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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Flexible Alkaline Rechargeable Ni/Fe Battery Based on Graphene Foam/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Film.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The development of portable and wearable electronics has promoted increasing demand for high-performance power sources with high energy/power density, low cost, lightweight, as well as ultrathin and flexible features. Here, a new type of flexible Ni/Fe cell is designed and fabricated by employing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and porous Fe2O3 nanorods grown on lightweight and graphene foam (GF)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films as electrodes. The assembled f-Ni/Fe cells are able to deliver high energy/power densities (100.7 Wh/kg at 287 W/kg and 70.9 Wh/kg at 1.4 kW/kg, based on the total mass of active materials) and outstanding cycling stabilities (retention 89.1% after 1,000 charge/discharge cycles). Benefiting from the use of ultralight and thin GF/CNTs hybrid films as current collectors, our f-Ni/Fe cell can exhibit a volumetric energy density of 16.6 Wh/l (based on the total volume of full cell), which is comparable to that of thin film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors. Moreover, the f-Ni/Fe cells can retain the electrochemical performance with repeated bendings. These features endow our f-Ni/Fe cells a promising candidate for next generation energy storage systems.
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Caffeic acid inhibits the uptake of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) by inducing the efflux transporters expression in Caco-2 cells.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed as a by-product of the Maillard reaction during cooking and frying of protein-rich foods at high temperatures. PhIP is metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 1A1/2 to carcinogenic metabolite N-hydroxy PhIP, which can form DNA adduct. The ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are capable of transporting the food-borne procarcinogen PhIP back to the intestinal lumen. In the present study, the uptake and efflux of PhIP were assessed by determining apparent bidirectional permeability coefficients and efflux ratio. The efflux ratio of PhIP with 10 ?M caffeic acid was significantly increased compared with control. The mRNA levels of efflux transporters were measured to evaluate the effect of caffeic acid in the presence of PhIP on efflux-mediated transport of PhIP. Caco-2 cells exposed to 10 ?M caffeic acid for 3 and 6 h also exhibited higher mRNA levels of P-gp and BCRP than those of control. In contrast, the mRNA level of MRP2 was only slightly induced after 3 h and 6 h. Therefore, caffeic acid at low concentration is expected to be used not only as an antioxidant, but also as an inhibitor of the absorption of food borne carcinogen heterocyclic amines. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are required to confirm these results.
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Childhood Trauma, Parental Death, and Their Co-occurrence in Relation to Current Suicidality Risk in Adults: A Nationwide Community Sample of Korea.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Background: Although previous studies have suggested that childhood trauma and parental death are strongly associated with suicidality in adulthood, it is still unclear how these factors interact within the same population. A total of 1396 adults were recruited through nationwide multistage probability sampling in South Korea. Subjects were evaluated through face-to-face interviews using the Suicidality Module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form. Among the 1396 adults, the group that experienced both childhood trauma and parental death had the highest current suicidality risks (F = 12.16, p < 0.0001) and lifetime suicide attempt (? = 35.81, p < 0.0001) compared with the other groups, which were only childhood trauma, only parental death, and neither. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that middle-to-high current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt were significantly associated with concurrent childhood trauma and parental death (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-6.65) as well as with only childhood trauma (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.87), after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, household monthly income, and living area. Emotional abuse was the only type of childhood trauma significantly associated with higher current suicidality scores in those who experienced childhood parental death than in those who did not (F = 3.26, p = 0.041). Current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt are associated with experiencing both parental death and trauma, especially emotional abuse, in childhood, whereas experiencing only childhood parental death is associated with neither.
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New cyclopeptide alkaloid and lignan glycoside from Justicia procumbens.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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This study reported a new cyclopeptide alkaloid, justicianene A (1), and a new lignan glycoside, procumbenoside H (2), isolated from Justicia procumbens. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 2D NMR studies and mass spectrometry. Cyclopeptide alkaloids were first observed from the genus Justicia. Compound 2 was cytotoxic against human LoVo colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 17.908 ± 1.949 ?M.
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A Meta-Analysis Comparing Open-Label versus Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials for Aripiprazole Augmentation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Lessons and Promises.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The present study is to provide whether open-label studies (OLS) may properly foresee the efficacy of randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) using OLSs and RCTs data for aripiprazole in the treatment of MDD, with the use of meta-analysis approach.
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Triple-layered nanostructured WO3 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent generation and superior stability for photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Unique nanorods/nanoparticles/nanoflakes (NRs/NPs/NFs) WO3 triple-layers are grown on a metallic W foil by a simple one-step anodization method. The triple-layered structure is formed through a self-organization process, the film thickness (up to 3 ?m) being controlled by the anodization time. A first layer made of an array of WO3 densely-packed vertically-aligned NRs (1.2-1.4 ?m in height) grow atop the tungsten foil, followed by a second layer of small NPs (50-80 nm) and finally a third layer made of rectangular NFs (200-300 nm). When irradiated by white light in a photoelectrochemical cell these WO3 triple-layers generate a photocurrent as high as 0.9 mA cm(-2) at 1.2 V/RHE. Moreover, we show that the stability of the triple-layered WO3 photoanodes can be considerably enhanced by adding an ultrathin (10 nm) TiO2 protective overlayer.
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Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Although sunlight-driven water splitting is a promising route to sustainable hydrogen fuel production, widespread implementation is hampered by the expense of the necessary photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical apparatus. Here, we describe a highly efficient and low-cost water-splitting cell combining a state-of-the-art solution-processed perovskite tandem solar cell and a bifunctional Earth-abundant catalyst. The catalyst electrode, a NiFe layered double hydroxide, exhibits high activity toward both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions in alkaline electrolyte. The combination of the two yields a water-splitting photocurrent density of around 10 milliamperes per square centimeter, corresponding to a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 12.3%. Currently, the perovskite instability limits the cell lifetime.
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[Effect of hypobaric hypoxia exposure on memory and tau phosphorylation in brain of mice].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To investigate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)on the cognitive function of mice and the phosphorylation of tau protein in mice brain.
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Age-related differences in factors associated with the underuse of recommended medications in acute coronary syndrome patients at least one year after hospital discharge.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Few studies have evaluated age-related predictors associated with the underuse of medications in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of this study was to identify age-related differences in the factors associated with the underuse of recommended medications in patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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miR-24 limits aortic vascular inflammation and murine abdominal aneurysm development.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Identification and treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain among the most prominent challenges in vascular medicine. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of cardiovascular pathology and represent intriguing targets to limit AAA expansion. Here we show, by using two established murine models of AAA disease along with human aortic tissue and plasma analysis, that miR-24 is a key regulator of vascular inflammation and AAA pathology. In vivo and in vitro studies reveal chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3l1) to be a major target and effector under the control of miR-24, regulating cytokine synthesis in macrophages as well as their survival, promoting aortic smooth muscle cell migration and cytokine production, and stimulating adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cells. We further show that modulation of miR-24 alters AAA progression in animal models, and that miR-24 and CHI3L1 represent novel plasma biomarkers of AAA disease progression in humans.
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A High Energy and Power Li-Ion Capacitor Based on a TiO2 Nanobelt Array Anode and a Graphene Hydrogel Cathode.
Small
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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A novel hybrid Li-ion capacitor (LIC) with high energy and power densities is constructed by combining an electrochemical double layer capacitor type cathode (graphene hydrogels) with a Li-ion battery type anode (TiO2 nanobelt arrays). The high power source is provided by the graphene hydrogel cathode, which has a 3D porous network structure and high electrical conductivity, and the counter anode is made of free-standing TiO2 nanobelt arrays (NBA) grown directly on Ti foil without any ancillary materials. Such a subtle designed hybrid Li-ion capacitor allows rapid electron and ion transport in the non-aqueous electrolyte. Within a voltage range of 0.0-3.8 V, a high energy of 82 Wh kg(-1) is achieved at a power density of 570 W kg(-1) . Even at an 8.4 s charge/discharge rate, an energy density as high as 21 Wh kg(-1) can be retained. These results demonstrate that the TiO2 NBA//graphene hydrogel LIC exhibits higher energy density than supercapacitors and better power density than Li-ion batteries, which makes it a promising electrochemical power source.
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Repression of flowering under a noninductive photoperiod by the HDA9-AGL19-FT module in Arabidopsis.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Posttranslational acetylation of histones is reversibly regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Despite the evident significance of HDACs in Arabidopsis development, the biological roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of many HDACs are yet to be elucidated. By a reverse-genetic approach, we isolated an hda9 mutant and performed phenotypic analyses on it. In order to address the role of HDA9 in flowering, genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches were employed. hda9 flowered early under noninductive short-day (SD) conditions and had increased expression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and the floral activator AGAMOUS-LIKE 19 (AGL19) compared with the wild-type. The hda9 mutation increased histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II occupancy at AGL19 but not at FT during active transcription, and the HDA9 protein directly targeted AGL19. AGL19 expression was higher under SD than under inductive long-day (LD) conditions, and an AGL19 overexpression caused a strong up-regulation of FT. A genetic analysis showed that an agl19 mutation is epistatic to the hda9 mutation, masking both the early flowering and the increased FT expression of hda9. Taken together, our data indicate that HDA9 prevents precocious flowering under SD conditions by curbing the hyperactivation of AGL19, an upstream activator of FT, through resetting the local chromatin environment.
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Association between a functional polymorphism rs712 within let-7-binding site and risk of papillary thyroid cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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KRAS mutation is frequently detected in a series of cancers, including papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Recently, a genetic variant of rs712 in the 3' untranslated region of the KRAS gene has been reported to be functional in the regulation of KRAS by disrupting complementary site of let-7 and miR-181. We aimed to investigate whether the polymorphism is a risk factor for PTC. We conducted an association study, including 252 PTC patients and 290 healthy controls. The KRAS rs712 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Although no significant difference of the KRAS rs712 distribution was observed between cases and controls in overall analysis, stratification analysis showed that patients carrying the KRAS rs712TT genotype were less likely to develop stages T3 and T4 under a recessive genetic model (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.82). These results supported the role of the KRAS rs712 polymorphism as a potential genetic biomarker for the extension of PTC. Further population-based association studies are of great value to confirm the results in diverse ethnicities.
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Thyroid stimulating hormone and serum, plasma, and platelet brain-derived neurotrophic factor during a 3-month follow-up in patients with major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Thyroid dysfunction and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are common in patients with depression. TSH might exert its function in the brain through blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF decreases during depressed states and normalize after treatment. The gap is that the association between TSH and BDNF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown.
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The matrix gene segment destabilizes the Acid and thermal stability of the hemagglutinin of pandemic live attenuated influenza virus vaccines.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The threat of future influenza pandemics and their potential for rapid spread, morbidity, and mortality has led to the development of pandemic vaccines. We generated seven reassortant pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (pLAIVs) with the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from animal influenza viruses on the backbone of the six internal protein gene segments of the temperature sensitive, cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/60 (H2N2) virus (AA/60 ca) of the licensed seasonal LAIV. The pLAIV viruses were moderately to highly restricted in replication in seronegative adults; we sought to determine the biological basis for this restriction. Avian influenza viruses generally replicate at higher temperatures than human influenza viruses and, although they shared the same backbone, the pLAIV viruses had a lower shutoff temperature than seasonal LAIV viruses, suggesting that the HA and NA influence the degree of temperature sensitivity. The pH of HA activation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses was greater than human and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses, as reported by others. However, pLAIV viruses had a consistently higher pH of HA activation and reduced HA thermostability compared to the corresponding wild-type parental viruses. From studies with single-gene reassortant viruses bearing one gene segment from the AA/60 ca virus in recombinant H5N1 or pH1N1 viruses, we found that the lower HA thermal stability and increased pH of HA activation were associated with the AA/60 M gene. Together, the impaired HA acid and thermal stability and temperature sensitivity likely contributed to the restricted replication of the pLAIV viruses we observed in seronegative adults.
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Hierarchically porous three-dimensional electrodes of CoMoO? and ZnCo?O? and their high anode performance for lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Ternary metal oxides have been receiving wide attention in electrochemical energy storage due to their rich redox reactions and tuneable conductivity. We present a simple solution-based method to prepare a 3D interconnected porous network of ternary metal oxide (CoMoO? and ZnCo?O?) nanostructures on macroporous nickel foam. The open-structured networks with different degrees of porosity endow them with high surface areas of electro-active sites. The Li ion storage properties of both anodes are investigated. High rate capability and long term cycling stability are achieved for both systems.
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Plasmonic nanoclocks.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Plasmonic spectra of "nanoclock" metamaterials can be topologically mapped on a torus. We manufactured arrays of such a metamaterial with different "time" shown on the clocks and demonstrated that the near-infrared spectra of the nanostructures can be predictably tuned exhibiting a rich series of high-order plasmon modes, from the electric dipole to exotic electric triakontadipole that could be engaged in chemo/biosensor applications.
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Highly stable and reversible lithium storage in SnO2 nanowires surface coated with a uniform hollow shell by atomic layer deposition.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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SnO2 nanowires directly grown on flexible substrates can be a good electrode for a lithium ion battery. However, Sn-based (metal Sn or SnO2) anode materials always suffer from poor stability due to a large volume expansion during cycling. In this work, we utilize atomic layer deposition (ALD) to surface engineer SnO2 nanowires, resulting in a new type of hollowed SnO2-in-TiO2 wire-in-tube nanostructure. This structure has radically improved rate capability and cycling stability compared to both bare SnO2 nanowires and solid SnO2@TiO2 core-shell nanowire electrodes. Typically a relatively stable capacity of 393.3 mAh/g has been achieved after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 400 mA/g, and 241.2 mAh/g at 3200 mA/g. It is believed that the uniform hollow TiO2 shell provides stable surface protection and the appropriate-sized gap effectively accommodates the expansion of the interior SnO2 nanowire. This ALD-enabled method should be general to many other battery anode and cathode materials, providing a new and highly reproducible and controllable technique for improving battery performance.
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Reasons for desiring death: examining causative factors of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms in Korea.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms were studied in order to understand the motives behind this behavior. Disparities between the etiological contributions to suicidal ideation, intention, and action were examined in order to characterize motives in these categories.
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Pattern of pharmacotherapy by episode types for patients with bipolar disorders and its concordance with treatment guidelines.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the overall prescription pattern for patients with bipolar disorders in Korea and its relevance to the practice guidelines. Prescription records from all patients with bipolar I and II disorders who have been admitted or who started the outpatient treatment during the year of 2009 in 10 academic setting hospitals were reviewed. A total of 1447 patients with bipolar I and II disorders were included in this study. Longitudinal prescription patterns of inpatients and outpatients were analyzed by episode types and compared with the clinical practice guideline algorithms. In all phases, polypharmacy was chosen as an initial treatment strategy (>80%). The combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics was the most favored. Antipsychotics were prescribed in more than 80% of subjects across all phases. The rate of antidepressant use ranged from 15% to 40%, and it was more frequently used in acute treatment and bipolar II subjects. The concordance rate of prescriptions for manic inpatients to the guidelines was higher and relatively more consistent (43.8%-48.7%) compared with that for depressive inpatients (18.6%-46.9%). Polypharmacy was the most common reason for nonconcordance. In Korean psychiatric academic setting, polypharmacy and atypical antipsychotics were prominently favored in the treatment of bipolar disorder, even with the lack of evidence of its superiority. More evidence is needed to establish suitable treatment strategies. In particular, the treatment strategy for acute bipolar depression awaits more consensuses.
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Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers.
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Development of live attenuated influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza strains.
Expert Rev Vaccines
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Avian and animal influenza viruses can sporadically transmit to humans, causing outbreaks of varying severity. In some cases, further human-to-human virus transmission does not occur, and the outbreak in humans is limited. In other cases, sustained human-to-human transmission occurs, resulting in worldwide influenza pandemics. Preparation for future pandemics is an important global public health goal. A key objective of preparedness is to gain an understanding of how to design, test, and manufacture effective vaccines that could be stockpiled for use in a pandemic. This review summarizes results of an ongoing collaboration to produce, characterize, and clinically test a library of live attenuated influenza vaccine strains (based on Ann Arbor attenuated Type A strain) containing protective antigens from influenza viruses considered to be of high pandemic potential.
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Estimation methods and monitoring network issues in the quantitative estimation of land-based COD and TN loads entering the sea: a case study in Qingdao City, China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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At present, the monitoring network of China cannot provide sufficient data to estimate land-based pollutant loads that enter the sea, and estimation methods are imprecisely used. In this study, the selection of monitoring stations, monitoring frequency, and pollutant load estimation methods was studied in Qingdao City, a typical coastal city in China, taken as an example. Land-based pollutant loads from Qingdao were estimated, and load distribution, density, and composition were analyzed to identify the key pollution source regions (SRs) that need to be monitored and controlled. Results show that the administrative land area of Qingdao can be divided into 25 sea-sink source regions (SSRs). A total of 14 more rivers and 62 industrial enterprises should be monitored to determine the comprehensive pollutant loads of the city. Furthermore, the monitoring frequency of rivers should not be less than three times/year; a monitoring frequency of five or more times is preferable. The findings on pollutant load estimation with the use of different estimation methods substantially vary; estimation results with the use of ratio-based methods were 10 and 22 % higher than those with the use of monitoring-based methods in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN), respectively. None-point sources contributed the majority of the pollutant loads at about 70 % of the total COD and 60 % of the total TN.
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Psychomotor symptoms and treatment outcomes of ziprasidone monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential parallel comparison trial.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ziprasidone monotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without psychomotor symptoms. In accordance with the sequential parallel comparison design, 106 MDD patients (age 44.0±10.7 years; female, 43.4%) were recruited and a post-hoc analysis was carried out on 12-week double-blind treatment with either ziprasidone (40-160 mg/day) or placebo, divided into two phases of 6 weeks each to the assigned treatment sequences, drug/drug, placebo/placebo, and placebo/drug. Psychomotor symptoms were evaluated on the basis of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline. Efficacy assessments, on the basis of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Scale, Self-Rated (QIDS-SR), were performed every week throughout the trial. In phase I, ziprasidone monotherapy produced significant improvement in patients with psychomotor symptoms compared with placebo on the basis of HDRS-17 (F=5.95, P=0.017) and QIDS-SR (F=5.26, P=0.025) scores, whereas no significant changes were found in HDRS-17 (F=2.32, P=0.15) and QIDS-SR (F=3.70, P=0.074) scores in patients without psychomotor symptoms. In phase II, ziprasidone monotherapy produced no significant differences compared with placebo. In the pooled analysis, ziprasidone monotherapy showed significance according to QIDS-SR (Z=2.00, P=0.046) and a trend toward statistical significance according to the HDRS-17 (Z=1.66, P=0.10) in patients with psychomotor symptoms. Ziprasidone monotherapy may produce significant improvement compared with placebo in MDD patients with psychomotor symptoms.
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Synthesis of free-standing metal sulfide nanoarrays via anion exchange reaction and their electrochemical energy storage application.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Metal sulfides are an emerging class of high-performance electrode materials for solar cells and electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, a facile and powerful method based on anion exchange reactions is reported to achieve metal sulfide nanoarrays through a topotactical transformation from their metal oxide and hydroxide preforms. Demonstrations are made to CoS and NiS nanowires, nanowalls, and core-branch nanotrees on carbon cloth and nickel foam substrates. The sulfide nanoarrays exhibit superior redox reactivity for electrochemical energy storage. The self-supported CoS nanowire arrays are tested as the pseudo-capacitor cathode, which demonstrate enhanced high-rate specific capacities and better cycle life as compared to the powder counterparts. The outstanding electrochemical properties of the sulfide nanoarrays are a consequence of the preservation of the nanoarray architecture and rigid connection with the current collector after the anion exchange reactions.
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African green monkeys recapitulate the clinical experience with replication of live attenuated pandemic influenza virus vaccine candidates.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Live attenuated cold-adapted (ca) H5N1, H7N3, H6N1, and H9N2 influenza vaccine viruses replicated in the respiratory tract of mice and ferrets, and 2 doses of vaccines were immunogenic and protected these animals from challenge infection with homologous and heterologous wild-type (wt) viruses of the corresponding subtypes. However, when these vaccine candidates were evaluated in phase I clinical trials, there were inconsistencies between the observations in animal models and in humans. The vaccine viruses did not replicate well and immune responses were variable in humans, even though the study subjects were seronegative with respect to the vaccine viruses before vaccination. Therefore, we sought a model that would better reflect the findings in humans and evaluated African green monkeys (AGMs) as a nonhuman primate model. The distribution of sialic acid (SA) receptors in the respiratory tract of AGMs was similar to that in humans. We evaluated the replication of wt and ca viruses of avian influenza (AI) virus subtypes H5N1, H6N1, H7N3, and H9N2 in the respiratory tract of AGMs. All of the wt viruses replicated efficiently, while replication of the ca vaccine viruses was restricted to the upper respiratory tract. Interestingly, the patterns and sites of virus replication differed among the different subtypes. We also evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of H5N1, H6N1, H7N3, and H9N2 ca vaccines. Protection from wt virus challenge correlated well with the level of serum neutralizing antibodies. Immune responses were slightly better when vaccine was delivered by both intranasal and intratracheal delivery than when it was delivered intranasally by sprayer. We conclude that live attenuated pandemic influenza virus vaccines replicate similarly in AGMs and human subjects and that AGMs may be a useful model to evaluate the replication of ca vaccine candidates. Importance: Ferrets and mice are commonly used for preclinical evaluation of influenza vaccines. However, we observed significant inconsistencies between observations in humans and in these animal models. We used African green monkeys (AGMs) as a nonhuman primate (NHP) model for a comprehensive and comparative evaluation of pairs of wild-type and pandemic live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (pLAIV) representing four subtypes of avian influenza viruses and found that pLAIVs replicate similarly in AGMs and humans and that AGMs can be useful for evaluation of the protective efficacy of pLAIV.
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Hollow nickel nanocorn arrays as three-dimensional and conductive support for metal oxides to boost supercapacitive performance.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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A novel three-dimensional (3D) metal/metal oxide core/branch array electrode has been fabricated as a supercapacitor electrode. Hollow Ni nanocorn arrays are constructed on Ni foams and act as a highly conductive and stable support to Co3O4 nanoflakes. Enhanced pseudocapacitive performance compared to bare Co3O4 nanosheets is demonstrated with high rate capability and excellent cycling stability.
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Influenza H1N1pdm-specific maternal antibodies offer limited protection against wild-type virus replication and influence influenza vaccination in ferrets.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The objective was to study passively acquired influenza H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) maternal antibody kinetics and its impact on subsequent influenza infection and vaccination in ferrets during an outbreak of the H1N1pdm.
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Development of a high-yield live attenuated H7N9 influenza virus vaccine that provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 wild-type viruses in ferrets.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Live attenuated H7N9 influenza vaccine viruses that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the newly emerged wild-type (wt) A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (AA ca) were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant virus containing the original wt A/Anhui/1/2013 HA and NA sequences replicated poorly in eggs. Multiple variants with amino acid substitutions in the HA head domain that improved viral growth were identified by viral passage in eggs and MDCK cells. The selected vaccine virus containing two amino acid changes (N133D/G198E) in the HA improved viral titer by more than 10-fold (reached a titer of 10(8.6) fluorescent focus units/ml) without affecting viral antigenicity. Introduction of these amino acid changes into an H7N9 PR8 reassortant virus also significantly improved viral titers and HA protein yield in eggs. The H7N9 ca vaccine virus was immunogenic in ferrets. A single dose of vaccine conferred complete protection of ferrets from homologous wt A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and nearly complete protection from heterologous wt A/Netherlands/219/2003 (H7N7) challenge infection. Therefore, this H7N9 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidate has been selected for vaccine manufacture and clinical evaluation to protect humans from wt H7N9 virus infection.
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Solution synthesis of metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage applications.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This article provides an overview of solution-based methods for the controllable synthesis of metal oxides and their applications for electrochemical energy storage. Typical solution synthesis strategies are summarized and the detailed chemical reactions are elaborated for several common nanostructured transition metal oxides and their composites. The merits and demerits of these synthesis methods and some important considerations are discussed in association with their electrochemical performance. We also propose the basic guideline for designing advanced nanostructure electrode materials, and the future research trend in the development of high power and energy density electrochemical energy storage devices.
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A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed against a novel conserved epitope on the influenza virus H3 hemagglutinin globular head.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or vaccination target immunodominant, variable epitopes on the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA), which leads to narrow strain protection. In this report, we describe the properties of a unique anti-HA monoclonal antibody (MAb), D1-8, that was derived from human B cells and exhibits potent, broad neutralizing activity across antigenically diverse influenza H3 subtype viruses. Based on selection of escape variants, we show that D1-8 targets a novel epitope on the globular head region of the influenza virus HA protein. The HA residues implicated in D1-8 binding are highly conserved among H3N2 viruses and are located proximal to antigenic site D. We demonstrate that the potent in vitro antiviral activity of D1-8 translates into protective activity in mouse models of influenza virus infection. Furthermore, D1-8 exhibits superior therapeutic survival benefit in influenza virus-infected mice compared to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir when treatment is started late in infection. The present study suggests the potential application of this monoclonal antibody for the therapeutic treatment of H3N2 influenza virus infection.
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The global landscape of intron retentions in lung adenocarcinoma.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The transcriptome complexity in an organism can be achieved by alternative splicing of precursor messenger RNAs. It has been revealed that alternations in mRNA splicing play an important role in a number of diseases including human cancers.
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Age-related differences in the influence of major mental disorders on suicidality: a Korean nationwide community sample.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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We compared the influence of major mental disorders on suicidality according to age, adjusting for suicide-related correlates.
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Toxicity of TDCPP and TCEP on PC12 cell: changes in CAMKII, GAP43, tubulin and NF-H gene and protein levels.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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TDCPP and TCEP are two major types of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) that are bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment. The toxicity effects of TDCPP and TCEP on PC12 cell are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated morphology, viability and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells in response to TDCPP and TCEP. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CAMKII, GAP43, tubulin and NF-H were quantified in PC12 cells treated with varying concentrations of the two agents. Results indicate that, upon treatment with the two OPFRs, cell growth decreased, apoptosis increased, morphology was altered and significant changes were found in the gene and protein levels. Treatment with TDCPP caused a reduction in the levels of each of the six proteins studied and in the gene levels of GAP43, NF-H and the two tubulins, but it resulted in an increase in CAMKII gene levels. Treatment with TCEP resulted in similar changes in gene levels to TDCPP and led to decreases in the protein levels of GAP43 and the tubulins while increasing the CAMKII and NF-H protein levels. These results suggest that changes in the gene and protein levels of the regulatory proteins (CAMKII, GAP43) and the structural proteins (tubulin, NF-H) are due to different mechanisms of the toxins, and these proteins may be useful biomarkers for the cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity.
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Production of live attenuated influenza vaccines against seasonal and potential pandemic influenza viruses.
Curr Opin Virol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Vaccination remains the most effective means to prevent morbidity and mortality caused by influenza epidemics and pandemics. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been proven to be effective in preventing influenza with broad cross reactivity to drifted strains. Owing to the sophisticated nature of the influenza vaccine production process, the time needed to develop high yield LAIV strains for vaccine production and product release remains a constant challenge. This review summarizes LAIV production process with highlights on the experiences gained during the past decade generating seasonal and pandemic LAIV seeds by reverse genetics strategy.
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A new type of porous graphite foams and their integrated composites with oxide/polymer core/shell nanowires for supercapacitors: structural design, fabrication, and full supercapacitor demonstrations.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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We attempt to meet the general design requirements for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes by combining the strategies of lightweight substrate, porous nanostructure design, and conductivity modification. We fabricate a new type of 3D porous and thin graphite foams (GF) and use as the light and conductive substrates for the growth of metal oxide core/shell nanowire arrays to form integrated electrodes. The nanowire core is Co3O4, and the shell is a composite of conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) and metal oxide (MnO2). To show the advantage of this integrated electrode design (viz., GF + Co3O4/PEDOT-MnO2 core/shell nanowire arrays), three other different less-integrated electrodes are also prepared for comparison. Full supercapacitor devices based on the GF + Co3O4/PEDOT-MnO2 as positive electrodes exhibit the best performance compared to other three counterparts due to an optimal design of structure and a synergistic effect.
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Impact of childhood exposure to psychological trauma on the risk of psychiatric disorders and somatic discomfort: single vs. multiple types of psychological trauma.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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We examined whether childhood exposure to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) relative to a single type of PTE is associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and greater somatic discomfort in Korean adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered to 6027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood trauma exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood exposure to PTEs. In the childhood trauma exposure group, subjects who experienced only a single type of PTE and subjects who experienced two or more types of PTEs were compared further. Childhood exposure to PTEs was linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities, with a higher risk for exposure to multiple types of PTEs than for exposure to a single type of PTE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were significantly associated with exposure to multiple types of PTEs but not with exposure to a single type of PTE. Exposure to multiple types of PTEs was associated with reports of marked fatigue and pain. Future research should examine the psychiatric sequelae associated with various types of childhood PTEs.
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Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration.
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A V2O5/conductive-polymer core/shell nanobelt array on three-dimensional graphite foam: a high-rate, ultrastable, and freestanding cathode for lithium-ion batteries.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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A thin polymer shell helps V2O5 a lot. Short V2O5 nanobelts are grown directly on 3D graphite foam as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode material. A further coating of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin shell is the key to the high performance. An excellent high-rate capability and ultrastable cycling up to 1000 cycles are demonstrated.
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Obstacles and alternative options for cardiac rehabilitation in Nanjing, China: an exploratory study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is still not well developed in mainland China. The objective of this study is to investigate the barriers associated with those seeking cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to explore appropriate secondary prevention modalities tailored to the needs of Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).
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Evidence-based, pharmacological treatment guideline for depression in Korea, revised edition.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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This paper aims to introduce, summarize, and emphasize the importance of the 'Evidence-Based, Pharmacological Treatment Guideline for Depression in Korea, Revised Edition'. The guideline broadly covers most aspects of the pharmacological treatment of patients in Korea diagnosed with moderate to severe major depression according to the DSM-IV TR. The guideline establishment process involved determining and answering a number of key questions, searching and selecting publications, evaluating recommendations, preparing guideline drafts, undergoing external expert reviews, and obtaining approval. A guideline adaptation process was conducted for the revised edition. The guideline strongly recommends pharmacological treatment considered appropriate to the current clinical situation in Korea, and should be considered helpful when selecting the appropriate pharmacological treatment of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Therefore, the wide distribution of this guideline is recommended.
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Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder from six Asian countries.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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East Asian countries have high suicide rates. However, little is known about clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with suicidality in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from six Asian countries.
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Efficacy and Tolerability of Anticholinergics in Korean Children with Overactive Bladder: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of various anticholinergics in Korean children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). A total of 326 children (males:females= 157:169) aged under 18 yr (mean age 7.3±2.6 yr) who were diagnosed with OAB from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of OAB symptoms before anticholinergic treatment was 16.9±19.0 months. The mean duration of medication was 5.6±7.3 months. Urgency urinary incontinence episodes per week decreased from 1.9±3.1 to 0.4±1.5 times (P<0.001). The median voiding frequency during daytime was decreased from 9.2±5.4 to 6.3±4.2 times (P<0.001). According to 3-day voiding diaries, the maximum and average bladder capacity were increased from 145.5±66.9 to 196.8±80.3 mL and from 80.8±39.6 to 121.8±56.5 mL, respectively (P<0.001). On uroflowmetry, maximum flow rate was increased from 17.6±8.4 to 20.5±8.2 mL/sec (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 14 (4.3%) children and six children (1.8%) discontinued medication due to adverse effects. Our results indicate that anticholinergics are effective to improve OAB symptoms and tolerability was acceptable without severe complications in children.
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Oxide nanostructures hyperbranched with thin and hollow metal shells for high-performance nanostructured battery electrodes.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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High-performance electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices require the ability to modify and assemble electrode materials with superior reactivity and structural stability. The fabrication of different oxide/metal core-branch nanoarrays with adjustable components and morphologies (e.g., nanowire and nanoflake) is reported on different conductive substrates. Hollow metal branches (or shells) wrapped around oxide cores are realized by electrodeposition using ZnO nanorods as a sacrificial template. In battery electrode application, the thin hollow metal branches can provide a mechanical protection of the oxide core and a highly conductive path for charges. As a demonstration, arrays of Co3O4/Ni core-branch nanowires are evaluated as the anode for lithium ion batteries. The thin metal branches evidently improve the electrochemical performance with higher specific capacity, rate capability, and capacity retention than the unmodified Co3O4 counterparts.
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Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients.
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Cytotoxic activity of lignans from Justicia procumbens.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Three new lignans, Pronaphthalide A (1), Procumbiene (2), and Procumbenoside J (3), along with a novel natural product Juspurpudin (4), and twelve other known lignans were isolated from Justicia procumbens. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and the data of 3 provided insight into the conformational equilibria existing in it. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against Human LoVo and BGC-823 cell lines except for compound 2, and eight of them were found to possess potent cytotoxicity. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that (i) the parent structure of 2-carbonyl arylnaphthalide lactone attached with 6 and 7-OMe was the essential element; (ii) the polarity of substituents on C-4 might significantly affect the activity; (iii) a proper cyclic lipophilic group at the C-3? and C-5? of apiofuranose on C-4 might enhance the activity, which could optimize the application of 3 similar to VP-16.
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Lung cancer risk and genetic variants in East Asians: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Inconsistent results are often found regarding the risk of genetic variants in lung cancer association studies. To alleviate these conflicts, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of variants on lung cancer in East Asian population (Han Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). Forty-three genetic variants with data from at least three independent case-control studies were under investigation of which two variants (rs1800734 in hMLH1, rs2273953-rs1801173 bi-marker in P73) were first meta-analyzed in East Asians. We found that three variants in CYP1A1, GSTM1, and XRCC1 showed consistently significant associations with lung cancer in mixed analysis and stratified analysis, and several variants showed diverse effects interacting with different environmental factors in stratified analysis. Our study presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of lung cancer association studies in East Asians and confirms the effect of three variants in lung cancer risk. Additionally, result from stratified analysis suggests the importance of inclusion of environmental factors, such as smoking and tumor histology, in the analysis.
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Correlation between serum IL-1beta levels and cerebral edema extent in a hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage rat model.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is increased following hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), potentially related to neural damage by cerebral edema.
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Diagnostic utility of worry and rumination: a comparison between generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Although previous reports have addressed worry and rumination as prominent cognitive processes in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their distinct correlation with anxious and depressive symptoms, the differential association of worry and rumination with the diagnosis of GAD and MDD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct features of worry and rumination in factor structure and their predictive validity for the diagnosis of GAD and MDD.
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Feelings of worthlessness, traumatic experience, and their comorbidity in relation to lifetime suicide attempt in community adults with major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) and traumatic experience are independent risk factors for lifetime suicide attempt (LSA). However, the relationships between trauma history and depressive symptomatology as they relate to LSA are not fully understood.
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Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum from Pregnant Women Carrying a Fetus with Conotruncal Heart Defect Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Labeling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD) fetus, using proteomic analysis.
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The in vivo fibrotic role of FIZZ1 in pulmonary fibrosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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FIZZ (found in inflammatory zone) 1, a member of a cysteine-rich secreted protein family, is highly induced in lung allergic inflammation and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis, and primarily expressed by airway and type II alveolar epithelial cells. This novel mediator is known to stimulate ?-smooth muscle actin and collagen expression in lung fibroblasts. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of FIZZ1 on the development of lung fibrosis by evaluating bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in FIZZ1 deficient mice. FIZZ1 knockout mice exhibited no detectable abnormality. When these mice were treated with bleomycin they exhibited significantly impaired pulmonary fibrosis relative to wild type mice, along with impaired proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression. Deficient lung fibroblast activation was also noted in the FIZZ1 knockout mice. Moreover, recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to injured lung was deficient in FIZZ1 knockout mice. Interestingly in vitro FIZZ1 was shown to have chemoattractant activity for bone marrow cells, including bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Finally, overexpression of FIZZ1 exacerbated fibrosis. These findings suggested that FIZZ1 exhibited profibrogenic properties essential for bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, as reflected by its ability to induce myofibroblast differentiation and recruit bone marrow-derived cells.
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Crystal structure of arginine methyltransferase 6 from Trypanosoma brucei.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Arginine methylation plays vital roles in the cellular functions of the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. The T. brucei arginine methyltransferase 6 (TbPRMT6) is a type I arginine methyltransferase homologous to human PRMT6. In this study, we report the crystal structures of apo-TbPRMT6 and its complex with the reaction product S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH). The structure of apo-TbPRMT6 displays several features that are different from those of type I PRMTs that were structurally characterized previously, including four stretches of insertion, the absence of strand ?15, and a distinct dimerization arm. The comparison of the apo-TbPRMT6 and SAH-TbPRMT6 structures revealed the fine rearrangements in the active site upon SAH binding. The isothermal titration calorimetry results demonstrated that SAH binding greatly increases the affinity of TbPRMT6 to a substrate peptide derived from bovine histone H4. The western blotting and mass spectrometry results revealed that TbPRMT6 methylates bovine histone H4 tail at arginine 3 but cannot methylate several T. brucei histone tails. In summary, our results highlight the structural differences between TbPRMT6 and other type I PRMTs and reveal that the active site rearrangement upon SAH binding is important for the substrate binding of TbPRMT6.
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Evaluation of three live attenuated H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidates in mice and ferrets.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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H2 influenza viruses have not circulated in humans since 1968 and therefore a significant portion of the population would be susceptible to infection should H2 influenza viruses re-emerge. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in avian reservoirs worldwide and these reservoirs are a potential source from which these viruses could emerge. Three reassortant cold-adapted (ca) H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidates with HA and NA genes derived from the wild-type A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2) (Jap/57), A/mallard/6750/1978 (H2N2) (mal/78), or A/swine/MO/4296424/2006 (H2N3) (sw/06) viruses and the internal protein gene segments from the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca virus were generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics (Jap/57 ca, mal/78 ca and sw/06 ca, respectively). The vaccine candidates exhibited the in vitro phenotypes of temperature sensitivity and cold adaptation and were restricted in replication in the respiratory tract of ferrets. In mice and ferrets, the vaccines elicited neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against homologous wild-type virus challenge. Of the three candidates, the sw/06 ca vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibodies and provided significant protection against the greatest number of heterologous viruses. These observations suggest that the sw/06 ca vaccine should be further evaluated in a clinical trial as a H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidate.
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Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Fe3O4 has long been regarded as a promising anode material for lithium ion battery due to its high theoretical capacity, earth abundance, low cost, and nontoxic properties. However, up to now no effective and scalable method has been realized to overcome the bottleneck of poor cyclability and low rate capability. In this article, we report a bottom-up strategy assisted by atomic layer deposition to graft bicontinuous mesoporous nanostructure Fe3O4 onto three-dimensional graphene foams and directly use the composite as the lithium ion battery anode. This electrode exhibits high reversible capacity and fast charging and discharging capability. A high capacity of 785 mAh/g is achieved at 1C rate and is maintained without decay up to 500 cycles. Moreover, the rate of up to 60C is also demonstrated, rendering a fast discharge potential. To our knowledge, this is the best reported rate performance for Fe3O4 in lithium ion battery to date.
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Molecular recognition using corona phase complexes made of synthetic polymers adsorbed on carbon nanotubes.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Understanding molecular recognition is of fundamental importance in applications such as therapeutics, chemical catalysis and sensor design. The most common recognition motifs involve biological macromolecules such as antibodies and aptamers. The key to biorecognition consists of a unique three-dimensional structure formed by a folded and constrained bioheteropolymer that creates a binding pocket, or an interface, able to recognize a specific molecule. Here, we show that synthetic heteropolymers, once constrained onto a single-walled carbon nanotube by chemical adsorption, also form a new corona phase that exhibits highly selective recognition for specific molecules. To prove the generality of this phenomenon, we report three examples of heteropolymer-nanotube recognition complexes for riboflavin, L-thyroxine and oestradiol. In each case, the recognition was predicted using a two-dimensional thermodynamic model of surface interactions in which the dissociation constants can be tuned by perturbing the chemical structure of the heteropolymer. Moreover, these complexes can be used as new types of spatiotemporal sensors based on modulation of the carbon nanotube photoemission in the near-infrared, as we show by tracking riboflavin diffusion in murine macrophages.
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Protective role of andrographolide in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic devastating disease with poor prognosis. Multiple pathological processes, including inflammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), apoptosis, and oxidative stress, are involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Recent findings suggested that nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is constitutively activated in IPF and acts as a central regulator in the pathogenesis of IPF. The aim of our study was to reveal the value of andrographolide on bleomycin-induced inflammation and fibrosis in mice. The indicated dosages of andrographolide were administered in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. On day 21, cell counts of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, alone with TNF-? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. HE staining and Massons trichrome (MT) staining were used to observe the histological alterations of lungs. The Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content of lungs were also measured. TGF-?1 and ?-SMA mRNA and protein were analyzed. Activation of NF-?B was determined by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). On day 21 after bleomycin stimulation, andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the inflammatory cells and TNF-? in BALF. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that the Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content of the bleomycin-stimulated lung were reduced by andrographolide administration. Furthermore, andrographloide suppressed TGF-?1 and ?-SMA mRNA and protein expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Meanwhile, andrographolide significantly dose-dependently inhibited the ratio of phospho-NF-?B p65/total NF-?B p65 and NF-?B p65 DNA binding activities. Our findings indicate that andrographolide compromised bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis possibly through inactivation of NF-?B. Andrographolide holds promise as a novel drug to treat the devastating disease of pulmonary fibrosis.
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Making Sense in Antisense: Therapeutic Potential of Noncoding RNAs in Diabetes-Induced Vascular Dysfunction.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The rapid rise of type II diabetes mellitus and its accompanying vascular complications call for novel approaches in unravelling its pathophysiological mechanisms and designing new treatment modalities. Noncoding RNAs represent a class of previously unknown molecular modulators of this disease. The most important features of diabetes-induced vascular disease, which include metabolic deregulation, increased oxidative stress, release of inflammatory mediators like adipokines, and pathologic changes in vascular cells, all are depicted and governed by a certain set of noncoding RNAs. While these mechanisms are being unravelled, new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities to treat diabetes-induced vascular disease emerge.
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Aripiprazole augmentation, antidepressant combination or switching therapy in patients with major depressive disorder who are partial- or non-responsive to current antidepressants: A multi-center, naturalistic study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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There has been no studies comparing the clinical benefits of aripiprazole augmentation (AT), antidepressant combination (AC), and switching to a different antidepressant (SW) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) patients partially or not responding to an initial antidepressant. AT, AC, or SW was chosen by patients. The primary efficacy measure was the proportion of patients showing an improvement in the Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB) score at week 8. Secondary efficacy measures included changes in CGI-CB, CGI-Severity (S) and subjective satisfaction scores. Remission and responder analysis were also employed. A total of 295 patients were enrolled. The most preferred strategy was AT (n = 156, 52.9%), followed by AC (n = 93, 31.5%) and SW (n = 46, 15.6%). The improver was significantly higher in AT (74.1%) compared with AC (48.1%; p < 0.001) and similar to SW (73.5%, p = 0.948), whereas no significant difference was found between AC and SW. Similar results were also found in the most secondary endpoint measures proving a superiority of AT over AC without differences between AT and SW. Tolerability profiles were similar across the three groups; however, the mean weight gain for SW (-0.1 kg) was significantly less than that for AC (1.3 kg, p < 0.05). Patients preferred AT to AC or SW when an antidepressant was ineffective in treating their depression. Among the three treatment strategies, overall AT yielded greater clinical benefit than did AC and SW. Adequately powered, well-controlled clinical trials are strongly warranted to confirm our findings due to methodological shortcomings.
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Controllable growth of conducting polymers shell for constructing high-quality organic/inorganic core/shell nanostructures and their optical-electrochemical properties.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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High-quality metal oxide/conducting polymer (CP) heterostructured nanoarrays are fabricated by controllable electrochemical polymerization of CP shells on preformed metal oxides nanostructures for both electrochromic and electrochemical energy storage applications. Coaxial and branched CP shells can be obtained on different backbones (nanowire, nanorod, and nanoflake) simply by controlling the electrodeposition time. "Solvophobic" and "electrostatic" interactions are proposed to account for the preferential growth of CP along metal oxides to form core/shell heterostructures. The coaxial TiO2/polyaniline core/shell nanorod arrays exhibit remarkable electrochromic performance with rich color changes, fast optical modulation, and superior cycling stability. In addition, the Co3O4/polyaniline core/shell nanowire arrays are evaluated as an anode material of Li ion battery and exhibit enhanced electrochemical property with higher and more stable capacity than the bare Co3O4 nanowires electrode. These unique organic-inorganic heterostructures with synergy pave the way for developing new functional materials with enhanced properties or new applications.
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Cytomegalovirus vaccine strain towne-derived dense bodies induce broad cellular immune responses and neutralizing antibodies that prevent infection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, can cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and following congenital infection. A vaccine that induces both humoral and cellular immunity may be required to prevent congenital infection. Dense bodies (DBs) are complex, noninfectious particles produced by HCMV-infected cells and may represent a vaccine option. As knowledge of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of DB is incomplete, we explored characterization methods and defined DB production methods, followed by systematic evaluation of neutralization and cell-mediated immune responses to the DB material in BALB/c mice. DBs purified from Towne-infected cultures treated with the viral terminase inhibitor 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole riboside (BDCRB) were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), immunoblotting, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and other methods. The humoral and cellular immune responses to DBs were compared to the immunogenicity of glycoprotein B (gB) administered with the adjuvant AddaVax (gB/AddaVax). DBs induced neutralizing antibodies that prevented viral infection of cultured fibroblasts and epithelial cells and robust cell-mediated immune responses to multiple viral proteins, including pp65, gB, and UL48. In contrast, gB/AddaVax failed to induce neutralizing antibodies that prevented infection of epithelial cells, highlighting a critical difference in the humoral responses induced by these vaccine candidates. Our data advance the potential for the DB vaccine approach, demonstrate important immunogenicity properties, and strongly support the further evaluation of DBs as a CMV vaccine candidate.
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Aripiprazole augmentation for treatment of patients with chronic or recurrent major depressive disorder: a 12-week prospective open-label multicentre study.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Patients with chronic or recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) have faced a dearth of treatment options. The present study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole augmentation for the treatment of chronic or recurrent MDD. This was the first 12-week prospective, multicentre, open-label study of the effectiveness and tolerability of flexibly dosed aripiprazole as an augmentation to ongoing antidepressant treatment in patients with chronic or recurrent MDD. The primary outcome measure for effectiveness was changes between baseline and endpoint (week 12) in total scores on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Adverse events (AEs) occurring throughout the trial are also reported. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores decreased significantly between the baseline and the endpoint (magnitude of difference=-11.6, P<0.0001). At the endpoint, the response rate was 55.2% and the remission rate was 41.3%. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment administered from week 1 through the endpoint was associated with remission and significant treatment responses. More than half (55.8%) of those taking adjunctive aripiprazole completed the study and relatively few patients discontinued participation because of AEs. None of the patients discontinued participation in the study because of an inadequate therapeutic response. Common AEs included headache, akathisia, insomnia and constipation. The mean dose of aripiprazole at the endpoint was 6.6 mg/day. Adjunctive aripiprazole may be effective and tolerable for patients with chronic or recurrent MDD. Adequately powered and controlled clinical trials should be conducted to confirm our open-label study findings.
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[HLA antigen compatibility between patients with hematologic diseases and their parents].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate and analyze the HLA antigen compatibility between patients with hematologic diseases and their parents so as to provide basis for selecting the suitable donors in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The HLA low resolution for 174 families was typed and analyzed by using PCR-SSP. The results showed that 52.30% of patients with hematologic diseases possessed father and/or mother with HLA matching over haploidentity, 10.92% patients were over 8/10 matched with their father and/or mother. 11.49% were over semi-matched with both their father and mother. The rate of 6/10 matched pairs (28.16%), 7/10 matched pairs (16.1%) and 8/10 matched pairs (8.62%) were all beyond 5%; 9/10 (2.3%) and 10/10 matched pairs (1.15%) were all below 5%. It is concluded that with the matching degree increasing between two generations, HLA matching rate is decreasing. Over 50% and 10% patients were over HLA semi-matched and 8/10 matched with their father and/or mother, respectively. This high matching rate offered a big chance for success of haploidentical HSCT. Patients are more likely over semi-matched with their father and/or mother when they have high frequency and strong linkage HLA disequilibrium. High frequency and strong linkage disequilibrium in populations are main reason, and population concentrating and isolated living may be another reason for this phenomenon.
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Cross-protective immunity against influenza A/H1N1 virus challenge in mice immunized with recombinant vaccine expressing HA gene of influenza A/H5N1 virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Influenza virus undergoes constant antigenic evolution, and therefore influenza vaccines must be reformulated each year. Time is necessary to produce a vaccine that is antigenically matched to a pandemic strain. A goal of many research works is to produce universal vaccines that can induce protective immunity to influenza A viruses of various subtypes. Despite intensive studies, the precise mechanisms of heterosubtypic immunity (HSI) remain ambiguous.
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Fabrication of metal oxide nanobranches on atomic-layer-deposited TiO2 nanotube arrays and their application in energy storage.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Due to the chemical stability and easy fabrication by atomic layer deposition (ALD), TiO2 nanotubes are regarded highly useful in constructing branched nanostructured electrodes for solar conversion and electrochemical energy storage devices. Here we present a facile and scalable fabrication of metal oxide nanobranches on ALD pre-formed TiO2 nanotubes. The metal oxide branches can be a wide range (nearly any) of desirable materials, including NiO and Co3O4 demonstrated herein. As an example, the TiO2/NiO nanoarray battery cathode exhibits a relatively high gravimetric capacity value of ~153 mA h g(-1) and a fairly good stability up to 12,000 cycles with a capacitance of 132 mA h g(-1) at 2 A g(-1).
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A complex secretory program orchestrated by the inflammasome controls paracrine senescence.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is crucial for tumour suppression. Senescent cells implement a complex pro-inflammatory response termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP reinforces senescence, activates immune surveillance and paradoxically also has pro-tumorigenic properties. Here, we present evidence that the SASP can also induce paracrine senescence in normal cells both in culture and in human and mouse models of OIS in vivo. Coupling quantitative proteomics with small-molecule screens, we identified multiple SASP components mediating paracrine senescence, including TGF-? family ligands, VEGF, CCL2 and CCL20. Amongst them, TGF-? ligands play a major role by regulating p15(INK4b) and p21(CIP1). Expression of the SASP is controlled by inflammasome-mediated IL-1 signalling. The inflammasome and IL-1 signalling are activated in senescent cells and IL-1? expression can reproduce SASP activation, resulting in senescence. Our results demonstrate that the SASP can cause paracrine senescence and impact on tumour suppression and senescence in vivo.
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Gastrointestinal pain: unraveling a novel endogenous pathway through uroguanylin/guanylate cyclase-C/cGMP activation.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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The natural hormone uroguanylin regulates intestinal fluid homeostasis and bowel function through activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), resulting in increased intracellular cyclic guanosine-3,5-monophosphate (cGMP). We report the effects of uroguanylin-mediated activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway in vitro on extracellular cGMP transport and in vivo in rat models of inflammation- and stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In vitro exposure of intestinal Caco-2 cells to uroguanylin stimulated bidirectional, active extracellular transport of cGMP into luminal and basolateral spaces. cGMP transport was significantly and concentration dependently decreased by probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP efflux pumps. In ex vivo Ussing chamber assays, uroguanylin stimulated cGMP secretion from the basolateral side of rat colonic epithelium into the submucosal space. In a rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity, orally administered uroguanylin increased colonic thresholds required to elicit abdominal contractions in response to colorectal distension (CRD). Oral administration of cGMP mimicked the antihyperalgesic effects of uroguanylin, significantly decreasing TNBS- and restraint stress-induced visceromotor response to graded CRD in rats. The antihyperalgesic effects of cGMP were not associated with increased colonic spasmolytic activity, but were linked to significantly decreased firing rates of TNBS-sensitized colonic afferents in rats in response to mechanical stimuli. In conclusion, these data suggest that the continuous activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway along the intestinal tract by the endogenous hormones guanylin and uroguanylin results in significant reduction of gastrointestinal pain. Extracellular cGMP produced on activation of GC-C is the primary mediator in this process via modulation of sensory afferent activity.
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Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by the live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines and their roles in heterologous protection in ferrets.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by the trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) were evaluated in the ferret model, using newly developed ferret immunological reagents and assays. In contrast to the TIV, which only induced immune responses in primed animals, LAIV induced strong influenza virus-specific serum antibody and T-cell responses in both naive and influenza-seropositive animals. The LAIV offered significant protection against a heterologous H1N1 virus challenge infection in the upper respiratory tract. Influenza virus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and influenza virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in the circulation and local paratracheal draining lymph nodes. The frequency of the influenza-specific ASCs in the local lymph nodes appeared to correlate with the degree of protection in the upper respiratory tract. The protection conferred by the LAIV could be attributed not only to the antibody response but also to the cell-mediated and local mucosal immune responses, particularly in naive ferrets. These findings may explain why the LAIV is immunologically superior and offers immediate protection after a single dose in children.
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Linaclotide Inhibits Colonic Nociceptors and Relieves Abdominal Pain via Guanylate Cyclase-C and Extracellular Cyclic Guanosine 3,5-Monophosphate.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Linaclotide is a minimally absorbed agonist of guanylate cyclase-C (GUCY2C or GC-C) that reduces symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Little is known about the mechanism by which linaclotide reduces abdominal pain in patients with IBS-C.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.