Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have several distinctive characteristics, including high metastatic potential, tumor-initiating potential, and properties that resemble normal stem cells such as self-renewal, differentiation, and drug efflux. Because of these characteristics, CSC is regarded to be responsible for cancer progression and patient prognosis. In our previous study, we showed that a ubiquitin E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) suppressed breast cancer malignancy. Moreover, a recent clinical study reported that CHIP expression levels were associated with favorable prognostic parameters of patients with breast cancer. Here we show that CHIP suppresses CSC properties in a population of breast cancer cells. CHIP depletion resulted in an increased proportion of CSCs among breast cancers when using several assays to assess CSC properties. From our results, we propose that inhibition of CSC properties may be one of the functions of CHIP as a suppressor of cancer progression.
Molecular-based companion diagnostic tests are being used with increasing frequency to predict their clinical response to various drugs, particularly for molecularly targeted drugs. However, invasive procedures are typically required to obtain tissues for this analysis. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are novel biomarkers that can be used for the prediction of disease progression and are also important surrogate sources of cancer cells. Because current CTC detection strategies mainly depend on epithelial cell-surface markers, the presence of heterogeneous populations of CTCs with epithelial and/or mesenchymal characteristics may pose obstacles to the detection of CTCs.
The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We report here on the results of monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor intravitally using a fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) before, during, and after chemotherapy. In nascent tumors in nude mice, approximately 30% of the cells in the center of the tumor are in G?/G? and 70% in S/G?/M. In contrast, approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G?/G? phase. Similarly, approximately 75% of cancer cells far from (> 100 µm) tumor blood vessels of an established tumor are in G?/G?. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after the cessation of chemotherapy. Our results suggest why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G?/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. The results also suggest that drugs that target quiescent cancer cells are urgently needed.
An intussusception due to colonic adenocarcinoma has sometimes been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, reports of intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. In this report, the case of a young man with rectal adenocarcinoma causing intussusception is described. A 24-year-old man visited a hospital complaining of abdominal pain, and an upper rectal cancer was diagnosed by colonoscopy. Computed tomography showed intussusception caused by a large tumor in the pelvis and absence of distant metastases. Locally advanced rectal cancer causing intussusception was diagnosed, and a low anterior resection was performed. Intraoperatively, repair of the invagination could not be accomplished easily; therefore, the repair was abandoned. Instead, the tumor was removed en bloc to avoid dissemination of the cancer. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pStage IIA. The patient has no evidence of recurrence at 10 mo after the operation.
Invasive cancer cells are a critical target in order to prevent metastasis. In the present report, we demonstrate real-time visualization of cell cycle kinetics of invading cancer cells in 3-dimensional (3D) Gelfoam® histoculture, which is in vivo-like. A fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) whereby G0/G1 cells express a red fluorescent protein and S/G2/M cells express a green fluorescent protein was used to determine the cell cycle position of invading and non-invading cells. With FUCCI 3D confocal imaging, we observed that cancer cells in G0/G1 phase in Gelfoam® histoculture migrated more rapidly and further than cancer cells in S/G2/M phases. Cancer cells ceased migrating when they entered S/G2/M phases and restarted migrating after cell division when the cells re-entered G0/G1. Migrating cancer cells also were resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, since they were preponderantly in G0/G1, where cytotoxic chemotherapy is not effective. The results of the present report suggest that novel therapy targeting G0/G1 cancer cells should be developed to prevent metastasis.
Ribosome biosynthesis is a major intracellular energy-consuming process. We previously identified a nucleolar factor, nucleomethylin (NML), which regulates intracellular energy consumption by limiting rRNA transcription. Here, we show that, in livers of obese mice, the recruitment of NML to rRNA gene loci is increased to repress rRNA transcription. To clarify the relationship between obesity and rRNA transcription, we generated NML-null (NML-KO) mice. NML-KO mice show elevated rRNA level, reduced ATP concentration, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed NML-KO mice, hepatic rRNA levels are not decreased. Both weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed NML-KO mice are significantly lower than those in HFD-fed wild-type mice. These findings indicate that rRNA transcriptional activation promotes hepatic energy consumption, which alters hepatic lipid metabolism. Namely, hepatic rRNA transcriptional repression by HFD feeding is essential for energy storage.
Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA) in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.
Tetramerization of p53 is crucial to exert its biological activity, and nucleolar disruption is sufficient to activate p53. We previously demonstrated that nucleolar stress induces translocation of the nucleolar protein MYBBP1A from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and enhances p53 activity. However, whether and how MYBBP1A regulates p53 tetramerization in response to nucleolar stress remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that MYBBP1A enhances p53 tetramerization, followed by acetylation under nucleolar stress. We found that MYBBP1A has two regions that directly bind to lysine residues of the p53 C-terminal regulatory domain. MYBBP1A formed a self-assembled complex that provided a molecular platform for p53 tetramerization and enhanced p300-mediated acetylation of the p53 tetramer. Moreover, our results show that MYBBP1A functions to enhance p53 tetramerization that is necessary for p53 activation, followed by cell death with actinomycin D treatment. Thus, we suggest that MYBBP1A plays a pivotal role in the cellular stress response.
Because chemoradiotherapy selectively targets proliferating cancer cells, quiescent cancer stem-like cells are resistant. Mobilization of the cell cycle in quiescent leukemia stem cells sensitizes them to cell death signals. However, it is unclear that mobilization of the cell cycle can eliminate quiescent cancer stem-like cells in solid cancers. Thus, we explored the use of a genetically-engineered telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus, OBP-301, to mobilize the cell cycle and kill quiescent cancer stem-like cells.
The TGF-? superfamily comprises pleiotropic cytokines that regulate SMAD and non-SMAD signaling. TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction is known to be involved in tissue fibrosis, including renal fibrosis. Here, we found that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-bound [1,25(OH)2D3-bound] vitamin D receptor (VDR) specifically inhibits TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction through direct interaction with SMAD3. In mouse models of tissue fibrosis, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment prevented renal fibrosis through the suppression of TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction. Based on the structure of the VDR-ligand complex, we generated 2 synthetic ligands. These ligands selectively inhibited TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction without activating VDR-mediated transcription and significantly attenuated renal fibrosis in mice. These results indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent suppression of TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction is independent of VDR-mediated transcriptional activity. In addition, these ligands did not cause hypercalcemia resulting from stimulation of the transcriptional activity of the VDR. Thus, our study provides a new strategy for generating chemical compounds that specifically inhibit TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction. Since TGF-?-SMAD signal transduction is reportedly involved in several disorders, our results will aid in the development of new drugs that do not cause detectable adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia.
A pinhole-type two-dimensional ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering set-up at a so-called medium-length beamline at SPring-8 is reported. A long sample-to-detector distance, 160.5?m, can be used at this beamline and a small-angle resolution of 0.25?µm(-1) was thereby achieved at an X-ray energy of 8?keV.
The effect of UVC irradiation was investigated on a model of brain cancer and a model of experimental brain metastasis. For the brain cancer model, brain cancer cells were injected stereotactically into the brain. For the brain metastasis model, lung cancer cells were injected intra-carotidally or stereotactically. The U87 human glioma cell line was used for the brain cancer model, and the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was used for the experimental brain metastasis model. Both cancer cell types were labeled with GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm. A craniotomy open window was used to image single cancer cells in the brain. This double labeling of the cancer cells with GFP and RFP enabled apoptosis of single cells to be imaged at the subcellular level through the craniotomy open window. UVC irradiation, beamed through the craniotomy open window, induced apoptosis in the cancer cells. UVC irradiation was effective on LLC and significantly extended survival of the mice with experimental brain metastasis. In contrast, the U87 glioma was relatively resistant to UVC irradiation. The results of this study suggest the use of UVC for treatment of superficial brain cancer or metastasis.
Nucleolar dynamics are important for cellular stress response. We previously demonstrated that nucleolar stress induces nucleolar protein Myb-binding protein 1A (MYBBP1A) translocation from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and enhances p53 activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is understood to a lesser extent. Here we demonstrate that MYBBP1A interacts with lysine residues in the C-terminal regulatory domain region of p53. MYBBP1A specifically interacts with nonacetylated p53 and induces p53 acetylation. We propose that MYBBP1A dissociates from acetylated p53 because MYBBP1A did not interact with acetylated p53 and because MYBBP1A was not recruited to the p53 target promoter. Therefore, once p53 is acetylated, MYBBP1A dissociates from p53 and interacts with nonacetylated p53, which enables another cycle of p53 activation. Based on our observations, this MYBBP1A-p53 binding property can account for efficient p53-activation by MYBBP1A under nucleolar stress. Our results support the idea that MYBBP1A plays catalytic roles in p53 acetylation and activation.
Combined X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) measurements of carbon-black nanocrystals embedded in styrene-butadiene rubber were performed. From the intensity fluctuation of speckle patterns in a small-angle scattering region (XPCS), dynamical information relating to the translational motion can be obtained, and the rotational motion is observed through the changes in the positions of DXT diffraction spots. Graphitized carbon-black nanocrystals in unvulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber showed an apparent discrepancy between their translational and rotational motions; this result seems to support a stress-relaxation model for the origin of super-diffusive particle motion that is widely observed in nanocolloidal systems. Combined measurements using these two techniques will give new insights into nanoscopic dynamics, and will be useful as a microrheology technique.
Tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in a wide variety of human cancers and plays a critical role in anoikis, which is essential for preventing tumorigenesis. Recently, we found that a nucleolar protein, Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1A), was involved in p53 activation. However, the function of MYBBP1A in cancer prevention has not been elucidated.
Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent and life-threatening mode of metastasis and recurrence in patients with gastric cancer. A multicenter phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of S-1 and docetaxel combination chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination.
Currently-used rodent tumor models, including transgenic tumor models, or subcutaneously growing tumors in mice, do not sufficiently represent clinical cancer. We report here development of methods to obtain a highly clinically-accurate rectal cancer model. This model was established by intrarectal transplantation of mouse rectal cancer cells, stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), followed by disrupting the epithelial cell layer of the rectal mucosa by instilling an acetic acid solution. Early-stage tumor was detected in the rectal mucosa by 6 days after transplantation. The tumor then became invasive into the submucosal tissue. The tumor incidence was 100% and mean volume (±SD) was 1232.4 ± 994.7 mm(3) at 4 weeks after transplantation detected by fluorescence imaging. Spontaneous lymph node metastasis and lung metastasis were also found approximately 4 weeks after transplantation in over 90% of mice. This rectal tumor model precisely mimics the natural history of rectal cancer and can be used to study early tumor development, metastasis, and discovery and evaluation of novel therapeutics for this treatment-resistant disease.
The comparison of cancer cell seeding, deformation and viability in the lung, muscle and liver of nude mice in real-time is reported here. The mice were intubated to support ventilation with positive end-respiratory pressure (PEEP) for imaging on the lung. Human fibrosarcoma cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm (dual-color HT-1080 cells) were injected into the tail vein for lung imaging, the portal vein for liver imaging or the abdominal aorta for muscle imaging which was performed with an Olympus OV100 Small Animal Imaging System. The length of the cytoplasm and nuclei in 20 seeded cancer cells were measured. A large number of cells initially arrested in the lung capillaries and many cells formed aggregates. The cell number decreased rapidly at 6 and 24 h. There was no significant difference in cancer cell survival when immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were used in place of the nude mice, suggesting that T cell reaction is not very important in the first 24 h after seeding of cancer cells in the lung. In the lung and liver, little cancer cell deformation occurred. In contrast in the muscle, the cytoplasm and nuclei of the seeded cells were highly deformed and many fragmented cells were observed. The rate of cancer cell death was highest in the lung and lowest in the muscle. In each organ, single disseminated cells tended to die earlier than aggregated cells. The results of this study suggest that the early steps of metastasis are different in the lung, liver and muscle.
We have previously developed a telomerase-specific replicating adenovirus expressing GFP (OBP-401), which can selectively label tumors in vivo with GFP. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OBP-401 specifically labeled peritoneal tumors with GFP, enabling fluorescence visualization of the disseminated disease and real-time fluorescence surgical navigation. However, the technical problems with removing all cancer cells still remain, even with fluorescence-guided surgery. In this study, we report imaging of tumor recurrence after fluorescence-guided surgery of tumors labeled in vivo with the telomerase-dependent, GFP-containing adenovirus OBP-401.. Recurrent tumor nodules brightly expressed GFP, indicating that initial OBP-401-GFP labeling of peritoneal disease was genetically stable, such that proliferating residual cancer cells still express GFP. In situ tumor labeling with a genetic reporter has important advantages over antibody and other non-genetic labeling of tumors, since residual disease remains labeled during recurrence and can be further resected under fluorescence guidance.
Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt)) that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt) embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt) ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt) ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex) and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.
Cells eventually exit from mitosis during sustained arrest at the spindle checkpoint, without sister chromatid separation and cytokinesis. The resulting tetraploid cells are arrested in the subsequent G1 phase in a p53-dependent manner by the regulatory function of the postmitotic G1 checkpoint. Here we report how the nucleolus plays a critical role in activation of the postmitotic G1 checkpoint. During mitosis, the nucleolus is disrupted and many nucleolar proteins are translocated from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm. Among the nucleolar factors, Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1A) induces the acetylation and accumulation of p53 by enhancing the interaction between p300 and p53 during prolonged mitosis. MYBBP1A-dependent p53 activation is essential for the postmitotic G1 checkpoint. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel nucleolar function that monitors the prolongation of mitosis and converts its signal into activation of the checkpoint machinery.
Mammals compensate X chromosome gene dosage between the sexes by silencing of one of the two female X chromosomes. X inactivation is initiated in the early embryo and requires the non-coding Xist RNA, which encompasses the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and triggers its silencing. In differentiated cells, several factors including the histone variant macroH2A and the scaffold attachment factor SAF-A are recruited to the Xi and maintain its repression. Consequently, in female somatic cells the Xi remains stably silenced independently of Xist. Here, we identify the Trithorax group protein Ash2l as a novel component of the Xi. Ash2l is recruited by Xist concomitantly with Saf-A and macroH2A at the transition to Xi maintenance. Recruitment of these factors characterizes a developmental transition point for the chromatin composition of the Xi. Surprisingly, expression of a mutant Xist RNA that does not cause gene repression can trigger recruitment of Ash2l, Saf-A and macroH2A to the X chromosome, and can cause chromosome-wide histone H4 hypoacetylation. This suggests that a chromatin configuration is established on non-genic chromatin on the Xi by Xist to provide a repressive compartment that could be used for maintaining gene silencing. Gene silencing is mechanistically separable from the formation of this repressive compartment and, thus, requires additional pathways. This observation highlights a crucial role for spatial organization of chromatin changes in the maintenance of X inactivation.
An indirectly illuminated X-ray area detector is employed for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). The detector consists of a phosphor screen, an image intensifier (microchannel plate), a coupling lens and either a CCD or CMOS image sensor. By changing the gain of the image intensifier, both photon-counting and integrating measurements can be performed. Speckle patterns with a high signal-to-noise ratio can be observed in a single shot in the integrating mode, while XPCS measurement can be performed with much fewer photons in the photon-counting mode. By switching the image sensor, various combinations of frame rate, dynamic range and active area can be obtained. By virtue of these characteristics, this detector can be used for XPCS measurements of various types of samples that show slow or fast dynamics, a high or low scattering intensity, and a wide or narrow range of scattering angles.
It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is detected in serum and/or liver in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without HBsAg. To adress this issue, we analyzed HBV genome in 2 HCC cases without HBsAg. The DNA from serum from patients with HCC was amplified with a nested PCR, and a determinant of S region, core promoter region and precore region were sequenced. The first case, a 50 years-old male, was negative for HBsAg and HBeAg, and positive for anti-HBs, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. Viral load of HBV in serum was 4.0 log genome equivalent/ml by TMA assay, and was 1.1 X 105 copy/ml by real-time PCR system. A nucleotide analysis of the common a determinant of S gene showed that the 5 first amino acids of a determinant, CTIPA, were changed to CKTCTTPA. The second case, a 76 years-old male, was positive for anti-HBe, but negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HBc. No missense or nonsense mutations were seen in a determinant of S region. Viral load of serum HBV was < 3.7 log genome equivalent/ml by TMA assay, but was 2.4X103 copy/ml by real-time PCR system. The results of the present study suggest that the mechanisms of HBsAg loss are diverse among HCC patients without HBsAg, and that an analysis of HBV genome is a useful tool to dissolve molecular mechanisms losing HBs antigenicity.
We previously constructed telomerase-dependent, replication-selective adenoviruses OBP-301 (Telomelysin) and OBP-401 [Telomelysin-green fluorescent protein (GFP); TelomeScan], the replication of which is regulated by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter. By intratumoral injection, these viruses could replicate within the primary tumor and subsequent lymph node metastasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of systemic administration of these telomerase-dependent adenoviruses. We assessed the antitumor efficacy of OBP-301 and the ability of OBP-401 to deliver GFP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic colon cancer nude mouse models. We showed that i.v. administration of OBP-301 significantly inhibited colon cancer liver metastases and orthotopically implanted HCC. Further, we showed that OBP-401 could visualize liver metastases by tumor-specific expression of the GFP gene after portal venous or i.v. administration. Thus, systemic administration of these adenoviral vectors should have clinical potential to treat and detect liver metastasis and HCC.
Cancer surgery requires the complete and precise identification of malignant tissue margins including the smallest disseminated lesions. Internal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence can intensely illuminate even single cells but requires GFP sequence transcription within the cell. Introducing and selectively activating the GFP gene in malignant tissue in vivo is made possible by the development of OBP-401, a telomerase-dependent, replication-competent adenovirus expressing GFP. This potentially powerful adjunct to surgical navigation was demonstrated in 2 nude mouse models that represent difficult surgical challenges--the resection of widely disseminated cancer. HCT-116, a model of intraperitoneal disseminated human colon cancer, was labeled by virus injection into the peritoneal cavity. A549, a model of pleural dissemination of human lung cancer, was labeled by virus administered into the pleural cavity. Only the malignant tissue fluoresced brightly in both models. In the intraperitoneal model of disseminated cancer, fluorescence-guided surgery enabled resection of all tumor nodules labeled with GFP by OBP-401. The data in this report suggest that adenoviral-GFP labeling tumors in patients can enable fluorescence-guided surgical navigation.
We report here a new targeting strategy for primary bone tumor and lung metastasis with a modified auxotrophic strain of Salmonella typhimurium. We have previously developed the genetically-modified strain of S. typhimurium, selected for tumor targeting and therapy in vivo. Normal tissue is cleared of these bacteria even in immunodeficient athymic mice with no apparent side effects. In this study, the tumor-targeting strain of S. typhimurium, termed A1-R, was administered i.v. to nude mice which have primary bone tumor and lung metastasis. Primary bone tumor was obtained by orthotopic intra-tibial injection of 5 x 10(5) 143B-RFP (red fluorescent protein) human osteosarcoma cells. One group of mice was treated with A1-R expressing GFP (green fluorescent protein) and another group was used a as control. A1-R (5 x 10(7) colony-forming units) was injected in the tail vein three times on a weekly basis. On day 28, lung samples were excised and observed with the Olympus OV100 Small Animal Imaging System. The size of the primary tumor and RFP intensity of lung metastasis were measured. Primary bone tumor size (fluorescence area [mm(2)]) was 232 +/- 70 in the untreated group and 95 +/- 23 in the treated group (p < 0.05). RFP intensity of the lung metastasis was 3 +/- 1.5 x 10(6) in the untreated group and 0.42 +/- 0.33 x 10(6) in the treated group (p < 0.05). Therefore, bacterial treatment was effective for both primary bone tumor and lung metastasis.
The noncoding Xist RNA triggers silencing of one of the two female X chromosomes during X inactivation in mammals. Gene silencing by Xist is restricted to a special developmental context in early embryos and specific hematopoietic precursors. Here, we show that Xist can initiate silencing in a lymphoma model. We identify the special AT-rich binding protein SATB1 as an essential silencing factor. Loss of SATB1 in tumor cells abrogates the silencing function of Xist. In lymphocytes Xist localizes along SATB1-organized chromatin and SATB1 and Xist influence each others pattern of localization. SATB1 and its homolog SATB2 are expressed during the initiation window for X inactivation in ES cells. Importantly, viral expression of SATB1 or SATB2 enables gene silencing by Xist in embryonic fibroblasts, which normally do not provide an initiation context. Thus, our data establish SATB1 as a crucial silencing factor contributing to the initiation of X inactivation.
Soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment may influence the process of angiogenesis; a process essential for the growth and progression of malignant tumors. In this study, we describe a novel antiangiogenic effect of conditional replication-selective adenovirus through the stimulation of host immune reaction. An attenuated adenovirus (OBP-301, Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter element drives expression of E1 genes, could replicate in and cause selective lysis of cancer cells. Mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell culture demonstrated that OBP-301-infected cancer cells stimulated PBMC to produce IFN-gamma into the supernatants. When the supernatants were subjected to the assay of in vitro angiogenesis, the tube formation of HUVECs was inhibited more efficiently than recombinant IFN-gamma. Moreover, in vivo angiogenic assay using a membrane-diffusion chamber system s.c. transplanted in nu/nu mice showed that tumor cell-induced neovascularization was markedly reduced when the chambers contained the mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell culture supernatants. The growth of s.c. murine colon tumors in syngenic mice was significantly inhibited due to the reduced vascularity by intratumoral injection of OBP-301. The antitumor as well as antiangiogenic effects, however, were less apparent in SCID mice due to the lack of host immune responses. Our data suggest that OBP-301 seems to have antiangiogenic properties through the stimulation of host immune cells to produce endogenous antiangiogenic factors such as IFN-gamma.
Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Currently, surgical resection is the only hope for cure. The majority of patients present with locally-advanced or metastatic disease. The most common site for distant metastasis is the liver. We report here a modified auxotrophic strain of S. typhimurium that can target and inhibit the growth of liver metastasis in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. This strain of S. typhimurium is auxotrophic (leucine-arginine dependent) but apparently receives sufficient nutritional support from tumor tissue. To increase tumor targeting ability and tumor killing efficacy, this strain was further modified by re-isolation from a tumor growing in a nude mouse and termed A1-R. In the present study, we demonstrate the efficacy of locally- as well as systemically-administered A1-R on liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Mice treated with A1-R given locally via intrasplenic injection or systemically via tail vein injection had a much lower hepatic and splenic tumor burden compared with control mice. Systemic treatment with intravenous A1-R also increased survival time. All results were statistically significant. This study suggests the clinical potential of bacterial treatment of a critical metastatic target of pancreatic cancer.
A 79-year-old man who had previously undergone partial resection of the remnant stomach and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was diagnosed as having peritoneal recurrence near the ligament of Treitz. In the course of chemotherapy for recurrent gastric cancer, he complained of colic pain. CT examination revealed a marked dilation of the duodenum suggesting the presence of a distal duodenal stricture resulting from the known recurrent tumor. To palliate this intestinal obstruction, we successfully placed an expandable metal stent(EMS) using a double-balloon enteroscope(DBE), which achieved immediate relief of the obstruction and enabled the resumption of oral intake and chemotherapy. While the endoscopic placement of an EMS is available for malignant gastro-intestinal obstruction, it is considerably more difficult to approach the duodenum with Roux-en-Y anastomosis. A DBE has made it possible to place an EMS deep in the small intestine. In the present case, this minimally invasive procedure avoided the need for surgery and greatly contributed to palliation. Thus, EMS placement using a DBE is a possible palliative treatment for malignant small bowel obstruction.
We report a case of gastric cancer that presented as transverse myelopathy due to spinal bone metastasis. A 45-year- old man with advanced gastric cancer underwent distal gastrectomy and lymph node dissection for curative intent. However, pathological examination of the specimen revealed positive cytological findings in the peritoneal lavage fluid in addition to serosal invasion and lymph node metastasis(pT4aN3bCY1, stage IV). Three months after the operation, during the second course of chemotherapy with S-1, he began to complain of back pain, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed spinal bone metastasis. Despite immediate radiotherapy for the bone metastasis, he soon suffered from paraplegia in the lower extremities followed by disturbances of bladder and bowel function. We created a sigmoid colostomy, which enabled self-care for defecation, and resumed radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Bone metastasis of gastric cancer is rare but the prognosis is very poor. Because of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course, early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approaches are important for gastric cancer patients with spinal metastasis.
Cancer cells, with and without fluorescent protein expression, were irradiated with various doses of UVC (100, 400, and 600 J/m(2)). Dual-color Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) and U87 human glioma cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm and non-colored LLC and U87 cells were cultured in 96-well plates. Eight hours after seeding, the cells were irradiated with the various doses of UVC. The resulting cell number was determined after 24 hours. Compared to non-colored LLC cells, the number of dual-color LLC cells decreased significantly due to UVC irradiation with 100 J/m(2) (p=0.003). Although there was no significant difference in the number of dual-color and non-colored U87 cells after 100 J/m(2) UVC irradiation (p=0.852), the number of dual-color U87 cells decreased significantly with respect to non-colored cells due to UVC irradiation with 400 J/m(2) and 600 J/m(2) (p=0.011 and p=0.009, respectively). Thus, both dual-color LLC and dual-color U87 cells were more sensitive to UVC light than non-colored LLC and U87 cells. These results suggest that the expression of fluorescent proteins in cancer cells can enhance photodynamic therapy (PDT) using UVC and possibly with other wavelengths of light as well.
The enhancer of rudimentary homolog (ERH) is a small eukaryotic protein that is highly conserved in animals, plants, and protists but not in fungi. ERH has several binding proteins and has been associated with various cellular processes, such as pyrimidine metabolism, cell cycle progression, and transcription control; however, little is known about the exact role of this protein and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that ERH has a critical role in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. ERH depleted-cells showed severe chromosome misalignment and weakened kinetochore-microtubule attachment. ERH depletion also caused dissociation of centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E), a mitotic kinesin that is involved in stabilizing the kinetochore-microtubule attachment, from kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes. We propose that ERH contributes to chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate by localizing CENP-E at kinetochore regions.
Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody targeting HER2, exhibits remarkable therapeutic efficacy against HER2-positive breast and gastric cancers; however, acquired resistance presents a formidable obstacle to long-term tumor responses in the majority of patients. Here, we show the mechanism of resistance to trastuzumab in HER2-positive human cancer cells and explore the molecular sensitization by exogenous expression of HER2-extracellular domain (ECD) in HER2-negative or trastuzumab-resistant human cancer cells. We found that long-term exposure to trastuzumab induced resistance in HER2-positive cancer cells; HER2 expression was downregulated, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity was impaired. We next examined the hypothesis that trastuzumab-resistant cells could be re-sensitized by the transfer of non-functional HER2-ECD. Exogenous HER2-ECD expression induced by the stable transfection of a plasmid vector or infection with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector had no apparent effect on the signaling pathway, but strongly enhanced ADCC activity in low HER2-expressing or trastuzumab-resistant human cancer cells. Our data indicate that restoration of HER2-ECD expression sensitizes HER2-negative or HER2-downregulated human cancer cells to trastuzumab-mediated ADCC, an outcome that has important implications for the treatment of human cancers.
Liver X receptor (LXR) activation stimulates triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver. Several lines of evidence indicate that estradiol-17? (E2) reduces TG levels in the liver; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the E2 effect remains unclear. Here we show that administration of E2 attenuated SREBP-1 expression and TG accumulation induced by LXR activation in the mouse liver. In estrogen receptor ? (ER?) knockout (KO) and liver-specific-ER? KO mice, E2 did not affect SREBP-1 expression or TG levels. Molecular analysis revealed that ER? is recruited to the SREBP-1c promoter through direct binding to LXR and inhibits co-activator recruitment to LXR in an E2-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a novel liver-dependent mechanism controlling TG accumulation through the non-classical ER/LXR pathway. To confirm that a non-classical ER/LXR pathway regulates the ER?-dependent inhibition of LXR activation, we screened ER? ligands that were able to repress LXR activation without enhancing ER? transcriptional activity, and as a result we identified the phytoestrogen phloretin. In mice, phloretin showed no estrogenic activity; however, it did reduce SREBP-1 expression and TG levels in the liver of mice fed a high-fat diet to an extent similar to that of E2. Conclusion: We propose that ER ligands reduce TG levels in the liver by inhibiting LXR activation through a non-classical pathway. Our results also indicate that the effects of ER on TG accumulation can be distinguished from its estrogenic effects by a specific ER ligand. (Hepatology 2013;).
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