The rotation invariance of the classical disc-based moments, such as Zernike moments (ZMs), pseudo-Zernike moments (PZMs), and orthogonal Fourier-Mellin moments (OFMMs), makes them attractive as descriptors for the purpose of recognition tasks. However, less work has been performed for the generalization of these moment functions. In this paper, four general forms are developed to obtain a class of disc-based generalized radial polynomials that are orthogonal over the unit circle. These radial polynomials are scaled to ensure numerical stability, and some useful properties are discussed for potential applications they could be used in. Then, these scaled radial polynomials are used as kernel functions to construct a series of unit disc-based generalized orthogonal moments (DGMs). The variation of parameters in DGMs can form various types of orthogonal moments: generalized Zernike moments (GZMs), generalized pseudo-Zernike moments (GPZMs), generalized Fourier- Mellin moments (GOFMMs), and so on. The classical ZMs, PZMs and OFMMs correspond to a special case of these three generalized moments for which the free parameter = 0. Each member of this family will share some excellent properties for image representation and recognition tasks, such as orthogonality and rotation invariance. Additionally, we have also developed two algorithms, the so-called m-recursive and n-recursive methods for the computation of these proposed radial polynomials in order to improve the numerical stability. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are superior to the classical disc-based moments in terms of image representation capability and classification accuracy.
BackgroundInflammation is a key etiologic component in atherogenesis and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1) is a well known anti-inflammatory cytokine which potentially might be used to limit it. Yet TGFß1 is pleiomorphic, causing fibrosis, cell taxis, and under certain circumstances, can even worsen inflammation. SMAD3 is an important member of TGFß1¿s signal transduction pathway, but is a fully intracellular protein.ObjectivesWith the hope of attenuating TGFß1¿s adverse systemic effects (eg. fibrosis) and accentuating its anti-inflammatory activity, we proposed the use of human (h)SMAD3 as an intracellular substitute for TGFß1.Study designTo test this hypothesis adeno-associated virus type 2/8 (AAV)/hSMAD3 or AAV/Neo (control) was tail vein injected into the low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-KO) mice, then placed on a high-cholesterol diet (HCD).ResultsThe hSMAD3 delivery was associated with significantly lower atherogenesis as measured by larger aortic cross sectional area, thinner aortic wall thickness, and lower aortic systolic blood velocity compared with Neo gene-treated controls. HSMAD3 delivery also resulted in fewer aortic macrophages by immunohistochemistry for CD68 and ITGAM, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of EMR and ITGAM. Overall, aortic cytokine expression showed an enhancement of Th2 response (higher IL-4 and IL-10); while Th1 response (IL-12) was lower with hSMAD3 delivery. While TGFß1 is often associated with increased fibrosis, AAV/hSMAD3 delivery exhibited no increase of collagen 1A2 or significantly lower 2A1 expression in the aorta compared with Neo-delivery. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a mediator of TGFß1/SMAD3-induced fibrosis, was unchanged in hSMAD3-delivered aortas. In the liver, all three of these genes were down-regulated by hSMAD3 gene delivery.ConclusionThese data strongly suggest that AAV/hSMAD3 delivery gave anti-atherosclerosis therapeutic effect without the expected undesirable effect of TGFß1-associated fibrosis.
The fungal polysaccharides have been revealed to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation activities. In the present study, the immune and anticancer activities of a novel polysaccharide, BSF-A, isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost was investigated. The inhibitory rate of S180 tumors in mice treated with 40 mg/kg BSF-A reached 62.449%, which was the highest rate from the three doses administered; this may be comparable to mannatide. The antitumor activity of BSF-A is commonly considered to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, as it may significantly promote the macrophage cells in the dose range of 100-400 µg/ml in vitro. The levels of the cytokines, IL-6, IL-1? and TNF-?, and nitric oxide, induced by BSF-A treatment at varying concentrations in the macrophage cells were similar to the levels in the cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. There was weak expression of the TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the untreated macrophages, but this increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in the BSF-A-treated cells. BSF-A also had a time- and dose-dependent effect on the growth inhibition of the Hep-2 cells, with the concentration of 400 µg/ml having the highest inhibitory rate. A quantitative PCR array analysis of the gene expression profiles indicated that BSF-A had anticancer activities that affected cell apoptosis in the Hep-2 cells. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the purified polysaccharide of Boletus speciosus Frost is a potential source of natural anticancer substances.
The development of gene therapy vectors for treating diseases of the cardiovascular system continues at a steady pace. Moreover, in the field of gene therapy the utility of "disease-specific promoters" has strong appeal. Many therapeutic genes, including transforming growth factor beta 1 or interleukin 10, are associated to adverse effects. The use of a disease-specific promoter might minimize toxicity. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is a marker of cardiovascular disease and a potential therapeutic target. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is known to be up-regulated early during disease onset in a number of cell types at the sites where the disease will be clinically evident. In this study an adeno-associated virus-2 DNA vector (AAV2) using the AAV8 capsid, and containing the full length The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 promoter, was generated and assayed for its ability to express human interleukin 10 in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on high cholesterol diet. The cytomegalovirus early promoter was used for comparison in a similarly structured vector. The two promoters were found to have equal efficacy in reducing atherogenesis as measured by aortic systolic blood velocity, aortic cross sectional area, and aortic wall thickness. This is the first head-to-head comparison of a constitutive with a disease-specific promoter in a therapeutic context. These data strongly suggest that the use of a disease-specific promoter is appropriate for therapeutic gene delivery.
Many more fungal polysaccharides have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including anti-tumor, immunostimulation, anti-oxidation, and so on. The non-starch polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive natural products.
The importance of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) gene in cardiovascular and other diseases is slowly being revealed. LOX-1 gene expression appears to be a "canary in a coal mine" for atherogenesis, being strongly up-regulated early on in a number of cell types when they are activated, and predicting the sites of future disease. From this early time point the LOX-1 protein often participates in the disease process itself. While gene/protein expression can be regulated on a multiplicity of levels, the most basic and important mode of regulation is usually transcriptional. There are very few studies on the transcriptional regulation of the human LOX-1 promoter; fewer still on definitive mapping of the transcription factors involved. It is known that a wide variety of stimuli up-regulate LOX-1, usually/probably on the transcriptional level. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one important regulator of renin-angiotensin system and stimulator LOX-1. Ang II is known to up-regulate LOX-1 transcription through an NF-kB motif located at nt -2158. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is another important cardiovascular regulator, particularly of atherosclerotic disease, and a strong stimulator of LOX-1. Ox-LDL is known to up-regulate LOX-1 transcription through an Oct-1 motif located at nt -1556. The subsequent enhanced LOX-1 receptor numbers and their binding by ox-LDL ligand triggers a positive feedback loop, increasing further LOX-1 expression, with a presently unknown regulatory governor. The Oct-1 gene also has its own Oct-1-driven positive feedback loop, which likely also contributes to LOX-1 up-regulation. There is also data which suggests the involvement of the transcription factor AP-1 during stimulation with Phorbol 12-myristate acetate. While the importance of NF-?B as a transcriptional regulator of cardiovascular-relevant genes is well known, the importance of Oct-1 is not. Data suggests that Oct-1-mediated up-regulation of transcription is an early event in the stimulation of LOX-1 by ox-LDL. Yet Oct-1 also down-regulates cardiovascular-relevant genes by suppressing NF-?B transactivation. Thus, Oct-1 is presently somewhat of an enigma, up-regulating and down-regulating genes seemingly at random without an overall theme (with the exception of cell cycle). Yet the up-regulation of LOX-1 by ox-LDL is a very important event in atherogenesis (both early and late) and Oct-1 is, therefore, an important transcriptional gatekeeper of this important atherogenic trigger.
Geometric distortions are generally simple and effective attacks for many watermarking methods. They can make detection and extraction of the embedded watermark difficult or even impossible by destroying the synchronization between the watermark reader and the embedded watermark. In this paper, we propose a new watermarking approach which allows watermark detection and extraction under affine transformation attacks. The novelty of our approach stands on a set of affine invariants we derived from Legendre moments. Watermark embedding and detection are directly performed on this set of invariants. We also show how these moments can be exploited for estimating the geometric distortion parameters in order to permit watermark extraction. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is robust to a wide range of attacks: geometric distortion, filtering, compression, and additive noise.
Previous studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), are differentially induced in primary mouse astrocytes by mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) and MHV-2. However, the signaling events that trigger TNF-alpha and IL-6 induction in these cells upon MHV infection remain unknown. In this study, we explored the potential signaling events. We found that induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 occurred as early as 2 h postinfection and was completely dependent on viral replication. Using inhibitors specific for three mitogen-activated protein kinases, we showed that induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by MHV-A59 infection was mediated through activation of the Janus N-terminal kinase signaling pathway, but not through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38 signaling pathway. This finding was further confirmed with knockdown experiments using small interfering RNAs specific for Janus N-terminal kinase. Interestingly, while nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a key transcription factor required for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in most cell types, was activated in astrocytes during MHV-A59 infection, disruption of the NF-kappaB pathway by peptide inhibitors did not significantly inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression. Furthermore, experiments using chimeric viruses demonstrated that the viral spike and nucleocapsid proteins, which play important roles in MHV pathogenicity in mice, are not responsible for the differential induction of the cytokines. These results illustrate the complexity of the regulatory mechanism by which MHV induces proinflammatory cytokines in primary astrocytes.
We observed that the nonfusogenic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain MHV-2 reached a titer of approximately 2 log10 higher than that of the fusogenic strain A59 in astrocytoma DBT cells. To determine whether the spike protein is responsible for the difference, a recombinant virus, Penn-98-1, that contains the A59 genome with a spike from MHV-2 was used to infect DBT cells. Results showed that Penn-98-1 behaved like MHV-2, thus establishing a role for the spike protein in viral growth. The inverse correlation between viral fusogenicity and growth was further established in four different cell types and with a fusogenic mutant, the S757R mutant, derived from isogenic Penn-98-1. While both A59 and Penn-98-1 entered cells at similar levels, viral RNA and protein syntheses were significantly delayed for A59. Interestingly, when the genomic RNAs were delivered directly into the cells via transfection, the levels of gene expression for these viruses were similar. Furthermore, cell fractionation experiments revealed that significantly more genomic RNAs for the nonfusogenic MHVs were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) within the first 2 h after infection than for the fusogenic MHVs. Pretreatment of Penn-98-1 with trypsin reversed its properties in syncytium formation, virus production, and genome transport to the ER. These findings identified a novel role for the spike protein in regulating the uncoating and delivery of the viral genome to the ER after internalization.
Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), with about 800,000 people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that, long-term, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes.
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