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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Novel polymer gel electrolyte with organic solvents for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A cross-linked copolymer was previously synthesized from poly(oxyethylene) diamine (POE-amine) and an aromatic anhydride and cured to generate an amide-imide cross-linking structure. The copolymer containing several chemical groups such as POE, amido acids, and imide, enabled to absorb liquid electrolytes in methoxypropionitrile (MPN) for suitable uses in dye-sensitized solar cells. To establish the advantages of polymer gel electrolytes (PGE), the same copolymer was studied by using different electrolyte solvents including propylene carbonate (PC), dimethylformamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and shown their long-term stability. The morphology of the copolymer after absorbing liquid electrolytes in these solvents was proven the same as a 3D interconnected nanochannels, evidenced field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Among these solvents, PC was selected as the optimized PGE, which demostrated a higher power conversion efficiency (8.31%) than that of the liquid electrolyte (7.89%). In particular, the long-term stability of only a 5% decrease in the cell efficiency after 1000 h of testing was achieved. It was proven the developed copolymer as PGE was versatile for different solvents showing high efficiency and long-term durability.
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Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The fluorescent behavior of the electrofluorochromic devices (Type I) of greenish-yellow emitting P1 and blue emitting P2 can be reversibly switched between the nonfluorescent (oxidized) state and the fluorescent (neutral) state with a superb on/off ratio of 23.8 and 21.9, respectively. Moreover, a tunable electrofluorochromic device (Type II) based on two P1 and P2 polymeric layers that are coated individually on two independent ITO electrodes shows switchable blue-white-(greenish-yellow) multifluorescence states.
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Anthracene/Phenothiazine ?-Conjugated Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Redox Mediator in Organic and Water-based Solvents.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13?%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85?% of the N719-based standard cell (8.47?%). The cell efficiency (8.42?%) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96?% with an excellent Voc of 0.77?V.
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Genetic variants of CD209 associated with Kawasaki disease susceptibility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology mainly affecting children in Asian countries. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209) in humans was showed to trigger an anti-inflammatory cascade and associated with KD susceptibility. This study was conducted to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CD209 and the risk KD.
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IL-31 associated with coronary artery lesion formation in Kawasaki disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is known to be associated with T help (Th) 2 reaction and subsequently allergic diseases. Interleukin-31 (IL-31) has also been reported to be involved in Th2 mediated diseases such as allergic diseases. However, the role of IL-31 in KD has not been previously reported. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-31 is associated with KD and its clinical outcome.
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Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs).
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs.
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Using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid) thin film with binding-induced ion flux blocking for amperometric detection of hemoglobin A1c.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This study reports a novel enzyme-free, label-free amperometric method for direct detection of hemoglobin A1c (Hb(A1c)), a potent biomarker for diabetes diagnosis and prognosis. The method relies on an electrode modified with poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid) (PAPBA) nanoparticles (20-50 nm) and a sensing scheme named "binding-induced ion flux blocking." The PAPBA nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, XPS, TEM, and SEM. Being a polyaniline derivative, PAPBA showed an ion-dependent redox behavior, in which insertion or extraction of ions into or out of PABPA occurred for charge balance during the electron transfer process. The polymer allowed Hb(A1c) selectively bound to its surface via forming the cis-diol linkage between the boronic acid and sugar moieties. Voltammetric analyses showed that Hb(A1c) binding decreased the redox current of PAPBA; however, the binding did not alter the redox potentials and the apparent diffusivities of ions. This suggests that the redox current of PAPBA decreased due to an Hb(A1c) binding-induced ion flux blocking mechanism, which was then verified and characterized through an in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) study. Assay with Hb(A1c) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) indicates that the peak current of a PAPBA electrode has a linear dependence on the logarithm of Hb(A1c) concentration ranging from 0.975 to 156 ?M. The Hb(A1c) assay also showed high selectivity against ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, glucose and bovine serum albumin. This study has demonstrated a new method for developing an electrochemical Hb(A1c) biosensor and can be extended to other label-free, indicator-free protein biosensors based on a similar redox polymer electrode.
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Gender-dependent effect of GSTM1 genotype on childhood asthma associated with prenatal tobacco smoke exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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It remains unclear whether the GSTM1 genotype interacts with tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in asthma development. This study aimed to investigate the interactions among GSTM1 genotype, gender, and prenatal TSE with regard to childhood asthma development. In a longitudinal birth cohort in Taiwan, 756 newborns completed a 6-year follow-up, and 591 children with DNA samples available for GSTM1 genotyping were included in the study, and the interactive influences of gender-GSTM1 genotyping-prenatal TSE on childhood asthma development were analyzed. Among these 591 children, 138 (23.4%) had physician-diagnosed asthma at 6 years of age, and 347 (58.7%) were null-GSTM1. Prenatal TSE significantly increased the prevalence of childhood asthma in null-GSTM1 children relative to those with positive GSTM1. Further analysis showed that prenatal TSE significantly increased the risk of childhood asthma in girls with null-GSTM1. Furthermore, among the children without prenatal TSE, girls with null-GSTM1 had a significantly lower risk of developing childhood asthma and a lower total IgE level at 6 years of age than those with positive GSTM1. This study demonstrates that the GSTM1 null genotype presents a protective effect against asthma development in girls, but the risk of asthma development increases significantly under prenatal TSE.
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Tuning phase stability of complex oxide nanocrystals via conjugation.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Nanocrystals (NCs) attract tremendous research interests because of their unique properties to meet the demands of functionalities. To date, hybrid NCs with multiple components are developed to meet the rising demands that could be very difficult, or even impossible to be achieved by single-component NCs. Tuning properties by strain via conjugation could be an alternative solution. Strain engineering has been discovered and widely applied to many thin-film materials for tuning physical properties. Then, there is a further question to be addressed in this study: can we take the advantages we have learned in heteroepitaxy of thin films and transfer that into the NC conjugation? In order to demonstrate this possibility, we investigated NC conjugation of BiFeO3 and LaAlO3. We found that change in either LaAlO3-NC or BiFeO3-NC size would change the stability of rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase transition. The present results show that strain engineering is possible to be realized in not only thin film but also NC conjugation. The same concept should be applicable to other complex oxide systems in order to broaden their practical applications for the rising demands of multifunctionalities.
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Tuning electronic transport in a self-assembled nanocomposite.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Self-assembled nanocomposites with a high interface-to-volume ratio offer an opportunity to overcome limitations in current technology, where intriguing transport behaviors can be tailored by the choice of proper interactions of constituents. Here we integrated metallic perovskite oxide SrRuO3-wurzite semiconductor ZnO nanocomposites to investigate the room-temperature metal-insulator transition and its effect on photoresponse. We demonstrate that the band structure at the interface can be tuned by controlling the interface-to-volume ratio of the nanocomposites. Photoinduced carrier injection driven by visible light was detected across the nanocomposites. This work shows the charge interaction of the vertically integrated multiheterostructures by incorporating a controllable interface-to-volume ratio, which is essential for optimization of the design and functionality of electronic devices.
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Organic dyes containing fluorene decorated with imidazole units for dye-sensitized solar cells.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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New organic dyes containing fluorene functionalized with two imidazole chromophores as donors and cyanoacrylic acid acceptors have been synthesized and successfully demonstrated as sensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The monoimidazole analogues were also synthesized for comparison. The Sommelet reaction of bromomethylated 2-bromo-9,9-diethyl-9H-fluorene produced the key precursor 7-bromo-9,9-diethyl-9H-fluorene-2,4-dicarbaldehyde required for the preparation of imidazole-functionalized fluorenes. Since the dyes possess weak donor segment, the electron-richness of the conjugation pathway dictated the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the dyes. The dyes served as sensitizers in DSSC and exhibited moderate efficiency up to 3.44%. The additional imidazole present on the fluorene has been found to retard the electron recombination due to the bulkier hydrophobic environment and led to high open-circuit voltage in the devices.
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L-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway.
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Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is useful for diagnosis of the acute stage of Kawasaki disease.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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This study aimed to investigate intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid arteries in children with acute Kawasaki disease (KD).
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Phenothiazinedioxide-conjugated sensitizers and a dual-TEMPO/iodide redox mediator for dye-sensitized solar cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Metal-free dyes containing a phenothiazinedioxide entity in the spacer were synthesized. The best conversion efficiency (7.47%) of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by using new sensitizers with chenodeoxycholic acid as a co-adsorbent and the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte reached over 90% of that of the standard N719-based cell (8.10%). A new type of ionic liquid containing the nitroxide radical (N-O(.) ) and iodide was successfully synthesized and applied to the DSSCs. If the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte was replaced with a dual redox electrolyte, that is, a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) derivative with a dangling imidazolium iodide entity, the cell exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 0.85 V and a cell efficiency of 8.36%.
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Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine are associated with coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To determine whether 3 biomarkers, L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), can predict outcomes in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD).
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Dye-sensitized solar cells with reduced graphene oxide as the counter electrode prepared by a green photothermal reduction process.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Highly conductive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with good electrocatalytic ability for reducing triiodide ions (I3(-)) is a promising catalyst for the counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hazardous chemical reducing agents or energy-consuming thermal treatments are required for preparing rGO from graphene oxide (GO). Therefore, it is necessary to find other effective and green reduction processes for the preparation of rGO and to fabricate rGO-based DSSCs. In this study, GO was prepared using a modified Hummers method from graphite powder, and further reduced to rGO through a photothermal reduction process (to give P-rGO). P-rGO shows better electrocatalytic ability due mainly to its high standard heterogeneous rate constant for I3(-) reduction and in part to its considerable electrochemical surface area. The corresponding DSSC shows a higher cell efficiency (?) of 7.62% than that of the cell with a GO-based CE (?=0.03%). When the low-temperature photothermal reduction process is applied to all-flexible plastic DSSCs, the DSSC with a P-rGO CE shows an ? of 4.16%.
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Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the ?-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06?%; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82?%. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes.
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MicroRNA-302b-inhibited E2F3 transcription factor is related to all trans retinoic acid-induced glioma cell apoptosis.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of retinoid, is involved in the onset of differentiation and apoptosis in a wide variety of normal and cancer cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression. Several miRNAs were identified to participate in ATRA-mediated cell differentiation. However, no studies have demonstrated whether miRNA can enhance ATRA cytotoxicity, thereby resulting in cell apoptosis. This study investigated the effects of ATRA-mediated miRNA expression in activating apoptotic pathways in glioblastoma. First, we found that high-dose ATRA treatment significantly reduced cell viability, caspase-dependent apoptosis, endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress activation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. From microarray data, miR-302b was analyzed as a putative downstream regulator upon ATRA treatment. Furthermore, we found that ATRA up-regulated miR-302b expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner through retinoic acid receptor ?-mediated pathway. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-302b significantly influenced ATRA-mediated cytotoxicity. E2F3, an important transcriptional regulator of glioma proliferation, was validated to be a direct target gene of miR-302b. The miR-302b-reduced E2F3 levels were also identified to be associated with ATRA-mediated glioma cell death. These results emphasize that an ATRA-mediated miR-302b network may provide novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma therapy. We propose that high-dose all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment, a derivative of retinoid, significantly induces glioblastoma cell apoptosis via caspase-dependent apoptosis, endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The miR-302b overexpression enhanced by ATRA-mediated retinoic acid receptor (RAR)? pathway was also identified. The E2F3 repression, a novel target gene of miR-302b, was involved in ATRA-induced glioblastoma cell cytotoxicity.
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Organic dyes containing carbazole as donor and ?-linker: optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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A series of new metal free organic dyes containing carbazole as donor and ?-linker have been synthesized and characterized as effective sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The carbazole functionalized at C-2 and C-7 served as electron-rich bridge. The donor property of the carbazole is substantially enhanced on introduction of tert-butyl groups at C-3 and C-6 positions and the oxidation propensity of the dyes increased on insertion of thiophene unit in the conjugation pathway. These structural modifications fine-tuned the optical and electrochemical properties of the dyes. Additionally, the presence of tert-butyl groups on the carbazole nucleus minimized the intermolecular interactions which benefited the performance of DSSCs. The dyes served as efficient sensitizers in DSSCs owing to their promising optical and electrochemical properties. The efficiency of DSSCs utilizing these dyes as sensitizers ranged from 4.22 to 6.04%. The tert-butyl groups were found to suppress the recombination of injected electrons which contributed to the increment in the photocurrent generation (JSC) and open circuit voltage (VOC). A dye with carbazole donor functionalized with tert-butyl groups and the conjugation bridge composed of 2,7-disubstituted carbazole and thiophene fragments exhibited higher VOC value. However, the best device efficiency was observed for a dye with unsubstituted carbazole donor and the ?-linker featuring carbazole and bithiophene units due to the high photocurrent generation arising from the facile injection of photogenerated electrons into the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO2) facilitated by the low-lying LUMO.
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Melatonin attenuates prenatal dexamethasone-induced blood pressure increase in a rat model.
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Although antenatal corticosteroid is recommended to accelerate fetal lung maturation, prenatal dexamethasone exposure results in hypertension in the adult offspring. Since melatonin is a potent antioxidant and has been known to regulate blood pressure, we examined the beneficial effects of melatonin therapy in preventing prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension. Male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 12/group): control, dexamethasone (DEX), control + melatonin, and DEX + melatonin. Pregnant rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Blood pressure was measured by an indirect tail-cuff method. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the DEX group developed hypertension, which was partly reversed by maternal melatonin therapy. Reduced nephron numbers due to prenatal dexamethasone exposure were prevented by melatonin therapy. Renal superoxide and NO levels were similar in all groups. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure led to increased mRNA expression of renin and prorenin receptor and up-regulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 expression in the kidneys of 4-month-old offspring. Maternal melatonin therapy augmented renal Mas protein levels in DEX + melatonin group, and increased renal mRNA expression of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, and HDAC-8 in control and DEX offspring. Melatonin attenuated prenatal DEX-induced hypertension by restoring nephron numbers, altering RAS components, and modulating HDACs.
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Association between Kawasaki disease and autism: a population-based study in Taiwan.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The association between Kawasaki disease and autism has rarely been studied in Asian populations. By using a nationwide Taiwanese population-based claims database, we tested the hypothesis that Kawasaki disease may increase the risk of autism in Taiwan.
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Melatonin in the regulation of liver steatosis following prenatal glucocorticoid exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients are characterized by hepatic steatosis. Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure can result in steatosis. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism and cellular apoptosis of prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure in rats and whether melatonin can rescue the prenatal glucocorticoid-induced steatosis and apoptosis in neonatal rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestational days 14 to 21 were administered dexamethasone. Acute effects of prenatal programming liver were assessed at postnatal day 7. The expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic and methylation pathways was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis and steatosis were examined by histology staining. The liver steatosis and apoptosis were increased in prenatal glucocorticoid group more than in control group and decreased in melatonin group. The expression of leptin decreased in prenatal glucocorticoid and increased in melatonin group by liver RT-PCR and Western blot study. Caspase 3, TNF- ? proteins expression, and TUNEL stains increased in prenatal glucocorticoid compared with control and decreased in melatonin group. The liver histone deacetylase, DNA methyltransferase activity, and DNA methylation were increased in prenatal glucocorticoid and decreased in melatonin group. The present study showed that the prenatal glucocorticoid induced programming liver steatosis at day 7 after delivery, possibly via altered leptin expression. Melatonin can reverse the methylation of leptin and decreased liver steatosis.
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Self-assembled all-conjugated block copolymer as an effective hole conductor for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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An all-conjugated diblock copolymer, poly(2,5-dihexyloxy-p-phenylene)-b-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PPP-b-P3HT), was synthesized and applied as a hole transport material (HTM) for the fabrication of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs). This copolymer is characterized by an enhanced crystallinity, enabling its P3HT component to self-organize into interpenetrated and long-range-ordered crystalline fibrils upon spin-drying and ultimately endowing itself to have a faster hole mobility than that of the parent P3HT homopolymer. Transient photovoltage measurements indicate that the photovoltaic cell based on PPP-b-P3HT as the HTM has a longer electron lifetime than that of the reference device based on P3HT homopolymer. Moreover, comparing the two ss-DSCs in terms of the electrochemical impedance spectra reveals that the electron density in the TiO2 conduction band is substantially higher in the PPP-b-P3HT device than in the P3HT cell. Above observations suggest that the PPP block facilitates an intimate contact between the copolymer and dye molecules absorbed on the nanoporous TiO2 layer, which significantly enhances the performance of the resulting device. Consequently, the PPP-b-P3HT ss-DSC exhibits a promising power conversion efficiency of 4.65%. This study demonstrates that conjugated block copolymers can function as superior HTMs of highly efficient ss-DSCs.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7251246 in ITPKC is associated with susceptibility and coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multi-systemic vasculitis that preferentially affects children. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) has been identified to be an important polymorphism in the risk of KD. This study was conducted to comprehensively investigate the associations between all tagging SNPs of ITPKC in the risk of KD in a Taiwanese population. A total of 950 subjects (381 KD patients and 569 controls) were recruited. Seven tagging SNPs (rs11673492, rs7257602, rs7251246, rs890934, rs10420685, rs2607420, rs2290692) were selected for TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Clinical data of coronary artery lesions (CAL) and aneurysms were collected for analysis. A significant association was found between rs7251246 in ITPKC and CAL formation. Haplotype analysis for ITPKC polymorphisms also confirmed this association in the patients with CAL and aneurysm formation. This is the first study to identify that SNP rs7251246 in ITPKC is associated with the severity of KD.
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Mercury Promotes Catecholamines Which Potentiate Mercurial Autoimmunity and Vasodilation: Implications for Inositol 1,4,5-Triphosphate 3-Kinase C Susceptibility in Kawasaki Syndrome.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Previously, we reviewed biological evidence that mercury could induce autoimmunity and coronary arterial wall relaxation as observed in Kawasaki syndrome (KS) through its effects on calcium signaling, and that inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) susceptibility in KS would predispose patients to mercury by increasing Ca(2+) release. Hg(2+) sensitizes inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors at low doses, which release Ca(2+) from intracellular stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, resulting in delayed, repetitive calcium influx. ITPKC prevents IP3 from triggering IP3 receptors to release calcium by converting IP3 to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Defective IP3 phosphorylation resulting from reduced genetic expressions of ITPKC in KS would promote IP3, which increases Ca(2+) release. Hg(2+) increases catecholamine levels through the inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine and subsequently catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), while a single nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene (rs769224) was recently found to be significantly associated with the development of coronary artery lesions in KS. Accumulation of norepinephrine or epinephrine would potentiate Hg(2+)-induced calcium influx by increasing IP3 production and increasing the permeability of cardiac sarcolemma to Ca(2+). Norepinephrine and epinephrine also promote the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide, a potent vasodilator that suppresses the release of vasoconstrictors. Elevated catecholamine levels can induce hypertension and tachycardia, while increased arterial pressure and a rapid heart rate would promote arterial vasodilation and subsequent fatal thromboses, particularly in tandem. Genetic risk factors may explain why only a susceptible subset of children develops KS although mercury exposure from methylmercury in fish or thimerosal in pediatric vaccines is nearly ubiquitous. During the infantile acrodynia epidemic, only 1 in 500 children developed acrodynia whereas mercury exposure was very common due to the use of teething powders. This hypothesis mirrors the leading theory for KS in which a widespread infection only induces KS in susceptible children. Acrodynia can mimic the clinical picture of KS, leading to its inclusion in the differential diagnosis for KS. Catecholamine levels are often elevated in acrodynia and may also play a role in KS. We conclude that KS may be the acute febrile form of acrodynia.
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Ionic Liquid with a Dual-Redox Couple for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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A new type of ionic liquid that contains a nitroxide radical (N?O(.) ) and iodide as two redox couples, JC-IL, has been successfully synthesized for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both of the redox couples exhibit distinct redox potentials and attractive electrochemical characteristics. The UV/Vis absorption spectra of JC-IL shows a low-intensity peak compared to the strong absorption of I2 in the wavelength region of 350-500?nm. The high open-circuit voltage of DSSCs with JC-IL is over 850?mV, which is approximately 150?mV higher than that of the DSSCs with a standard iodide electrolyte. The dramatic increase in the standard heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant leads to an increase in the short-circuit current for JC-IL compared to that of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl (TEMPO). DSSCs with the JC-IL electrolyte show promising cell efficiencies if coupled with dyes CR147 (8.12?%) or D149 (6.76?%). The efficiencies of the DSSCs based on the JC-IL electrolyte are higher than those of DSSCs based on either TEMPO electrolyte or standard iodide electrolyte alone.
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2-Alkyl-5-thienyl-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-based donor molecules for solution-processed organic solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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In this study, we have strategically designed and convergently synthesized two novel, symmetrical, and linear A-D-A-type ?-conjugated donor molecules (TBDTCNR, TBDTCN), each containing a planar electron-rich 2-octylthiene-5-yl-substituted benzodithiophene (TBDT) unit as the core, flanked by octylthiophene units and end-capped with electron-deficient cyanoacetate (CNR) or dicyanovinyl (CN) units. We thoroughly characterized both of these materials and investigated the effects of the end groups (CNR, CN) on their optical, electrochemical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties. We then fabricated solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells incorporating TBDTCNR and TBDTCN. Among our tested devices, the one containing TBDTCNR and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester in a 1:0.40 ratio (w/w) exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency (5.42%) with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 9.08 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.90 V, and an impressive fill factor (FF) of 0.66 under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)). The FFs of these solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs) are outstanding when compared with those recently reported for benzodithiophene (BDT)-based SMOSCs, because of the high crystallinity and excellent stacking properties of the TBDT-based compounds.
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Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on patient with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Background: This study reported the incidence and prognostic outcome of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Between January 2002 and May 2011, totally 1554 consecutive patients who experienced STEMI undergoing primary PCI were enrolled into the study. Results: Of the 1554 patients, 124 (9.7%) with diagnosis of COPD and 1430 (90.3%) without COPD were categorized into group 1 and group 2. Although no difference in in-hospital mortality was noted between the two groups (p = 0.726). However, the hospitalization duration was notably longer (p = 0.003), the incidences of recurrent MI and re-hospitalization for congestive heart failure were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all p < 0.02). Although Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the incidence of freedom from one-year major adverse clinical outcome (MACO) (defined as recurrent MI, re-admission for congestive heart failure was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2 (p = 0.012), multivariate Cox regression analysis showed COPD was not an independent predictor of MACO-free time after adjusting traditional risk factors. Conclusion: COPD was not an independent predictor of short-term and medium-term MACO in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
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Retention of endothelial progenitor cells in bone marrow in a murine model of endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) deficiency in response to critical limb ischemia.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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This study tested the hypothesis that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is crucial for regulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization from bone marrow to circulation in murine critical limb ischemia (CLI) by ligating the left femoral artery.
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Synthesis of redox polymer nanobeads and nanocomposites for glucose biosensors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Redox polymer nanobeads of branched polyethylenimine binding with ferrocene (BPEI-Fc) were synthesized using a simple chemical process. The functionality and morphology of the redox polymer nanobeads were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This hydrophilic redox nanomaterial could be mixed with glucose oxidase (GOx) for drop-coating on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for glucose sensing application. Electrochemical properties of the BPEI-Fc/GOx/SPCE prepared under different conditions were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). On the basis of these CV results, the synthetic condition of the BPEI-Fc/GOx/SPCE could be optimized. By incorporating conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), the performance of a redox polymer nanobead–based enzyme electrode could be further improved. The influence of PEDOT:PSS on the nanocomposite enzyme electrode was discussed from the aspects of the apparent electron diffusion coefficient (D(app)) and the charge transfer resistance (R(ct)). The glucose-sensing sensitivity of the BPEI-Fc/PEDOT:PSS/GOx/SPCE is calculated to be 66 ?A mM(–1) cm(–2), which is 2.5 times higher than that without PEDOT:PSS. The apparent Michaelis constant (K(M)(app)) of the BPEI-Fc/PEDOT:PSS/GOx/SPCE estimated by the Lineweaver–Burk plot is 2.4 mM, which is much lower than that of BPEI-Fc/GOx/SPCE (11.2 mM). This implies that the BPEI-Fc/PEDOT:PSS/GOx/SPCE can catalytically oxidize glucose in a more efficient way. The interference test was carried out by injection of glucose and three common interferences: ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) at physiological levels. The interferences of DA (4.2%) and AA (7.8%) are acceptable and the current response to UA (1.6%) is negligible, compared to the current response to glucose.
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Acute aortic dissection type A with acute coronary involvement: a novel classification.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Acute coronary involvement (ACI) due to acute aortic dissection (AAD) type A is potentially fatal. We examined selected patients with AAD type A, which had evolved over 14 years, and acute coronary involvement. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of patients with ACI due to AAD type A.
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Tuning the formation and functionalities of ultrafine CoFe2O4 nanocrystals via interfacial coherent strain.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Complex oxide nanocrystals with a spinel structure show their remarkable optical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. In this study, we present a simple yet versatile strategy to grow self-assembled epitaxial CoFe2O4 nanocrystals with well-controlled size (less than 10 nm) and single orientation. CoFe2O4 nanocrystals were fabricated via phase separation in a BiFeO3-CoF2O4 ultrathin film by pulsed laser deposition. The coherent strain at the BiFeO3-CoF2O4 interface suppressed the growth of the nanocrystals regardless of substrate temperatures. This strain also resulted in the ferromagnetic anisotropy and interesting conducting behaviors of ultrafine CFO nanocrystals.
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Large-scale modular biofiltration system for effective odor removal in a composting facility.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Several different foul odors such as nitrogen-containing groups, sulfur-containing groups, and short-chain fatty-acids commonly emitted from composting facilities. In this study, an experimental laboratory-scale bioreactor was scaled up to build a large-scale modular biofiltration system that can process 34 m(3)min(-1)waste gases. This modular reactor system was proven effective in eliminating odors, with a 97% removal efficiency for 96 ppm ammonia, a 98% removal efficiency for 220 ppm amines, and a 100% removal efficiency of other odorous substances. The results of operational parameters indicate that this modular biofiltration system offers long-term operational stability. Specifically, a low pressure drop (<45 mmH2O m(-1)) was observed, indicating that the packing carrier in bioreactor units does not require frequent replacement. Thus, this modular biofiltration system can be used in field applications to eliminate various odors with compact working volume.
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Elimination of high concentration hydrogen sulfide and biogas purification by chemical-biological process.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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A chemical-biological process was performed to remove a high concentration of H2S in biogas. The high iron concentration tolerance (20gL(-1)) of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans CP9 provided sufficient ferric iron level for stable and efficient H2S elimination. A laboratory-scale apparatus was setup for a 45 d operation to analyze the optimal conditions. The results reveal that the H2S removal efficiency reached 98% for 1500ppm H2S. The optimal ferric iron concentration was kept between 9 and 11gL(-1) with a cell density of 10(8)CFUg(-1) granular activated carbon and a loading of 15gSm(-3)h(-1). In pilot-scale studies for biogas purification, the average inlet H2S concentration was 1645ppm with a removal efficiency of up to 97% for a 311d operation and an inlet loading 40.8gSm(-3)h(-1). When 0.1% glucose was added, the cell density increased twofold under the loading of 65.1gSm(-3)h(-1) with an H2S removal efficiency still above 96%. The analysis results of the distribution of microorganisms in the biological reactor by DGGE show that microorganism populations of 96.7% and 62.7% were identical to the original strain at day 200 and day 311, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that ferric iron reduction by H2S and ferrous iron oxidation by A. ferrooxidans CP9 are feasible processes for the removal of H2S from biogas.
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Sitagliptin therapy enhances the number of circulating angiogenic cells and angiogenesis-evaluations in vitro and in the rat critical limb ischemia model.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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We tested the hypothesis that sitagliptin is capable of increasing blood flow in the rat critical limb ischemia (CLI) model by enhancement of angiogenesis.
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Kawasaki disease and subsequent risk of allergic diseases: a population-based matched cohort study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The risk of allergic diseases among Kawasaki disease (KD) patients relative to the general population is not known. The aim of this study was to perform a population-based cohort study to investigate the risk of allergic diseases among children after KD in Taiwan- a country with the third highest incidence of KD in the world.
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TARC/CCL17 gene polymorphisms and expression associated with susceptibility and coronary artery aneurysm formation in Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/chemokine ligand 17 (TARC/CCL17) is one of the Th2 chemokines and has been suggested as a candidate gene for conferring susceptibility to Th2 associated with allergy diseases. This study examined the correlation between gene polymorphisms and plasma levels of TARC/CCL17 in patients with KD and the outcomes of KD.
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Increased risk of atopic dermatitis in preschool children with kawasaki disease: a population-based study in taiwan.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and has been reported to be associated with allergic disease. The risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) in preschool children with KD has not been investigated. The study was to determine the longitudinal risk of the development of AD in preschool children with KD. A nationwide 5-year population-based study was performed using data from the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan between 1999 and 2003. The risk factors for AD were compared between the 2 study groups during the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model. In addition, plasma interleukin (IL)-5 levels were analyzed in normal subjects and KD patients. Among the 1440 subjects included, 21.6% developed AD during the 5-year follow-up period, of which 30.3% and 18.7% belonged to the study cohort and the comparison group, respectively. Children with KD were 1.25 times more likely to have AD than those in controls (P = 0.04). Levels of IL-5 and IgE were significantly higher in KD patients. Children with KD had a higher risk of developing AD during the 5-year follow-up period than the control group. Increased IL-5 and IgE levels may be key factors contributing to the risk of AD.
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Complex oxide-noble metal conjugated nanoparticles.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) composed of multiple components offer new opportunities for next-generation materials. In this study, a paradigm for the noble metal/ternary complex oxide hybrid NPs is reported by adopting pulsed laser ablation in liquids. As model hybrids, gold-spinel heterodimer (Au-CoFe2O4) and gold-pervoskite heterodimer (Au-SrTiO3) NPs are investigated. This work has demonstrated the diverse playgroup of NP conjugation enlarged by complex oxides.
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Materials for the active layer of organic photovoltaics: ternary solar cell approach.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 7% have been achieved with bulk heterojunction (BHJ)-type organic solar cells using two components: p- and n-doped materials. The energy level and absorption profile of the active layer can be tuned by introduction of an additional component. Careful design of the additional component is required to achieve optimal panchromatic absorption, suitable energy-level offset, balanced electron and hole mobility, and good light-harvesting efficiency. This article reviews the recent progress on ternary organic photovoltaic systems, including polymer/small molecule/functional fullerene, polymer/polymer/functional fullerene, small molecule/small molecule/functional fullerene, polymer/functional fullerene I/functional fullerene II, and polymer/quantum dot or metal/functional fullerene systems.
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Estimated glomerular filtration rate as a useful predictor of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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This study evaluated the impact of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on 30-day and 1-year mortalities in patients with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Close Correlation between Season of Birth and the Prevalence of Bronchial Asthma in a Taiwanese Population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Bronchial asthma (BA), atopic dermatitis (AD), and allergic rhinitis (AR) are common allergic diseases. Environmental factors were indicated to influence the development of allergic diseases.
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Replication and meta-analysis of GWAS identified susceptibility loci in kawasaki disease confirm the importance of B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK) in disease susceptibility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The BLK and CD40 loci have been associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in a Taiwanese population of Han Chinese ancestry (Taiwanese) and in Japanese cohorts. Here we build on these findings with replication studies of the BLK and CD40 loci in populations of Korean and European descent. The BLK region was significantly associated with KD susceptibility in both populations. Within the BLK gene the rs2736340-located linkage disequilibrium (LD ) comprising the promoter and first intron was strongly associated with KD, with the combined results of Asian studies including Taiwanese, Japanese, and Korean populations (2,539 KD patients and 7,021 controls) providing very compelling evidence of association (rs2736340, OR?=?1.498, 1.354-1.657; P?=?4.74×10(-31)). We determined the percentage of B cells present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population and the expression of BLK in the peripheral blood leukocytes (leukocytes) of KD patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The percentage of B cells in the PBMC population and the expression of BLK in leukocytes were induced in patients in the acute stage of KD. In B cell lines derived from KD patients, and in purified B cells from KD patients obtained during the acute stage, those with the risk allele of rs2736340 expressed significantly lower levels of BLK. These results suggest that peripheral B cells play a pathogenic role during the acute stage of KD. Decreased BLK expression in peripheral blood B cells may alter B cell function and predispose individuals to KD. These associative data suggest a role for B cells during acute KD. Understanding the functional implications may facilitate the development of B cell-mediated therapy for KD.
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Plasma clusterin concentrations may predict resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with Kawasaki disease.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood often complicated by coronary artery lesion that drastically reduces the quality of life. The study aimed to identify a reliable marker for predicting nonresponsiveness to the first course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in KD patients. A total of 63 patients with KD were enrolled in the study (IVIG response, 58; IVIG resistance, 5). Plasma samples were collected before and after IVIG infusion for measurement of biomarkers. Patients clinical characteristics and laboratory data were also analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to identify a cut-off value for predicting IVIG resistance. Among the biomarkers, the difference in plasma clusterin concentrations before and after IVIG infusion (CLUSTER 12) was significantly related to IVIG resistance (P = 0.040; 95% confidence interval (CI): -25.8% to -6.0%). Using a CLUSTER 12 cut-off value of <8.52 mg/L, the odds ratio for IVIG resistance was 11.467 (95% CI: 1.186 to 110.853). Patients with plasma CLUSTER 12 concentrations >8.52 mg/L had a much higher risk of IVIG resistance than those with CLUSTER 12 concentrations <8.52 mg/L. Plasma clusterin concentration shows promise as a candidate biomarker for predicting IVIG resistance in patients with KD.
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Different genetic associations of the IgE production among fetus, infancy and childhood.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Elevation of serum IgE levels has long been associated with allergic diseases. Many genes have been linked to IgE production, but few have been linked to the developmental aspects of genetic association with IgE production. To clarify developmental genetic association, we investigated what genes and gene-gene interactions affect IgE levels among fetus, infancy and childhood in Taiwan individuals. A birth cohort of 571 children with completion of IgE measurements from newborn to 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age was subject to genetic association analysis on the 384-customized SNPs of 159 allergy candidate genes. Fifty-three SNPs in 37 genes on innate and adaptive immunity, and stress and response were associated with IgE production. Polymorphisms of the IL13, and the HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DQA1 were, respectively, the most significantly associated with the IgE production at newborn and 6 years of age. Analyses of gene-gene interactions indentified that the combination of NPSR1, rs324981 TT with FGF1, rs2282797 CC had the highest risk (85.7%) of IgE elevation at 1.5 years of age (P=1.46 × 10(-4)). The combination of IL13, CYFIP2 and PDE2A was significantly associated with IgE elevation at 3 years of age (P=5.98 × 10(-7)), and the combination of CLEC2D, COLEC11 and CCL2 was significantly associated with IgE elevation at 6 years of age (P=6.65 × 10(-7)). Our study showed that the genetic association profiles of the IgE production among fetus, infancy and childhood are different. Genetic markers for early prediction and prevention of allergic sensitization may rely on age-based genetic association profiles.
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A replication study for association of ITPKC and CASP3 two-locus analysis in IVIG unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion in Kawasaki disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC, rs28493229) and caspase-3 (CASP3, rs113420705) are associated with susceptibility to KD in Japanese and Taiwanese populations. This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of these 2 SNPs in the risk for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and coronary artery lesion (CAL) in Taiwanese population. A total of 340 KD patients were subjected to assess by the identification of 2-locus genes model. A combinatorial association between ITPKC (rs28493229) and CASP3 (rs113420705) was found in CAL formation (P?=?0.0227, OR: 3.06). KD patients with high-risk genotype had a trend of overrepresentation in IVIG resistance compared with individual SNPs. Our findings suggest the existence of genetic factors affecting patients risk for CAL formation and IVIG responsiveness in a Taiwanese population.
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Population-based study of the association between urbanization and Kawasaki disease in Taiwan.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Background. It is unclear if the prevalence of Kawasaki disease (KD) correlates with the degree of urbanization. We hypothesized that the prevalence of KD is more pronounced in urban versus rural environments. Methods. The National Health Insurance (NHI) program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995 and covers most of the population (>99%). We used the NHI database to investigate the epidemiological features of KD. A total of 115 diagnosed patients with KD from 1997 to 2010 were included, together with 1,150 matched controls without KD. Chi-square analyses were performed to investigate the difference between modern city and rural environments. Results. Of the 1265 sampled subjects (claims data from 1,000,000 random subjects), the mean age of the KD study group and control group was 2.08 ± 1.66 and 2.08 ± 1.64 years, respectively. After matching for age, sex, and same index date, no statistically significant differences in urbanization level and geographical location of the patients residence were observed. Conclusion. Urbanization did not appear to be an important effect modifier of Kawasaki disease in Taiwan.
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Synthesis of hexagonal ZnO clubs with opposite faces of unequal dimensions for the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Novel sub-micro sized hexagonal clubs of ZnO (HC-ZnO), which are coated as a scattering layer (SL) for the photoanode of a DSSC, are synthesized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the ZnO clubs show clear peaks corresponding to wurtzite crystal phase of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images show that each club has two opposite hexagonal faces (parts) of unequal dimensions. High resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) image of a single ZnO club reveals that the ZnO is single crystalline and has wurtzite crystal structure; the image indicates a lattice spacing (d) of 0.26 nm; this is ascribed to the (002) planar spacing of the hexagonal ZnO. A solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 3.36% is achieved for the cell with the double layer (DL) film, which is 16% higher than that of the cell with only transparent layer (TL) of commercial ZnO (2.89%) and far higher than that of the cell with SL (0.05%). The ? of the cell with the DL (3.36%) could further be improved to 4.28% through the modification of the DL surface with TiO(x). Incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves, UV-vis absorption spectra, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) are also used to substantiate the results.
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Polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway and Kawasaki disease in the Taiwanese population.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis associated with cardiovascular symptom. A previous study in the European descent has indicated that genetic variants of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway are involved in the KD susceptibility and clinical status. This study was conducted to investigate if polymorphisms in TGF-? signaling pathway are associated with KD susceptibility, and the coronary artery lesion formation. A total of 950 subjects (381 KD patients and 569 controls) were investigated to identify 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGF-? signaling pathway (rs2796817, rs10482751, rs2027567, rs12029576, rs11466480, rs4776338, rs12901071, rs7162912, rs1438386, rs6494633, rs12910698 and rs4776339) by using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assay. Our results indicated that rs1438386 in the SMAD3 is significantly associated with the susceptibility of KD. Additionally, both haplotypes of TGF?2 and SMAD3 were also associated with the risk of KD. This study showed that genetic polymorphisms in TGF-? signaling pathway are associated with KD susceptibility, but not coronary artery lesions formation, or intravenous immunoglobulin treatment response in the Taiwanese population.
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Genetic polymorphisms in Kawasaki disease.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis, and the cause of KD is not well understood. It is likely due to multiple interactions between genes and environmental factors. The development of genetic association and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has opened an avenue to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying KD. A novel ITPKC signaling pathway was recently found to be responsible for the susceptibility to KD. Furthermore, the GWAS demonstrated the functionally related susceptibility loci for KD in the Caucasian population. In the last decade, the identification of several genomic regions linked to the pathogenesis of KD has made a major breakthrough in understanding the genetics of KD. This review will focus on genetic polymorphisms associated with KD and describe some of the possible clinical implications and molecular mechanisms that can be used to explain how genetic variants regulate the pathogenesis in KD.
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Pyrene-based organic dyes with thiophene containing ?-linkers for dye-sensitized solar cells: optical, electrochemical and theoretical investigations.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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A new series of metal-free organic dyes containing pyrene and ?-cyanoacrylic acid end groups and thiophene, bithiophene, thienylbenzene or thienylfluorene ?-linkers were synthesized and characterized by absorption, emission and electrochemical measurements. Time-dependent density functional theoretical calculations were also performed to unravel the nature of the absorption induced electronic excitations. Extension of conjugation in the ?-linker by the incorporation of phenyl or fluorene was found to enhance the molar extinction coefficient while the use of thiophene red-shifted the absorption. The longer wavelength absorption peaks found for the dyes were attributed to ?-?* transition with a contribution from the charge transfer transition which becomes prominent for the bithiophene bridged derivative. The bithiophene containing dye showed moderate overall light-to-electron conversion efficiency attributable to the favorable absorption and redox properties originating due to the presence of a bithiophene segment. The trends observed for the various dyes in the device performance were rationalized by electron-impedance spectroscopy measurements.
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Lack of association between CLEC5A gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in Taiwanese children.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
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Kawasaki disease is characterized by systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Previous genetic studies have identified certain candidate genes associated with susceptibility to KD and coronary artery lesions. Host innate immune response factors are involved in modulating the disease outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate CLEC5A (C-type lectin domain family 5) genetic polymorphisms with regards to the susceptibility and outcome of KD.
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Amperometric detection of cholesterol using an indirect electrochemical oxidation method.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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The indirect electrochemical oxidation method using bromine species in an organic media for measuring cholesterol was developed. The electrochemical behaviors of cholesterol were examined by cyclic voltammetry in a potential range of -0.5 to 2.0V (vs. Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl). The polarization curve of the steady-state current in the applied potential range of 0-2.0V is reported. The obtained kinetic parameters for the catalytic oxidation of cholesterol support the assumption that positive bromine species can be generated from bromine by undergoing two consecutive electrochemical oxidation steps. The positive bromine acts both as electron mediators and as electrocatalysts. Amperometric detection with an anodic current was investigated, and the calibration curve exhibited a linear relationship between the steady-state current and the concentration of cholesterol in the range of 30-200 ?M, from which the sensitivity was calculated to be about 0.2 ?A/cm2/?M. Moreover, the amperometric current followed Michaelis-Mentens enzymatic model for cholesterol concentrations in the range of 30 ?M to 5mM, which can be applied for cholesterol rapid detection in processed foods.
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Real-time telemetry system for amperometric and potentiometric electrochemical sensors.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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A real-time telemetry system, which consists of readout circuits, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a microcontroller unit (MCU), a graphical user interface (GUI), and a radio frequency (RF) transceiver, is proposed for amperometric and potentiometric electrochemical sensors. By integrating the proposed system with the electrochemical sensors, analyte detection can be conveniently performed. The data is displayed in real-time on a GUI and optionally uploaded to a database via the Internet, allowing it to be accessed remotely. An MCU was implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to filter noise, transmit data, and provide control over peripheral devices to reduce power consumption, which in sleep mode is 70 mW lower than in operating mode. The readout circuits, which were implemented in the TSMC 0.18-?m CMOS process, include a potentiostat and an instrumentation amplifier (IA). The measurement results show that the proposed potentiostat has a detectable current range of 1 nA to 100 ?A, and linearity with an R2 value of 0.99998 in each measured current range. The proposed IA has a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) greater than 90 dB. The proposed system was integrated with a potentiometric pH sensor and an amperometric nitrite sensor for in vitro experiments. The proposed system has high linearity (an R2 value greater than 0.99 was obtained in each experiment), a small size of 5.6 cm × 8.7 cm, high portability, and high integration.
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Electrophoretic deposition of mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles consisting of primary anatase nanocrystallites on a plastic substrate for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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A film of mesoporous TiO(2) nanoparticles (MTNs) consisting of anatase nanocrystallites was electrophoretically deposited and compressed on a plastic substrate for the corresponding DSSC that gave an excellent conversion efficiency (?) of 5.25% under illumination of 100 mW cm(-2).
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Gelation of ionic liquid with exfoliated montmorillonite nanoplatelets and its application for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The exfoliated montmorillonite (exMMT) nanoplatelets that carry negative charges are capable of adsorbing 1-methyl-3-propyl-imidazolium cations to form a gel-type ionic liquid-based electrolyte system for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Interestingly, it also increases the power conversion efficiency of DSSC from 6.58% to 7.77% at full sun. The increased efficiency is attributed to the decreased resistance of gel electrolyte system and enhanced reduction reaction rate at the counter electrode, both of which are related to the two-dimensional electrolyte nature of exMMTs that repel the I(-)/I(3)(-) redox couples toward their major conduction pathway.
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Orai1/CRACM1 overexpression suppresses cell proliferation via attenuation of the store-operated calcium influx-mediated signalling pathway in A549 lung cancer cells.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Orai1/CRACM1 is a principal component of the store-operated calcium channels. Store-operated calcium influx is highly correlated with inflammatory reactions, immunological regulation, and cell proliferation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, can activate store-operated calcium channels. However, the consequences of Orai1/CRACM1 overexpression in EGF-mediated lung cancer cells growth are not known.
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The prognostic value of atrial fibrillation on 30-day clinical outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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This study evaluated the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and 30-day clinical outcome in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Between January 2005 and October 2009, 783 consecutive patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI were enrolled. Of these patients, 85 (10.9%) with AF during admission were categorized into group 1, while the remaining 698 (89.1%) with sinus rhythm during admission served as group 2. The results demonstrated that the incidence of advanced Killip score (defined as ? score 3) and advanced congestive heart failure (defined as ? NYHA class 3) were significantly higher, whereas the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was notably lower in group 1 than in group 2 (all P < 0.003). Additionally, the normal blood flow in the infarct-related artery was notably lower in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.003). Moreover, the incidences of new-onset stroke and 30-day mortality were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all P < 0.003). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the 30-day survival rate was markedly lower in AF patients than in those with sinus rhythm. However, multivariate stepwise Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the advanced Killip score and low LVEF were significantly and independently predictive of 30-day mortality (all P < 0.004). In conclusion, AF was significantly associated with 30-day mortality.
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Intercalated disc-associated protein, mXin-alpha, influences surface expression of ITO currents in ventricular myocytes.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Mouse Xin-alpha (mXin-alpha) encodes a Xin repeat-containing, actin-binding protein localized to the intercalated disc (ICD). Ablation of mXin-alpha progressively leads to disrupted ICD structure, cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects during adulthood. Such conduction defects could be due to ICD structural defects and/or cell electrophysiological property changes. Here, we showed that despite the normal ICD structure, juvenile mXina-null cardiomyocytes (from 3~4-week-old mice) exhibited a significant reduction in the transient outward K+ current (ITO), similar to adult mutant cells. Juvenile but not adult mutant cardiomyocytes also had a significant reduction in the delayed rectifier K+ current. In contrast, the mutant adult ventricular myocytes had a significant reduction in the inward rectifier K+ current (IK1) on hyperpolarization. These together could account for the prolongation of action potential duration (APD) and the ease of developing early afterdepolarization observed in juvenile mXin-alpha-null cells. Interestingly, juvenile mXin-alpha-null cardiomyocytes had a notable decrease in the amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ transient and no change in the L-type Ca2+ current, suggesting that the prolonged APD did not promote an increase in intracellular Ca2+ for cardiac hypertrophy. Juvenile mXin-alpha-null ventricles had reduced levels of membrane-associated Kv channel interacting protein 2, an auxiliary subunit of ITO, and filamin, an actin cross-linking protein. We further showed that mXin-alpha interacted with both proteins, providing a novel mechanism for ITO surface expression.
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A genetic polymorphism (rs17251221) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) is associated with stone multiplicity in calcium nephrolithiasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Calcium nephrolithiasis is one of the most common causes of renal stones. While the prevalence of this disease has increased steadily over the last 3 decades, its pathogenesis is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that a genetic polymorphism (rs17251221) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) is associated with the total serum calcium levels. In this study, we collected DNA samples from 480 Taiwanese subjects (189 calcium nephrolithiasis patients and 291 controls) for genotyping the CASR gene. Our results indicated no significant association between the CASR polymorphism (rs17251221) and the susceptibility of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, we found a significant association between rs17251221 and stone multiplicity. The risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the GG+GA genotype than in those with the AA genotype (chi-square test: P?=?0.008; odds ratio ?=? 4.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-15.92; Yates correction for chi-square test: P?=?0.013). In conclusion, our results provide evidence supporting the genetic effects of CASR on the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.
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2,7-Diaminofluorene-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: effect of auxiliary donor on optical and electrochemical properties.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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New organic dyes containing a diarylaminofluorene unit as an electron donor and cyanoacrylic acid as acceptor and anchoring group in a donor-?-donor-?-acceptor architecture have been synthesized and characterized as sensitizers for nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based dye-sensitized solar cells. They have shown three major electronic absorptions originating from the ?-?* and charge-transfer transitions covering the broad visible range (250-550 nm) in solution. The charge-transfer transition of the dyes exhibited negative solvatochromism, suggesting a polarized ground state. They have also displayed acidochromism in solution owing to the presence of a protonation-deprotonation equilibrium. On comparison with the triphenylamine and carbazole-based parent dyes (E)-2-cyano-3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)acrylic acid and (E)-2-cyano-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)acrylic acid they exhibited longer wavelength absorptions and facile oxidation, indicating the stronger electron-donating ability of the auxiliary chromophores. In addition, they exhibited nearly two times larger light-to-electron conversion efficiency under simulated AM 1.5 G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)) with an aperture mask when compared to the parent dyes. Among the new dyes, the one containing the naphthylphenylamine segment showed better device characteristics attributable to the higher HOMO energy level which probably facilitates the regeneration of the dye and effective suppression of the back reaction of the injected electrons with the I(3)(-) in the electrolyte. The optical properties of the dyes were modeled using TDDFT simulations employing different theoretical models (B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, and MPW1K), and the best correlations with the observed parameters have been found for CAM-B3LYP and MPW1K calculations. The electron lifetimes extracted from the electrochemical impedance measurements of the dye-sensitized solar cells were used to interpret the solar cell efficiency alternations.
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Major adverse upper gastrointestinal events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary coronary intervention and dual antiplatelet therapy.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of composite short-term and long-term major adverse upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events (MAUGIEs; defined as gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastroduodenal ulcer, or UGI bleeding) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and routinely received dual-antiplatelet therapy. From May 2002 to September 2010, a total of 1,368 consecutive patients who experienced ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were prospectively enrolled in the study. The incidence of in-hospital UGI bleeding complications and composite MAUGIEs was 8.9% and 9.9%, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with in-hospital MAUGIEs than in those without (p <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that age, advanced Killip score (?3), and respiratory failure were the strongest independent predictors of in-hospital composite MAUGIEs (all p <0.003). The cumulative composite of MAUGIEs after uneventful discharge in patients without adverse UGI events who continuously received dual-antiplatelet therapy for 3 to 12 months, followed by aspirin therapy, was 10.4% during long-term (mean 4.0 years) follow-up. In conclusion, the results of this study show a remarkably high incidence of composite short-term and long-term MAUGIEs in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and received routine dual-antiplatelet therapy. Age, advanced Killip score, and respiratory failure were significantly and independently predictive of in-hospital composite MAUGIEs.
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Novel pyrenoimidazole-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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A novel class of organic dyes containing pyrenoimidazole donors, cyanoacrylic acid acceptors, and oligothiophene ?-linkers has been synthesized and characterized. The electro-optical properties of these dyes can be tuned by changing the conjugation length of the ?-linkers. A dye containing terthiophene in the conjugation pathway exhibited a solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.65%.
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Cobalt oxide acicular nanorods with high sensitivity for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Acicular cobalt oxide nanorods (CoONRs) were prepared for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose, first by directly growing layered cobalt carbonate hydroxide (LCCH) on a conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique and then by transforming the LCCH into CoONRs through pyrolysis. The composition and grain size of the films of LCCH and CoONRs were verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD); their morphologies were examined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images. CoONRs showed high electrocatalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of glucose in alkaline media, and the activity was strongly influenced by NaOH concentration, annealing temperature of CoONRs, and thickness of CoONRs film. The pertinent sensor could be successfully used for the quantification of glucose by amperometric method. The sensing parameters include wide linear range up to 3.5 mM, a high sensitivity of 571.8 ?A/(cm(2) mM), and a remarkable low detection limit of 0.058 ?M. The CoONRs modified electrode exhibited a high selectivity for glucose in human serum, against ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen.
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Lack of association between ORAI1/CRACM1 gene polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in the Taiwanese children.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by systemic vasculitis of an unknown cause. A previous study has indicated that a polymorphism of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) gene is involved in the susceptibility to KD. ORAI (also known as CRACM1) is one of the components of store-operated calcium channels involved in regulating immune and inflammatory reactions. This study was conducted to investigate if polymorphisms in ORAI1/CRACM1, a gene downstream from ITPKC, are associated with KD susceptibility and clinical outcomes.
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Distribution, clinical features and treatment in Taiwanese patients with symptomatic primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) in a nationwide population-based study during 1985-2010.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of rare diseases with wide geographic and ethnic variations in incidence, prevalence, and distribution patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution pattern and clinical spectrum of PIDs in Taiwan at a national referral institute. From 1985 to 2010, 215 patients from 183 families were diagnosed and grouped according to the updated classification of PIDs. Eighty-one (37.7%) patients had "other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes", followed by "predominantly antibody deficiencies" (54 patients; 25.1%), "T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies" (34; 15.8%), "congenital defects of phagocytes" (25; 20.2%), "complement deficiencies" (15; 7.0%), and "disease in immune dysregulation" (5; 2.3%). The last category included two patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and one each with familial hemophagocytosis, IPEX, and hypogammaglobulinemia and albinism. One female had cold-induced auto-inflammatory disease. There were no cases of "defects in innate immunity". Pseudomonas and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the two most identified microorganisms in septicemia (42.7%; 44/103 episodes). Stem cell transplantation was successful in 13 of 22 patients, while 34 patients (15.8%) died. Molecular defects were identified in 109 individuals (from 90 families). There were relatively fewer cases of "predominantly antibody deficiencies" due to there being only a few patients with adult-onset PIDs, implying certainty bias rather than ethnic variation. Awareness of under-diagnosis among physicians rather than pediatricians is vital for timely diagnosis and consequently adequate treatment.
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Development of low-concentration mercury adsorbents from biohydrogen-generation agricultural residues using sulfur impregnation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Mercury adsorbents were derived from waste biohydrogen-generation barley husk and rice husk via carbonization, steam activation, and sulfur impregnation at 300-650°C. The samples derived from agricultural residues showed a greater Hg(0) adsorption than that of a coal-based activated carbon, confirming the feasibility of resource recovery of these agricultural residuals for low-concentration gaseous Hg adsorption. Sulfur impregnation reduced both the surface area and pore volume of the samples, with lower temperature causing a greater decrease. Elevating the impregnation temperature increased the organic sulfur contents, suggesting that in addition to elemental sulfur, organic sulfur may also act as active sites to improve Hg(0) adsorption. Oxygen and sulfur functional groups accompanying the microporous structures may account for the enhancing Hg(0) adsorption of the raw and sulfur-treated samples, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model can best describe the chemisorption characteristics, implying that Hg(0) adsorption on the samples was in a bimolecular reaction form.
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Observations of ozone and carbon monoxide at Mei-Feng mountain site (2269 m a.s.l.) in Central Taiwan: seasonal variations and influence of Asian continental outflow.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Continuous measurements of ozone (O(3)) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out at Mei-Feng (24.05°N, 120.10°E, 2269 m above sea level), a remote mountain site in central Taiwan, to investigate the influence of long-range transported air pollution on O(3) and CO variations in the subtropical Pacific region. Data collected from March 2009 to September 2010 revealed average mixing ratios of 37±14 ppb for O(3) and 188±82 ppb for CO at this remote site. Diurnal variations for both O(3) and CO were observed as well in all seasons. The higher levels for O(3) and CO in the afternoon were attributed to transport of boundary layer pollution to the site during daytime upslope flow. Monthly means of both O(3) and CO showed maxima in spring and in the continental air masses from Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea/Japan. On the contrary, the lower O(3) and CO levels found in summer were due to the marine air masses originating from the Philippine Sea and Pacific Ocean. The relationship between O(3) and CO was analyzed, using nighttime data to minimize any local influence. The results showed a fairly good correlation between O(3) and CO from March to September. The contribution of CO from the Asian outflow reached a maximum in spring (88 ppb) and had a minimum in summer (27 ppb). The photochemical buildup of O(3) resulting from anthropogenic emissions in continental Asia was estimated to be 15 ppb in spring, while its production was insignificant, with an average of 4 ppb, in summer. A positive correlation between O(3) and CO plus high ozone levels in springtime suggested that the enhancements of O(3) were likely due to O(3) which was photochemically produced over this region.
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Identification of immunodeficient molecules in neonatal mononuclear cells by proteomic differential displays.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Human newborns are known to be susceptible to microbial infection. This susceptibility is generally attributed to immaturity of the newborn immune system. However, the mechanisms for impaired immunity in newborns are still incompletely defined. In this study, we sought to elucidate the protein differential display between adult and neonatal mononuclear cells (MNC) using a proteomic approach. MNC samples from cord blood and adult peripheral blood were subjected to 2-D PAGE analysis. Differential protein displays between cord blood and adult MNC were determined and validated. There were 34 differentially expressed proteins between cord blood and adult MNC identified by 2-D PAGE. The differentially displayed proteins were clustered into two major signal pathways, cellular processing and purine metabolism. After validation by Western blot, we found more abundant arginase-1 (ARG1) and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2), while less adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ?-actin in cord blood MNC. In functional validation, we found that lower ADA was proven to enhance the TNF-? production by cord blood monocytes. The results from this study discovered the proteomic displays for altered immunity between adult and neonatal MNC that support a understanding of the correction of impaired immune response in newborns.
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