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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Parity-time symmetric Bragg structure in atomic vapor.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose an efficient scheme in helium or alkaline earth atomic vapor to achieve a parity-time symmetric Bragg structure using coherent lights. Unidirectional invisibility can be realized in this scheme, i.e., the atomic vapor shows total transparency for probe light incident from one particular direction, but exhibits enhanced Bragg reflection for probe from the opposite side. By changing the relative phase between the coherent lights, this direction can easily be manipulated, providing a convenient way for investigating special properties of ???????? -symmetric Bragg structures.
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[Evolution of brain temperature in ischemic tissues by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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To explore the application of temperature measurement technique by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in an ischemia monkey model.
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General design of hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks with extraordinary lithium storage.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Hollow porous CoFe2O4 nanocubes from metal-organic frameworks were fabricated through a general facile strategy. The intrinsic hollow nanostructure can shorten the lengths for both electronic and ionic transport, enlarge the surface area of electrodes, and improve accommodation of the volume change during Li insertion/extraction cycling. The hybrid multi-elements characteristics allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner during the electrochemical cycle. Therefore, the as-prepared CoFe2O4 electrode exhibits outstanding performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The stable capacity arrives at 815 mA h g(-1) for 20 C. Subsequently, a specific capacity of ca. 1043 mA h g(-1) is recovered when the current rate reduces back to 1 C after 200 cycles. This general strategy may shed light on a new avenue for large-scale synthesis of hollow porous hybrid nanocubes via MOFs for energy storage, environmental remediation and other novel applications.
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Clinical significance of reduced SFRP1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Deregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) has been found in many types of cancer. However, the pattern of SFRP1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still unclear. This study determined SFRP1 expression in patients with AML. SFRP1 expression was decreased markedly in patients with AML compared to controls (p < 0.001). White blood cell (WBC) counts increased as SFRP1 expression decreased in AML (p = 0.016). Patients with low SFRP1 expression showed a different distribution of French-American-British (FAB) subtypes M1/M2/M3 from those with high SFRP1 expression (p = 0.031). NPM1 mutation was mainly observed in patients with low SFRP1 expression (p = 0.011). There was a weak trend that patients with AML with low SFRP1 expression had shorter overall survival (OS) than those with high SFRP1 expression (p = 0.103). Our results indicate that reduced SFRP1 expression is found more frequently in the less well-differentiated subgroups of AML and is associated with NPM1 mutation in AML.
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X-ray Structure of a Hg(2+) Complex of Mercuric Reductase (MerA) and Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Study of Hg(2+) Transfer between the C-Terminal and Buried Catalytic Site Cysteine Pairs.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Mercuric reductase, MerA, is a key enzyme in bacterial mercury resistance. This homodimeric enzyme captures and reduces toxic Hg(2+) to Hg(0), which is relatively unreactive and can exit the cell passively. Prior to reduction, the Hg(2+) is transferred from a pair of cysteines (C558' and C559' using Tn501 numbering) at the C-terminus of one monomer to another pair of cysteines (C136 and C141) in the catalytic site of the other monomer. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the C-terminal Hg(2+) complex of the C136A/C141A double mutant of the Tn501 MerA catalytic core and explore the molecular mechanism of this Hg transfer with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. The transfer is found to be nearly thermoneutral and to pass through a stable tricoordinated intermediate that is marginally less stable than the two end states. For the overall process, Hg(2+) is always paired with at least two thiolates and thus is present at both the C-terminal and catalytic binding sites as a neutral complex. Prior to Hg(2+) transfer, C141 is negatively charged. As Hg(2+) is transferred into the catalytic site, a proton is transferred from C136 to C559' while C558' becomes negatively charged, resulting in the net transfer of a negative charge over a distance of ?7.5 Å. Thus, the transport of this soft divalent cation is made energetically feasible by pairing a competition between multiple Cys thiols and/or thiolates for Hg(2+) with a competition between the Hg(2+) and protons for the thiolates.
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Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leuco-geranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland.
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65±0.53 (n=43) and 3.09±0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09±24.94 (n=23) and 28.94±27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes.
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Molecular spintronics: destructive quantum interference controlled by a gate.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The ability to control the spin-transport properties of a molecule bridging conducting electrodes is of paramount importance to molecular spintronics. Quantum interference can play an important role in allowing or forbidding electrons from passing through a system. In this work, the spin-transport properties of a polyacetylene chain bridging zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are studied with nonequilibrium Green's function calculations performed within the density functional theory framework (NEGF-DFT). ZGNR electrodes have inherent spin polarization along their edges, which causes a splitting between the properties of spin-up and spin-down electrons in these systems. Upon adding an imidazole donor group and a pyridine acceptor group to the polyacetylene chain, this causes destructive interference features in the electron transmission spectrum. Particularly, the donor group causes a large antiresonance dip in transmission at the Fermi energy EF of the electrodes. The application of a gate is investigated and found to provide control over the energy position of this feature making it possible to turn this phenomenon on and off. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of this system are also calculated, showing near ohmic scaling for spin-up but negative differential resistance (NDR) for spin-down.
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Electric control of spin in monolayer WSe2 field effect transistors.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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We report first-principles theoretical investigations of quantum transport in a monolayer WSe2 field effect transistor (FET). Due to strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and the atomic structure of the two-dimensional lattice, monolayer WSe2 has an electronic structure that exhibits Zeeman-like up-down spin texture near the K and [Formula: see text] points of the Brillouin zone. In a FET, the gate electric field induces an extra, externally tunable SOI that re-orients the spins into a Rashba-like texture thereby realizing electric control of the spin. The conductance of FET is modulated by the spin texture, namely by if the spin orientation of the carrier after the gated channel region, matches or miss-matches that of the FET drain electrode. The carrier current [Formula: see text] in the FET is labelled by both the valley index and spin index, realizing valleytronics and spintronics in the same device.
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[A review of atmospheric aerosol research by using polarization remote sensing].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In the present paper, aerosol research by using polarization remote sensing in last two decades (1993-2013) was reviewed, including aerosol researches based on POLDER/PARASOL, APS(Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor), Polarized Airborne camera and Ground-based measurements. We emphasize the following three aspects: (1) The retrieval algorithms developed for land and marine aerosol by using POLDER/PARASOL; The validation and application of POLDER/PARASOL AOD, and cross-comparison with AOD of other satellites, such as MODIS AOD. (2) The retrieval algorithms developed for land and marine aerosol by using MICROPOL and RSP/APS. We also introduce the new progress in aerosol research based on The Directional Polarimetric Camera (DPC), which was produced by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). (3) The aerosol retrieval algorithms by using measurements from ground-based instruments, such as CE318-2 and CE318-DP. The retrieval results from spaceborne sensors, airborne camera and ground-based measurements include total AOD, fine-mode AOD, coarse-mode AOD, size distribution, particle shape, complex refractive indices, single scattering albedo, scattering phase function, polarization phase function and AOD above cloud. Finally, based on the research, the authors present the problems and prospects of atmospheric aerosol research by using polarization remote sensing, and provide a valuable reference for the future studies of atmospheric aerosol.
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[Mineralization of soil organic carbon and its relationship with soil enzyme activities in apple orchard in Weibei].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A total of 36 kinds of soil samples were collected from apple orchards under three kinds of management model, including clear tillage model, intercropping white clover model and intercropping small crown flower model, the mineralization of soil organic carbon and four kinds of soil enzymes activities were determined, and the relationship between the two parameters was also analyzed. The results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization of all the three treatments was almost the same. The daily SOC mineralization rate first increased and then decreased, and finally tended to be stable. After 31 days incubation experiment, the maximum accumulative amount of SOC mineralization occurred in white clover treatment with 590 mg x kg(-1), followed by small crown flower treatment with 541 mg x kg(-1), and the minimum value was 367 mg x kg(-1) in the control treatment, and the accumulative amount of SOC mineralization decreased with increasing soil depth. Discovered by the first-order kinetics, the fitting parameter Cp value ranged from 0.252 to 2.74 g x kg(-1) and k value ranged from 0.019 to 0.051 d(-1), and the two grass treatments both showed significant difference in Cp value from the control treatment, and the soil invertase and cellulose activities showed obvious relationship with soil organic carbon mineralization.
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Development of targeted near-infrared imaging agents for prostate cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Radical prostatectomy remains a definitive treatment for prostate cancer. However, prostate surgeries are still performed "blindly" with the extent of tumor infiltration past the margins of the surgery only being determined postoperatively. An imaging modality that can be used during surgery is needed to help define the tumor margins. With its abundant expression in prostate cancer, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an ideal target for detection of prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop PSMA-targeted near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging probes for intraoperative visualization of prostate cancer. We synthesized a high-affinity PSMA ligand (PSMA-1) with low molecular weight and further labeled it with commercially available NIR dyes IRDy800 and Cy5.5. PSMA-1 and PSMA-1-NIR conjugates had binding affinities better than the parent ligand Cys-CO-Glu. Selective binding was measured for each of the probes in both in vitro and in vivo studies using competitive binding and uptake studies. Interestingly, the results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of the probes was dependent of the fluorophore conjugated to the PSMA-1 ligand and varied widely. These data suggest that PSMA-targeted probes have the potential to be further developed as contrast agents for clinical intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(11); 2595-606. ©2014 AACR.
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A pro-inflammatory role for Th22 cells in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Helper T (Th) cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Th22 cells represent a newly discovered Th cell subset, but their relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown.
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[The effect of calpeptin on injury and atrophy of diaphragm under mechanical ventilation in rats].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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To investigate the effect of calpeptin on diaphragmatic injury and atrophy under controlled mechanical ventilation in rats.
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Lipocalin 2 is a regulator of macrophage polarization and NF-?B/STAT3 pathway activation.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine/cytokine and implicated in obesity and inflammation. Herein, we investigated the role and potential mechanism of Lcn2 in the regulation of macrophage polarization in obesity-associated inflammation. We observed that Lcn2-/- mice displayed an up-regulation of expression of M1 macrophage marker Cd11c but a down-regulation of M2 marker arginase 1 in adipose tissue and liver of mice upon a high-fat diet feeding. Lcn2-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were more sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, leading to a more profound up-regulation of expression of pro-inflammatory markers than wild-type (WT) BMDMs. Accordingly, LPS stimulation elicited an increase in the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), c-Jun, and STAT3 signaling pathways as well as an up-regualtion of expression of NF-?B and STAT3 target genes such as IL-1?, IL-6, iNOS, and MCP-1 in Lcn2-/- BMDMs compared with WT controls. Pre-treatment of recombinant Lcn2 attenuated LPS-stimulated degradation of I?B? and STAT3 phosphorylation as well as LPS-induced gene expression of IL-6 and iNOS in Lcn2-/- BMDMs. Moreover, the NF?B inhibitor markedly blocked LPS-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation in Lcn2-/- BMDMs. These results together with the time course of Lcn2 secretion, NF?B and STAT3 phosphorylation in response to LPS stimulation, suggest that Lcn2 plays a role as an anti-inflammatory regulator in macrophage activation via modulating a feed-forward activation of NF?B-STAT3 loop.
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Small Bowel Endoscopy Diagnostic Yield and Reasons of Obscure GI Bleeding in Chinese Patients.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Aim. To investigate the diagnostic yield and etiologies of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) using capsule endoscopy (CE) or double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Method. We studied the data of 532 consecutive patients with OGIB that were referred to Xinqiao Hospital in Chongqing from December 2005 to January 2012. A lesion that was believed to be the source of the bleeding (ulceration, mass lesion, vascular lesion, visible blood, inflammation, or others) was considered to be a positive finding. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of CE and SBE and the etiologies of OGIB. Result. CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields, at 71.9% (196/231) and 71.8% (251/304), respectively. The most common etiology was erosions/ulceration (27.1%) followed by mass lesion (19.4%) and angiodysplastic/vascular lesions (13.9%). By stratified analysis, we found that erosions/ulceration (27.1%) was the most common etiology for the 21-40-year age group. Mass lesion was the most common etiology in the 41-60-year age group. However, in the >60 years age group, angiodysplastic/vascular lesions were significantly increased compared with the other groups, even though erosions/ulceration was most common. Conclusion. In this study, we found that CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields and erosions/ulceration was the most common reason for OGIB, followed by mass lesion and angiodysplasias.
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Self-assembled hierarchical yolk-shell structured NiO@C from metal-organic frameworks with outstanding performance for lithium storage.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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A facile generic environmental strategy is employed to prepare hierarchical yolk-shell hybrid NiO@C materials viz. metal-organic frameworks. The intrinsic yolk-shell nature as well as the multi-element characteristics of active components of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the outstanding electrochemical performance.
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Absorption-free Bragg reflector using Zeeman sublevels in atomic vapor.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Absorption-free Bragg reflector has been studied in ions doped in crystals. We propose a new scheme using Zeeman sublevels of atoms to construct an absorption-free Bragg reflector with practical laser power. Its spatial period of refractive index equals half of the wavelength of the incident standing-wave coupling light. The proposal is simulated in a helium atom scheme, and can be extended to alkali earth atoms.
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Conductivity of Si(111)-(7×7): the role of a single atomic step.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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While it is known that the Si-(7×7) is a conducting surface, measured conductivity values differ by 7 orders of magnitude. Here we report a combined STM and transport method capable of surface conductivity measurement of step-free or single-step containing surface regions and having minimal interaction with the sample, and by which we quantitatively determine the intrinsic conductivity of the Si-(7×7) surface. We found that a single step has a conductivity per unit length about 50 times smaller than the flat surface. Our first principles quantum transport calculations confirm and lend insight into the experimental observation.
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Lipocalin 2 regulates brown fat activation via a nonadrenergic activation mechanism.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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In this study, we report that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a recently characterized adipokine/cytokine, is a novel regulator of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation by modulating the adrenergic independent p38 MAPK-PGC-1?-UCP1 pathway. Global Lcn2 knock-out (Lcn2(-/-)) mice have defective BAT thermogenic activation caused by cold stimulation and decreased BAT activity under high fat diet-induced obesity. Nevertheless, Lcn2(-/-) mice maintain normal sympathetic nervous system activation as evidenced by normal catecholamine release and lipolytic activity in response to cold stimulation. Further studies showed that Lcn2 deficiency impairs peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation of lipids and attenuates cold-induced Pgc1a and Ucp1 expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in BAT. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that Lcn2 deficiency reduces the thermogenic activity of brown adipocytes. Lcn2(-/-) differentiated brown adipocytes have significantly decreased expression levels of brown fat markers, decreased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and decreased mitochondrial oxidation capacity. However, Lcn2(-/-) brown adipocytes have normal norepinephrine-stimulated p38 MAPK and hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation and Pgc1a and Ucp1 expression, suggesting an intact ?-adrenergic signaling activation. More intriguingly, recombinant Lcn2 was able to significantly stimulate p38 MAPK phosphorylation in brown adipocytes. Activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, a downstream effector of PGC-1?, by thiazolidinedione administration fully reverses the BAT function of Lcn2(-/-) mice. Our findings provide evidence for the novel role Lcn2 plays in oxidative metabolism and BAT activation via an adrenergic independent mechanism.
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Pretreatment with Danhong injection protects the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is widely used in China for treating acute ischemic stroke. In the present study, we explored the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and evaluated the potential mechanisms underlying its effects. Pretreatment with DHI (0.9 and 1.8 mL/kg) resulted in a significantly smaller infarct volume and better neurological scores than pretreatment with saline. Furthermore, DHI significantly reduced the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, increased occludin protein expression and decreased neutrophil infiltration, as well as profoundly suppressing the upregulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression seen in rats that had received vehicle. Matrix metallopeptidase-2 expression was not affected by ischemia or DHI. Moreover, DHI (1.8 mL/kg) administered 3 hours after the onset of ischemia also improved neurological scores and reduced infarct size. Our results indicate that the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by a protective effect on the blood-brain barrier and the reversal of neutrophil infiltration.
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The Cebpa +37-kb enhancer directs transgene expression to myeloid progenitors and to long-term hematopoietic stem cells.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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C/EBP? is expressed preferentially in myeloid compared with lymphoid or erythroid cells and directs myeloid lineage specification. C/EBP? is also expressed at lower levels in HSCs and in several nonhematopoietic tissues. The Cebpa gene has a conserved, 450-bp segment at +37 kb that harbors enhancer-specific epigenetic marks and is activate in a myeloid cell line. Herein, we characterize transgenic C57BL/6 mice, in which the Cebpa enhancer and 845-bp promoter regulate a hCD4 reporter. FACS analysis, in vitro colony assays, and in vivo competitive and secondary transplantation revealed that myeloid but not MEPs or lymphoid progenitors and also functional LT-HSCs are found almost exclusively in the Cebpa-hCD4(+) compared with hCD4(-) marrow population. hCD4(+) CMP yielded predominantly myeloid, whereas hCD4(-) CMP generated mainly Meg/E colonies. Providing insight into control of CMP maturation, Cebpa and Pu.1 RNAs were preferentially expressed in hCD4(+) CMP, Scl, Gata2, Gata1, Klf1, Ets1, and Fli1 predominated in hCD4(-) CMP, and Runx1, Myb, HoxA9, and Erg levels were similar in both. Cebpa-hCD4 transgene expression was lacking in multiple nonhematopoietic tissues. In summary, the +37-kb Cebpa enhancer and promoter are sufficient for marrow myeloid progenitor and LT-HSC-specific expression.
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p.Pro4Arg mutation in LMNA gene: a new atypical progeria phenotype without metabolism abnormalities.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a typical presenile disorder, with mutation in the LMNA gene. Besides HGPS, mutations in LMNA gene have also been reported in atypical progeroid syndrome (APS). The objective of the study was to investigate the phenotype and molecular basis of APS in a Chinese family. LMNA gene mutations were also reviewed to identify the phenotypic and pathogenic differences among APS. Two siblings in a non-consanguineous Chinese family with atypical progeria were reported. The clinical features were observed, including presenile manifestations such as bird-like facial appearance, generalized lipodystrophy involving the extremities and mottled hyperpigmentation on the trunk and extremities. A heterozygous mutation c.11C>G (p.Pro4Arg) of the LMNA gene was detected in the two patients. 28 different variants of the LMNA gene have been reported in APS families, spreading over almost all the 12 exons of the LMNA gene with some hot-spot regions. This is the first detailed description of an APS family without metabolism abnormalities. APS patients share most of the clinical features, but there may be some distinct features in different ethnic groups.
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[Mechanism of gold solid extraction from aurocyanide solution using D3520 resin impregnated with TRPO].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Trialkyphosphine oxides (TRPO) was successfully used for the impregnation of D3520 resin to prepare an extractant-impregnated resin (EIR). Solid extraction of Au(I) from alkaline cyanide solution was studied using this extractant-impregnated resin (EIR), with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), directly into the aurous aqueous phase in advance. The mechanism of solid extraction was further investigated by means of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The column separation studies have shown that cationic surfactant CTMAB played a key role in the solid phase extraction, and the resin containing TRPO were effective for the extraction of gold when the molar ratio of CTMAB: Au( I ) reached 1:1. FTIR spectroscopy of gold loaded EIR showed that the frequency of C[triple bond]N stretching vibration was at 2144 cm(-1), and the frequency of P=O stretching vibration shifted to lower frequency from 1153 to 1150 cm(-1). The XPS spectrum of N(1s), Au(4f7/2) and Au(4f5/2) sugges- ted that the coordination environment of gold did not change before and after extraction, and gold was still as the form of Au (CN)2(-) anion exiting in the loaded resin; O(1s) spectrum showed that the chemically combined water significantly increased after solid extraction from 30.74% to 42.34%; Comparing to the P(2p) spectrum before and after extraction, the binding energy increased from 132. 15 to 132. 45 eV, indicating there maybe existing hydrogen-bond interaction between P=O and water molecule, such as P=O...H-O-H. The above results obtained established that in the solid extraction process, the hydrophobic ion association [CTMA+ x Au(CN)] diffused from the bulk solution into the pores of the EIR, and then be solvated by TRPO adsorbed in the pores through hydrogen bonding bridged by the water molecules.
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Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol.
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Accurate hierarchical control of hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes for superior lithium storage.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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An effective approach of simultaneously coordinating etching and precipitation reactions is employed to prepare hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, amorphous hollow (NiCox)O(OH) nanoboxes form uniformly, and subsequent calcination results in the formation of NiCo2O4 nanocubes that exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g(-1) at constant current density of 200 mA g(-1) with capacity retention of over 91.1% after 200 cycles. The unique hollow structure can shorten the Li-ion diffusion path, which benefits the rate of performance. Furthermore, the hollow structure offers a sufficient void space to alleviate the mechanical stress caused by volume change. Additionally, the multi-element characteristics of active materials allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner. Therefore, hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocube electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. This method is simple and of low cost, which may open a new avenue for fast synthesis of hollow crossed structural nano-functional materials for energy storage, catalysts, sensors and other new applications.
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An atomic optical filter working at 1.5 ?m based on internal frequency stabilized laser pumping.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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An excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (ES-FADOF) working at the optical communication wavelength (1.5 ?m) is realized. Unlike the usual ES-FADOF schemes using an external frequency stabilization, an internal frequency stabilization scheme is proposed and the working atoms inside the filter are adopted as the reference. A particular cross line of multiple transitions is used for the frequency stabilization for the pump laser and thus, a higher pump efficiency is achieved. For example, compared with previous ES-FADOF schemes, this method can increase the transmittance from 10% to 60% at 100 °C. Moreover, in this scheme, the external frequency stabilization is not necessary and the volume of the atomic filter can be reduced. This simplifies the whole structure and a compact ES-FADOF can thus be realized.
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Danhong injection attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage which is associating with Nrf2 levels in vivo and in vitro.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Danhong injection, a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction in clinic. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of Danhong injection on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage relating to Nrf2/ARE signalling pathway in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo experiment, cerebral I/R injury was induced through middle cerebral artery occlusion. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated group, I/R injury group, 6 mg/kg edaravone injection (positive control drug) group, 0.9 ml/kg Danhong injection (DHI-L) group, 1.8 ml/kg Danhong injection (DHI-H) group. The neurological score, cerebral infarction and brain edema were assessed while levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain tissue were also evaluated. Transcription levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. For in vitro experiment, mouse Neuro-2A cells were wounded with H2O2 then cell viability and mRNA transcriptions levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1 were detected. Protein expression level of Nrf2 was assayed by western blotting. The results showed that Danhong injection could ameliorate neurological score, cerebral infarction and brain edema. Also it can increase levels of SOD, GSH and decrease of MDA and upregulate expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1 in ischemic brain tissue in vivo. What's more, it increased the mRNA transcription of Nrf2 and HO-1 and upregulated protein expression of Nrf2 in vitro. These findings suggested that Danhong injection could prevent I/R-induced brain damage through activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.
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Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer: A feasibility study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To establish the feasibility of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in esophageal cancer (EC).
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Excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters based on indirect laser pumping.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The direct pump method now used in excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (ES-FADOFs) requires that the transition between the target and the ground state is an electric dipole allowed transition and that a laser that operates at the exact pump wavelength is available. This is not always satisfied in practice. An indirect laser pump method for ES-FADOF is proposed and experimentally realized. Compared with the commonly used direct pump method, this indirect pump method can reach the same performance using lasers at very different wavelengths. This method can greatly extend the wavelength range of FADOF and provide a novel scheme for ES-FADOF design.
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RING finger proteins are involved in the progression of barrett esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma: a preliminary study.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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To investigate the differential expression of RING finger (RNF) proteins in Barrett esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
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CD64 expression is increased in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: clinical significance.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Upregulated CD64 expression on neutrophils is the most useful marker for acute bacterial infections and systemic inflammation. However, it is unknown whether CD64 is involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). This study was designed to determine whether CD64 is implicated in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and thus, is a suitable marker for SAP.
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[A report of first fatal case of H10N8 avian influenza virus pneumonia in the world].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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To report the treatment process of the first case of human pneumonia resulted from H10N8 avian influenza virus infection in the world for providing the data for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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The non-reverse transcriptase activity of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promotes tumor progression (review).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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In human cancer, high expression of telomerase is correlated with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), which regulates telomere length, can promote tumor development. Most research on hTERT has been focused on its crucial function of telomere maintenance. However, there are many phenomena that cannot be explained by its reverse transcriptase activity. Accumulating evidence suggests that hTERT has functions independent of its protective function at the telomere ends, such as increasing the anti-apoptotic capacity of cells, enhancing DNA repair, maintaining stem cells and regulating gene expression. This review will provide an update on the non-reverse transcriptase activity of hTERT and its contribution to tumor formation, metastasis and cancer stem cell maintenance. Repression of the non-reverse transcriptase activity of hTERT may be a new strategy for tumor therapy.
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Prevalent drug resistance among oral yeasts from asymptomatic patients in Hainan, China.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The oral cavity is a significant niche of the human microbiome and a gateway for the microbiota in many other human body sites. As a result, understanding the oral microbiota has broad implications for the prevention and management of human infectious diseases. Opportunistic yeast infections are among the most prevalent fungal infections of humans, and most opportunistic yeast pathogens are common residents of the oral mucosa. However, relatively little is known about the drug susceptibility profiles of oral yeasts. Here, we report the species distribution and patterns of antifungal susceptibility profiles among 313 yeasts isolated from the oral cavities of 301 asymptomatic hospitalized patients in Hainan Province in southern China. These yeasts were tested for their susceptibilities to the following five drugs: amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and fluorocytosine. Since none of the sampled hosts had taken any antifungal drugs at least 3 months before samples were taken, we hypothesized that little or no drug resistance should be observed. Contrary to our expectations, our analyses identified that 29 % (91/313) of the isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 14.3 % (45/313) were resistant to two or more of the five common drugs. The potential sources of the observed resistance were discussed.
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Novel and recurrent mutations of STK11 gene in six Chinese cases with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene is the main causal gene in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Abnormal STK11 may increase cancer risk of PJS patients via affecting its target proteins such as P53, AMPK, and PTEN. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of six Chinese PJS patients.
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Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical study of catalytic mechanism and role of key residues in methylation reactions catalyzed by dimethylxanthine methyltransferase in caffeine biosynthesis.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The caffeine biosynthetic pathway is of considerable importance for the beverage and pharmaceutical industries which produces two blockbuster products: theobromine and caffeine. The major biochemistry in caffeine biosynthesis starts from the initial substrate of xanthosine and ends with the final product caffeine, with theobromine serving as an intermediate. The key enzyme, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) dependent 3,7-dimethyl-xanthine methyltransferase (DXMT), catalyzes two important methyl transfer steps in caffeine biosynthesis: (1) methylation of N3 of 7-methylxanthine (7mX) to form theobromine (Tb); (2) methylation of N1 of theobromine to form caffeine (Cf). Although DXMT has been structurally characterized recently, our understanding of the detailed catalytic mechanism and role of key catalytic residues is still lacking. In this work, the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) MD and free energy simulations are performed to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme-catalyzed reactions and to explain experimental observations concerning the activity of this enzyme. The roles of certain active-site residues are studied, and the results of computer simulation seem to suggest that a histidine residue (His160) at the active site of DXMT may act as a general base/acid catalyst during the methyl transfer process.
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OCT3 and SOX2 promote the transformation of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma by regulating the formation of tumor stem cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a type of precancerosis and a key risk factor for esophagus adenocarcinoma (EAC). Tumor stem cells may be the source for BE transforming to EAC. Octamer transcription factor-3/4 (OCT3/4) and SOX2 are the main transcriptional controlling factors and markers of tumor stem cells. In the present study, we observed that the expressions of OCT3/4, SOX2, TCL1 and AKT1 in BE were elevated compared to normal esophagus but were decreased compared to EAC. Moreover, we isolated a few stem-like cells in OE33 cells which showed similar biological behavior to tumor stem cells. Notably, we found that downregulation of OCT3/4 expression by siRNA inhibited the ability of clone formation and invasion of OE33 cells, and decreased the formation of side population cells and slow cycle cells. Therefore, we concluded that OCT3/4 and SOX2 play a critical role in the transformation of BE to EAC by regulating the formation of tumor stem cells and the TCL1/AKT1 pathway.
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Effect of cadmium on the extracellular Na?, K?, and Ca²? in the gill and small intestine of goldfish Carassius auratus.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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In this study, the toxic effect of cadmium on extracellular Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the gill and small intestine of goldfish Carassius auratus was determined with the technique of ion chromatograph. Two-way ANOVA indicated that the two factors (Cd(2+) treatment and time) and the interaction factor had significant effect on the level of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill. 1.0 mg/L Cd(2+) significantly increased Ca(2+) level in the small intestine, but Ca(2+) level in the gill was significantly decreased by 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at 24, 48, and 72 h. Na(+) and K(+) level in the small intestine and gill was increased by 1.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at three time points, but increased by 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at a certain different time. In addition, Na(+) level was significantly decreased by 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at 24 or 48 h in the small intestine and gill. The results indicated that Cd(2+) played an important role in regulating the level of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill of goldfish C. auratus. A method was constructed to investigate the extracellular Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) in the tissues of gold fish with ion chromatography.
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Analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of the V5-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene in donkey.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Considerable evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is complex in many mammals and gut bacteria communities are essential for maintaining gut homeostasis. To date the research on the gut microbiota of donkey is surprisingly scarce. Therefore, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V5-V6 hypervariable regions from gut fecal material to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy donkeys and compare the difference of gut microbiota between male and female donkeys. Sixty healthy donkeys (30 males and 30 females) were enrolled in the study, a total of 915,691 validated reads were obtained, and the bacteria found belonged to 21 phyla and 183 genera. At the phylum level, the bacterial community composition was similar for the male and female donkeys and predominated by Firmicutes (64 % males and 64 % females) and Bacteroidetes (23 % males and 21 % females), followed by Verrucomicrobia, Euryarchaeota, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Akkermansia was the most abundant genus (23 % males and 17 % females), followed by Sporobacter, Methanobrevibacter, and Treponema, detected in higher distribution proportion in males than in females. On the contrary, Acinetobacter and Lysinibacillus were lower in males than in females. In addition, six phyla and 15 genera were significantly different between the male and female donkeys for species abundance. These findings provide previously unknown information about the gut microbiota of donkeys and also provide a foundation for future investigations of gut bacterial factors that may influence the development and progression of gastrointestinal disease in donkey and other animals.
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Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax population in Anhui province of China.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Although the numbers of malaria cases in China have been declining in recent years, outbreaks of Plasmodium vivax malaria were still being reported in rural areas south of the Yellow River. To better understand the transmission dynamics of P. vivax parasites in China, the extent of genetic diversity of P. vivax populations circulating in Bozhou of Anhui province of China were investigated using three polymorphic genetic markers: merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3? (pvmsp-1 and pvmsp-3?) and circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp).
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Decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate and poor karyotypes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dysregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been found in various cancers. However, it is little known about the pattern of SFRP2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study was aimed to analyze the expression status of SFRP2 gene in AML patients and explore its clinical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The level of SFRP2 expression significantly decreased in AML compared to controls (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed that an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.871 (P<0.001) or 0.902 (P<0.001) in discriminating all patients or cytogenetically normal (CN) patients from controls, respectively. Low level of SFRP2 expression was found more frequently in cytogenetically intermediate and poor groups (72% and 62%, respectively) than in favorable group (42%) (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of complete remission (CR) and overall survival between the groups with low SFRP2 and high expression (P>0.05). SFRP2 expression significantly increased after CR compared to initial diagnosis (P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate/poor karyotypes in AML patients and detection of SFRP2 expression may be helpful to the diagnosis and disease monitoring in CN-AML.
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Lipocalin 2 expression and secretion is highly regulated by metabolic stress, cytokines, and nutrients in adipocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) has been recently characterized as a new adipokine having a role in innate immunity and energy metabolism. Nonetheless, the metabolic regulation of Lcn2 production in adipocytes has not been comprehensively studied. To better understand the Lcn2 biology, we investigated the regulation of Lcn2 expression in adipose tissue in response to metabolic stress in mice as well as the control of Lcn2 expression and secretion by cytokines and nutrients in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that the mRNA expression of Lcn2 was upregulated in white and brown adipose tissues as well as liver during fasting and cold stress in mice. Among pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-6, IL-1? showed most profound effect on Lcn2 expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin stimulated Lcn2 expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner; this insulin effect was significantly abolished in the presence of low concentration of glucose. Moreover, insulin-stimulated Lcn2 expression and secretion was also attenuated when glucose was replaced by 3-O-methyl-d-glucose or by blocking NF?B pathway activation. Additionally, we showed that palmitate and oleate induced Lcn2 expression and secretion more significantly than EPA, while phytanic acid reduced Lcn2 production. Our results demonstrated that Lcn2 production in adipocytes is highly responsive to metabolic stress, cytokines, and nutrient signals, suggesting an important role of Lcn2 in adipocyte metabolism and inflammation.
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Mutations in the homeodomain of HOXD13 cause syndactyly type 1-c in two Chinese families.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Syndactyly type 1 (SD1) is an autosomal dominant limb malformation characterized in its classical form by complete or partial webbing between the third and fourth fingers and/or the second and third toes. Its four subtypes (a, b, c, and d) are defined based on variable phenotypes, but the responsible gene is yet to be identified. SD1-a has been mapped to chromosome 3p21.31 and SD1-b to 2q34-q36. SD1-c and SD1-d are very rare and, to our knowledge, no gene loci have been identified.
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Granulopoiesis requires increased C/EBP? compared to monopoiesis, correlated with elevated Cebpa in immature G-CSF receptor versus M-CSF receptor expressing cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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C/EBP? is required for the formation of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors; however, its role in subsequent myeloid lineage specification remains uncertain. Transduction of murine marrow with either of two Cebpa shRNAs markedly increases monocyte and reduces granulocyte colonies in methylcellulose or the monocyte to neutrophil ratio in liquid culture. Similar findings were found after marrow shRNA transduction and transplantation and with CEBPA knockdown in human marrow CD34+ cells. These results apparently reflect altered myeloid lineage specification, as similar knockdown allowed nearly complete 32Dcl3 granulocytic maturation. Cebpa knockdown also generated lineage-negative blasts with increased colony replating capacity but unchanged cell cycle parameters, likely reflecting complete differentiation block. The shRNA having the greatest effect on lineage skewing reduced Cebpa 3-fold in differentiating cells but 6-fold in accumulating blasts. Indicating that Cebpa is the relevant shRNA target, shRNA-resistant C/EBP?-ER rescued marrow myelopoiesis. Cebpa knockdown in murine marrow cells also increased in vitro erythropoiesis, perhaps reflecting 1.6-fold reduction in PU.1 leading to GATA-1 derepression. Global gene expression analysis of lineage-negative blasts that accumulate after Cebpa knockdown demonstrated reduction in Cebpe and Gfi1, known transcriptional regulators of granulopoiesis, and also reduced Ets1 and Klf5. Populations enriched for immature granulocyte or monocyte progenitor/precursors were isolated by sorting Lin-Sca-1-c-Kit+ cells into GCSFR+MCSFR- or GCSFR-MCSFR+ subsets. Cebpa, Cebpe, Gfi1, Ets1, and Klf5 RNAs were increased in the c-Kit+GCSFR+ and Klf4 and Irf8 in the c-Kit+MCSFR+ populations, with PU.1 levels similar in both. In summary, higher levels of C/EBP? are required for granulocyte and lower levels for monocyte lineage specification, and this myeloid bifurcation may be facilitated by increased Cebpa gene expression in granulocyte compared with monocyte progenitors.
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Elevated interleukin-32 expression is associated with Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases. We investigated the expression of IL-32 and its regulation mechanism in the inflammatory response of patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.
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Hierarchical synthesis of Mo-Sn oxide cage-bell hybrid structures with superior lithium storage.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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A facile generic solvothermal alcoholysis strategy is employed to prepare Mo-Sn oxide cage-bell hybrid nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic hollow core-shell nature as well as the multi-element characteristics of active components of the unique nanostructures contribute greatly to the enhanced performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.
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[An improved prior image constrained compressed sensing reconstruction for low-dose computed tomography].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Low-dose computed tomography (CT) reconstruction has become the focus of X-ray CT imaging study. In this paper, we propose an improved prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) reconstruction approach. A penalized weighted least-squares approach was adopted to realize the line integral projection (sinogram) data restoration, followed by filtered back-projection (FBP) of the restored sinogram data for image reconstruction. Finally, the FBP image as the prior image was used for PICCS approach for dose reduction. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out with computer simulation. The results showed that the present approach yielded noticeable gains over the original PICCS approach for dose reduction in terms of noise-induced artifacts suppression and edge detail preservation.
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A proposal of a spin cell using light on magnetic tunneling junctions.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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We propose and theoretically investigate a spin cell using light as the power source. Such a device can be realized when a quantum dot is connected to two ferromagnetic electrodes. In the case of identical electrodes, a pure spin current (PSC) can be generated when the light is shone on the quantum dot. Moreover, the PSC can be tuned continuously from zero to the maximum when the magnetic moment orientations of the two electrodes are changed from parallel to anti-parallel. The output spin bias is linear with the light power in the low power region, while it approaches the theoretical limit when the power is extremely high because of the electrodes renormalization by the spin transfer torque. This effect implies that light energy can be transferred to electron spin directly, which may be applicable in future opto-spintronics.
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Quantum transport modeling of the symmetric Fe/FeO0.5/MgO magnetic tunnel junction: the effects of correlations in the buffer layer.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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We report ab initio simulations of quantum transport properties of Fe/MgO/Fe trilayer structures with FeO0.5 buffer iron oxide layer, where on-site Coulomb interaction is explicitly taken into account by local density approximation + Hubbard U approach. We show that on-site Coulomb repulsion in the iron-oxygen layer can cause a dramatic drop of the tunnel magnetoresistance of the system. We present an understanding of microscopic details of this phenomenon, connecting it to localization of electronic states of particular symmetry, which takes place in the buffer Fe-O layer, when on-site Coulomb repulsion is introduced. We further study the possible influence of the symmetry reduction in the buffer Fe-O layer on the transport properties of the Fe/MgO/Fe interface.
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[Eurasian Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)-a new bird record in China].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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A new bird species record, the Eurasian Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), was witnessed and subsequently recorded from 22 December 2012 to 9 January 2013, in Kashi (N39°28, E76°00, altitude 1 260 m), southwest Xinjiang, China.
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One-Step Overall Water Splitting under Visible Light Using Multiband InGaN/GaN Nanowire Heterostructures.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via water splitting process is one of the key sustainable technologies for future clean, storable, and renewable source of energy. Therefore, development of visible light-responsive and efficient photocatalyst material has been of immense interest, but with limited success. Here, we show that overall water splitting under visible-light irradiation can be achieved using a single photocatalyst material. Multiband InGaN/GaN nanowire heterostructures, decorated with rhodium (Rh)/chromium-oxide (Cr2O3) core-shell nanoparticles can lead to stable hydrogen production from pure (pH ? 7.0) water splitting under ultraviolet, blue and green-light irradiation (up to ?560 nm), the longest wavelength ever reported. At ?440-450 nm wavelengths, the internal quantum efficiency is estimated to be ?13%, the highest value reported in the visible spectrum. The turnover number under visible light well exceeds 73 in 12 h. Detailed analysis further confirms the stable photocatalytic activity of the nanowire heterostructures. This work establishes the use of metal-nitrides as viable photocatalyst for solar-powered artificial photosynthesis for the production of hydrogen and other solar fuels.
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Drag on intruders in granular beds: a boundary layer approach.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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We performed a parametric study of the drag on vertical intruders with uniform cross sections of different sizes and shapes, from which we developed a semiempirical model. Baffling techniques were used to isolate the contributions of the intruders different subsurfaces, and we observed size effects and force focusing on edges. We propose a boundary layer approach, whereby the drag is the surface integral of an effective stress over a monolayer of particles contacting the intruder. The stress has a simple lithostatic dependence and is a function of the orientation relative to the intruders direction of motion. This approach is experimentally verified and is consistent with the semiempirical model.
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Evidence for the regulatory role of lipocalin 2 in high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue remodeling in male mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) has previously been characterized as an adipokine/cytokine playing a role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we investigate the role of Lcn2 in adipose tissue remodeling during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We find that Lcn2 protein is highly abundant selectively in inguinal adipose tissue. During 16 weeks of HFD feeding, the inguinal fat depot expanded continuously, whereas the expansion of the epididymal fat depot was reduced in both wild-type (WT) and Lcn2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the depot-specific effect of HFD on fat mass was exacerbated and appeared more pronounced and faster in Lcn2(-/-) mice than in WT mice. In Lcn2(-/-) mice, adipocyte hypertrophy in both inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue was more profoundly induced by age and HFD when compared with WT mice. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? protein was significantly down-regulated, whereas the gene expression of extracellular matrix proteins was up-regulated selectively in epididymal adipocytes of Lcn2(-/-) mice. Consistent with these observations, collagen deposition was selectively higher in the epididymal, but not in the inguinal adipose depot of Lcn2(-/-) mice. Administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist rosiglitazone (Rosi) restored adipogenic gene expression. However, Lcn2 deficiency did not alter the responsiveness of adipose tissue to Rosi effects on the extracellular matrix expression. Rosi treatment led to the further enlargement of adipocytes with improved metabolic activity in Lcn2(-/-) mice, which may be associated with a more pronounced effect of Rosi treatment in reducing TGF-? in Lcn2(-/-) adipose tissue. Consistent with these in vivo observations, Lcn2 deficiency reduces the adipocyte differentiation capacity of stromal-vascular cells isolated from HFD-fed mice in these cells. Herein Rosi treatment was again able to stimulate adipocyte differentiation to a similar extent in WT and Lcn2(-/-) inguinal and epididymal stromal-vascular cells. Thus, combined, our data indicate that Lcn2 has a depot-specific role in HFD-induced adipose tissue remodeling.
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Mutation p.Leu128Pro in the 1A domain of K16 causes pachyonychia congenita with focal palmoplantar keratoderma in a Chinese family.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Pachyonychia congenita (PC), a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy, is classified into two main clinical subtypes: PC-1 and PC-2. PC-1 is associated with mutations in the KRT6A or KRT16 genes, whereas PC-2 is linked to KRT6B or KRT17 mutations. Blood samples were collected from three generations of a new Chinese PC-1 family, including three PC patients and five unaffected family members. A novel missense mutation p.Leu128Pro (c.383T>C) was identified in a highly conserved helix motif in domain 1A of K16. The disease haplotype carried the mutation and cosegregated with the affection status. PolyPhen2 and SIFTS analysis rated the substitution as probably damaging; Swiss-Model analysis indicated that the structure of the mutant protein contained an unnormal ?-helix. Overexpression of mutant protein in cultured cells led to abnormal cell morphology. Conclusion: The wider spectrum of KRT16 mutations suggests that changes in codons 125, 127, and 132 are most commonly responsible for PC-1 and that proline substitution mutations at codons 127 or 128 may produce more severe disease. This study extends the KRT16 mutation spectrum and adds new information on the clinical and genetic diversity of PC.
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Patterns of human oral yeast species distribution on hainan island in china.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Infections by yeast strains of the genus Candida are among the most prevalent fungal infections of humans. These yeasts are common residents of the oral mucosa and other body surfaces. Since most yeast infections are due to endogenous strains and that species of Candida differ in virulence properties and in intrinsic susceptibilities to antifungal drugs, understanding the human commensal yeast flora can help designing effective treatment and prevention strategies against yeast infections. Here, we report the patterns of yeast species distributions in the oral cavities of 1,799 people from Hainan Island in southern China. Based on sequence information at the fungal barcode locus ITS regions, 368 of the 415 obtained oral yeast strains were identified as belonging to 26 yeast species, while the remaining 47 strains all showed significant sequence divergence to the currently described species. The four most common yeast species were C. albicans (42 %), C. tropicalis (20 %), C. glabrata (5.5 %), and C. parapsilosis (4.1 %) and 10 of the 26 yeast species were represented by only one strain each. Our analyses identified that the gender of hosts and ethnical background showed no contribution to oral yeast species distributions. However, the health status, place of birth, current residency, and the age of hosts all showed significant contributions to the distributions of the four dominant yeast species. We compared our results with those reported previously and discussed the potential mechanisms for the observed differences in oral yeast species distributions.
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Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa).
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175?M and 341?M, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.
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A novel mutation in the COL2A1 gene in a Chinese family with Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, diminished joint mobility, dislocation of hip, absent femoral head ossification, scoliosis and flattened vertebral bodies. SEDC is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the type II procollagen ?-1 chain (COL2A1). We screened COL2A1 gene mutations in four affected individuals from a Chinese family with SEDC. A novel missense mutation c.3257G>T (p.G1086V), which located in the triple-helical domain, was identified in the SEDC patients. Our study extends the mutation spectrum of SEDC and confirms genotype-phenotype relationship between mutations in the COL2A1 gene and clinical findings of SEDC.
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Involvement of cathepsins B and L in inflammation and cholesterol trafficking protein NPC2 secretion in macrophages.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Obesity and its related chronic inflammation are the major risk factors for developing metabolic disturbances. The roles of cathepsin cysteine proteases have been tied to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Cathepsins are important functional links between inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and atherosclerosis in obesity. NPC2, a lysosomal protein, plays an important role in cholesterol trafficking. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of cathepsins and NPC2 in adipose tissue and macrophages in obesity and the effect of modifying cathepsin activity in cholesterol metabolism and trafficking in macrophages.
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Increased Circulating Th17 Cell Populations and Elevated CSF Osteopontin and IL-17 Concentrations in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute post-infectious immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system. Th17 cells and osteopontin (OPN) have been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases, but little is known about their relationship and roles in the pathogenesis of GBS.
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Upregulation of triglyceride synthesis in skeletal muscle overexpressing DGAT1.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The gene encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a functional and positional candidate gene for milk and intramuscular fat content. A bovine DGAT1 overexpression vector was constructed containing mouse MCK promoter and bovine DGAT1 cDNA. MCK-DGAT1 transgene in FVB mice was researched in present study. The transgene DGAT1 had a high level of expression in contrast to the endogenous DGAT1 in posterior tibial muscle of the transgenic mice, but a low expression level in the cardiac muscle. Compared with wild-type mice, triglyceride and DGAT1 content were approximately fourfold and 50% increased in posterior tibial muscle of the transgenic mice, respectively, while a little increase in cardiac muscle.
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Screening of Drug Target Proteins by 2D Ligand Matching Approach.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Drugs interacting with off-target proteins would bring about side-effects. The identification of the proteins that a drug can bind is thus valuable for evaluating its side-effects. We established a system based on PDB database for screening for proteins a drug could bind. Firstly, all complexes in the PDB database were sorted by species; then, a ligand database was established by extracting ligands from the structure data files. Secondly, all proteins were clustered according to their sequence similarity with the protein originally bound with the ligand in PDB. To search the potential target proteins of a drug, the query drug structure is compared with all ligands in the database to obtain similar scores. Ligands with similar sores greater than a certain threshold were flagged. Protein clusters associating with these ligands would be considered as potential targets of the query drug. To test the reliability of this approach, three drugs from DrugBank were used to search for their binding proteins by our method. The results showed that all the corresponding target proteins were found. The method presented here was rapid, scalable and could be used for high efficient drug side-effects analysis.
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Scutellarin and caffeic acid ester fraction, active components of Dengzhanxixin injection, upregulate neurotrophins synthesis and release in hypoxia/reoxygenation rat astrocytes.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Scutellarin (Scu) and caffeic acid ester fraction (Caf), the extracts from the traditional Chinese herb, Erigeron breviscapus, are known to ameliorate post ischemic neuronal dysfunction.
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Confirmation of genetic homogeneity of syndactyly type IV and triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome in a Chinese family and review of the literature.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Syndactyly type IV (SD4) is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by complete cutaneous syndactyly of all fingers accompanied with polydactyly. Triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS) consists of a triphalangeal thumb, polydactyly, and syndactyly and is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner with variable expression. Genomic duplications of the long-range limb-specific cis-regulator (ZRS) cause SD4 and TPTPS. Here, we report two individuals from a Chinese family with syndactyly. One individual had overlapping clinical symptoms of TPTPS and SD4, while the other had a typical SD4 with postaxial polydactyly of the toe. Results of quantitative PCR suggested that the duplication of ZRS involved all affected individuals, and array comparative genomic hybridization detected its size as 115.3 kb. Conclusion: This work confirms the genetic homogeneity of SD4 and TPTPS. Our result expands the spectrum of ZRS duplications. TPTPS and SD4 should be considered as a continuum of phenotypes.
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Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic analysis of the Chinese literature including 21,789 patients.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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The epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in China has rarely been studied before. The aim of the present study was to determine the etiology of DILI in a Chinese population by reporting a systematic analysis of the Chinese literature published from 1994 to 2011.
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Observation and optimization of 4He atomic polarization spectroscopy.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Polarization spectroscopy in (4)He around 1083 nm is observed and optimized with a distributed feedback fiber laser and is applied for frequency stabilization. In order to improve the accuracy and long-term stability of the frequency-locking performance, a power stabilization module is added, and the dependences of the peak-to-peak amplitude and frequency difference (width) of the polarization spectroscopy signal on various pump and probe powers are investigated.
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Expression of Tim-1 and Tim-3 in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious and often fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections; however, the precise mechanisms leading to CM is poorly understood. Mouse malaria models have provided insight into the key events in pathogenesis of CM. T-cell immune response is known to play an important role in malaria infection, and members of the T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule (Tim) family have roles in T-cell-mediated immune responses. Tim-1 and Tim-3 are expressed on terminally differentiated Th2 and Th1 cells, respectively, and participate in the regulation of Th immune response. Until now, the role of Tim family proteins in Plasmodium infection remains unclear. In the present study, the mRNA levels of Tim-1, Tim-3, and some key Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the spleen of Kunming outbred mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA) were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared with uninfected controls, Tim-1 expression was significantly decreased in infected mice with CM at day 10 postinfection (p.i.) but significantly increased in infected mice with non-CM at day 22 p.i.; in contrast, Tim-3 expression was significantly increased in infected mice both with CM at day 10 p.i. and with non-CM at day 22 p.i. The expressions of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, and IL-12 were significantly increased but IL-4 was significantly decreased in infected mice with CM at days 10 p.i., whereas the expressions of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-? were significantly increased but IL-12 was significantly decreased in infected mice with non-CM at days 22 p.i. Furthermore, the expression of Tim-1 and Tim-3 could reflect Th2 and Th1 immune response in the spleen of PbANKA-infected mice, respectively. Our data suggest that PbANKA infection could inhibit the differentiation of T lymphocytes toward Th2 cells, promote the Th1 cell differentiation, and induce Th1-biased immune response in the early infective stage, whereas the infection could promote Th2 cell differentiation and induce Th2-biased immune response in the late infective stage. Our data indicate that both Tim-1 and Tim-3 may play a role in the process of PbANKA infection, which may represent a potential therapeutic target.
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Safety assessment of subconjunctivally implanted devices containing latanoprost in Dutch-belted rabbits.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Latanoprost is used for the treatment of an increased intraocular pressure (IOP) to prevent the progression of glaucoma. Since the lack of compliance with topical ocular dosing may compromise efficacy, alternate methods of delivery are being sought. A 9-month study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of latanoprost-containing subconjunctivally implanted devices.
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Phosphene object perception employs holistic processing during early visual processing stage.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Psychophysical studies have verified the possibility of recovering the visual ability by the form of low-resolution format of images, that is, phosphene-based representations. Our previous study has found that early visual processing for phosphene patterns is configuration based. This study further investigated the configural processing mechanisms of prosthetic vision by analyzing the event-related potential components (P1 and N170) in response to phosphene face and non-face stimuli. The results reveal that the coarse processing of phosphenes involves phosphene-specific holistic processing that recovers separated phosphenes into a gestalt; low-level feature processing of phosphenes is also enhanced compared with that of normal stimuli due to increased contrast borders introduced by phosphenes; while fine processing of phosphene stimuli is impaired reflected by reduced N170 amplitude because of the degraded detailed features in the low-resolution format representations. Therefore, we suggest that strategies that can facilitate the specific holistic processing stages of prosthetic vision should be considered in order to improve the performance when designing the visual prosthesis system.
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Enhanced expression of MYF5 and MYOD1 in fibroblast cells via the forced expression of bos taurus MYF5.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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The formation of vertebrate skeletal muscles widely thought to be under the control of hierarchy of regulatory genes. MYF5 is one of the myogenic determination gene expressed in the developing mouse dermomyotome which control skeletal muscle differentiation. In the current work, we had obtained the cDNA sequence including the full coding region of the bos taurus myogenic factor MYF5 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we examined whether fibroblast cell derived from mouse and bos taurus can be transduced using plasmid vectors carrying bos taurus MYF5. Bos taurus MYF5 activates MYF5 and MYOD1 expression after 1 day culture. The concerted upregulation of the myogenic regulatory factors enhanced myosin (skeletal fast) expression. These observation show that MYF5 is essential for myogenic differentiation and provides candidates for regulation bos taurus skeletal muscle development.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.