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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
High levels of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from livestock farms and synanthropic rats and shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam) antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli (n=434) from 90 pig, chicken and duck farms. Results were compared with AMR among E. coli (n=234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms/forests/rice fields. Isolates were susceptibility-tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant against (median) 4 [IQR 3-6] antimicrobials, vs. 1 [IQR 1-2] among wild mammal isolates (p<0.001). The prevalence of AMR among farmed species isolates (vs. wild animals) was: tetracycline 84.7% (vs. 25.6%), ampicillin 78.9% (vs. 85.9%), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole 52.1% (vs. 18.8%), chloramphenicol 39.9% (vs. 22.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 36.6% (vs. 34.5%) and ciprofloxacin 24.9% (vs. 7.3%). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7%, compared with 66.9 - 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ?8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than in forests/rice fields (p<0.001). Isolates were assigned to a unique profile representing their combination of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and domestic animals were more alike (R(2) range=0.14 - 0.30) compared with E. coli from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R(2) range 0.25 - 0.45). Results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta.
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Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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We assessed consumption of raw pig blood, which is a risk factor for Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam, by using a mix-method design. Factors associated with consumption included rural residency, age, sex, occupation, income, and marital status. We identified risk groups and practices and perceptions that should be targeted by communication programs.
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Nosocomial neonatal legionellosis associated with water in infant formula, taiwan.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates who have respiratory symptoms.
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Trajectory-profile-guided single molecule tracking for assignment of one-dimensional diffusion trajectories.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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A variety of algorithms exist for optical single molecule tracking in two and three dimensions. One general class of algorithms employs cost-functionals to link the individual fluorescent spots, produced by a molecule in sequential video frames, into trajectories. This method has also been used to track one-dimensional (1D) molecular motions for relatively low diffusion rates (i.e., D < 1 ?m(2)/s). At high diffusion rates, the cost-functional approach often fails to accurately reproduce 1D trajectories, particularly when the molecules are closely spaced. In this paper, we present a new algorithm called trajectory-profile-guided (TPG) tracking that is designed specifically for 1D trajectories. TPG tracking involves an initial search for one-dimensionally aligned fluorescent spots (i.e., candidate molecules). Qualifying candidates are subsequently identified and linked into trajectories based on several criteria. We test the TPG algorithm's accuracy and precision against cost-functional based tracking using both simulated and experimental video data. The results show that TPG tracking more accurately reproduces the actual 1D trajectories, particularly at higher diffusion rates. TPG tracking is also shown to produce longer trajectories and more accurate estimates of trajectory aspect ratios (i.e., their dimensionality), molecular diffusion coefficients, and order parameters for aligned 1D trajectories over a wide range of diffusion coefficients.
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Mutational analysis of the Shigella flexneri O antigen polymerase Wzy; identification of Wzz-dependent Wzy mutants.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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The O antigen (Oag) component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major virulence determinant of Shigella flexneri and is synthesized by the O antigen polymerase, WzySf. Oag chain length is regulated by chromosomally encoded WzzSf and pHS-2 plasmid encoded WzzpHS2. To identify functionally important amino acid residues in WzySf, random mutagenesis was performed on the wzySf in a pWaldo-TEV-GFPe plasmid followed by screening with colicin E2. Analysis of the LPS conferred by mutated WzySf proteins in the wzySf deficient (?wzy) strain identified 4 different mutant classes, with mutations found in the Periplasmic Loops (PL) - 1, 2, 3, and 6; Trans-membrane (TM) regions - 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9; and Cytoplasmic Loops (CL) - 1 and 5. The association of WzySf and WzzSf was investigated by transforming these mutated wzySf plasmids into a wzySf and wzzSf deficient strain (?wzy/?wzz). Comparison of the LPS profiles in the ?wzy and ?wzy/?wzz backgrounds identified WzySf mutants whose polymerization activity was WzzSf-dependent. Colicin E2 and bacteriophage Sf6c sensitivities were consistent with the LPS profiles. Analysis of the expression levels of the WzySf-GFPe mutants in the ?wzy and ?wzy/?wzz backgrounds identified a role for WzzSf in WzySf stability. Hence, in addition to its role in regulating Oag modal chain length, WzzSf also affects WzySf activity and stability.
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Direct costs of hypertensive patients admitted to hospital in Vietnam- a bottom-up micro-costing analysis.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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There is an economic burden associated with hypertension both worldwide and in Vietnam. In Vietnam, patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure are hospitalized for further diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Because there is no evidence on costs of inpatient care for hypertensive patients available yet to inform policy makers, health insurance and hospitals, this study aims to quantify direct costs of inpatient care for these patients in Vietnam.
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Biological control of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae causing rice bacterial blight disease by Streptomyces toxytricini VN08-A-12, isolated from soil and leaf-litter samples in Vietnam.
Biocontrol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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A total of 2690 actinomycete strains were screened as potential biological control agents in controlling rice bacterial blight (BB) in Vietnam. From these microorganisms, seventeen actinomycete strains were found to be capable of inhibiting all 10 major Xoo races isolated from Xoo-infected rice leaves. One strain, namely VN08-A-12, contained effective characteristics in selectively inhibiting all 10 races in vitro, but did not inhibit most of the other tested microorganisms. Therefore, VN08-A-12 was subsequently selected for rice field trials for two seasons on two rice cultivars SS1 and KD18. Results showed VN08-A-12 was not only able to reduce Xoo lesion lengths in the two rice cultivars (lesion length reduction of up to 38.3%), but it also significantly reduced Xoo-related yield loss in infected rice cultivars from the field (yield loss reduction of up to 43.2%). Interestingly, the culture of this strain also increased the rice yield in healthy rice cultivars (from 2.66% to 16.98% for SS1 and from 3.11% to 5.94% for KD18 cultivar). The strain VN08-A-12 was shown to be identical to Streptomyces toxytricini. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting S. toxytricini as a beneficial biological agent for the control of BB in rice.
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Single-molecule tracking studies of flow-induced microdomain alignment in cylinder-forming polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer films.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Flow-based approaches are promising routes to preparation of aligned block copolymer microdomains within confined spaces. An in-depth characterization of such nanoscale morphologies within macroscopically nonuniform materials under ambient conditions is, however, often challenging. In this study, single-molecule tracking (SMT) methods were employed to probe the flow-induced alignment of cylindrical microdomains (ca. 22 nm in diameter) in polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer (PS-b-PEO) films. Films of micrometer-scale thicknesses were prepared by overlaying a benzene solution droplet on a glass coverslip with a rectangular glass plate, followed by solvent evaporation under a nitrogen atmosphere. The microdomain alignment was quantitatively assessed from SMT data exhibiting the diffusional motions of individual sulforhodamine B fluorescent probes that preferentially partitioned into cylindrical PEO microdomains. Better overall microdomain orientation along the flow direction was observed near the substrate interface in films prepared at a higher flow rate, suggesting that the microdomain alignment was primarily induced by shear flow. The SMT data also revealed the presence of micrometer-scale grains consisting of highly ordered microdomains with coherent orientation. The results of this study provide insights into shear-based preparation of aligned cylindrical microdomains in block copolymer films from solutions within confined spaces.
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein stimulates macrophage 18F-FDG uptake via hypoxia-inducible factor-1? activation through Nox2-dependent reactive oxygen species generation.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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For (18)F-FDG PET to be widely used to monitor atherosclerosis progression and therapeutic response, it is crucial to better understand how macrophage glucose metabolism is influenced by the atherosclerotic microenvironment and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of this response. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a key player in atherosclerotic inflammation that promotes macrophage recruitment, activation, and foam cell formation. We thus explored the effect of oxLDL on macrophage (18)F-FDG uptake and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism including the roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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Mechanistic studies of the cationic binding pocket of CYP2C9 in vitro and in silico: metabolism of nonionizable analogs of tienilic acid.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Tienilic acid (TA) is selectively oxidized at the C-5 position of the thiophene ring by the human liver enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). This oxidation is mediated by the proximal positioning of the thiophene over the heme iron, which is proposed to be coordinated by an interaction of the TA carboxylic acid to a cationic binding pocket in the enzyme active site. In this study, we investigated how chemical modification of TA influences the bioactivation by CYP2C9. For this investigation, nine analogs of TA were chosen with substitutions on either side of the molecule. We tested three parameters, including CYP2C9 inhibition, metabolic profiling, and in silico docking. Of the 10 compounds tested, only two (TA and a noncarboxyl analog) resulted in competitive and time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9. Metabolic profiling revealed a trend in which substitution of the carboxylate with nonionizable functional groups resulted in metabolic switching from oxidation of the aromatic ring to dealkylation reactions at the opposite side of the structure. The in silico modeling predicted an opposite binding orientation to that of TA for many analogs, including the 3-thenoyl regio-isomer analog, which contradicts previous models. Together these data show that disrupting interactions with the cationic binding pocket of CYP2C9 will impact the sites of metabolism and inhibition of the enzyme.
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Asymmetric synthesis of cyclic indole aminals via 1,3-stereoinduction.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A general and efficient asymmetric synthesis of cyclic indoline aminals was developed with a high level of 1,3-stereoinduction through a dynamic crystallization-driven condensation. Dehydrogenation of the indoline aminals with potassium permanganate produced the corresponding cyclic indole aminals in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. This general methodology was successfully applied to the synthesis of a wide variety of chiral cyclic indoline aminals and indole aminals with aromatic and aliphatic functional groups.
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Combined therapy with GABA and proinsulin/alum acts synergistically to restore long-term normoglycemia by modulating T-cell autoimmunity and promoting ?-cell replication in newly diabetic NOD mice.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Antigen-based therapies (ABTs) fail to restore normoglycemia in newly diabetic NOD mice, perhaps because too few ?-cells remain by the time that ABT-induced regulatory responses arise and spread. We hypothesized that combining a fast-acting anti-inflammatory agent with an ABT could limit pathogenic responses while ABT-induced regulatory responses arose and spread. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration can inhibit inflammation, enhance regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses, and promote ?-cell replication in mice. We examined the effect of combining a prototypic ABT, proinsulin/alum, with GABA treatment in newly diabetic NOD mice. Proinsulin/alum monotherapy failed to correct hyperglycemia, while GABA monotherapy restored normoglycemia for a short period. Combined treatment restored normoglycemia in the long term with apparent permanent remission in some mice. Proinsulin/alum monotherapy induced interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-10-secreting T-cell responses that spread to other ?-cell autoantigens. GABA monotherapy induced moderate IL-10 (but not IL-4) responses to ?-cell autoantigens. Combined treatment synergistically reduced spontaneous type 1 T-helper cell responses to autoantigens, ABT-induced IL-4 and humoral responses, and insulitis, but enhanced IL-10 and Treg responses and promoted ?-cell replication in the islets. Thus, combining ABT with GABA can inhibit pathogenic T-cell responses, induce Treg responses, promote ?-cell replication, and effectively restore normoglycemia in newly diabetic NOD mice. Since these treatments appear safe for humans, they hold promise for type 1 diabetes intervention.
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Chemical conversion of human fibroblasts into functional schwann cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs) expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.
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Production of biodiesel from Vietnamese Jatropha curcas oil by a co-solvent method.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Biodiesel fuels (BDFs) was successfully produced from Vietnamese Jatropha curcas oil with high content of free fatty acids (FFAs) in two stages. In the first stage, the esterification process was carried out with the optimal conditions as follows; a methanol-to-FFAs molar ratio of 6:1, 1wt% H2SO4, at a temperature of 65°C, and using 30% (wt/wt) acetonitrile as co-solvent. This step reduced the concentration of FFAs in the reaction mixture from 15.93 to 2wt% in 60min. In the second stage, the transesterification process generated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with 99% efficiency was performed in 30min with the optimal conditions as follows; a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, 1wt% KOH, at a temperature of 40°C, and 20% (wt/wt) acetone as co-solvent. The produced biodiesel quality meets the standards JIS K2390 and EN 14214 regarding FAME yield, FFAs and water contents.
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Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato by Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate biocontrol potential of Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Our result showed that P. ehimensis KWN38 produced extracellular organic compounds and crude enzyme to inhibit F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici conidial germination in in vitro assays. Tomato seedlings were treated with water (W), grass medium (G), G with P. ehimensis KWN38 inoculation (GP) and G along with synthetic fungicide (GSf). Disease symptoms were was first observed in G and W at 12 days after infection (DAI) while symptoms were noticeable in the GP and GSf treatments at 20 and 24 DAI, respectively. Tomato plants treated with P. ehimensis KWN38 or fungicide significantly reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence and severity as compared to control tomato plants treated with water and grass medium. The similar results were also found in the root mortality of tomato plants. At 25 DAI, most plants in control treatments (W and G) wilted and the brown vascular systems of infected plants was clearly differentiable from normal green vascular system of healthy plants from GP and GSf. Plants in the GP showed higher fresh and dry weights of both root and shoots than those in W and G treatments. Leaf peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities of tomato plants in G and W were higher than those in GP and GSf. Root enzyme activities showed a similar pattern but the values were higher than leaf enzyme. The results clearly demonstrated that P. ehimensis KWN38 may be considered as biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato.
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In vivo nonlinear optical imaging to monitor early microscopic changes in a murine cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma model.
J Biophotonics
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Early detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) can enable timely therapeutic and preventive interventions for patients. In this study, in vivo nonlinear optical imaging (NLOI) based on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), was used to non-invasively detect microscopic changes occurring in murine skin treated topically with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). The optical microscopic findings and the measured TPEF-SHG index show that NLOI was able to clearly detect early cytostructural changes in DMBA treated skin that appeared clinically normal. This suggests that in vivo NLOI could be a non-invasive tool to monitor early signs of cSCC. In vivo axial NLOI scans of normal murine skin (upper left), murine skin with preclinical hyperplasia (upper right), early clinical murine skin lesion (lower left) and late or advanced murine skin lesion (lower right).
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Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.
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Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 2.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013. This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Although sporadic cases of human infections had been reported worldwide, deadly S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia. The severity of the disease underscores the lack of knowledge on the virulence and zoonotic evolution of this human-infecting agent. The pathogenesis of the infection, interactions with host cells and new avenues for treatments were among the topics discussed during the First International Workshop on S. suis (China 2013).
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A mutation that eliminates bundle sheath extensions reduces leaf hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance and assimilation rates in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure whose distribution differs among species and ecosystems. The genetic control of BSE development is unknown, so BSE physiological function has not yet been studied through mutant analysis. We screened a population of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants in the genetic background of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) model Micro-Tom and found a mutant lacking BSEs. The leaf phenotype of the mutant strongly resembled the tomato mutant obscuravenosa (obv). We confirmed that obv lacks BSEs and that it is not allelic to our induced mutant, which we named obv-2. Leaves lacking BSEs had lower leaf hydraulic conductance and operated with lower stomatal conductance and correspondingly lower assimilation rates than wild-type leaves. This lower level of function occurred despite similarities in vein density, midvein vessel diameter and number, stomatal density, and leaf area between wild-type and mutant leaves, the implication being that the lack of BSEs hindered water dispersal within mutant leaves. Our results comparing near-isogenic lines within a single species confirm the hypothesised role of BSEs in leaf hydraulic function. They further pave the way for a genetic model-based analysis of a common leaf structure with deep ecological consequences.
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Prohibitin overexpression in adipocytes induces mitochondrial biogenesis, leads to obesity development, and affects glucose homeostasis in a sex-specific manner.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Adipocytes are the primary cells in the body that store excess energy as triglycerides. To perform this specialized function, adipocytes rely on their mitochondria; however, the role of adipocyte mitochondria in the regulation of adipose tissue homeostasis and its impact on metabolic regulation is not understood. We developed a transgenic mouse model, Mito-Ob, overexpressing prohibitin (PHB) in adipocytes. Mito-Ob mice developed obesity due to upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes. Of note, Mito-Ob female mice developed more visceral fat than male mice. However, female mice exhibited no change in glucose homeostasis and had normal insulin and high adiponectin levels, whereas male mice had impaired glucose homeostasis, compromised brown adipose tissue structure, and high insulin and low adiponectin levels. Mechanistically, we found that PHB overexpression enhances the cross talk between the mitochondria and the nucleus and facilitates mitochondrial biogenesis. The data suggest a critical role of PHB and adipocyte mitochondria in adipose tissue homeostasis and reveal sex differences in the effect of PHB-induced adipocyte mitochondrial remodeling on whole-body metabolism. Targeting adipocyte mitochondria may provide new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
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Blueberry polyphenols prevent cardiomyocyte death by preventing calpain activation and oxidative stress.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an aqueous wild blueberry extract and five wild blueberry polyphenol fractions on an in vitro model of heart disease. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with extract and fractions, and then exposed to norepinephrine (NE). Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte contractile function as well as the activities of calpain, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cardiomyocytes treated with and without NE and blueberry fraction (BF). Four of five blueberry fractions prevented cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by NE. Total phenolic fraction was used for all further analysis. The NE-induced increase in oxidative stress, nuclear condensation, calpain activity and lowering of SOD and CAT activities were prevented upon pretreatment with BF. Reduced contractile function was also significantly improved with BF pretreatment. Blueberry polyphenols prevent NE-induced adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. The protective effects of BF may be in part attributed to a reduction in calpain activity and oxidative stress.
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Complex transposition repair with aortic arch hypoplasia: a simple technique.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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A modified technique of interdigitating aortic arch reconstruction was used successfully to treat 8 patients with complex congenital heart disease including transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, or Taussig-Bing anomalies combined with aortic arch hypoplasia and coarctation of the aorta, without the need for homograft tissue.
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Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.
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Hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies and protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza infection.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies correlate with influenza vaccine protection but their association with protection induced by natural infection has received less attention and was studied here.
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Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 1.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013 The first international workshop on Streptococcus suis, which is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent, took place in Beijing, jointly organized by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada and the National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. The aim of the meeting was to gather together, for the first time, more than 80 researchers working on S. suis, from countries including China, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Germany, Thailand, the UK and Vietnam. This article, the first of a two-part report on this First International Workshop, reviews current aspects of the epidemiology and population genomics of S. suis, covers public health concerns and discusses questions about S. suis serotyping and molecular diagnostics.
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Evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 HA clades and vaccine implementation in Vietnam.
Clin Exp Vaccine Res
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Based on hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), influenza A virus is divided into 18 different HA (H1 to H18) and 11 NA types (N1 to N11), opening the possibility for reassortment between the HA and NA genes to generate new HxNy subtypes (where x could be any HA and y is any NA, possibly). In recent four years, since 2010, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of H5N1 subtype (HPAI A/H5N1) have become highly enzootic and dynamically evolved to form multiple H5 HA clades, particularly in China, Vietnam, Indonesia, Egypt, Cambodia, and Bangladesh. So far, after more than 10 years emerged in Vietnam (since late 2003), HPAI A/H5N1 is still posing a potential risk of causing outbreaks in poultry, with high frequency of annual endemics. Intragenic variation (referred to as antigenic drift) in HA (e.g., H5) has given rise to form numerous clades, typically marking the major timelines of the evolutionary status and vaccine application in each period. The dominance of genetically and antigenically diversified clade 2.3.2.1 (of subgroups a, b, c), clade 1.1 (1.1.1/1.1.2) and re-emergence of clade 7.1/7.2 at present, has urged Vietnam to the need for dynamically applied antigenicity-matching vaccines, i.e., the plan of importing Re-6 vaccine for use in 2014, in parallel use of Re-1/Re-5 since 2006. In this review, we summarize evolutionary features of HPAI A/H5N1 viruses and clade formation during recent 10 years (2004-2014). Dynamic of vaccine implementation in Vienam is also remarked.
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Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.
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A phase II study of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-mediated signaling contributes to ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Elevated VEGF expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We investigated ramucirumab, a fully human anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, in patients with persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) and confirmed objective response rate (ORR).
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Glassy carbon electrode modified with a graphene oxide/poly(o-phenylenediamine) composite for the chemical detection of hydrogen peroxide.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD)/graphene oxide (GO) composites were prepared using a facile and efficient method involving the in-situ polymerization of OPD in the presence of GO in an aqueous medium. Copper sulfate was used as an oxidative initiator for the polymerization of OPD. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that POPD microfibrils were formed and distributed relatively uniformly with GO sheets in the obtained composites. X-ray diffraction results revealed the highly crystal structure of POPD. This composite exhibited good catalytic activity and stability. These results highlight the potential applications of POPD/GO composites as excellent electrochemical sensors. The composites were used to modify glass carbon electrodes for the chemical detection of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous media.
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Effects of spatial coherence in diffraction phase microscopy.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Quantitative phase imaging systems using white light illumination can exhibit lower noise figures than laser-based systems. However, they can also suffer from object-dependent artifacts, such as halos, which prevent accurate reconstruction of the surface topography. In this work, we show that white light diffraction phase microscopy using a standard halogen lamp can produce accurate height maps of even the most challenging structures provided that there is proper spatial filtering at: 1) the condenser to ensure adequate spatial coherence and 2) the output Fourier plane to produce a uniform reference beam. We explain that these object-dependent artifacts are a high-pass filtering phenomenon, establish design guidelines to reduce the artifacts, and then apply these guidelines to eliminate the halo effect. Since a spatially incoherent source requires significant spatial filtering, the irradiance is lower and proportionally longer exposure times are needed. To circumvent this tradeoff, we demonstrate that a supercontinuum laser, due to its high radiance, can provide accurate measurements with reduced exposure times, allowing for fast dynamic measurements.
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Extrusion of a cochlear implant positioner through the tympanic membrane in a pediatric patient: management of a delayed complication.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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This study aimed to present a case of an extruded Advanced Bionics positioner, with the goal of educating a new generation of otologic surgeons on management of the delayed complications associated with this cochlear implant model.
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Trimethylation enhancement using diazomethane (TrEnDi): rapid on-column quaternization of peptide amino groups via reaction with diazomethane significantly enhances sensitivity in mass spectrometry analyses via a fixed, permanent positive charge.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Defining cellular processes relies heavily on elucidating the temporal dynamics of proteins. To this end, mass spectrometry (MS) is an extremely valuable tool; different MS-based quantitative proteomics strategies have emerged to map protein dynamics over the course of stimuli. Herein, we disclose our novel MS-based quantitative proteomics strategy with unique analytical characteristics. By passing ethereal diazomethane over peptides on strong cation exchange resin within a microfluidic device, peptides react to contain fixed, permanent positive charges. Modified peptides display improved ionization characteristics and dissociate via tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) to form strong a2 fragment ion peaks. Process optimization and determination of reactive functional groups enabled a priori prediction of MS(2) fragmentation patterns for modified peptides. The strategy was tested on digested bovine serum albumin (BSA) and successfully quantified a peptide that was not observable prior to modification. Our method ionizes peptides regardless of proton affinity, thus decreasing ion suppression and permitting predictable multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantitation with improved sensitivity.
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Investigation of dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus transmission in Hanam, Viet Nam.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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This study investigated whether a large dengue epidemic that struck Hanoi in 2009 also affected a nearby semirural area. Seroconversion (dengue virus-reactive immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was high during 2009 compared with 2008, but neutralization assays showed that it was caused by both dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infections. The findings highlight the importance of continued Japanese encephalitis virus vaccination and dengue surveillance.
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Forelimb Treatment in a Large Cohort of Dystrophic Dogs Supports Delivery of a Recombinant AAV for Exon Skipping in Duchenne Patients.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, without curative treatment yet available. Our study provides, for the first time, the overall safety profile and therapeutic dose of a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector, serotype 8 (rAAV8) carrying a modified U7snRNA sequence promoting exon skipping to restore a functional in-frame dystrophin transcript, and injected by locoregional transvenous perfusion of the forelimb. Eighteen Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dogs were exposed to increasing doses of GMP-manufactured vector. Treatment was well tolerated in all, and no acute nor delayed adverse effect, including systemic and immune toxicity was detected. There was a dose relationship for the amount of exon skipping with up to 80% of myofibers expressing dystrophin at the highest dose. Similarly, histological, nuclear magnetic resonance pathological indices and strength improvement responded in a dose-dependent manner. The systematic comparison of effects using different independent methods, allowed to define a minimum threshold of dystrophin expressing fibers (>33% for structural measures and >40% for strength) under which there was no clear-cut therapeutic effect. Altogether, these results support the concept of a phase 1/2 trial of locoregional delivery into upper limbs of nonambulatory DMD patients.
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Antagonism of antifungal metabolites from Streptomyces griseus H7602 against Phytophthora capsici.
J. Basic Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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In this study, evidences for antagonism were established by production of antifungal metabolites from Streptomyces griseus H7602, which were active to inhibit mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici in the in vitro assays. Mycelial growth and zoosporangia formation of P. capsici was strongly inhibited in the medium containing the cell free culture filtrate of S. griseus H7602. Antifungal metabolites from the cell free culture filtrate of S. griseus H7602 showed substantial antagonistic effects on P. capsici. In addition, a purified antifungal compound was separated from the antifungal metabolites of S. griseus H7602 and identified to be 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) by spectra analyses. PCA showed strong antifungal activity and was evaluated for the first time for its antagonism against P. capsici under in vitro conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of PCA was low (4?µg?ml(-1) ), and the mycelial growth of P. capsici was almost inhibited at concentration of 64?µg?ml(-1) . This study suggests that the PCA may be useful as biofungicides against P. capsici, and the prominent antagonism of antifungal metabolites from S. griseus H7602 highlights it as a candidate for biocontrol of P. capsici.
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A global investigation of gene deletion strains that affect premature stop codon bypass in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Protein biosynthesis is an orderly process that requires a balance between rate and accuracy. To produce a functional product, the fidelity of this process has to be maintained from start to finish. In order to systematically identify genes that affect stop codon bypass, three expression plasmids, pUKC817, pUKC818 and pUKC819, were integrated into the yeast non-essential loss-of-function gene array (5000 strains). These plasmids contain three different premature stop codons (UAA, UGA and UAG, respectively) within the LacZ expression cassette. A fourth plasmid, pUKC815 that carries the native LacZ gene was used as a control. Transformed strains were subjected to large-scale ?-galactosidase lift assay analysis to evaluate production of ?-galactosidase for each gene deletion strain. In this way 84 potential candidate genes that affect stop codon bypass were identified. Three candidate genes, OLA1, BSC2, and YNL040W, were further investigated, and were found to be important for cytoplasmic protein biosynthesis.
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Radiographic evaluation of third molar development in 6- to 24-year-olds.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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This study investigated the developmental stages of third molars in relation to chronological age and compared third molar development according to location and gender.
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Investigation of molecular interactions between ?-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin by multi-detection HPSEC.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Molecular interactions between ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) were studied using online multi-detection high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) at neutral pH and 50mM ionic strength. The hydrodynamic properties of various interacting polymer fractions were characterized in detail and compared with those of ?-LG and SBP. Results showed that ?6.5% (w/w) of native dimeric ?-LG molecules formed complexes with over 35% SBP molecules of varying sizes, 800, 110 and 75 kDa. Although the ?-LG molecules bind to SBP molecules of all sizes and shapes, they tend to favor the intermediate (110 kDa) and small sized (75 kDa) SBP molecules. All resulting complexes possess altered shapes and hydrodynamic properties when compared to unbound SBP and ?-LG. About half of the interacting ?-LG (?3.5%) molecules were thought to bind to a small amount of non-covalently bound feruloyl groups, possibly present in SBP. When pre-heat treated ?-LG and SBP were combined, more than 16% of ?-LG formed complexes with at least 45% of SBP molecules of varying sizes, Mw?750-800, 110, and 55-80 kDa. The complexes formed between ?-LG aggregates and/or oligomers and the large SBP molecules (750-800 kDa) adopt the shape of ?-LG aggregates, random coil. Both groups of complexes formed between ?-LG intermediate (110 kDa) and small sized (55-80 kDa) SBP take on the shape of rigid rod. It was speculated that half of the interacting heat-treated ?-LG molecules (?8%) are complexed with non-covalently bound feruloyl groups in SBP.
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Delayed recovery of speech discrimination after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma in neurofibromatosis 2.
Ear Nose Throat J
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Hearing loss commonly occurs after radiation therapy for an acoustic neuroma, and it is highly unusual for hearing to return after a prolonged period of time. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis 2 who underwent fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of a left-sided vestibular schwannoma. Following treatment, he demonstrated an elevation of pure-tone audiometric thresholds and a sudden decrease in speech discrimination score (SDS) to 0%. However, 20 months postoperatively, his SDS suddenly and spontaneously rose to 92%, although there was no improvement in his speech reception threshold. We discuss the possible reasons for the unusual outcome in this patient.
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Pandemic H1N1 virus transmission and shedding dynamics in index case households of a prospective Vietnamese cohort.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Influenza household transmission studies are required to guide prevention strategies but most passively recruit index cases that seek healthcare. We investigated A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission in a household-based cohort during 2009.
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Impact of inhaled nitric oxide on the sulfatide profile of neonatal rat brain studied by TOF-SIMS imaging.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Despite advances in neonatal intensive care leading to an increased survival rate in preterm infants, brain lesions and subsequent neurological handicaps following preterm birth remain a critical issue. To prevent brain injury and/or enhance repair, one of the most promising therapies investigated in preclinical models is inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We have assessed the effect of this therapy on brain lipid content in air- and iNO-exposed rat pups by mass spectrometry imaging using a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) method. This technique was used to map the variations in lipid composition of the rat brain and, particularly, of the white matter. Triplicate analysis showed a significant increase of sulfatides (25%-50%) in the white matter on Day 10 of life in iNO-exposed animals from Day 0-7 of life. These robust, repeatable and semi-quantitative data demonstrate a potent effect of iNO at the molecular level.
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Relationship between O-antigen chain length and resistance to colicin E2 in Shigella flexneri.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The Shigella flexneri polysaccharide co-polymerase class 1a (PCP1a) protein, WzzBSF, regulates LPS O-antigen (Oag) chain length to confer short (S)-type Oag chains of ~10-17 Oag repeat units (RUs). The S-type Oag chains affect Shigella flexneri virulence as they influence IcsA-mediated actin-based motility. However, they do not confer resistance to complement; this is conferred by the very-long (VL)-type Oag chains determined by WzzB(pHS2). Colicins are bacterial proteins produced by some Escherichia coli strains to kill related strains. While the presence of Oag chains has been shown to shield outer-membrane proteins from colicins, the impact of Oag chain length against colicins is unknown. In this study, initial testing indicated that a Shigella flexneri Y wzz?:?:?kan(r) mutant was more sensitive to colicin E2 compared with the WT strain. Plasmids encoding Wzz mutant and WT PCP1a proteins conferring different Oag modal chain lengths were then expressed in the mutant background, and tested against purified colicin E2. Analysis of swab and spot sensitivity assays showed that strains expressing either S-type or long (L)-type Oag chains (16-28 Oag RUs) conferred greater resistance to colicin E2 compared with strains having very-short-type (2-8 Oag RUs), intermediate-short-type (8-14 Oag RUs) or VL-type (>80 Oag RUs) Oag chains. These results suggest a novel role for LPS Oag chain length control that may have evolved due to selection pressure from colicins in the environment.
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Isolation and characteristics of protocatechuic acid from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea on strawberry fruits.
J. Basic Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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This study was undertaken to describe purification, identification, and characteristics of protocatechuic acid (PCA) isolated for the first time from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea (the cause of gray mold disease on strawberry fruit). PCA was purified by different chromatographic techniques and identified as PCA (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. PCA displayed potent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. However, the antifungal activities were not sufficient to inhibit mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium oxysporum. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PCA to inhibit any visible mycelial growth of both B. cinerea and R. solani was 64?µg?ml(-1) . Most B. cinerea conidia displayed altered shape and absence of germination, or were degraded after treatment with 50 and 100?µg?ml(-1) PCA, respectively. Moreover, gray mold formation on strawberry fruit was almost or completely inhibited by these PCA concentrations 7 days following infection with B. cinerea conidia, respectively. PCA may be a promising alternative to chemical fungicides as a potential biofungicide to prevent growth of B. cinerea in strawberry fruit disease management.
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Targeting of repeated sequences unique to a gene results in significant increases in antisense oligonucleotide potency.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new strategy for identifying potent RNase H-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) is presented. Our analysis of the human transcriptome revealed that a significant proportion of genes contain unique repeated sequences of 16 or more nucleotides in length. Activities of ASOs targeting these repeated sites in several representative genes were compared to those of ASOs targeting unique single sites in the same transcript. Antisense activity at repeated sites was also evaluated in a highly controlled minigene system. Targeting both native and minigene repeat sites resulted in significant increases in potency as compared to targeting of non-repeated sites. The increased potency at these sites is a result of increased frequency of ASO/RNA interactions which, in turn, increases the probability of a productive interaction between the ASO/RNA heteroduplex and human RNase H1 in the cell. These results suggest a new, highly efficient strategy for rapid identification of highly potent ASOs.
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Prevalence of comorbidities and their impact on hospital management and short-term outcomes in vietnamese patients hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi for purposes of describing the prevalence of cardiovascular (CVD) and non-CVD comorbidities and their impact on hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and short-term mortality in these patients.
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Economic evaluation of apixaban for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stroke prevention is the main goal of treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) present an effective treatment in stroke prevention, however, the risk of bleeding and the requirement for regular coagulation monitoring are limiting their use. Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant associated with significantly lower hazard rates for stroke, major bleedings and treatment discontinuations, compared to VKAs.
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The burden of unintended pregnancies in Brazil: a social and public health system cost analysis.
Int J Womens Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Unintended pregnancy (UP) is an unmet medical need with consequences worldwide. We evaluate the costs of UP based on pregnancies in Brazil from for the year 2010.
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Sex differences in clinical characteristics, hospital management practices, and in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized in a vietnamese hospital with a first acute myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi. The objectives of this observational study were to examine sex differences in clinical characteristics, hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and mortality in patients hospitalized with an initial AMI.
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Micronutrient intakes among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes.
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Identification of REST-Regulated Genes and Pathways Using a REST-Targeted Antisense Approach.
Nucleic Acid Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is one of the first negative-acting transcriptional regulators implicated in vertebrate development thought to regulate hundreds of neuron-specific genes. However, its function in the adult system remains elusive. Here we employ second-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to study the impact of rest-mediated suppression on gene expression. We demonstrate specific reductions in REST levels in vitro, and in vivo in mouse liver following treatment with ASOs, and we show that ASO mediated-REST suppression results in the elevation in expression of many neuronal genes including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Synapsin1 (syn1) and ?3-tubulin in BALB/c liver. Furthermore, we show the elevation of the affected proteins in plasma following ASO treatment. Finally, microarray analysis was applied to identify a broad range of genes modulated by REST suppression in mouse liver. Our findings suggest that REST may be an important target for neurodegenerative diseases like Huntingtons disease, is also involved in the regulation of a broad range of additional cellular pathways, and that the antisense approach is a viable strategy for selectively modulating REST activity in vivo.
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Prevalence, genetic diversity and recombination of species G enteroviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Picornaviruses infecting pigs, described for many years as "porcine enteroviruses", have recently been recognised as containing viruses within three distinct genera (Teschovirus, Sapelovirus and Enterovirus). To better characterise the epidemiology and genetic diversity of members of the Enterovirus genus, faecal samples from pigs from four provinces in Vietnam were screened by polymerase chain reaction using conserved enterovirus-specific primers from the 5 untranslated region. High rates of infection were recorded in pigs on all farms, with detection frequencies of approximately 90% in recently weaned pigs but declining to 40% in those aged over one year. No differences in EV detection rates were observed between pigs with and without diarrhoea (74% [n=70] compared with 72% [n=128]). Genetic analysis of consensus VP4/VP2 and VP1 sequences amplified from a subset of EV-infected pigs identified species G EVs in all samples. Among these, VP1 sequence comparisons identified six type 1 and seven type 6 variants while four further VP1 sequences failed to group with any previously identified EV-G types. These have now been formally assigned as EV-G types 8-11 by the Picornavirus Study Group. Comparison of VP1, VP4/VP2, 3Dpol and 5untranslated regions of study samples and those available on public databases showed frequent, bootstrap supported differences in their phylogenies indicative of extensive within-species recombination between genome regions. In summary, we have identified extremely high frequencies of infection with EV-G in pigs in Vietnam, substantial genetic diversity and recombination within the species and evidence for a much large number of circulating EV-G types than currently described.
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Resveratrol suppresses cancer cell glucose uptake by targeting reactive oxygen species-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1? activation.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Resveratrol is gaining attention for its anticancer effects and is also recognized for its antioxidant properties and influence on glucose metabolism. Augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) and high glycolytic flux are common characteristics of malignant cells. We thus evaluated the effect of resveratrol on cancer cell glucose metabolism and investigated the role of ROS in the response.
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Hemoglobin Constant Spring is markedly high in women of an ethnic minority group in Vietnam: A community-based survey and hematologic features.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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A community-based survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and gene frequency of Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) and other forms of thalassemia among an ethnic minority in Vietnam. A total of 298 ethnic minority women, the Có-Tu, participated. Hematological parameters and hemoglobin profiles were analyzed using standard automated analyzers. Alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technology. Of the 298 women, 141 (47.3%) carried thalassemia genes. Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) is the most common with a markedly high frequency of 0.143 (overall prevalence=26.2%). The heterozygous state of Hb CS was found in one-fifth (20.5%) of women participating. Seven women (2.4%) were Hb CS homozygote. The overall prevalence for Hb E was 13.8%, and 10.7% for ?(+)-thalassemia. Other forms of thalassemia included 0.67% ?-thalassemia, and 0.34% Hb Paksé. None of the participants had the ?(0)-thalassemia gene. The study provides basic epidemiological information about Hb CS as well as other forms of thalassemia for a specific group of an ethnic minority in Vietnam. The data will be useful for further study on the distribution of thalassemia in Southeast Asia.
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A birth cohort study of viral infections in Vietnamese infants and children: study design, methods and characteristics of the cohort.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological determinants of infection and disease in infants. Specific research questions are focused on the role of maternal antibody in protection against infection in infancy, and the adaptive immune response to vaccination and natural infection. This paper presents the cohort design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the participants enrolled in the first two years.
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An epidemiological investigation of Campylobacter in pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam.
Epidemiol. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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SUMMARY Campylobacter are zoonotic pathogens commonly associated with gastroenteritis. To assess the relevance of Campylobacter in Vietnam, an economically transitioning country in SE Asia, we conducted a survey of 343 pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta, a region characterized by mixed species farming with limited biosecurity. The animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter was 31·9%, 23·9% and 53·7% for chickens, ducks and pigs, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in all three host species, with the highest prevalence in pigs in high-density production areas. Campylobacter isolates demonstrated high levels of antimicrobial resistance (21% and 100% resistance against ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, respectively). Multilocus sequence type genotyping showed a high level of genetic diversity within C. jejuni, and predicted C. coli inter-species transmission. We suggest that on-going intensification of animal production systems, limited biosecurity, and increased urbanization in Vietnam is likely to result in Campylobacter becoming an increasingly significant cause of human diarrhoeal infections in coming years.
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Facile and fast detection of bacteria via the detection of exogenous volatile metabolites released by enzymatic hydrolysis.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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A low-cost, innovative and non-invasive colorimetric test, which can be universally used, is proposed to detect pathogenic bacteria via the simple and fast detection of volatile metabolites released by enzymatic hydrolysis. The proof of concept is shown via three sets of experiments studying the release of the p-nitrophenol metabolite in solution in the E. coli cultures containing 4-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucuronide, the trapping efficiency of the gaseous metabolite by various tailored and functionalized xerogels, and the trapping and detection of gaseous p-nitrophenol released by E. coli bacteria.
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?-Aminobutyric acid regulates both the survival and replication of human ?-cells.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to inhibit apoptosis of rodent ?-cells in vitro. In this study, we show that activation of GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs) or GABAB-Rs significantly inhibits oxidative stress-related ?-cell apoptosis and preserves pancreatic ?-cells in streptozotocin-rendered hyperglycemic mice. Moreover, treatment with GABA, or a GABAA-R- or GABAB-R-specific agonist, inhibited human ?-cell apoptosis following islet transplantation into NOD/scid mice. Accordingly, activation of GABAA-Rs and/or GABAB-Rs may be a useful adjunct therapy for human islet transplantation. GABA-R agonists also promoted ?-cell replication in hyperglycemic mice. While a number of agents can promote rodent ?-cell replication, most fail to provide similar activities with human ?-cells. In this study, we show that GABA administration promotes ?-cell replication and functional recovery in human islets following implantation into NOD/scid mice. Human ?-cell replication was induced by both GABAA-R and GABAB-R activation. Hence, GABA regulates both the survival and replication of human ?-cells. These actions, together with the anti-inflammatory properties of GABA, suggest that modulation of peripheral GABA-Rs may represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for improving ?-cell survival following human islet transplantation and increasing ?-cells in patients with diabetes.
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Mixed treatment comparison of prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients receiving therapy for haematological malignancies: a systematic review.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Patients receiving therapy for haematological malignancies have a higher risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Antifungal prophylaxis is an effective strategy against IFIs, but relative effectiveness estimates across agents are inconclusive. A mixed treatment comparison (MTC) was conducted to estimate the relative effectiveness of all agents for a number of outcomes of interest.
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Inhaled NO prevents hyperoxia-induced white matter damage in neonatal rats.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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White matter damage (WMD) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are the two main complications occurring in very preterm infants. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been proposed to promote alveolarization in the developing lung, and we have reported that iNO promotes myelination and induces neuroprotection in neonatal rats with excitotoxic brain damage. Our hypothesis is that, in addition to its pulmonary effects, iNO may be neuroprotective in rat pups exposed to hyperoxia. To test this hypothesis, we exposed rat pups to hyperoxia, and we assessed the impact of iNO on WMD and BPD. Rat pups were exposed to either hyperoxia (80% FiO2) or to normoxia for 8days. Both groups received iNO (5ppm) or air. We assessed the neurological and pulmonary effects of iNO in hyperoxia-injured rat pups using histological, molecular and behavioral approaches. iNO significantly attenuated the severity of hyperoxia-induced WMD induced in neonatal rats. Specifically, iNO decreased white matter inflammation, cell death, and enhanced the density of proliferating oligodendrocytes and oligodendroglial maturation. Furthermore, iNO triggered an early upregulation of P27kip1 and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF). Whereas hyperoxia disrupted early associative abilities, iNO treatment maintained learning scores to a level similar to that of control pups. In contrast to its marked neuroprotective effects, iNO induced only small and transient improvements of BPD. These findings suggest that iNO exposure at low doses is specifically neuroprotective in an animal model combining injuries of the developing lung and brain that mimicked BPD and WMD in preterm infants.
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Variant NKX3.1 and Serum IGF-1: Investigation of Interaction in Prostate Cancer.
Genes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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NKX3.1 is a tumor suppressor down-regulated in early prostate cancers. A SNP (rs2228013), which represents a polymorphic NKX3.1(C154T) coding for a variant protein NKX3.1(R52C), is present in 10% of the population and is related to prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer. We investigated rs2228013 in prostate cancer risk for 937 prostate cancer cases and 1,086 age-matched controls from a nested case-control study within the prospective Physicians Health Study (PHS) and among 798 cases and 527 controls retrospectively collected in the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Study of the Victoria Cancer Council (RFPCS). We also investigated the interaction between serum IGF-I levels and NKX3.1 genotype in the populations from PHS and RFPCS. In the PHS, we found no overall association between the variant T allele in rs2228013 in NKX3.1 and prostate cancer risk (odd ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-1.71). A subgroup analysis for cases diagnosed before age 70 showed an increased risk (relative risk = 1.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.31) of overall prostate cancer. In this age-group, the risk of metastatic cancer at diagnosis or of fatal cancer was even higher in carriers of the T allele (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.00-4.63). These associations were not replicated in the RFPCS. Serum IGF-I levels were found to be a risk factor for prostate cancer in both study populations. The wild type NKX3.1 protein can induce IGFBP-3 expression in vitro. We report that variant NKX3.1 cannot induce IGFBP-3 expression, but the NKX3.1 genotype does not modify the association between serum IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk.
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Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above.
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Economic impact of childhood/adolescent ADHD in a European setting: the Netherlands as a reference case.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents. This study reviews available European-based studies of ADHD-related costs and applies the findings to the Netherlands to estimate annual national costs for children/adolescents from a societal perspective. A systematic literature search was conducted for primary studies in Europe, published January 1, 1990 through April 23, 2013. Per-person cost estimates were converted to 2012 Euros and used to estimate annual national ADHD-related costs based on the Dutch 2011 census, ADHD prevalence rates, family composition, and employment rates. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The average total ADHD-related costs ranged from 9,860 to 14,483 per patient and annual national costs were between 1,041 and 1,529 million (M). The largest cost category was education (648 M), representing 62 and 42 % of the low- and high-value overall national estimates, respectively. By comparison, ADHD patient healthcare costs ranged between 84 M (8 %) and 377 M (25 %), and social services costs were 4.3 M (0.3-0.4 %). While the majority of the costs were incurred by ADHD patients themselves, 161 M (11-15 %) was healthcare costs to family members that were attributable to having an ADHD child/adolescent. In addition, productivity losses of family members were 143-339 M (14-22 %). Despite uncertainties because of the small number of studies identified and the wide range in the national cost estimates, our results suggest that ADHD imposes a significant economic burden on multiple public sectors in Europe. The limited number of European-based studies examining the economic burden of ADHD highlights the need for more research in this area.
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Nitric oxide signaling in the brain: A new target for inhaled nitric oxide?
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful vasodilator, involved in both physiological functions and pathophysiological alterations of various regulatory processes, for example, the maintenance of vascular tone and inflammation. The recently demonstrated impact of exogenous NO on the central nervous system extends its role under normal and pathological conditions. At times neuroprotective, at times neurotoxic, NO is capable of different effects depending upon the extent of cerebral damage, the cellular redox state, and the spatiotemporal coordinates and concentration at which it is synthesized. This review provides new insights into the short- and long-term effects of endogenous and exogenous NO in brain injury. ANN NEUROL 2013;
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Nontraumatic bifid mandibular condyles in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint subjects.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ.
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2-Amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines as JAK2 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The advancement of a series of ligand efficient 2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines, initially identified from high-throughput screening, to a JAK2 inhibitor with pharmacodynamic activity in a mouse xenograft model is disclosed.
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Residues located inside the Escherichia coli FepE protein oligomer are essential for lipopolysaccharide O-antigen modal chain length regulation.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The Escherichia coli O157?:?H7 FepE protein regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen (Oag) chain length to confer a very long modal chain length of >80 Oag repeat units (RUs). The mechanism by which FepE regulates Oag modal chain length and the regions within it that are important for its function remain unclear. Studies on the structure of FepE show that the protein oligomerizes. However, the exact size of the oligomer is in dispute, further hampering our understanding of its mechanism. Guided by information previously obtained for regions known to be important for Oag modal chain length determination in the homologous Shigella flexneri WzzBSF protein, a set of FepE mutant constructs with single amino acid substitutions was created. Analysis of the resulting LPS conferred by these mutant His6-FepE proteins showed that amino acid substitutions of leucine 168 (L168) and aspartic acid 268 (D268) resulted in LPS with consistently shortened Oag chain lengths of <80 Oag RUs. Substitution of FepEs transmembrane cysteine residues did not affect function. Chemical cross-linking experiments on mutant FepE proteins showed no consistent correlation between oligomer size and functional activity, and MS analysis of FepE oligomers indicated that the in vivo size of FepE is consistent with a maximum size of a hexamer. Our findings suggest that different FepE residues, mainly located within the internal cavity of the oligomer, contribute to Oag modal chain length determination but not the oligomeric state of the protein.
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Food consumption patterns and associated factors among Vietnamese women of reproductive age.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Adequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age (WRA) are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled in a study of preconceptual micronutrient supplementation (PRECONCEPT) being conducted in 20 rural communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.
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Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine-mediated neuroprotection is associated with regulatory T-cell induction in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinsons disease.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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We previously showed that, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinsons disease (PD), vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) prior to MPTP exposure limited the loss of striatal dopamine (DA) and dopamine transporter (DAT) and prevented the activation of nigral microglia. Here, we conducted BCG dose studies and investigated the mechanisms underlying BCG vaccinations neuroprotective effects in this model. We found that a dose of 1 × 10(6) cfu BCG led to higher levels of striatal DA and DAT ligand binding (28% and 42%, respectively) in BCG-vaccinated vs. unvaccinated MPTP-treated mice, but without a significant increase in substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-staining neurons. Previous studies showed that BCG can induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) and that Tregs are neuroprotective in models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, MPTP is lymphotoxic, so it was unclear whether Tregs were maintained after MPTP treatment and whether a relationship existed between Tregs and the preservation of striatal DA system integrity. We found that, 21 days post-MPTP treatment, Treg levels in mice that had received BCG prior to MPTP were threefold greater than those in MPTP-only-treated mice and elevated above those in saline-only-treated mice, suggesting that the persistent BCG infection continually promoted Treg responses. Notably, the magnitude of the Treg response correlated positively with both striatal DA levels and DAT ligand binding. Therefore, BCG vaccine-mediated neuroprotection is associated with Treg levels in this mouse model. Our results suggest that BCG-induced Tregs could provide a new adjunctive therapeutic approach to ameliorating pathology associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
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Complete Genome Sequence of Sacbrood Virus Strain SBM2, Isolated from the Honeybee Apis cerana in Vietnam.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Here we report the complete genomic sequence of the SBM2 strain (VSBV-SBM2) of the sacbrood virus (SBV) that was isolated from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) in Northern Vietnam. The entire sequence excluding the 3 poly(A) tail is 8,834 nucleotides in length and contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) of 8,580 nucleotides (position 178 to 8757), encoding 2,859 amino acids. VSBV-SBM2 shared 90 to 93% nucleotide identity and 95 to 96% amino acid homology to six complete genomes of SBV currently available in GenBank (two from China, three from Korea, and one from the United Kingdom). A hypervariable domain (amino acid [aa] position 712 to 729) and a conserved motif (position 2124 to 2143) in the precursor polypeptide of all seven SBVs are also described.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.