppression of firefly luciferase activity were sustained for at least 7 days. In another set of experiments, siRNA sequences targeting to inhibit the activity of the transcription factor Egr-1 were eluted from dopamine-coated surfaces to HAoSMCs. Egr-1 siRNA eluted from dopamine-coated surfaces, significantly reduced the proliferation of HAoSMCs and their protein expression of Egr-1. Therefore, this method of surface immobilization of siRNA onto dopamine-coated surfaces might be effective for nucleic acid delivery from stents.
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Eye movement during facial affect recognition by patients with schizophrenia, using Japanese pictures of facial affect.
Percept Mot Skills
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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A possible relationship between recognition of facial affect and aberrant eye movement was examined in patients with schizophrenia. A Japanese version of standard pictures of facial affect was prepared. These pictures of basic emotions (surprise, anger, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness) were shown to 19 schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls who identified emotions while their eye movements were measured. The proportion of correct identifications of disgust was significantly lower for schizophrenic patients, their eye fixation time was significantly longer for all pictures of facial affect, and their eye movement speed was slower for some facial affects (surprise, fear, and sadness). One index, eye fixation time for "happiness," showed a significant difference between the high- and low-dosage antipsychotic drug groups. Some expected facial affect recognition disorder was seen in schizophrenic patients responding to the Japanese version of affect pictures, but there was no correlation between facial affect recognition disorder and aberrant eye movement.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.