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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Three-dimensionalization of ultrathin nanosheets in a two-dimensional nano-reactor: macroporous CuO microstructures with enhanced cycling performance.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Three-dimensional (3D) macroporous CuO structures composed of ultrathin nanosheets were successfully synthesized by employing a liquid-liquid interface as a two-dimensional (2D) nano-reactor. The macroporous structure helped CuO to retain the exposed surface during reactions, thus significantly enhancing the long term cycling performance both in photocatalysis and lithium ion batteries.
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Assembly of three coordination polymers based on a sulfonic-carboxylic ligand showing high proton conductivity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Three new coordination polymers (CPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different structures have been synthesized using 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H4L) and metal ions, Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Cd(2+). The Cu compound features a one-dimensional chain structure, further extending into a 2D layer network through H-bond interactions. Both the Ca and Cd compounds show 3D frameworks with (4,4)-connected PtS-type topology and (3,6)-connected bct-type topology, respectively. These CPs/MOFs all exhibit proton conduction behavior, especially for the Cu compound with a proton conductivity of 3.46 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 368 K and 95% relative humidity (RH). Additionally, the activation energy (Ea) has also been investigated to deeply understand the proton-conduction mechanism.
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808 nm driven Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion nanostructures for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The in vivo biological applications of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) prefer excitation at 700-850 nm, instead of 980 nm, due to the absorption of water. Recent approaches in constructing robust Nd(3+) doped UCNPs with 808 nm excitation properties rely on a thick Nd(3+) sensitized shell. However, for the very important and popular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based applications, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or switchable biosensors, this type of structure has restrictions resulting in a poor energy transfer. In this work, we have designed a NaYF4:Yb/Ho@NaYF4:Nd@NaYF4 core-shell-shell nanostructure. We have proven that this optimal structure balances the robustness of the upconversion emission and the FRET efficiency for FRET-based bioapplications. A proof of the concept was demonstrated for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells triggered by 808 nm light, where low heating and a high PDT efficacy were achieved.
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[Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in animal source foods in Hunan].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in animal source foods in Hunan.
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Antiviral Activity of Single Domain Antibody Immunotoxin Binding to Glycoprotein D of Herpes Simplex Virus 2.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Despite years of research dedicated to preventing the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), there is still no protective vaccine or microbicide against one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. Using a phage display library constructed from a llama immunized with recombinant HSV-2 glycoprotein D, we identified a single domain antibody VHH, R33, which binds to the viral surface glycoprotein D. Although R33 does not demonstrate any HSV-2 neutralization activity in vitro, when expressed with the cytotoxic domain of exotoxin A, the resulting immunotoxin (R33ExoA) specifically and potently kills HSV-2 infected cells, with an IC50 of 6.7 nM. We propose that R33ExoA could be used clinically to prevent transmission of HSV-2 through killing of virus-producing epithelial cells during virus reactivation. R33 could also potentially be used to deliver other cytotoxic effectors to HSV-2 infected cells.
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Changes in Anti-thyroglobulin IgG Glycosylation Patterns in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Patients.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Objective: Sera of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients are known to exhibit elevated levels of anti-thyroglobulin IgG (TgAb IgG). Therefore, TgAb IgG represents a hallmark of this debilitating autoimmune disease. The aim of our study was to investigate the differential expression of specific glycosylation patterns of TgAb IgG from HT patients and healthy blood donors. Methods: HT patients (n=32) were divided into two subgroups - medium level group (mHT, n=15) and high level group (hHT, n=17) - according to the serum levels of TgAb detected by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. TgAb IgG was purified by affinity chromatography from the sera of HT group and control group (n=15). MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS/MS spectrometry was performed to identify the glycosylation profiles of purified TgAb IgG. Lectin microarray technology was used to compare the abundance of different glycans found on TgAb IgG between HT patients and controls, and between the mHT and hHT groups. Results: The results by MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS/MS showed that the glycosylation profiles of TgAb IgG were similar between the mHT, hHT and control groups. Furthermore, the lectin microarray showed that compared with the control group (all P<0.001), there were higher levels present of: 1) mannose (detected as lectin LCA, VFA and MNA-M); 2) terminal sialic acid (detected as SNA-I and PSA); 3) core fucose (detected as LcH); and 4) Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-2)Man glycans (detected as PHA-L) on TgAb IgG from the HT group. A similar trend was observed between the hHT and mHT group, with elevated levels of mannose, terminal sialic acid, core fucose and Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-2)Man glycans on TgAb IgG found in the hHT group compared with the mHT group ( all P<0.05). Conclusions: TgAb IgG of HT patients exhibits higher glycosylation levels than those observed for TgAb IgG of healthy controls. Our results provide new clues for exploring the role of TgAb in the pathogenesis of HT.
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[Progress on genetic basis of primary aldosteronism].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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It has been proven that familial aldosteronism type I is related to 11-beta hydroxylase (CYP11B1)/aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) chimeric genes. In recent years, accumulated evidences indicate that the genetic basis of primary aldosteronism may involve chromosome 7p22 candidate genes, polymorphisms of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, mutations of ion channel- related KCNJ5, ATP1A1, CACNA1D genes. The article reviews the progress on genetic basis of primary aldosteronism.
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Low Vitamin D Status is Associated with Increased Titers of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Graves' Disease.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to link with a variety of autoimmune diseases. However, the relationship between the thyroid autoimmunity in Graves' disease (GD) and vitamin D deficiency is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether increased titers of thyroid autoantibodies were associated with vitamin D deficiency in GD patients.Subjects: Seventy patients with GD and seventy matched control subjects were recruited to our study. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), free triodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in the serum collected from these patients and controls were examined.Results: The levels of 25(OH)D in serum from TRAb positive GD patients were significantly lower than that from healthy controls or TRAb negative patients. However, the levels of PTH in serum were increased in TRAb positive GD patients compared to control subjects. The rates of vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25(OH)D<50 nmol/L) in TRAb positive GD patients were significantly higher than that observed in healthy controls or TRAb negative GD patients. The levels of 25(OH)D in serum were inversely correlated with TRAb titers in serum in TRAb positive GD patients. However, our results did not show a correlation between the levels of 25(OH)D and the levels of TPOAb, TGAb, FT3, FT4, and TSH.Conclusion: Low vitamin D status is associated with increased titers of TRAb in Graves' disease, suggesting a possible link between vitamin D status and increased thyroid autoimmunity in GD patients.
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T-Cell Profile in Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Insulin Resistance and Systemic Inflammation in Humans.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The biological mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. We have shown that insulin resistance or glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice is related to a shift in the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells in adipose tissue. We sought to test the hypothesis that the balance of T-cell phenotypes would be similarly related to insulin resistance in human obesity.
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Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta Twigs.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80?% (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2?µM for 3 and 6.3?µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3?µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives.
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Solvent-Induced Crystallization Behaviors of PLLA Ultrathin Films Investigated by RAIR Spectroscopy and AFM Measurements.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The crystallization of poly(l-lactide acid) (PLLA) ultrathin films induced by different solvents was investigated using reflection-absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Irregular PLLA dendrite lamellae grew in the flat-on orientation with dichloromethane solvent before being redissolved after longer induction times owing to the strong interaction between the PLLA segments and solvent molecules. Faster formation of PLLA spherulites was induced with acetone than with dichloromethane, and these remained unchanged with increasing induction time because of the polarity difference between the PLLA segments and acetone molecules. PLLA ultrathin films could not be induced to crystallize using chloroform because of the very strong interactions between the chloroform (CHCl3) molecules and PLLA amorphous chains, which caused the CHCl3 solvent molecules to rapidly permeate the PLLA random coils and dissolve the amorphous chains. These phenomena are attributed to solvent-specific competition between solvent-induced crystallization and dissolution effects in PLLA ultrathin films, which ultimately leads to the higher degree of crystallinity obtained with acetone than with dichloromethane.
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[Evaluation and indication of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 status in breast carcinoma with amplified chromosome].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To study the evaluation of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast carcinoma with amplified chromosome 17 centromere locus (CEP17) and clinical significance of CEP17 amplification.
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Application of a genetic algorithm Elman network in temperature drift modeling for a fiber-optic gyroscope.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) has been widely used as a satellite and automobile attitude sensor in many industrial and defense fields such as navigation and positioning. Based on the fact that the FOG is sensitive to temperature variation, a novel (to our knowledge) error-processing technique for the FOG through a set of temperature experiment results and error analysis is presented. The method contains two parts: one is denoising, and the other is modeling and compensating. After the denoising part, a novel modeling method which is based on the dynamic modified Elman neural network (ENN) is proposed. In order to get the optimum parameters of the ENN, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied and the optimization objective function was set as the difference between the predicted data and real data. The modeling and compensating results indicate that the drift caused by the varying temperature can be reduced and compensated effectively by the proposed model; the prediction accuracy of the GA-ENN is improved 20% over the ENN.
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Experimental and density functional theory (DFT) studies on the interactions of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes with the RAN triplex poly(U)?poly(A)*poly(U).
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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There is renewed interest in investigating triple helices because these novel structures have been implicated as a possible means of controlling cellular processes by endogenous or exogenous mechanisms. Due to the Hoogsteen base pairing, triple helices are, however, thermodynamically less stable than the corresponding duplexes. The poor stability of triple helices limits their practical applications under physiological conditions. In contrast to DNA triple helices, small molecules stabilizing RNA triple helices at present are less well established. Furthermore, most of these studies are limited to organic compounds and, to a far lesser extent, to metal complexes. In this work, two Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(btip)](2+) (Ru) and [Ru(phen)2(btip)](2+) (Ru), have been synthesized and characterized. The binding properties of the two metal complexes with the triple RNA poly(U)?poly(A)*poly(U) were studied by various biophysical and density functional theory methods. The main results obtained here suggest that the slight binding difference in Ru and Ru may be attributed to the planarity of the intercalative ligand and the LUMO level of Ru(ii) complexes. This study further advances our knowledge on the triplex RNA-binding by metal complexes, particularly Ru(ii) complexes.
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No evidence of association between variant rs2075650 in lipid metabolism-related locus APOE/TOMM40 and advanced age-related macular degeneration in Han Chinese population.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, neurodegenerative disease. Genes related to lipid metabolism are important in AMD pathogenesis. Recently, a variant rs2075650 located in lipid metabolism-related locus APOE/TOMM40 was identified to be associated with advanced AMD and early AMD, respectively, in two genome-wide association studies with European ancestry, while no association study between rs2075650 and overall advanced AMD in Chinese population has been conducted before. We evaluated the potential effect of this variant on advanced AMD in a Han Chinese cohort with 204 advanced AMD patients and 1536 healthy controls. The results suggested that rs2075650 was neither associated with advanced AMD in allele level (P?=?0.348) nor in genotype level (P?=?0.890 under additive model with age and sex adjusted). In conclusion, our study did not confirm the impact of rs2075650 on advanced AMD risk, indicating that rs2075650 is unlikely a superior marker for APOE/TOMM40 susceptible region with advanced AMD in Han Chinese population.
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Circulating betatrophin levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and associated with insulin resistance.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Context: Betatrophin has recently attracted increasing interests as a potential ?-cell regenerative therapy in diabetes. However, differences in betatrophin profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain unclear. Objective: To examine circulating betatrophin levels in subjects with different glucose tolerance status and its correlation with insulin resistance. Design, Setting and Participants: Serum betatrophin levels were measured using ELISA in age-, sex-, BMI- and blood lipids- matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=137), isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (n=69), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n=120) and newly diagnosed T2DM (n=112) from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. Results: Serum betatrophin levels were elevated in patients with T2DM compared to subjects with NGT, isolated IFG or isolated IGT (798.6 ± 42.5 vs. 692.7 ± 29.0, P < 0.05; vs. 682.7 ± 43.0, P < 0.05; vs. 646.8 ± 34.3, P < 0.01). Betatrophin levels positively correlated with index of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (partial r = 0.11); inversely correlated with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (partial r = -0.11), the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISIG) (partial r = -0.12) and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISIM) (partial r = -0.11) after controlling for age, sex, BMI and blood lipid in all participants (all P values < 0.05). Conclusion: Circulating betatrophin levels are increased in patients with T2DM and associated with indexes of insulin resistance.
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20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Induces Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Apoptosis through a Caspase-Mediated Pathway.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a ginsenoside isolated from Pananx quinquefolium L., has been shown to inhibit growth and proliferation in several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate its anticancer activity in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of 20(S)-PPD and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Occurrence of apoptosis was detected by DAPI and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with Rhodamine 123. The Bcl-2 and Bax expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured by colorimetric assay. 20(S)-PPD dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 value of 33.3 ?M at 24h. MCF-7 cells treated with 20(S)-PPD presented typical apoptosis, as observed by morphological analysis in cell stained with DAPI. The percentages of annexin V-FITC positive cells were 8.92%, 17.8%, 24.5% and 30.5% in MCF-7 cells treated with 0, 15, 30 and 60?M of 20(S)-PPD, respectively. Moreover, 20(S)-PPD could induce mitochondrial membrane potential loss, up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 expression. These events paralleled activation of caspase-9, -3 and PARP cleavage. Apoptosis induced by 20(S)-PPD was blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting induction of caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the 20(S)-PPD investigated is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell death by a caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway.
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Arabidopsis PHOSPHOTYROSYL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVATOR Is Essential for PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A Holoenzyme Assembly and Plays Important Roles in Hormone Signaling, Salt Stress Response, and Plant Development.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) is a major group of serine/threonine protein phosphatases in eukaryotes. It is composed of three subunits: scaffolding subunit A, regulatory subunit B, and catalytic subunit C. Assembly of the PP2A holoenzyme in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) depends on Arabidopsis PHOSPHOTYROSYL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVATOR (AtPTPA). Reduced expression of AtPTPA leads to severe defects in plant development, altered responses to abscisic acid, ethylene, and sodium chloride, and decreased PP2A activity. In particular, AtPTPA deficiency leads to decreased methylation in PP2A-C subunits (PP2Ac). Complete loss of PP2Ac methylation in the suppressor of brassinosteroid insensitive1 mutant leads to 30% reduction of PP2A activity, suggesting that PP2A with a methylated C subunit is more active than PP2A with an unmethylated C subunit. Like AtPTPA, PP2A-A subunits are also required for PP2Ac methylation. The interaction between AtPTPA and PP2Ac is A subunit dependent. In addition, AtPTPA deficiency leads to reduced interactions of B subunits with C subunits, resulting in reduced functional PP2A holoenzyme formation. Thus, AtPTPA is a critical factor for committing the subunit A/subunit C dimer toward PP2A heterotrimer formation.
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[A meta-analysis of esophagectomy: the comparative study of Ivor-Lewis operation and Sweet operation].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Investigate the best surgical resection of esophageal cancer by comparing the efficacy and safety between Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy and Sweet esophagectomy.
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Factorized Power Expansion for High-p_{T} Heavy Quarkonium Production.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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We show that when the factorized cross section for heavy quarkonium production includes next-to-leading power contributions associated with the production of the heavy quark pair at short distances, it naturally reproduces all high p_{T} results calculated in nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. This extended formalism requires fragmentation functions for heavy quark pairs, as well as for light partons. When these fragmentation functions are themselves calculated using NRQCD, we find that two of the four leading NRQCD production channels, ^{3}S_{1}^{[1]} and ^{1}S_{0}^{[8]}, are dominated by the next-to-leading power contributions for a very wide p_{T} range. The large next-to-leading order corrections of NRQCD are absorbed into the leading order of the first power correction. The impact of this finding on heavy quarkonium production and its polarization is discussed.
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Drought offset ecological restoration program-induced increase in vegetation activity in the beijing-tianjin sand source region, china.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To improve the ecological conditions, the Chinese government adopted six large-scale ecological restoration programs including 'Three-North Shelterbelt Project', "Grain for Green Project" and "Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Project". Meanwhile, these ecologically vulnerable areas have experienced frequent droughts. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of drought on the effectiveness of these programs. Taking Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR) as study area, we investigated the role of droughts and ecological restoration program on trends of vegetation activities and to address the question of a possible "drought signal" in assessing effectiveness of ecological restoration program. The results demonstrate the following: (1) Vegetation activity increased in the BTSSR during 2000-2010, with 58.44% of the study area showing an increased NDVI, of which 11.80% had a significant increase at 0.95 confidential level. The decreasing NDVI trends were mainly concentrated in a southwest-to-northeast strip in the study area. (2) Drought was the main driving force for a decreasing trend of vegetation activity in the southwest-to-northeast regions of the BTSSR at the regional and spatial scales. Summer droughts in 2007 and 2009 contributed to the decreasing trend in NDVI. The severe and extreme droughts in summer reduced the NDVI by approximately 13.06% and 23.55%, respectively. (3) The residual analysis result showed that human acitvities, particularly the ecological restoration programs, have a postive impact on vegetation change. Hence, the decreasing trends in the southwest-to-northeast regions of the BTSSR cannot be explained by the improper ecological restoration program and is partly explained by droughts, especially summer droughts. Therefore, drought offset the ecological restoration program-induced increase in vegetation activity in the BTSSR.
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Nanoscale characterization of 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders and their application into nanowelding at the nanoscale.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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One-dimensional Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have been successfully fabricated by a dc electrodeposition technique into nanoporous templates, and their soldering quality has been demonstrated in nanoscale electrical welding for the first time, which indicates that they can easily form remarkably reliable conductive joints. The electrical measurement shows that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders have a resistivity of 28.9 ??·cm. The morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of these nanosolders have been characterized at the nanoscale. It is found that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have a continuous morphology and smooth surface. XPS confirms the presence of tin and silver with a mass ratio of 96.54:3.46, and EDX elemental mappings clearly reveal that the Sn and Ag elements have a uniform distribution. Coveragent beam electron diffractions verify that the crystal phases of individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders consist of matrix ?-Sn and the intermetallic compound Ag3Sn. The reflow experiments reveal that the eutectic composition of the 1D Sn-Ag alloy nanowire is shifted to the Sn rich corner. This work may contribute one of the most important tin-based alloy nanosolders for future nanoscale welding techniques, which are believed to have broad applications in nanotechnology and the future nano-industry.
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Selenium as a photoabsorber for inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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As an inorganic photoabsorber, selenium was used in a mesoscopic solar cell with a hybrid organic-inorganic structure of TiO2/Se/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Ag, in which the Se layer was prepared by vacuum thermal deposition and post thermal treatment. The microstructure, photoelectrical properties, as well as the rationality in structural design of the solar cell were illustrated in detail. Finally, the hybrid solar cell demonstrated a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2.63%.
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Monocrystalline mesoporous metal oxide with perovskite structure: a facile solid-state transformation of a coordination polymer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Monocrystalline mesoporous BiFeO3 crystals were obtained via a multi-step single-crystal to single-crystal transformation of a coordination polymer, Bi[Fe(CN)6]·4H2O. This unique transformation process significantly decreased the crystallization temperature of perovskite oxide without losing high crystallinity.
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Towards efficient solid-state photoluminescence based on carbon-nanodots and starch composites.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A new type of environmentally friendly phosphor based on carbon nanodots (CDs) has been developed through the dispersion of CDs by integrating the CDs with starch particles. The starch particles contain large numbers of hydroxyl groups around the surfaces, which can effectively absorb the CDs, whose surfaces are functionalized by lots of carboxyl and amide groups, through hydrogen bonding. Effective dispersion of CDs on the surfaces of starch particles can suppress the non-radiative decay processes and photoluminescence (PL) quenching induced by aggregation of CDs. The starch matrix neither competes for absorbing excitation light nor absorbs the emissions of CDs, which leads to efficient PL emitting. As a result, the starch/CD phosphors with a quantum yield of ?50% were obtained. The starch/CD phosphors show great potential in phosphor-based light emitting diodes, temperature sensors, and patterning.
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[Pollution fingerprints and sources of perfluorinated compounds in surface soil of different functional areas].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In order to explore the effect of regional functions on the pollution fingerprints and levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), principal components analysis was combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and solid phase extraction enrichment in this research to analyze the levels of 14 PFCs species in 76 surface soil samples, which were collected from 4 functional regions, namely parks, communities, crossroads and surroundings of factories, as well as the urban background of Shenzhen. The results showed that regional functions had significant effect on total PFCs (sigma PFCs), which ranked as the following: surroundings of factories (P < 0.001) > crossroads (P < 0.01) > communities (P < 0.05) > parks > urban background. The distribution of PFCs was in the order of medium- (P < 0.05) > long- > short-chain PFCs in surroundings of factories, communities and crossroads, while in the order of medium- approximately short- (P < 0.05) > long chain PFCs in crossroads. Over 81% of sigmaPFCs in the surface soil of Shenzhen could be attributed to the three principal components, represented by perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctane acid and perfluorotridecanoic acid, respectively. PFCs fingerprints were clearly shown in crossroads, as well as in surroundings of electroplating and paint factories.
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[Effect of low dose heavy ion irradiation on subset percentage and cytokines expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with pancreatic cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low dose heavy ion irradiation on the subset percentage and expression of cytokines of peripheral blood lymphocytes(PBL) in patients with pancreatic cancer.
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DNA-PKcs deficiency inhibits glioblastoma cell-derived angiogenesis after ionizing radiation.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Little is known, however, regarding the relationship between DNA-PKcs and IR-induced angiogenesis; thus, in this study we aimed to further elucidate this relationship. Our findings revealed that lack of DNA-PKcs expression or activity sensitized glioma cells to radiation due to the defective DNA DSB repairs and inhibition of phosphorylated Akt(Ser473) . Moreover, DNA-PKcs deficiency apparently mitigated IR-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) in conditioned media derived from irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant M059J glioma cells or M059K glioma cells that have inhibited DNA-PKcs kinase activity due to the specific inhibitor NU7026 or siRNA knockdown. Moreover, IR-elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was abrogated by DNA-PKcs suppression. Supplemental VEGF antibody to irradiated-conditioned media was negated enhanced cell motility with a concomitant decrease in phosphorylation of the FAK (Try925) and Src(Try416) . Furthermore, DNA-PKcs suppression was markedly abrogated in IR-induced transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) accumulation, which is related to activation of VEGF transcription. These findings, taken together, demonstrate that depletion of DNA-PKcs in glioblastoma cells at least partly suppressed IR-inflicted migration, invasion and tube formation of HMEC-1 cells, which may be associated with the reduced HIF-1? level and VEGF secretion. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs may be a promising therapeutic approach to enhance radio-therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma by hindering its angiogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a trigger for tumorigenesis and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with poor prognosis. IFN-stimulated genes 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin-like molecule that is strongly upregulated by type I interferons as a primary response to diverse microbial and cellular stress stimuli. However, the role of ISG15 in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of ISG15 during HCC progression and related mechanism using clinicopathological data, cell line and xenograft model. Our results indicated that ISG15 is highly expressed in HCC tissues and multiple HCC cell lines. ISG15 expression is significantly associated with the differentiation grade, metastatic of tumor and survival of HCC patients. However, the expression of ISG15 is not affected by HBV infection. ISG15 promotes the proliferation and migration of hepatocarcinoma cells through maintaining Survivin protein stabilization via sequestering XIAP from interacting with Survivin. Knowing down ISG15 with SiRNA inhibited the xenografted tumor growth and prolonged the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice. All these results support that ISG15 high expression is an intrinsic feature for HCC and a trigger for tumorigenesis and metastasis. ISG15 may be a prognostic biomarker and the inhibition of ISG15 could provide a therapeutic advantage for HCC patients over-expressing ISG15.
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Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Zunyi, China.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Before 2013, 92 countries reported extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases to the WHO. Here, we announce the genome sequences of two clinical isolates of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) from Zunyi, China. The genome sequences are composed of 4,411,507 bp and 4,411,515 bp with 2,210 and 2,071 variants, respectively, when compared to the H37Rv genome.
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Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by a short isoform of NELL-1.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Neural epidermal growth factor-like (NEL)-like protein 1 (NELL-1) has been identified as an osteoinductive differentiation factor that promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation. In addition to full-length NELL-1, there are several NELL-1-related transcripts reported. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to recover potential cDNA of NELL-1 isoforms. A NELL-1 isoform with the N-terminal 240 amino acid (aa) residues truncated was identified. While full-length NELL-1 that contains 810 aa residues (NELL-1810 ) plays an important role in embryologic skeletal development, the N-terminal-truncated NELL-1 isoform (NELL-1570 ) was expressed post-natally. Similar to NELL-1810 , NELL-1570 induced MSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, NELL-1570 significantly stimulated MSC proliferation in multiple MSC-like populations such as murine C3H10T1/2 MSC cell line, mouse primary MSCs, and perivascular stem cells (PSCs), which is a type of stem cells proposed as the perivascular origin of MSCs. In contrast, NELL-1810 demonstrated only limited stimulation of MSC proliferation. Similar to NELL-1810 , NELL-1570 was found to be secreted from host cells. Both NELL-1570 expression lentiviral vector and column-purified recombinant protein NELL-1570 demonstrated almost identical effects in MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, suggesting that NELL-1570 may function as a pro-osteogenic growth factor. In vivo, NELL-1570 induced significant calvarial defect regeneration accompanied by increased cell proliferation. Thus, NELL-1570 has the potential to be used for cell-based or hormone-based therapy of bone regeneration. Stem Cells 2014.
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[Effects of response gene to complement 32 as a new biomarker in children with acute kidney injury].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To investigate the new biomarkers of acute kidney injury, as well as to confirm the values of response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury by comparing the values of serum creatinine (Scr) and cystatin C (CysC) in children who had undergone cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
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Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Recent efforts and progress in unraveling the fundamental mechanism of excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials are covered in this review, including short- and long-term interactions and other interactions in homogeneous and heterogeneous nanostructures. Comprehension of the role of spatial confinement in excitation energy migration processes is updated. Problems and challenges are also addressed.
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Variants in Complement Factor H and Complement Factor H-Related Protein Genes, CFHR3 and CFHR1, Affect Complement Activation in IgA Nephropathy.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Complement activation is common in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and associated with disease severity. Our recent genome-wide association study of IgAN identified susceptibility loci on 1q23 containing the complement regulatory protein-encoding genes CFH and CFHR1-5, with rs6677604 in CFH as the top single-nucleotide polymorphism and CFHR3-1 deletion (CFHR3-1?) as the top signal for copy number variation. In this study, to explore the clinical effects of variation in CFH, CFHR3, and CFHR1 on IgAN susceptibility and progression, we enrolled two populations. Group 1 included 1178 subjects with IgAN and available genome-wide association study data. Group 2 included 365 subjects with IgAN and available clinical follow-up data. In group 1, rs6677604 was associated with mesangial C3 deposition by genotype-phenotype correlation analysis. In group 2, we detected a linkage between the rs6677604-A allele and CFHR3-1? and found that the rs6677604-A allele was associated with higher serum levels of CFH and lower levels of the complement activation split product C3a. Furthermore, CFH levels were positively associated with circulating C3 levels and negatively associated with mesangial C3 deposition. Moreover, serum levels of the pathogenic galactose-deficient glycoform of IgA1 were also associated with the degree of mesangial C3 deposition in patients with IgAN. Our findings suggest that genetic variants in CFH, CFHR3, and CFHR1 affect complement activation and thereby, predispose patients to develop IgAN.
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[Study on the reorganization of standards related to food contact ceramics and porcelains].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To solve the problem of overlap, iterance and conflict among current standards related to food contact ceramics and porcelains.
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Human neutrophil peptide 1-3, a component of the neutrophil extracellular trap, as a potential biomarker of lupus nephritis.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) were recently implicated in the neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) complex, the impaired degradation of which has been associated with lupus nephritis (LN).
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Effect of dual screws across the vertebral neurocentral synchondrosis on spinal canal development in an immature spine: a porcine model.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Questions remain as to the effect of pedicle screws on spinal canal development in young children. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of unilateral placement of dual screws across the neurocentral synchondrosis on spinal canal development as assessed with histological analysis and measurement of the canal dimensions in an immature pig model.
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The Runx-PU.1 pathway preserves normal and AML/ETO9a leukemic stem cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Runx transcription factors contribute to hematopoiesis and are frequently implicated in hematologic malignancies. All three Runx isoforms are expressed at the earliest stages of hematopoiesis; however, their function in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is not fully elucidated. Here, we show that Runx factors are essential in HSCs by driving the expression of the hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1. Mechanistically, by using a knockin mouse model in which all three Runx binding sites in the -14kb enhancer of PU.1 are disrupted, we observed failure to form chromosomal interactions between the PU.1 enhancer and its proximal promoter. Consequently, decreased PU.1 levels resulted in diminished long-term HSC function through HSC exhaustion, which could be rescued by reintroducing a PU.1 transgene. Similarly, in a mouse model of AML/ETO9a leukemia, disrupting the Runx binding sites resulted in decreased PU.1 levels. Leukemia onset was delayed, and limiting dilution transplantation experiments demonstrated functional loss of leukemia-initiating cells. This is surprising, because low PU.1 levels have been considered a hallmark of AML/ETO leukemia, as indicated in mouse models and as shown here in samples from leukemic patients. Our data demonstrate that Runx-dependent PU.1 chromatin interaction and transcription of PU.1 are essential for both normal and leukemia stem cells.
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Delayed flood recession in central yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.
Environ Manage
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.
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[Influences of hydraulic retention time on the ethanol type fermentation hydrogen production system in a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on bio-hydrogen production and operational stability of ethanol-type fermentation was investigated in a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor (HABR) using brown sugar as substrate. The results showed that five HRTs were examined, ranging from 8 to 36 h. At a HRT of 12 h, the highest hydrogen production rate was achieved [13.86 mmol x (h x L)(-1)], with a COD remove rate of 51.51%, and the pH value of five compartments was between 4.22-4.47. The ethanol and acetate were the predominant metabolites. The ratios of ethanol and acetic acid from the 1th compartment to the 5th compartment were 1.90, 1.94, 1.80, 1.77 and 1.91, respectively. The results demonstrated that the best energy production rate was 11.11 kJ x (h x L)(-1), occurred at a HRT of 12 h.
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[Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in surface water of Shenzhen reservoir groups].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In order to study the concentrations of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in 25 surface water samples collected from 12 Shenzhen reservoirs in November of 2012 and January of 2013, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was combined with solid phase extraction enrichment in this research. The results indicated that perfluorohexane sulfonate and long-chain (C > or = 11) PFCs were below the detection limit in all samples and perfluorooctane acid was the primary species. No significant difference in concentration was found between samples from the center of the reservoir and the outlet. Heavy precipitations diluted PFCs concentrations in surface water, but also led to PFOA input. PFCs concentrations in surface water of the reservoir were mainly affected by water inlet, source environment and geography. Although the water temperature had positive correlations with sigma PFCs concentration, the influence of heavy precipitations was stronger than that of water temperature.
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[Behaviors and brain glucose metabolism in a rat hyperlipidemia model with depression from chronic unpredictable mild stress].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the behaviors and brain glucose metabolism in a rat hyperlipidemia model with depression from chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS).
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Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field.
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Curcumin ameliorates cognitive deficits heavy ion irradiation-induced learning and memory deficits through enhancing of Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in carbon ion irradiation. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its effects partly radioprotection. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against (12)C(6+)radiation-induced cerebral injury. Our results showed that 4Gy heavy ion radiation-induced spatial strategy and memory decline and reduction of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were all consistently improved by curcumin, and the augmentation of cerebral malonaldehyde (MDA) was lowered by curcumin. Furthermore, both the cerebral cells nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein and three typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NADP(H) quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and ?-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (?-GCS) were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-pretreated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract radiation-induced cerebral injury in vivo and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against radiation. This provides a potential useful radioprotection dietary component for human populations.
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Fractional entropy decay and the third law of thermodynamics.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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We report in this paper a theoretical study on the quantum thermodynamic properties of a fractional damping system. Through the analysis, few nontrivial characteristics are revealed, which include (1) a fractional power-law decay entropy function, which provides an evidence for the validity of the third law of thermodynamics in the quantum dissipative region and (2) the varying of the entropy from a nonlinear divergent function to a semilinear decay function with a fractional exponent as the temperature approaches absolute zero.
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Large-scale transcriptome comparison reveals distinct gene activations in wheat responding to stripe rust and powdery mildew.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; Pst) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) are important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Similar mechanisms and gene transcripts are assumed to be involved in the host defense response because both pathogens are biotrophic fungi. The main objective of our study was to identify co-regulated mRNAs that show a change in expression pattern after inoculation with Pst or Bgt, and to identify mRNAs specific to the fungal stress response.
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Dramatic improvement in genome assembly achieved using doubled-haploid genomes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Improvement in de novo assembly of large genomes is still to be desired. Here, we improved draft genome sequence quality by employing doubled-haploid individuals. We sequenced wildtype and doubled-haploid Takifugu rubripes genomes, under the same conditions, using the Illumina platform and assembled contigs with SOAPdenovo2. We observed 5.4-fold and 2.6-fold improvement in the sizes of the N50 contig and scaffold of doubled-haploid individuals, respectively, compared to the wildtype, indicating that the use of a doubled-haploid genome aids in accurate genome analysis.
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Incidence and Mortality Prognosis of Dysnatremias in Neurologic Critically Ill Patients.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Background: Dysnatremia, which is associated with increased mortality in general intensive care units (ICU), has not been thoroughly studied in neurologic ICU (NICU). Methods: Prevalence of dysnatremia was retrospectively assessed. The multivariable binary logistic regression model was used to determine the influence of dysnatremia on mortality. Results: Of 519 patients, 106 (20.4%) were admitted with hyponatremia and 177 (34.10%) with hypernatremia. Hypernatremia was detected in 69 (13.29%) patients on admission to NICU and in 108 patients (20.81%) during the ICU stay. However, the incidence of dysnatremia did not differ across the neurological categories (p = 0.4690). ICU stay in patients with acquired hypernatremia (22.3 ± 25.35 days) was longer than those with admission hypernatremia (13.5 ± 12.8 days) or with consistent normonatremia (16.16 ± 20.06 days). The other indicators such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Glasgow Coma Scale score, urinary catheterization, and incidence of pneumonia were also associated with the serum sodium concentrations. Hypernatremia both on admission and acquired in NICU could significantly differentiate between survivors and nonsurvivors (p = 0.002 and <0.0001). However, only NICU-acquired hypernatremia was the independent risk factor for mortality with high sensitivity (p = 0.000). Conclusions: Dysnatremia is more common in NICU, whereas only acquired-hypernatremia was independently associated with outcome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Increased methylation at differentially methylated region of GNAS in infants born to gestational diabetes.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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BackgroundOffspring of pregnancy complicated with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at high risk for metabolic diseases. The mechanisms behind the association of intrauterine exposure to GDM and high risk of health problems in later life remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the alteration in methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of GNAS and IGF2 in fetuses of GDM women and to explore the possible mechanisms linking maternal GDM with high risk of metabolic diseases in later life of GDM offspring.MethodsThe methylation levels were detected in 7 CpG sites of GNAS DMRs and 6 sites of IGF2 DMRs. Methylation levels were significantly higher at sites 4, 5 and 7 of GNAS DMR in GDM compared to normal pregnancy (P¿=¿0.007, 0.008 and 0.008, respectively). The methylation level at site 4 of GNAS was significantly correlated with the presence of GDM (P¿=¿0.003), the methylation levels at site 5 and 7 were significantly correlated with the presence of GDM (P¿=¿0.002 for both) and gestational age (P¿=¿0.027 for both). There were no significant difference in any sites of IGF2 DMR (P¿>¿0.05 for all).ResultsLymphocytes were isolated from umbilical cord blood of infants born to 87 women with GDM and 81 women with normal pregnancy. Genomic DNA was extracted and DNA methylation levels of GNAS and IGF2 DMRs were determined by Massarray quantitative methylation analysis.ConclusionsWe concluded maternal GDM-induced hypermethylation at GNAS DMR and this condition may be among the mechanisms associating maternal GDM with increased risk of metabolic diseases in later life of offspring.
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Antimetastasis and antitumor efficacy promoted by sequential release of vascular disrupting and chemotherapeutic agents from electrospun fibers.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The vasculature in tumor microenvironment plays important roles in the tumor growth and metastasis, and the combination of vascular disrupting agents with chemotherapeutic drugs should be effective in inhibiting tumor progression. But the dosing schedules are essential to achieve a balance between vascular collapse and intratumoral uptake of chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study, emulsion and blend electrospinning were used to create compartmental fibers accommodating both combretastatin A-4 (CA4) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT). The release durations of CA4 and HCPT were modulated through the structure of fibers for dual drug loadings and the inoculation of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin in fiber matrices. Under a noncontact cell coculture in Transwell, the sequential release of CA4 and HCPT indicated a sequential killing of endothelial and tumor cells. In an orthotopic breast tumor model, all the CA4/HCPT-loaded fibers showed superior antitumor efficacy and higher survival rate than fibers with loaded individual drug. Compared with fibrous mats with infiltrated free CA4 and fibers with extended release of CA4 for over 30 days, fibers with sustained release of CA4 for 3-7 days from CA4/HCPT-loaded fibers resulted in the most significant antitumor efficacy, tumor vasculature destruction, and the least tumor metastasis to lungs. A judicious selection of CA4 release durations in the combination therapy should be essential to enhance the tumor suppression efficacy and antimetastasis activity.
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Discovery of new risk loci for IgA nephropathy implicates genes involved in immunity against intestinal pathogens.
Krzysztof Kiryluk, Yifu Li, Francesco Scolari, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Murim Choi, Miguel Verbitsky, David Fasel, Sneh Lata, Sindhuri Prakash, Samantha Shapiro, Clara Fischman, Holly J Snyder, Gerald Appel, Claudia Izzi, Battista Fabio Viola, Nadia Dallera, Lucia Del Vecchio, Cristina Barlassina, Erika Salvi, Francesca Eleonora Bertinetto, Antonio Amoroso, Silvana Savoldi, Marcella Rocchietti, Alessandro Amore, Licia Peruzzi, Rosanna Coppo, Maurizio Salvadori, Pietro Ravani, Riccardo Magistroni, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Gianluca Caridi, Monica Bodria, Francesca Lugani, Landino Allegri, Marco Delsante, Mariarosa Maiorana, Andrea Magnano, Giovanni Frasca, Emanuela Boer, Giuliano Boscutti, Claudio Ponticelli, Renzo Mignani, Carmelita Marcantoni, Domenico Di Landro, Domenico Santoro, Antonello Pani, Rosaria Polci, Sandro Feriozzi, Silvana Chicca, Marco Galliani, Maddalena Gigante, Loreto Gesualdo, Pasquale Zamboli, Giovanni Giorgio Battaglia, Maurizio Garozzo, Dita Maixnerová, Vladimir Tesar, Frank Eitner, Thomas Rauen, Jürgen Floege, Tibor Kovacs, Judit Nagy, Krzysztof Mucha, Leszek Pączek, Marcin Zaniew, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Maria Roszkowska-Blaim, Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, Daniel Gale, Jonathan Barratt, Lise Thibaudin, Francois Berthoux, Guillaume Canaud, Anne Boland, Marie Metzger, Ulf Panzer, Hitoshi Suzuki, Shin Goto, Ichiei Narita, Yasar Caliskan, Jingyuan Xie, Ping Hou, Nan Chen, Hong Zhang, Robert J Wyatt, Jan Novak, Bruce A Julian, John Feehally, Bénédicte Stengel, Daniele Cusi, Richard P Lifton, Ali G Gharavi.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, with discovery and follow-up in 20,612 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We identified six new genome-wide significant associations, four in ITGAM-ITGAX, VAV3 and CARD9 and two new independent signals at HLA-DQB1 and DEFA. We replicated the nine previously reported signals, including known SNPs in the HLA-DQB1 and DEFA loci. The cumulative burden of risk alleles is strongly associated with age at disease onset. Most loci are either directly associated with risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and response to mucosal pathogens. The geospatial distribution of risk alleles is highly suggestive of multi-locus adaptation, and genetic risk correlates strongly with variation in local pathogens, particularly helminth diversity, suggesting a possible role for host-intestinal pathogen interactions in shaping the genetic landscape of IgAN.
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A stable, pillar-layer metal-organic framework containing uncoordinated carboxyl groups for separation of transition metal ions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A 3D pillar-layer framework (1) with uncoordinated carboxyl groups exhibits exceptional stability. It can effectively and selectively adsorb Cu(2+) ions and has been applied as a chromatographic column for separating Cu(2+)/Co(2+) ions.
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Heavy ion and X-ray irradiation alter the cytoskeleton and cytomechanics of cortical neurons.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Heavy ion beams with high linear energy transfer exhibit more beneficial physical and biological performance than conventional X-rays, thus improving the potential of this type of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. However, these two radiotherapy modalities both cause inevitable brain injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of heavy ion and X-ray irradiation on the cytoskeleton and cytomechanical properties of rat cortical neurons, as well as to determine the potential mechanism of neuronal injury after irradiation. Cortical neurons from 30 new-born mice were irradiated with heavy ion beams at a single dose of 2 Gy and X-rays at a single dose of 4 Gy; subsequent evaluation of their effects were carried out at 24 hours after irradiation. An immunofluorescence assay showed that after irradiation with both the heavy ion beam and X-rays, the number of primary neurons was significantly decreased, and there was evidence of apoptosis. Radiation-induced neuronal injury was more apparent after X-irradiation. Under atomic force microscopy, the neuronal membrane appeared rough and neuronal rigidity had increased. These cell changes were more apparent following exposure to X-rays. Our findings indicated that damage caused by heavy ion and X-ray irradiation resulted in the structural distortion and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, and affected the cytomechanical properties of the cortical neurons. Moreover, this radiation injury to normal neurons was much severer after irradiation with X-rays than after heavy ion beam irradiation.
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SNX13 reduction mediates heart failure through degradative sorting of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Heart failure (HF) is associated with complicated molecular remodelling within cardiomyocytes; however, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we show that sorting nexin-13 (SNX13), a member of both the sorting nexin and the regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) protein families, is a potent mediator of HF. Decreased levels of SNX13 are observed in failing hearts of humans and of experimental animals. SNX13-deficient zebrafish recapitulate HF with striking cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, a reduction in SNX13 expression facilitates the degradative sorting of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), which is a multifunctional inhibitor of apoptosis. Consequently, the apoptotic pathway is activated, resulting in the loss of cardiac cells and the dampening of cardiac function. The N-terminal PXA structure of SNX13 is responsible for mediating the endosomal trafficking of ARC. Thus, this study reveals that SNX13 profoundly affects cardiac performance through the SNX13-PXA-ARC-caspase signalling pathway.
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An outbreak of acute norovirus gastroenteritis in a boarding school in Shanghai: a retrospective cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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More than 200 students and teachers at a boarding school in Shanghai developed acute gastroenteritis in December, 2012. The transmission mode remained largely unknown. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify it.
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Novel SLC2 Variants Contribute to Renal Glucosuria in Chinese Families?Abnormal Expression and Dysfunction of Variant SLC2.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Familial renal glucosuria (FRG) is characterized by persistent glucosuria despite normal serum glucose and the absence of overt tubular dysfunction. Variants in solute carrier family 5 (sodium-glucose co-transporter), member 2 (SLC5A2) have been reported in FRG patients. However, the functional and expression-related consequences of such variants have been scarcely investigated. In the current study, we studied five FRG families and identified six missense mutations, including four novel variants (c.1051T>C/p.(C351R), c.1400T>C/p.(V467A), c.1420G>C/p.(A474P), c.1691G>A/p.(R564Q); RNA not analyzed) and two variants that had been previously reported (c.294C>A/p.(F98L), c.736C>T/p.(P246S); RNA not analyzed). The probands were either heterozygous or compound heterozygous for SLC5A2 variants and had glucosuria of 5.9-19.6 g/day. Human 293 cells were transfected with plasmid constructs to study the expression and function of SLC5A2 Variants in vitro. Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of SLC5A2-351R-GFP, SLC5A2-467A-GFP, SLC5A2-474P-GFP and SLC5A2-564Q-GFP were significantly decreased compared with wild-type SLC5A2-GFP (37-55%). Confocal microscopy revealed that three variants (c.1400T>C, c.1420G>C, c.1691G>A) resulted in a loss of the punctate membrane pattern typical of wild-type SLC5A2. All Variants had a significantly lower transport capacity in than the wild-type control. The current study provides a starting point to further investigate the molecular mechanism of SLC5A2 in FRG families and provides functional clues for anti-diabetes drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Invariant natural killer T cells in lupus patients promote IgG and IgG autoantibody production.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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IgG autoantibodies, including antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), are pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the mechanisms controlling their production are not understood. To assess the role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in this process, we studied 44 lupus patients. We took advantage of the propensity of PBMCs from patients with active disease to spontaneously secrete IgG in vitro. Despite the rarity of iNKT cells in lupus blood (0.002-0.05% of CD3-positive T cells), antibody blockade of the conserved iNKT TCR or its ligand, CD1d, or selective depletion of iNKT cells, inhibited spontaneous secretion of total IgG and anti-dsDNA IgG by lupus PBMCs. Addition of anti-iNKT or anti-CD1d antibody to PBMC cultures also reduced the frequency of plasma cells, suggesting that lupus iNKT cells induce B-cell maturation. Like fresh iNKT cells, expanded iNKT-cell lines from lupus patients, but not healthy subjects, induced autologous B cells to secrete antibodies, including IgG anti-dsDNA. This activity was inhibited by anti-CD40L antibody, as well as anti-CD1d antibody, confirming a role for CD40L-CD40 and TCR-CD1d interactions in lupus iNKT-cell-mediated help. These results reveal a critical role for iNKT cells in B-cell maturation and autoantibody production in patients with lupus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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PPAR-? promotes endothelial cell migration By inducing the expression of Sema3g.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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In addition to regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, the nuclear receptor PPAR-? has emerged as a potentially relevant player in regulating endothelial cell function. Despite the identification of numerous PPAR-? targets involved in vascular development, the targets downstream of PPAR-? that directly affect endothelial cell function remain to be elucidated. In this report, we identify Sema3g as a novel PPAR-?-regulated gene playing a substantial role in endothelial biology, particularly with respect to endothelial cell migration. Sema3g expression is induced by either overexpression of PPAR-? or PPAR-? ligands treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transient transfection assays revealed that PPAR-? binds to the Sema3g promoter and activates transcription. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of Sema3g augments PPAR-?-driven HUVECs migration, whereas silencing of Sema3g expression almost completely abrogates PPAR-? or Sema3g-mediated cell migration. Accordingly, the anti-neuropilin-2 (Sema3g receptor) neutralizing antibody treatment markedly inhibits Sema3g-induced cell migration. Collectively, these results identify Sema3g as one of the downstream effectors of PPAR-?, which is centrally involved in regulating endothelial cell migration. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Ginsenoside-Rb3 protects the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury via the inhibition of apoptosis in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Ginsenoside-Rb3 (G-Rb3) has been previously demonstrated to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). The aim of the present study was to investigate this further and determine whether G-Rb3 protects the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury via the inhibition of apoptosis. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, MIRI, G-Rb3 treatment (orally, 20 mg/kg) and ischemic postconditioning (as the positive control). The drug or placebo treatment was administered to the rats once a day for three consecutive days, and MIRI was then induced by subjecting the rats to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 min and reperfusion for 2 h. The results showed that G-Rb3 treatment significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the myocardium and the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, and increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB in the serum were also reduced significantly by the G-Rb3 treatment. These findings suggest that G-Rb3 inhibits apoptosis in the early stage of MIRI, and attenuates MIRI when the reperfusion continues. G-Rb3 was also shown to significantly reduce the level of malondialdehyde and increase the activity of superoxide dismutase in the myocardium, which suggests that attenuating reactive oxygen species accumulation and oxidative stress may be the major mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of G-Rb3. The release of inflammatory factors was significantly attenuated by G-Rb3, which may also be associated with its anti-apoptotic effects.
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Chaenomeles speciosa: A review of chemistry and pharmacology.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (C. speciosa, Rosaceae family) is an effective medicinal plant, which has long been used in China to treat various diseases, such as rheumatism, cholera, dysentery, enteritis, beriberi and vitamin C deficiency syndrome. A series of chemical constituents, including triterpenoid, phenolic and phenylpropionic acids, flavonoids, saccharides, essential oils and alkaloids, have been isolated from this plant and some have already been evaluated for their biological activities. Pharmacological investigations demonstrated that C. speciosa possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunoregulatory, antiparkinsonian, hepatoprotective and antitumor properties. The objective of this review was to summarise available up-to-date and comprehensive information on C. speciosa and provide a relevant reference for further investigations.
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Epidermal growth factor upregulates serotonin transporter and its association with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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To investigate the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in visceral hypersensitivity and its effect on the serotonin transporter (SERT).
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Core solutions of rigidly rotating spiral waves in highly excitable media.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Analytical spiral wave solutions for reaction-diffusion equations play an important role in studying spiral wave dynamics. In this paper, we focus on such analytical solutions in the case of highly excitable media. We present numerical evidence that, for rigidly rotating spiral waves in highly excitable media, the species values in the spiral core region do harmonic oscillations but not relaxation ones, and their amplitudes grow linearly with the distance from the rotation center. An analytical solution is proposed to describe such spiral wave dynamics, and the quantitative comparisons between the numerical results and the analytical solutions show that the proposed spiral core solution works well in highly excitable media.
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Homologous region 1 of Plutella xylostella granulovirus functions as an enhancer for early gene expression.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Homologous regions (hrs) contained in genomes of baculoviruses have been shown to function as origins of viral DNA replication in alphabaculoviruses and betabaculoviruses, and as enhancers for early gene expression in alphabaculoviruses. The hr sequences of betabaculoviruses differ substantially from the ones of alphabaculoviruses. The enhancing property of betabaculovirus hrs has not been reported. In this study, transient assays were performed to investigate the effects of Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV) hr1 on early gene expression of the virus. It was shown that hr1 stimulated reporter gene expression from the promoters of four early genes--ie1, dnapol, lef1, and lef9--independent of additional viral gene expression. The PlxyGV ie1 was shown to repress reporter gene expression from all four early gene promoters in a Trichoplusia ni cell line, both in the presence and absence of hr.
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Rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its macrolide-resistance mutation by Cycleave PCR.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, which is often empirically treated with macrolides such as erythromycin and azithromycin. Recent studies have found a gradual increase in the numbers of macrolide-resistant strains due to mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. A2063G is the most common mutation, followed by A2064G. We developed a Cycleave PCR method for detecting macrolide-resistant strains of M. pneumoniae. With use of this method, the resistant strains can be quickly separated from the susceptible ones. In this work, via this method, both M. pneumoniae and resistance mutants were successfully identified from 101 clinical isolates as well as from 136 nasopharyngeal specimens. The findings of this study may allow clinicians to determine the treatment plan more rapidly and may provide a convenient method to conduct surveillance for genetic mutations conferring antibiotic resistance.
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Role of mitofusin-2 in high mobility group box-1 protein-mediated apoptosis of T cells in vitro.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Background: High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, which is recognized as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) triggering activation of the innate immune system. Previous studies have shown that HMGB1 also plays a role in T cell-mediated immunity, but the effect of HMGB1 on apoptosis of T cells and its precise mechanism remain to be determined. Methods: Two kinds of apoptosis assay techniques were used, i.e., Annexin V-FITC conjunction with PI to identify early apoptotic cells, Hoechst 33342 staining for double-stranded DNA to observe nuclear fragmentation or apoptotic body. The activation status of caspase-3, caspase-8, as well as caspase-9 was examined by colorimetric assay. The dynamic changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was monitored by flow cytometry. Overexpression of Mfn2 was preformed by lentiviral vector transfection. The mRNA and protein levels of Mfn2 were determined by RT-PCR and Western-blotting. Results: Treatment of Jurkat T cells with recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) causes a significant dose-dependent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells. When T cells are incubated with HMGB1 they express decreased mitochondria fusion-related protein mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) and activate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via elevation of [Ca(2+)]i, Bax insertion, and activation of caspase. Furthermore, overexpression of Mfn2 ameliorates the apoptosis of T cells induced by HMGB1. This occurs at least partly through Mfn2 keeps Ca(2+) homeostasis in T cells evidenced by monitoring [Ca(2+)]i dynamics. Conclusion: HMGB1 can trigger apoptosis of T lymphocytes through mitochondrial death pathway associated with [Ca(2+)]i elevation. Mfn2 plays a pivotal role in this process, and it might be a novel therapeutic target in T cell apoptosis related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Development and evaluation of plunger-in-needle liquid-phase microextraction.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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In this work, a novel, simple and fast one-step liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) approach, termed plunger-in-needle LPME was developed. In this method, the stainless steel plunger wire of a commercially available plunger-in-needle microsyringe was simply etched by immersion in hydrofluoric acid to form a microporous structure, and was used as the extractant solvent holder. The extractant solvent could be easily held within the pores created by the etching. When the plunger wire with the extractant solvent was exposed to the sample solution, analytes directly diffused from the sample solution to the solvent. After extraction, the plunger wire was directly introduced into the injection port of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system for analysis of the analytes after thermal desorption. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as model analytes to evaluate the extraction performance of this new approach to LPME. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the method detection limits for 10PAHs were in the range of 0.003 and 0.136?g/L (at a signal/noise ratio of 3), with relative standard deviations of between 2.9% and 9.6% on the same etched plunger wire. The linearities of the calibration plots were from 0.05 to 50 or from 1 to 50?g/L, depending on the PAHs. When this method was applied for the spiked river water sample, the relative recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 106.4%. The proposed method integrates the extraction and extract introduction into one device, without extraneous sorbent needed, which makes the procedure fast and simple. It is also an environmentally friendly approach as the organic solvent consumed is almost negligible.
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A new type of double-chain based 3D lanthanide(III) metal-organic framework demonstrating proton conduction and tunable emission.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A new type of 3D lanthanide(III) metal-organic framework directly constructed by double-chain motifs was synthesized. It shows a proton conductivity of 1.6 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 75 °C at 97% RH, and tunable emission including white light.
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Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects.
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Anatomic distribution of nerves and microvascular density in the human anterior vaginal wall: prospective study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The presence of the G-spot (an assumed erotic sensitive area in the anterior wall of the vagina) remains controversial. We explored the histomorphological basis of the G-spot.
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