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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Revision of Chinese Dilaridae (Insecta: Neuroptera) (Part I): species of the genus Dilar Rambur from northern China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2014
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The pleasing lacewing genus Dilar Rambur is a dominant group of the family Dilaridae in Asia and is diverse in China with 18 described species. Herein we record five species of Dilar. Three species, i.e. Dilar hastatus sp.nov., Dilar spectabilis sp.nov. and Dilar taibaishanus sp.nov. are described as new to science. Dilar sinicus Nakahara and Dilar septentrionalis Navás are also redescribed. A key to the species of Dilar from northern China is given. 
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Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.
Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas R Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen, Frank Friedrich, Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Carola Greve, Peter Grobe, Shengchang Gu, Ying Huang, Lars S Jermiin, Akito Y Kawahara, Lars Krogmann, Martin Kubiak, Robert Lanfear, Harald Letsch, Yiyuan Li, Zhenyu Li, Jiguang Li, Haorong Lu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Pashalia Kapli, Duane D McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Yasutaka Nakagaki, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia, Michael Ott, Yanxiang Ou, Günther Pass, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Björn M von Reumont, Kai Schütte, Kaoru Sekiya, Shota Shimizu, Adam Slipinski, Alexandros Stamatakis, Wenhui Song, Xu Su, Nikolaus U Szucsich, Meihua Tan, Xuemei Tan, Min Tang, Jingbo Tang, Gerald Timelthaler, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Michelle Trautwein, Xiaoli Tong, Toshiki Uchifune, Manfred G Walzl, Brian M Wiegmann, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Benjamin Wipfler, Thomas K F Wong, Qiong Wu, Gengxiong Wu, Yinlong Xie, Shenzhou Yang, Qing Yang, David K Yeates, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Qing Zhang, Rui Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Yunhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Chengran Zhou, Lili Zhou, Tanja Ziesmann, Shijie Zou, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Karl M Kjer, Xin Zhou.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects.
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Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by cestodes (tapeworms).
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The second part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is dedicated to the cestodes (tapeworms) and the diseases caused by cestodes. The overview comprises the spectrum of the most relevant species, describes their incidence, geographic distribution and the most important clinical symptoms and highlights the possibilities of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of cestode-caused diseases.
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Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by nematodes (roundworms).
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The third part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" deals with the medically relevant nematodes (roundworms) and nematode-caused diseases occurring in Central Europe. The paper comprises data on the biology of the parasites and their ways of transmission, describes the symptomatology of the diseases, summarizes the possibilities of diagnosis and refers to the prophylactic means.
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Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: general overview and diseases caused by trematodes (flukes).
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Parasitic helminths and helminthoses do not only occur in the tropics and subtropics but are also prevalent in Austria and other Central European countries. Their prevalence is, however, more or less rather low. In total, we know more than 20 helminth species, which are diagnosed regularly in Austria; some of them occur in Austria autochthonously, some others are acquired abroad and are transferred as souvenirs to Central Europe. The spectrum of helminths described in this overview comprises species of the trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms), and nematodes (roundworms).The topic "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is divided into three parts: The first part comprises a short introduction into the field of medical helminthology and is primarily dedicated to the description of trematodes and trematode-caused diseases.
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[Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.
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New species of the genus Nipponeurorthus Nakahara, 1958 (Neuroptera: Nevrorthidae) from China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The lacewing family Nevrorthidae is one of the most mysterious groups of Neuroptera. Here we describe two new species of the genus Nipponeurorthus Nakahara, 1958 from China, namely Nipponeurorthus damingshanicus sp. nov. and Nipponeurorthus furcatus sp. nov. A key to the species of Nipponeurorthus is provided. Phylogenetic and biogeographic considerations on Nipponeurorthus are summarized.
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The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Despite considerable progress in systematics, a comprehensive scenario of the evolution of phenotypic characters in the mega-diverse Holometabola based on a solid phylogenetic hypothesis was still missing. We addressed this issue by de novo sequencing transcriptome libraries of representatives of all orders of holometabolan insects (13 species in total) and by using a previously published extensive morphological dataset. We tested competing phylogenetic hypotheses by analyzing various specifically designed sets of amino acid sequence data, using maximum likelihood (ML) based tree inference and Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM). By maximum parsimony-based mapping of the morphological data on the phylogenetic relationships we traced evolutionary transformations at the phenotypic level and reconstructed the groundplan of Holometabola and of selected subgroups.
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Inocellia rara sp. nov. (Raphidioptera: Inocelliidae), a new snakefly species from Taiwan, with remarks on systematics and biogeography of the Inocelliidae of the island.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A new species of the snakefly genus Inocellia Schneider, 1843 from Taiwan is described: Inocellia rara sp. nov. It represents the third species in the family Inocelliidae and the first record of the Inocellia fulvostigmata species group from Taiwan.
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Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.
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Unexpected increase of alveolar echincoccosis, Austria, 2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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In Central Europe, classical alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is endemic. Annual incidences in Austria were 2.4 and 2.8 cases/100,000 population during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010, respectively. Hence, the registration of 13 new AE patients in 2011 was unexpected. Increasing fox populations and past AE underreporting might have caused this increase.
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Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, in Carinthia: first record of the occurrence of sandflies in Austria (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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During an entomology survey in July 2009 and July 2010, 4 males and 22 females of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in southeastern Carinthia. These are the first documented records of the occurrence of Phlebotominae in Austria.
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In vitro activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in combination with NH4Cl against Trichomonas vaginalis.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is usually treated with metronidazole, however resistance is on the rise. In this study, N-chlorotaurine (NCT), a new endogenous mild active chlorine compound for topical use, killed T. vaginalis in vitro within 15 min of treatment at a concentration of 55 mM (1%), which is well tolerated by human tissue. The activity of NCT was further enhanced by addition of ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl). A combination of 5.5 mM (0.1%) NCT plus 19 mM (0.1%) NH(4)Cl killed 100% of trichomonads within 5 min.
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Tick-borne encephalitis in the age of general mobility.
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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The 11th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) was conducted under the title of, "From childhood to golden age: increased mobility - increased risk of contracting TBE?" Participants from 26 countries, including the United States of America and China, presented reports on the latest developments and trends in local TBE cases, vaccination coverage and risk factors. In particular, the situation of children and the elderly (the "golden agers") was discussed. As the current evidence suggests, the location and extension of endemic areas for TBE have changed over the last few years, along with global warming and the shift of infected ticks to higher altitudes. The increased mobility of the human population adds to the heightened exposure; outdoor activities and international travel are on the rise also, and especially, amongst the 50+ generation, who are already per se at higher risk of disease manifestation, complications and case fatality. Most Europeans travel within Europe, often without sufficient awareness of endemic areas. Only high immunization rates can ensure low disease rates in the long run. To achieve this goal, public education is the sole effective approach for raising the level of awareness. Overall, the risk of any given person to contract TBE should not be regarded as a fixed entity, but rather it must be estimated individually, on the basis of knowledge of the TBE virus endemic areas and risk factors.
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N-Chlorotaurine shows high in vitro activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania species.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of life-threatening visceral as well as cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. First-line drugs are antimonials, but toxicity and resistance in some endemic areas cause serious problems. In the current study, the antileishmanial activity of the weak oxidant N-chlorotaurine (NCT) was investigated. NCT is a derivative of the amino acid taurine produced by granulocytes and monocytes during oxidative burst, but can also be synthesized chemically and used topically as an antiseptic at a concentration of 1 % (55 mM) in vivo. NCT susceptibility tests were performed in vitro with promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. As NH(4)Cl is known to increase the activity of NCT by the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), co-treatment assays were included in the study. Mean EC(50) values after 1 h of treatment were 5.94 mM for L. infantum and 9.8 mM for L. donovani promastigotes. Co-treatment with 5.5 mM NCT plus 19 mM NH(4)Cl led to complete killing of promastigotes of both strains within 15 min. Amastigotes were inactivated by treatment with 2 mM NCT alone. The results of this study indicate a high potential of NCT against Leishmania species.
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New species in the Old World: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy.
PLoS ONE
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The number of described species on the planet is about 1.9 million, with ca. 17,000 new species described annually, mostly from the tropics. However, taxonomy is usually described as a science in crisis, lacking manpower and funding, a politically acknowledged problem known as the Taxonomic Impediment. Using data from the Fauna Europaea database and the Zoological Record, we show that contrary to general belief, developed and heavily-studied parts of the world are important reservoirs of unknown species. In Europe, new species of multicellular terrestrial and freshwater animals are being discovered and named at an unprecedented rate: since the 1950s, more than 770 new species are on average described each year from Europe, which add to the 125,000 terrestrial and freshwater multicellular species already known in this region. There is no sign of having reached a plateau that would allow for the assessment of the magnitude of European biodiversity. More remarkably, over 60% of these new species are described by non-professional taxonomists. Amateurs are recognized as an essential part of the workforce in ecology and astronomy, but the magnitude of non-professional taxonomist contributions to alpha-taxonomy has not been fully realized until now. Our results stress the importance of developing a system that better supports and guides this formidable workforce, as we seek to overcome the Taxonomic Impediment and speed up the process of describing the planetary biodiversity before it is too late.
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Form, function and evolution of the mouthparts of blood-feeding Arthropoda.
Arthropod Struct Dev
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This review compares the mouthparts and their modes of operation in blood-feeding Arthropoda which have medical relevance to humans. All possess piercing blood-sucking proboscides which exhibit thin stylet-shaped structures to puncture the hosts skin. The tips of the piercing structures are serrated to provide anchorage. Usually, the piercing organs are enveloped by a soft sheath-like part which is not inserted. The piercing process includes either back and forth movements of the piercing structures, or sideways cutting motions, or the apex of the proboscis bears teeth-like structures which execute drilling movements. Most piercing-proboscides have a food-canal which is separate from a salivary canal. The food-canal is functionally connected to a suction pump in the head that transports blood into the alimentary tract. The salivary canal conducts saliva to the tip of the proboscis, from where it is discharged into the host. Piercing blood-sucking proboscides evolved either from (1) generalized biting-chewing mouthparts, (2) from piercing mouthparts of predators, or plant sap or seed feeders, (3) from lapping or sponging mouthparts. Representatives of one taxon of Acari liquefy skin tissue by enzymatic action. During feeding, many blood-feeding arthropods inadvertently transmit pathogens, which mostly are transported through the discharged saliva into the host.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.