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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Functional Deficits and Symptoms of Long-Term Survivors of Colorectal Cancer Treated by Multimodality Therapy Differ by Age at Diagnosis.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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With advances in multimodality therapy, colorectal cancer survivors are living longer. However, little is known about the quality of their long-term survival. We investigated the functional outcomes and symptoms among long-term survivors.
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Improved perioperative outcomes with minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy: results from a population-based analysis.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Interest in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) has grown in recent years, but currently available data are limited. Greater insight into application patterns and outcomes may be gained from a national database inquiry.
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Radiographic Tumor-Vein Interface as a Predictor of Intraoperative, Pathologic, and Oncologic Outcomes in Resectable and Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Venous resection may be required to achieve complete resection of pancreatic cancers. We assessed the ability of radiographic criteria to predict the need for superior mesenteric-portal vein (SMV-PV) resection and the presence of histologic vein invasion.
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Treatment Sequencing for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Influence of Early Metastases and Surgical Complications on Multimodality Therapy Completion and Survival.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Barriers to multimodality therapy (MMT) completion among patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma include early cancer progression and postoperative major complications (PMC). We sought to evaluate the influence of these factors on MMT completion rates of patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NT) and surgery-first (SF) approaches. We evaluated all operable patients treated for clinically resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma at our institution from 2002 to 2007. Rates of MMT completion, 90-day PMC, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Ninety-five of 115 (83 %) NT and 29/50 (58 %) SF patients completed MMT. Patients who completed MMT lived longer than those who did not (36 vs. 11 months, p?
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In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Using Fluorophore-Conjugated Anti-KIT Antibody.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are frequently characterized by KIT overexpression. Tumor-free margins and complete cytoreduction of disease are mainstays of treatment. We hypothesized that fluorescently labeled anti-KIT antibodies can label GIST in vivo.
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Therapeutic advances in pancreatic cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Despite our improved understanding of pancreatic cancer biology and ability to perform more complex pancreatic cancer surgeries that produce better short-term outcomes, major progress toward increasing survival times has been painstakingly slow. Through the often-repeated, dismal survival statistics, it is easy to lose sight of real progress that has been made in pancreatic cancer therapy. It is particularly interesting to observe the extent to which these advances are interdependent and the effects they have had on practice. For example, during the past 5-10 years, we have seen widespread adoption of pancreatic imaging protocols that allow for objectively defined criteria of resectability. This has led to the definition of "borderline resectable pancreatic cancer"--a new clinical category that has affected the design of clinical trials. A major change in our surgical approach has been the move to minimally invasive pancreatectomy, which continues to gain broader acceptance and use, particularly for left-sided lesions. Although many new agents have been developed aimed at putative molecular targets, recent breakthroughs in therapy for advanced disease have arisen from our ability to safely give patients combination cytotoxic chemotherapy. We are now faced with the challenge of combining multidrug, cytotoxic chemotherapies with newer-generation agents. Ultimately, the hope is that drug combinations will be selected based on biomarkers, and strategies for pancreatic cancer therapy will be personalized, which could prolong patients lives and reduce toxicity. We review the major advances in pancreatic cancer therapy during the last 5 years, and discuss how these have set the stage for greater progress in the near future.
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Submillimeter-resolution fluorescence laparoscopy of pancreatic cancer in a carcinomatosis mouse model visualizes metastases not seen with standard laparoscopy.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Staging laparoscopy can visualize peritoneal and liver metastases in pancreatic cancer otherwise undetectable by preoperative imaging. However, false-negative rates may be as high as 18%-26%. The aim of the present study was to improve detection of metastatic pancreatic cancer with the use of fluorescence laparoscopy (FL) in a nude-mouse model with the tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).
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Imaging of the interaction of cancer cells and the lymphatic system.
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system and its interaction with cancer cells is crucial to our ability to fight cancer metastasis. Efforts to study the lymphatic system had previously been limited by the inability to visualize the lymphatic system in vivo in real time. Fluorescence imaging can address these limitations and allow for visualization of lymphatic delivery and trafficking of cancer cells and potentially therapeutic agents as well. Here, we review recent articles in which antibody-fluorophore conjugates are used to label the lymphatic network and fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells in the evaluation of lymphatic delivery and imaging.
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Knockdown of the ?(1) integrin subunit reduces primary tumor growth and inhibits pancreatic cancer metastasis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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To address the role of ?(1) integrins in pancreatic cancer progression, we stably knocked down ?(1) integrin subunit expression in human FG-RFP pancreatic cancer cells using lentiviral-based RNA interference. We then examined the effects of ?(1) integrin subunit knockdown on pancreatic cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on tumor microenvironment-specific extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and on tumor progression in vivo using a clinically relevant fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of the ?(1) integrin subunit inhibited cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on types I and IV collagen, fibronectin and laminin in vitro. In vivo, knockdown of the ?(1) integrin subunit reduced primary tumor growth by 50% and completely inhibited spontaneously occurring metastasis. These observations indicate a critical role for the ?(1) integrin subunit in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis in particular. Our results suggest the ?(1) integrin subunit as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, especially in the adjuvant setting to prevent metastasis of this highly aggressive cancer.
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Density of surgeons is significantly associated with reduced risk of deaths from motor vehicle crashes in US counties.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The concept of surgery and public health has been introduced in recent years, highlighting the impact of surgeons on improving public health outcomes, a relationship that has traditionally been ascribed to general practitioners. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of surgeon availability on deaths from motor vehicle crashes (MVC).
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The battle of the sexes: women win out in gastrointestinal surgery.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Women have been shown to have worse outcomes compared with men after cardiac surgery, but fare better after traumatic injury. No study considers the impact of gender on outcomes after major gastrointestinal surgery. We hypothesize that the physiologic insults of a major abdominal operation are similar to an injury model; therefore, women will have improved outcomes.
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Real-time imaging of tumor progression in a fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of thyroid cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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There is a need for a clinically relevant mouse model of thyroid cancer that enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug response over time. Human thyroid cancer cell lines NPA (papillary) and KAK-1 (anaplastic) were stably transfected to express either red or green fluorescent protein. Cancer cells were injected into the thyroid glands of 8-week-old athymic mice. The animals were imaged with whole-body fluorescence imaging weekly and sacrificed when premorbid. At necropsy, the primary tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for processing and analysis. Histology was performed on fixed tissue specimens for review of morphologic findings. Both anaplastic and papillary thyroid cancer cell lines led to robust development of orthotopic fluorescent tumors in nude mice. Injection of 5×10(5) cancer cells was sufficient for tumor development. Tumors were visualized for both cell lines via non-invasive imaging as early as 3 weeks post-implantation and were monitored over time. Time to premorbid condition varied between mice and was associated with a primary tumor growth pattern (early local compression of the esophagus vs. late metastatic disease) rather than tumor size. At necropsy, tumor fluorescence demonstrated metastases in the lungs, lymph nodes and vessels that were not visible under white light. Thus an orthotopic mouse model of thyroid cancer has been developed that replicates the major clinical features of thyroid cancer and enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of tumor progression. This model should permit preclinical evaluation of novel thyroid cancer therapeutics.
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A preliminary report on the clinical experience with AlloDerm in breast reconstruction and its radiologic appearance.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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Human acellular tissue matrix (AlloDerm) use in breast reconstruction has become popular. Traditionally used for prosthesis coverage, it is also used in our practice as a filler for lumpectomy defects and a contouring device. However, no report presently exists that describes its appearance on oncologic surveillance studies. We performed a retrospective review of all charts of patients having undergone cancer-related breast reconstruction using AlloDerm as a filler at a single institution between 2005 and 2009. Postoperative mammograms and dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed with a dedicated breast imager. Sixteen women underwent surgery involving placement of an AlloDerm roll in the breast. Postoperative films were unavailable for two of them. Of the remaining 14 patients, nine had postoperative mammograms only, three had postoperative dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging only, and two patients had both. In all cases, evaluation of the postoperative images was not affected by the presence of AlloDerm. In our short-term, retrospective experience, we find that a thorough radiographic evaluation of the breast tissue remains possible when AlloDerm rolls are used in reconstruction.
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Enhancing magnetic resonance imaging tumor detection with fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Early detection is important for many solid cancers but the images provided by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography applied alone or together, are often not sufficient for decisive early screening ? diagnosis. We demonstrate that MRI augmented with fluorescence intensity (FI) substantially improves detection. Early stage murine pancreatic tumors that could not be identified by blinded, skilled observers using MRI alone, were easily identified with MRI along with FI images acquired with photomultiplier tube detection and offset laser scanning. Moreover, we show that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging enables positive identification of the labeling fluorophore and discriminates it from surrounding tissue autofluorescence. Our data suggest combined-modality imaging with MRI, FI, and FLT can be used to screen and diagnose early tumors.
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Metronomic gemcitabine in combination with sunitinib inhibits multisite metastasis and increases survival in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Metronomic chemotherapy suppresses growth of primary tumors and established metastases. However, its effect on metastatic progression is essentially unknown. We report the treatment of a metastatically competent model of pancreatic cancer with metronomic gemcitabine and sunitinib. Mice with orthotopic, red fluorescent protein-expressing, pancreatic cancer tumorgrafts were treated with gemcitabine on a metronomic (1 mg/kg daily, METG) or maximum tolerated dose (150 mg/kg twice weekly, MTDG) schedule with or without sunitinib (SU). Rates of primary tumor growth, metastasis, ascites, and survival were calculated. Gemcitabine at a daily dose of 2 mg or greater led to toxicity within 1 month in mice without tumors but METG at 1 mg/kg/d was well tolerated. Mice with pancreatic cancer tumorgrafts died with metastatic disease at a median of 25 days. METG/SU significantly prolonged median overall survival (44 days) compared with control or either regimen alone (P < 0.05). Primary tumor growth was inhibited by METG/SU (P = 0.03) but neither METG nor sunitinib alone. In contrast, treatment with METG suppressed metastasis at multiple sites, an effect enhanced by sunitinib. MTDG with or without sunitinib had the most favorable effect on primary tumor growth and survival, but its antimetastatic efficacy was similar to that of METG/SU. von Willebrand factor expression was inhibited by METG. Antimetastatic activity approaching that of MTDG is achieved with a total dose reduced 42 times using METG and is further enhanced by sunitinib. Our results suggest the potential of this therapeutic paradigm against pancreatic cancer in the adjuvant and maintenance settings.
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Pseudopodium-enriched atypical kinase 1 regulates the cytoskeleton and cancer progression [corrected].
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Regulation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton plays a central role in cell migration and cancer progression. Here, we report the discovery of a cytoskeleton-associated kinase, pseudopodium-enriched atypical kinase 1 (PEAK1). PEAK1 is a 190-kDa nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to actin filaments and focal adhesions. PEAK1 undergoes Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, regulates the p130Cas-Crk-paxillin and Erk signaling pathways, and operates downstream of integrin and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) to control cell spreading, migration, and proliferation. Perturbation of PEAK1 levels in cancer cells alters anchorage-independent growth and tumor progression in mice. Notably, primary and metastatic samples from colon cancer patients display amplified PEAK1 levels in 81% of the cases. Our findings indicate that PEAK1 is an important cytoskeletal regulatory kinase and possible target for anticancer therapy.
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Half-antibody functionalized lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to carcinoembryonic antigen presenting pancreatic cancer cells.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Current chemotherapy regimens against pancreatic cancer are met with little success as poor tumor vascularization significantly limits the delivery of oncological drugs. High-dose targeted drug delivery, through which a drug delivery vehicle releases a large payload upon tumor localization, is thus a promising alternative strategy against this lethal disease. Herein, we synthesize anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) half-antibody conjugated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and characterize their ligand conjugation yields, physicochemical properties, and targeting ability against pancreatic cancer cells. Under the same drug loading, the half-antibody targeted nanoparticles show enhanced cancer killing effect compared to the corresponding nontargeted nanoparticles.
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Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.
Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are a heterogeneous group of pancreatic tumors that vary in pathophysiology, malignant potential, clinical course, and outcomes. Their management is heavily predicated on establishing an accurate diagnosis. This can be particularly challenging, but can often be achieved by a thorough history and physical examination combined with high-quality, thin-slice computed tomography, although additional diagnostic tools may be required. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment can range from simple observation to total pancreatectomy. This decision rests on a clear and complete understanding of each disease process in the context of the patients age and comorbidities. This article reviews the most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, focusing on their diagnosis and management.
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Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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The use of fluorescent proteins to label tumors is revolutionizing cancer research, enabling imaging of both primary and metastatic lesions, which is important for diagnosis, staging, and therapy. This report describes the use of fluorescence laparoscopy to image green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing tumors in an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.
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Upregulation of thrombospondin-1 and angiogenesis in an aggressive human pancreatic cancer cell line selected for high metastasis.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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Pancreatic cancer remains a leading cause of death despite its relatively low incidence. As in many other solid tumors, angiogenesis is critical to the growth and metastasis of this cancer. Through serial in vivo passages in mice, we have developed a highly aggressive variant of human pancreatic cancer cell line XPA-1 which shows more rapid primary tumor growth, faster time to metastasis, and more rapid lethality than the parental cell line. The high-metastatic variant developed a much denser tumor vasculature early during growth within the pancreas. Interestingly, examination of the in vitro growth of this aggressive variant yielded no significant difference from the parental cell line. Real-time PCR evaluation of genes involved in angiogenesis revealed a 24-fold increase in Thrombospondin-1 expression in cells derived from the high-metastatic variant when compared with the parental cell line. These findings provide direct evidence that elevated capability for angiogenesis, mediated by specific changes in gene expression, can lead to a large increase in cancer aggressiveness and resulting metastasis. These findings have important implications for the treatment of metastatic disease.
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Complementarity of ultrasound and fluorescence imaging in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease characterized by dismal 5-year survival rates and limited treatment options. In an effort to provide useful models for preclinical evaluation of new experimental therapeutics, we and others have developed orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer. The utility of these models for pre-clinical testing is dependent upon quantitative, noninvasive methods for monitoring in vivo tumor progression in real time. Toward this goal, we performed whole-body fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging to evaluate and to compare these noninvasive imaging modalities for assessing tumor burden and tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
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Development of the transgenic cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-expressing nude mouse for "Technicolor" cancer imaging.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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A major goal for in vivo biology is to develop models which can express multiple colors of fluorescent proteins in order to image many processes simultaneously in real time. Towards this goal, the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) nude mouse was developed by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic CK/ECFP mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives expression of CFP in almost all tissues. In crosses between nu/nu CFP male mice and nu/+ CFP female mice, approximately 50% of the embryos fluoresced blue. In the CFP nude mice, the pancreas and reproductive organs displayed the strongest fluorescent signals of all internal organs which vary in intensity. Orthotopic implantation of XPA-1 human pancreatic cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP); or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, was performed in female nude CFP mice. Color-coded fluorescence imaging of these human pancreatic cancer cells implanted into the bright blue fluorescent pancreas of the CFP nude mouse afforded novel insight into the interaction of the pancreatic tumor and the normal pancreas, in particular the strong desmoplastic reaction of the tumor. The naturally enhanced blue fluorescence of the pancreas in the CFP mouse serves as an ideal background for color-coded imaging of the interaction of implanted cancer cells and the host. The CFP nude mouse will provide unique understanding of the critical interplay between the cancer cells and their microenvironment.
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The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) transgenic mouse as a model for imaging pancreatic exocrine cells.
JOP
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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The use of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging has opened many new areas of research. Among the important advances in the field have been the development of transgenic mice expressing various fluorescent proteins.
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Sociodemographic Predictors of Survival in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Results from the SEER Database.
ISRN Endocrinol
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Background. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is prognosticated upon a combination of tumor characteristics, such as histology and stage, and patient age. DTC is also notable for having a strong female predominance. Using a nationwide database with long follow-up times, we explored the interplay between tumor biology and patient characteristics in predicting mortality. Methods. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry data 1973-2005 was examined for patients with DTC as their only known malignancy. Cox multivariate analyses were used to generate mortality hazard ratios to evaluate the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and marital status. Results. We identified 55,995 patients with DTC as their only malignancy. Consistent with the existing literature, the tumors are primarily diagnosed in women (77.5%), and predominantly affect Caucasians (78.3%). Female gender had a protective effect resulting in a 37% decrease in mortality. Age at diagnosis predicted mortality over age 40. Black ethnicity was associated with a 51% increase in mortality compared to Caucasians. Conclusion. Multiple demographic factors predict mortality in patients with DTC after adjusting for tumor characteristics, and they appear to have complex interactions. Recognizing the importance of these factors may enable clinicians to better tailor therapy.
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A critical analysis of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young patients on the basis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry.
Surgery
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Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) are the only tumors for which age is a determinant of stage in the American Joint Committee on Cancers (AJCC) staging protocol. In this study, we re-examined the relationship between age, extent of disease, and prognosis by using a large dataset with longer follow-up times.
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Tumor-specific fluorescence antibody imaging enables accurate staging laparoscopy in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
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Laparoscopy is important in staging pancreatic cancer, but false negatives remain problematic. Making tumors fluorescent has the potential to improve the accuracy of staging laparoscopy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.