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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Alu elements and the phylogeny of capuchin (Cebus and Sapajus) monkeys.
Am. J. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Three families of New World monkeys, the Pitheciidae, Atelidae, and Cebidae, are currently recognized. The monophyly of the Cebidae is supported unequivocally by the presence of ten unique Alu elements, which are absent from the other two families. In this paper, the five genomic regions containing these Alu elements were sequenced in specimens representing nine capuchin (Cebus, Sapajus) species in order to identify mutations that may help elucidate the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the cebids. The results confirmed the presence of previously described Alu elements in the capuchins. An Alu insertion present in the Cebidae2 genomic region belonging to the AluSc subfamily was amplified and sequenced only in Sapajus. No amplified or unspecific product was obtained for all other species studied here. An AluSc insertion present in the CeSa1 region was found only in Cebus, Sapajus, and Saimiri. Cebidae4 was characterized by two insertions, an AluSz6 shared by all cebids, and a complete SINE (AluSx3) found only in the capuchins (Cebus and Sapajus). The genomic region Cebidae5 revealed two insertion events, one of the AluSx subfamily, which was shared by all cebids, and another (AluSc8), that was unique to Cebus, offering a straightforward criterion for the differentiation of the two genera, Cebus and Sapajus. The Cebidae6 region showed four distinct insertion events: a 52-bp simple repeat ((TATG) n), two very ancient repeats (MIRc) and a TcMar-Tigger shared by all New World monkeys studied so far, and an Alu insertion of the AluSx subfamily present exclusively in the cebids. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the division of the capuchins into two genera, Cebus and Sapajus, and suggested the southern species Sapajus nigritus robustus and S. cay as the earliest and second earliest offshoots in this genus, respectively. This supports a southern origin for the Sapajus radiation. Am. J. Primatol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Molecular data indicate the presence of a novel species of Centropomus (Centropomidae - Perciformes) in the Western Atlantic.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Centropomus undecimalis is distributed in the coastal waters of the western Atlantic between North Carolina and São Paulo, although very little is known of the genetic structure of its populations. Here, 148 C. undecimalis samples were obtained from six sites in the southwestern Atlantic, representing the Brazilian distribution of this species. Segments of three mitochondrial (Cytb, COI and 16S) and one nuclear (IGF1) gene were sequenced. The results of all analyses indicated the presence of a previously undetected lineage of Centropomus in the northern extreme of Brazil (Amapá) in the region of the Oiapoque estuary. This taxon is genetically distinct from all 12 recognized species of Centropomus. The populations from the Brazilian states of Pará, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were genetically similar to C. undecimalis from coastal areas of the Caribbean and USA. Nucleotide divergence between C. undecimalis and the new Oiapoque taxon are greater than or similar to those found between a number of valid Centropomus species. The estimated time of divergence between C. undecimalis and the new taxon is approximately 2 millionyears. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for a thorough taxonomic revision of this genus.
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Molecular phylogeny of weakfish species of the Stellifer group (Sciaenidae, Perciformes) of the western South Atlantic based on mitochondrial and nuclear data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The phylogenetic relationships within the Stellifer group of weakfishes (Stellifer, Odontoscion, Ophioscion, and Bairdiella) were evaluated using 2723 base pairs comprising sequences of nuclear (rhodopsin, TMO-4C4, RAG-1) and mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) markers obtained from specimens of nine species. Our results indicate a close relationship between Bairdiella and Odontoscion, and also that the genus Stellifer is not monophyletic, but rather that it consists of two distinct lineages, one clade containing S. microps/S. naso/S. brasiliensis and the other, S. rastrifer/S. stellifer/Stellifer sp. B, which is closer to Ophioscion than the former clade. The O. punctatissimus populations from the northern and southern Brazilian coast were also highly divergent in both nuclear (0.8% for rhodopsin and 0.9% for RAG-1) and mitochondrial sequences (2.2% for 16S rRNA and 7.3% for COI), which we conclude is consistent with the presence of two distinct species. The morphological similarities of the members of the Stellifer group is reinforced by the molecular data from both the present study and previous analyses, which have questioned the taxonomic status of the Stellifer group. If, on the one hand, the group is in fact composed of four genera (Stellifer, Ophioscion, Odontoscion, and Bairdiella), one of the two Stellifer clades should be reclassified as a new genus. However, if the close relationship and the reduced genetic divergence found within the group is confirmed in a more extensive study, including representatives of additional taxa, this, together with the morphological evidence, would support downgrading the whole group to a single genus. Obviously, these contradictory findings reinforce the need for a more systematic taxonomic revision of the Stellifer group as a whole.
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The past and present of an estuarine-resident fish, the "four-eyed fish" Anableps anableps (Cyprinodontiformes, Anablepidae), revealed by mtDNA sequences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Historical events, such as changes in sea level during the Pleistocene glacial cycles, had a strong impact on coastal habitats, limiting connectivity and promoting the genetic divergence of various species. In this study, we evaluated the influence of climate oscillations and the possibility of estuary function as a barrier to gene flow among populations of the four-eyed fish, Anableps anableps. This species is fully estuarine-resident, has internal fertilization, is viviparous and does not migrate across long distances. These features make the four-eyed fish an excellent model for the study of evolutionary processes related to genetic differentiation of species and populations in estuaries. The evolutionary history of A. anableps was inferred from phylogeographic and population analyses using sequences of the mitochondrial DNA Control Region of 13 populations distributed in the Amazon and Northeast Coast of Brazil from Calcoene (Amapa) to Parnaiba (Piaui). The 83 retrieved haplotypes show a pattern of four distinct mitochondrial lineages, with up to 3.4% nucleotide divergence among them. The evolutionary reconstruction suggests that these lineages diverged recently in the late Pleistocene/early Holocene after the Atlantic Ocean reaching current levels. Analysis of variability, neutrality and the genetic expansion pattern revealed that the lineages have distinct characteristics, which were shaped by the different geomorphological features of coastal regions combined with sea level oscillations over a very long period of time. Only few neighboring populations show a discreet gene flow. This study may also be helpful for designing new experiments to better understand the geomorphological evolutionary history of the estuaries of the Amazon and the Northeast Coast of Brazil using estuarine-resident species as a model.
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Molecular phylogeny of the genus Lolliguncula steenstrup, 1881 based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences indicates genetic isolation of populations from north and South atlantic, and the possible presence of further cryptic species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Squid of the genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 are small bodied, coastal species capable of tolerating low salinity. Lolliguncula sp. are found exclusively in the New World, although only one of the four recognized species (Lolliguncula brevis) occurs in the Atlantic Ocean. Preliminary morphological analyses suggest that Lolliguncula brevis populations in the North and South Atlantic may represent distinct species. The principal objective of the present study was to verify the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and test for the presence of possible cryptic species. Both gene and species tree topologies indicated that Lolliguncula brevis specimens from the North and South Atlantic represent distinct phylogenetic clades. In contrast with previous studies, L. panamensis was identified as the basal species of the genus. Our results provide important insights into the phylogenetic relationships among the Lolliguncula specimens analyzed, and confirm the genetic separation of Lolliguncula brevis populations of the North and South Atlantic at the level of sister species.
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Mitochondrial DNA reveals population structuring in Macrodon atricauda (Perciformes: Sciaenidae): a study covering the whole geographic distribution of the species in the southwestern Atlantic.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Abstract We investigated the genetic structure and diversity of M. atricauda, based on 266 specimens collected off the coast of southern Brazil and Argentina at seven locations, covering the whole geographic distribution of this species. A DNA sequence alignment of 904 base pairs of the mitochondrial Control Region revealed a total of 85 haplotypes. FST analyses suggest that M. atricauda does not comprise a single demographic stock. Two different genetic units are identified, which possibly are related to ecological adaptations of the species within its range. Genetic diversity, Bayesian analysis of population structure, and significant negative results for the D and FS tests indicate that M. atricauda populations have undergone recent expansion. The spatial distribution of genetic variation seems to be related to historical colonization from south to north, followed by expansion.
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New molecular phylogeny of the squids of the family Loliginidae with emphasis on the genus Doryteuthis Naef, 1912: mitochondrial and nuclear sequences indicate the presence of cryptic species in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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The family Loliginidae Lesueur, 1821, is currently considered to include seven genera and approximately 50 species of neritic and coastal squids. These commercially important species occur in tropical and temperate coastal waters around the world. The taxonomy of the family has been revised a number of times in recent years, focusing in particular on genera such as Doryteuthis, Sepioteuthis, Alloteuthis, and Uroteuthis, which are represented by populations in the New World, Oceania, Europe/Africa, and Asia. However, no detailed phylogenetic analysis is available for the loliginids of the southern Atlantic, in particular the genus Doryteuthis. The present molecular study analyzed 81 loliginid taxa from around the world. The partial sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S and Cytochrome Oxidase I genes, and the nuclear rhodopsin gene revealed a number of important patterns, recovering the monophyletic status of the majority of the genera and revealing possible cryptic species in Doryteuthis plei D. pealei, Uroteuthis duvauceli and Sepioteuthis lessoniana.
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The systematics and evolution of New World primates - A review.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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This paper provides an overview of the taxonomy of New World primates from proposals of the 1980s based on morphology to the great number of studies based on molecular data aiming for the elucidation of the phylogeny of New World monkeys. The innovations of the first molecular phylogeny presented by Schneider et al. (1993) positioned Callimico as a sister group of Callithrix and Cebuella; Callicebus as a member of the pitheciids; Brachyteles as sister to Lagothrix; and the night monkeys (Aotus), capuchins (Cebus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) in the same clade with the small callitrichines. These results were subsequently confirmed by dozens of subsequent studies using data from DNA sequences. Some issues difficult to resolve with the phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences, such as the diversification of the oldest lineages (pitheciids, atelids and cebids), and the confirmation of Aotus as a member of the Cebinae clade (together with Cebus/Saimiri), were clarified with new molecular approaches based on the presence or absence of Alu insertions as well as through the use of phylogenomics. At this time, all relationships at the intergeneric level had been deciphered, with the exception of the definition of the sister group of callitrichines (whether Aotus or Cebus/Saimiri are sister to callitrichines, or if Aotus, Saimiri and Cebus form a clade together). Future studies should prioritize the alpha taxonomy of most Neotropical primate groups, and the use of phylogenetic and geographic data, combined with reliable estimates of divergence times, to clarify the taxonomic status at species and genus level, as well as to help understand the evolutionary history of this remarkable and highly diversified group.
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The detection and sequencing of a broad-host-range conjugative IncP-1? plasmid in an epidemic strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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An extended outbreak of mycobacterial surgical infections occurred in Brazil during 2004-2008. Most infections were caused by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, which was characterized by a specific rpoB sequevar and two highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns differentiated by the presence of a ?50 kb band. The nature of this band was investigated.
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New molecular evidence supports the species status of Kaempfers Woodpecker (Aves, Picidae).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Kaempfers Woodpecker (Celeus obrieni) is the only species of the genus Celeus endemic to Brazil. The description of this taxon as a subspecies of the Rufous-headed Woodpecker (Celeus spectabilis) was based on a single specimen. While C. obrieni and C. spectabilis are now considered separate species based on morphological and limited molecular evidence, no study has critically tested the reciprocal monophyly and degree of evolutionary independence between these taxa with several specimens. Herein, fragments of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of three recently-collected specimens of C. obrieni were analyzed to evaluate the degree of evolutionary differentiation of this taxon with respect to C. spectabilis. The results confirm the reciprocal monophyly between the specimens of C. obrieni and C. spectabilis. The genetic divergence values for the two taxa also support their classification as independent species, given that they are greater than the values recorded among other closely-related but separate species of the same genus. Estimates of the divergence time between C. obrieni and C. spectabilis indicate that cladogenesis occurred in the mid-Pleistocene, during a period of major climatic fluctuations and landscape change, consistent with the hypothesis of a corridor of open bamboo dominated forests and woodland stretching.
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Dispersal capacity and genetic structure of Arapaima gigas on different geographic scales using microsatellite markers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1817), few data about its dispersal capacity are available. The present study was based on the analysis of microsatellite markers in order to estimate the dispersal capacity of the species on fine, meso, and large geographic scales. For this, 561 specimens obtained from stocks separated by distances of up to 25 km (fine scale), 100 km (meso scale), and 1300-2300 km (large scale) were analyzed. The fine scale analysis indicated a marked genetic similarity between lakes, with low genetic differentiation, and significant differences between only a few pairs of sites. Low to moderate genetic differentiation was observed between pairs of sites on a meso scale (100 km), which could be explained by the distances between sites. By contrast, major genetic differentiation was recorded in the large scale analysis, that is, between stocks separated by distances of over 1300 km, with the analysis indicating that differentiation was not related solely to distance. The genetic structuring analysis indicated the presence of two stocks, one represented by the arapaimas of the Mamirauá Reserve, and the other by those of Santarém and Tucuruí. The dispersal of arapaimas over short distances indicates a process of lateral migration within the várzea floodplains, which may be the principal factor determining the considerable homogeneity observed among the várzea lakes. The populations separated by distances of approximately 100 km were characterized by reduced genetic differentiation, which was associated with the geographic distances between sites. Populations separated by distances of over 1300 km were characterized by a high degree of genetic differentiation, which may be related primarily to historical bottlenecks in population size and the sedentary behavior of the species. Evidence was found of asymmetric gene flow, resulting in increasing genetic variability in the population of the Mamirauá Reserve.
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Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.
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Occurrence of the Indo-Pacific freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens Dana 1852 on the coast of Brazilian Amazonia, with notes on its reproductive biology.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens, which is native species of the Indo-Pacific Region, was recorded for the first time on the Amazon coast of Brazil. This species was found to inhabit the same environment as two native Macrobrachium species, M. amazonicum and M. acanthurus, and is morphologically very similar to the latter. The identification of the species was confirmed by the genetic analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase (COI) gene. A detailed description of the morphological features and reproductive biology of M. equidens in this new environment is presented.
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The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.
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Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3) we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species.
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A molecular phylogeny of the tamarins (genus Saguinus) based on five nuclear sequence data from regions containing Alu insertions.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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This study presents a molecular phylogeny of the Saguinus genus, based on the analysis of the DNA sequences of five nuclear loci with Alu insertions in 10 species. The concatenated alignment produced a polytomic arrangement with four main groups, although only two clades-the Amazonian (S. midas, S. niger, and S. bicolor) and the Colombian (S. leucopus and S. oedipus) tamarins-were statistically significant. The emergence of the midas-bicolor clade was estimated at about 5 million years ago (mya), and that of the Colombian clade, at 4.6 mya. The phylogenetic relationships among the mustached tamarins (S. mystax, S. imperator, and S. labiatus) remained unresolved, as did the internal arrangement of the midas group. The lack of a clear consensus on the phylogeny of this group may be related to rapid bursts of evolutionary change within the context of a highly dynamic environment, which may be difficult to resolve using the available quantitative approaches. On the other hand, the discrepancies between mtDNA and nDNA in resolving phylogenies strongly indicate the role of reticulated evolution in the evolutionary history of this group. We hope that the advance of whole genome sequencing technology and increasing information on nuclear markers and SNPs, coupled with a better understanding of the geological phenomena that took place in western Amazonia over the past 20 million years, will shed further light on the phylogenetic history of these New World primates.
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Molecular identification, phylogeny and geographic distribution of Brazilian mangrove oysters (Crassostrea).
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuçá (Pará state) to Santos (São Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceará state) to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state), although small individuals of the latter species were also found at Ajuruteua beach (municipality of Bragança, Pará state). An unidentified Crassostrea species was found only on Canela Island, Bragança. Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae grouped with C. virginica, thereby forming a monophyletic Atlantic group, whereas Crassostrea sp. from Canela Island was shown to be more similar to Indo-Pacific oysters, and either arrived in the Atlantic Ocean before the convergence of the Isthmus of Panama or was accidentally brought to Brazil by ship.
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Identification and phylogenetic inferences on stocks of sharks affected by the fishing industry off the Northern coast of Brazil.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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The ongoing decline in abundance and diversity of shark stocks, primarily due to uncontrolled fishery exploitation, is a worldwide problem. An additional problem for the development of conservation and management programmes is the identification of species diversity within a given area, given the morphological similarities among shark species, and the typical disembarkation of processed carcasses which are almost impossible to differentiate. The main aim of the present study was to identify those shark species being exploited off northern Brazil, by using the 12S-16S molecular marker. For this, DNA sequences were obtained from 122 specimens collected on the docks and the fish market in Bragança, in the Brazilian state of Pará. We identified at least 11 species. Three-quarters of the specimens collected were either Carcharhinus porosus or Rhizoprionodon sp, while a notable absence was the daggernose shark, Isogomphodon oxyrhyncus, previously one of the most common species in local catches. The study emphasises the value of molecular techniques for the identification of cryptic shark species, and the potential of the 12S-16S marker as a tool for phylogenetic inferences in a study of elasmobranchs.
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Isolation and characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in the mangrove crab, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae: Ucidinae).
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci were described for the mangrove crab, Ucides cordatus, an important fishery resource on the Brazilian coast. The number of alleles observed at each locus varied between eight and 23. Observed and expected mean heterozygosities were 0.791 and 0.893 respectively. Amplification of all loci was highly successful, under the same polymerase chain reaction conditions. With the exception of P2D3, all loci adhered to the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and did not present deviations reflecting linkage disequilibrium. Given this, these markers will be extremely useful in future management programmes for U. cordatus stocks.
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Genetic characterization of native and introduced populations of the neotropical cichlid genus Cichla in Brazil.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA and Control Region sequences from native and introduced populations was undertaken, in order to characterize the introduction of Cichla (peacock bass or tucunaré) species in Brazil. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes found in introduced fish from Minas Gerais state (southeastern Brazil) clustered only with those from native species of the Tocantins River (Cichla piquiti and C. kelberi), thereby suggesting a single or, at most, few translocation acts in this area, even though with fish from the same source-population. Our study contributes to an understanding of the introduction of Cichla in regions of Brazil outside the Amazon basin, and adds phylogenetic data to the recently describe Cichla species, endemic from the Tocantins-Araguaia basin.
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Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) in the western Atlantic.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
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Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796) was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (F(st) > 0.8), probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks.
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Population structure of Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) on the Brazilian coast: further existence evidence of a single species of red snapper in the western Atlantic.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
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The present study focus on the mitochondrial control region to investigate phylogeographic patterns and population structure in Lutjanus purpureus, and to evaluate the genetic similarity between L. purpureus and L. campechanus. For the initial analysis, 810 base pairs sequence from control region were obtained from 239 specimens of L. purpureus collected from four localities off the Brazilian coast. The results revealed the presence of a single panmictic population characterized by high values of genetic diversity. The 299 base pairs hypervariable portion were used for the combined analysis of L. purpureus and L. campechanus, being 275 haplotypes identified in the 414 specimens. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network did not indicate phylogeographic substructuring between the two species, but rather an intense intermingling of individuals. Considering their marked morphological similarity, the molecular data presented here indicate that only one species of red snapper exists in the western Atlantic.
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Molecular phylogeny of the western South Atlantic Sciaenidae based on mitochondrial and nuclear data.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
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Fragments of mitochondrial (COI and rRNA 16S) and nuclear (Tmo-4C4) genes were sequenced to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among 15 genera of the western South Atlantic Sciaenidae, two freshwater genera and the northwest Pacific Larimichthys crocea. Our results suggest a great diversification for the western Atlantic assemblage; the monophyly of Macrodon, Menticirrhus and Plagioscion genera; the distinctiveness of Bardiella, Stellifer and Ophioscion as belonging to the same clade; the possible existence of two distinct groups in Stellifer; the closer relationship between Lonchurus and Paralonchurus; the non-monophyly of Cynoscion; and the remarkable diversification of Larimus breviceps populations in the Brazilian coast. This is the most comprehensive study evaluating the phylogenetic relationships of the western Atlantic sciaenid and provides a guide for future studies within this family.
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High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome.
BMC Plant Biol.
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the hosts root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper.
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Innovative molecular approach to the identification of Colossoma macropomum and its hybrids.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
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Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the fish species most commonly raised in the Brazilian fish farms. The species is highly adaptable to captive conditions, and is both fast-growing and relatively fecund. In recent years, artificial breeding has produced hybrids with Characiform species, known as "Tambacu" and "Tambatinga". Identifying hybrids is a difficult process, given their morphological similarities with the parent species. This study presents an innovative molecular approach to the identification of hybrids based primarily on Multiplex PCR of a nuclear gene (?-Tropomyosin), which was tested on 93 specimens obtained from fish farms in northern Brazil. The sequencing of a 505-bp fragment of the Control Region (CR) permitted the identification of the maternal lineage of the specimen, all of which corresponded to C. macropomum. Unexpectedly, only two CR haplotype were found in 93 samples, a very low genetic diversity for the pisciculture of Tambaqui. Multiplex PCR identified 42 hybrids, in contrast with 23 identified by the supplier on the basis of external morphology. This innovative tool has considerable potential for the development of the Brazilian aquaculture, given the possibility of the systematic identification of the genetic traits of both fry-producing stocks, and the fry and juveniles raised in farms.
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