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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Highly Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to Hydrocarbon Fuels by Cu-Nanoparticle Decorated Graphene Oxide.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (?4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.
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Combined effect of individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status on mortality of rheumatoid arthritis patients under universal health care coverage system.
Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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The National Health Insurance program in Taiwan is a public insurance system for the entire population of Taiwan initiated since March 1995. However, the association of socioeconomic status (SES) and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients under this program has not been identified.
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The effect of social comparison with peers on self-evaluation.
Psychol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Summary.-Social comparison refers to self-evaluation against other people. When people are outperformed by peers in a domain relevant (irrelevant) to them, it negatively (positively) affects how they evaluate themselves, compared to an irrelevant (relevant) domain. Whether a domain is self-relevant or self-irrelevant, the comparison direction and closeness should interact on how people evaluate themselves. Taiwanese undergraduates (N = 276) ages 19 to 22 years (M = 20.5, SD = 1.8), participated to assess whether the results from Western samples would be similar to those in an Asian sample, which were expected to be more collectivist.
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A reliable and programmable acoustofluidic pump powered by oscillating sharp-edge structures.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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We present a programmable acoustofluidic pump that utilizes the acoustic streaming effects generated by the oscillation of tilted sharp-edge structures. This sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic pump is capable of generating stable flow rates as high as 8 ?L min(-1) (~76 Pa of pumping pressure), and it can tune flow rates across a wide range (nanoliters to microliters per minute). Along with its ability to reliably produce stable and tunable flow rates, the acoustofluidic pump is easy to operate and requires minimum hardware, showing great potential for a variety of applications.
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Higher glucose level can enhance the H. pylori adhesion and virulence related with type IV secretion system in AGS cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Hyperglycemia increases the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. High glucose could increase endothelial permeability and cancer-associated signaling. These suggest high glucose may affect H. pylori or its infected status.We used two strains to investigate whether H. pylori growth, viability, adhesion and CagA-phosphorylation level in the infected-AGS cells were influenced by glucose concentration (100, 150, and 200 mg/dL).
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Virotherapy targeting cyclin E overexpression in tumors with adenovirus-enhanced cancer-selective promoter.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Oncolytic virotherapy can selectively destroy cancer cells and is a potential approach in cancer treatment. A strategy to increase tumor-specific selectivity is to control the expression of a key regulatory viral gene with a tumor-specific promoter. We have previously found that cyclin E expression is augmented in cancer cells after adenovirus (Ad) infection. Thus, the cyclin E promoter that is further activated by Ad in cancer cells may have unique properties for enhancing oncolytic viral replication. We have shown that high levels of viral E1a gene expression are achieved in cancer cells infected with Ad-cycE, in which the endogenous Ad E1a promoter was replaced with the cyclin E promoter. Ad-cycE shows markedly selective oncolytic efficacy in vitro and destroys various types of cancer cells, including those resistant to ONYX-015/dl1520. Furthermore, Ad-cycE shows a strong capacity to repress A549 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice and significantly prolongs survival. This study suggests the potential of Ad-cycE in cancer therapy and indicates the advantages of using promoters that can be upregulated by virus infection in cancer cells in development of oncolytic viruses.
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The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells for macular degeneration as a drug screening platform: identification of curcumin as a protective agent for retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one retinal aging process that may lead to irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but oxidative stress inducing retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells damage is perhaps responsible for the aging sequence of retina and may play an important role in macular degeneration. In this study, we have reprogrammed T cells from patients with dry type AMD into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via integration-free episomal vectors and differentiated them into RPE cells that were used as an expandable platform for investigating pathogenesis of the AMD and in-vitro drug screening. These patient-derived RPEs with the AMD-associated background (AMD-RPEs) exhibited reduced antioxidant ability, compared with normal RPE cells. Among several screened candidate drugs, curcumin caused most significant reduction of ROS in AMD-RPEs. Pre-treatment of curcumin protected these AMD-RPEs from H2O2-induced cell death and also increased the cytoprotective effect against the oxidative stress of H2O2 through the reduction of ROS levels. In addition, curcumin with its versatile activities modulated the expression of many oxidative stress-regulating genes such as PDGF, VEGF, IGFBP-2, HO1, SOD2, and GPX1. Our findings indicated that the RPE cells derived from AMD patients have decreased antioxidative defense, making RPE cells more susceptible to oxidative damage and thereby leading to AMD formation. Curcumin represented an ideal drug that can effectively restore the neuronal functions in AMD patient-derived RPE cells, rendering this drug an effective option for macular degeneration therapy and an agent against aging-associated oxidative stress.
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Seat surface inclination may affect postural stability during Boccia ball throwing in children with cerebral palsy.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The aim of the study was to examine how seat surface inclination affects Boccia ball throwing movement and postural stability among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with bilateral spastic CP (3 with gross motor function classification system Level I, 5 with Level II, and 4 with Level III) participated in this study. All participants underwent pediatric reach tests and ball throwing performance analyses while seated on 15° anterior- or posterior-inclined, and horizontal surfaces. An electromagnetic motion analysis system was synchronized with a force plate to assess throwing motion and postural stability. The results of the pediatric reach test (p=0.026), the amplitude of elbow movement (p=0.036), peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) (p<0.001), and movement range of the center of pressure (COP) (p<0.020) were significantly affected by seat inclination during throwing. Post hoc comparisons showed that anterior inclination allowed greater amplitude of elbow movement and PVGRF, and less COP movement range compared with the other inclines. Posterior inclination yielded less reaching distance and PVGRF, and greater COP movement range compared with the other inclines. The anterior-inclined seat yielded superior postural stability for throwing Boccia balls among children with bilateral spastic CP, whereas the posterior-inclined seat caused difficulty.
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PPAR? Activation Attenuates Amyloid-?-Dependent Neurodegeneration by Modulating Endo G and AIF Translocation.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The accumulation of a large amount of amyloid-? (A?42) in brain neurons is one of the debilitating characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we determined the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activation on neuronal degeneration using a model of A?42-induced cytotoxicity. We found that 0.5 ?M A?42 induced DNA damage and apoptosis in NT2N cells after 6 h of treatment. Co-treatment of A?42-treated cells with Wy14643, a PPAR? ligand, significantly increased cell viability after 24 h compared with cells treated with A?42 alone. There were no differences in the protein levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2/Bax or p53 between cells treated with A?42 alone and those treated with both A?42 and Wy14643. However, the addition of Wy14643 significantly suppressed the A?42-induced upregulation of Endo G and AIF protein levels. Immunohistochemical analyses further demonstrated that Wy14643 reduced the expression of Endo G and AIF translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which occurred concomitantly with the decrease in DNA damage in A?42-treated cells. Our data clearly show that PPAR? activation prevents DNA damage and neuronal cell apoptosis by decreasing the expression and translocation of AIF/Endo G to the nucleus in a caspase-3- and p53-independent pathway in the NT2N cell model. This role of PPAR? in promoting neuron survival suggests a possible clinical application in treating A?42-associated neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease.
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Structural dynamics of the two-component response regulator RstA in recognition of promoter DNA element.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The RstA/RstB system is a bacterial two-component regulatory system consisting of the membrane sensor, RstB and its cognate response regulator (RR) RstA. The RstA of Klebsiella pneumoniae (kpRstA) consists of an N-terminal receiver domain (RD, residues 1-119) and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD, residues 130-236). Phosphorylation of kpRstA induces dimerization, which allows two kpRstA DBDs to bind to a tandem repeat, called the RstA box, and regulate the expression of downstream genes. Here we report the solution and crystal structures of the free kpRstA RD, DBD and DBD/RstA box DNA complex. The structure of the kpRstA DBD/RstA box complex suggests that the two protomers interact with the RstA box in an asymmetric fashion. Equilibrium binding studies further reveal that the two protomers within the kpRstA dimer bind to the RstA box in a sequential manner. Taken together, our results suggest a binding model where dimerization of the kpRstA RDs provides the platform to allow the first kpRstA DBD protomer to anchor protein-DNA interaction, whereas the second protomer plays a key role in ensuring correct recognition of the RstA box.
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Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) increases apoptosis, represses growth of cancer cells, and enhances adenovirus-mediated oncolysis.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cancer. Experiments have shown that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, exhibits potent anticarcinogenic properties in a wide range of cancers. In this study, we showed that higher doses of I3C (?400 ?M) induced apoptotic cancer cell death and lower doses of I3C (?200 ?M) repressed cancer cell growth concurrently with suppressed expression of cyclin E and its partner CDK2. Notably, we found that pretreatment with low doses of I3C enhanced Ad-mediated oncolysis and cytotoxicity of human carcinoma cells by synergistic upregulation of apoptosis. Thus, the vegetable compound I3C as a dietary supplement may benefit cancer prevention and improve Ad oncolytic therapies.
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Cryopreservation versus subcutaneous preservation of autologous bone flaps for cranioplasty: comparison of the surgical site infection and bone resorption rates.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Decompressive craniectomy is performed to treat malignant brain hypertension. Surgical site infection (SSI) and bone resorption are common complications following cranioplasty, and the storage method that minimizes such complication has yet to be identified.
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Treadmill exercise activates Nrf2 antioxidant system to protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+) toxicity.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Exercise induces oxidative stress, which may activate adaptive antioxidant responses. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in the defense of oxidative stress by regulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (?GCL) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We investigated whether treadmill exercise protects dopaminergic neurons by regulating the Nrf2 antioxidant system in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+))-induced parkinsonian rat model. We found that MPP(+) induced early decreases in total glutathione level and Nrf2/?GCLC (catalytic subunit of ?GCL) expression, but late upregulation of HO-1 expression in association with loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression in the striatum. Treadmill exercise for 4weeks induced upregulation of Nrf2 and ?GCLC expression, and also prevented the MPP(+)-induced downregulation of Nrf2/?GCLC/glutathione, HO-1 upregulation, and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Moreover, the protective effect of exercise was blocked by the knockdown of Nrf2 using a lentivirus-carried shNrf2 delivery system. These results demonstrate an essential role of Nrf2 in the exercise-mediated protective effect that exercise enhances the nigrostriatal Nrf2 antioxidant defense capacity to protect dopaminergic neurons against the MPP(+)-induced toxicity.
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Passive mode locking of ytterbium- and erbium-doped all-fiber lasers using graphene oxide saturable absorbers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Broadband graphene oxide/PVA films were used as saturable absorbers (SAs) for mode locking erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) and ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL) at 1.06 ?m and 1.55 ?m. They provide modulation depths of 3.15% and 6.2% for EDFL and YDFL, respectively. Stable self-starting mode-locked pulses are obtained for both lasers, confirming that the graphene oxide is cost-effective. We have generated mode-locked pulses with spectral width, repetition rate, and pulse duration of 0.75 nm, 9.5 MHz, and 2.7 ps. This is the shortest pulse duration directly obtained from an all-normal-dispersion YDFL with graphene-oxide saturable absorber.
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Surface display of roGFP for monitoring redox status of extracellular microenvironments in Shewanella oneidensis biofilms.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Biofilms are the most ubiquitous and resilient form of microbial life on earth. One most important feature of a biofilm is the presence of a self-produced matrix, which creates highly heterogeneous and dynamic microenvironments within biofilms. Redox status in biofilm microenvironments plays a critical role in biofilm development and function. However, there is a lack of non-intrusive tools to quantify extracellular redox status of microenvironments within a biofilm matrix. In this study, using Shewanella oneidensis as a model organism, we demonstrated a novel approach to monitor extracellular redox status in biofilm microenvironments. Specifically, we displayed a redox sensitive fluorescence protein roGFP onto the cell surface of S. oneidensis by fusing it to the C-terminus of BpfA, a large surface protein, and used the surface displayed roGFP as a sensor to quantify the extracellular redox status in the matrix of S. oneidensis biofilms. The fusion of roGFP into BpfA has no negative impacts on cell growth and biofilm formation. Upon exposure to oxidizing agents such as H2 O2 , Ag(+) , and SeO3 (2-) , S. oneidensis BpfA-roGFP cells exhibited a characteristic fluorescence of roGFP. Proteinase treatment assay and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy confirmed the surface localization of BpfA-roGFP. We further used the surface displayed roGFP monitored the extracellular redox status in the matrix at different depths of a biofilm exposed to H2 O2 . This study provides a novel approach to non-invasively monitor extracellular redox status in microenvironments within biofilms, which can be used to understand redox responses of biofilms to environmental perturbations. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;9999: 1-9. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Blood stream infection in patients undergoing systematic off-pump coronary artery bypass: incidence, risk factors, outcome, and associated pathogens.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Abstract Background: Blood stream infection (BSI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, information is lacking about patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens of BSI after OPCAB.
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Nutritional status and its health-related factors among older adults in rural and urban areas.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan.
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The correlates of body mass index and risk factors for being overweight among preschoolers with motor delay.
Adapt Phys Activ Q
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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This cross-sectional study investigated the correlates of body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for overweight among 91 children with motor delay (MD) aged 9-73 months. Anthropometric measurements and questionnaires regarding multiple risk factors were obtained. Simple correlations between BMI percentile classifications and potential predictors were examined using Spearman's rank/Pearson's correlations and ?2 analysis. Multiple predictors of overweight were analyzed using logistic regression. BMI was correlated positively with higher caloric intake (rs = .21, p < .05) and negatively with passive activity (rs = ?.21, p < .05). When multiple predictors were considered, more severe dysphagia (odds ratio [OR], 2.81, p = .027, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-7.03) and antiepileptic drug use (OR, 19.11, p = .008, 95% CI, 2.14-170.81) had significant partial effects on overweight status. Agencies supporting early development should consider caregiver education regarding the potential implication of feeding style and medication on BMI.
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Altered Co-contraction of Cervical Muscles in Young Adults with Chronic Neck Pain during Voluntary Neck Motions.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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[Purpose] Muscle co-contraction is important in stabilizing the spine. The aim of this study was to compare cervical muscle co-contraction in adults with and without chronic neck pain during voluntary movements. [Subjects and Methods] Surface electromyography of three paired cervical muscles was measured in fifteen young healthy subjects and fifteen patients with chronic neck pain. The subjects performed voluntary neck movements in the sagittal and coronal plane at slow speed. The co-contraction ratio was defined as the normalized integration of the antagonistic electromyography activities divided by that of the total muscle activities. [Results] The results showed that the co-contraction ratio of patients was greater during flexion movement, lesser during extension movement, slightly greater during right lateral bending, and slightly lesser during left lateral bending compared with in the controls. [Conclusion] The results suggested that neck pain patients exhibit greater antagonistic muscle activity during flexion and dominate-side bending movements to augment spinal stability, while neuromuscular control provides relatively less protection in the opposite movements. This study helps to specify the changes of the stiffness of the cervical spine in neck pain patients and provides a useful tool and references for clinical assessment of neck disorders.
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Justicidin A-Induced Autophagy Flux Enhances Apoptosis of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells via Class III PI3K and Atg5 Pathway.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Our previous reports showed that justicidin A (JA), a novel and pure arylnaphthalide lignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to the suppression of both tumor cell growth in NOD-SCID mice. Here, we reveal that JA induces autophagy in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by conversion of autophagic marker LC3-I to LC3-II. Furthermore, LC3 puncta and autophagic vesicle formation, and SQSTM1/p62 suppression were observed. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine) and transfection of a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-GFP) reporter plasmid (ptfLC3) demonstrated that JA induces autophagy flux in HT-29 cells. Expression of LC3, SQSTM1, Beclin 1, and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (representing apoptosis) were also detected in the tumor tissue of HT-29 cells transplanted into NOD-SCID mice orally administrated with JA. In addition, the expression of autophagy signaling pathway-related molecules p-PDK1, p-mTOR, p-p70S6k/p-RPS6KB2 was decreased, whereas that of class III PI3K, Beclin 1, Atg5-Atg12, and mitochondrial BNIP3 was increased in response to JA. Pre-treatment of the cells with class III PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA attenuated JA-induced LC3-II expression and LC3 puncta formation, indicating the involvement of class III PI3K and Atg5. A novel mechanism was demonstrated in the anticancer compound JA; pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA blocked JA-induced suppression in cell growth and colony formation, respectively, via inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, administration of apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD did not affect JA-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the chemotherapeutic potential of JA for treatment of human colorectal cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Second-Trimester Placental Volume and Vascular Indices in the Prediction of Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates.
Fetal. Diagn. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Objective: To evaluate the ability of second-trimester placental volume and vascular indices to predict small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth weight pregnancies. Material and Methods: Women with singleton pregnancies were prospectively evaluated at 17-20 weeks of gestation. Second-trimester placental volume and vascular indices were obtained and calculated using volume organ computer-aided analysis and three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound. Participants were followed until delivery and their medical records were reviewed, including maternal age, parity and pregestational body weight and body height, as well as the gestational age, birth weight and gender of the fetus. Results: Of the 163 women with complete follow-up, 20 gave birth to SGA and 143 to appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates. The mean second-trimester placental volume was significantly lower in the SGA than in the AGA group (170.6 ± 49.8 vs. 213.5 ± 75.8 cm(3), p = 0.015). None of the vascular indices, including the vascularization index, flow index and vascularization flow index, differed significantly between the two groups. We also found that the optimum cutoff for placental volume at a gestational age of 17-18 weeks was 189.7 cm(3). Discussion: Second-trimester placental volume was positively correlated with neonatal birth weight. Second-trimester placental volume measured on 3D ultrasound may be predictive of SGA neonates. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Refeeding syndrome in Southeastern Taiwan: our experience with 11 cases.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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To present our experience with refeeding syndrome in southeastern Taiwan.
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Motor impairments screened by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 are related to the visual-perceptual deficits in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This study was to examine to what extent the motor deficits of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) verified by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) are linked to their visual-perceptual abilities. Seventeen children with DCD and seventeen typically developing children (TD) aged 5-10 years screened from a total of 250 children were recruited. The assessments included MABC-2, traditional test of visual perceptual skills (TVPS-R), and computerized test for sequential coupling of eye and hand as well as motion coherence. The results indicated that children with DCD scored lower than TD in MABC-2, and their total scores were highly correlated with manual dexterity component scores. DCD group also showed poor visual-perceptual abilities in various aspects. The visual discrimination and visual sequential memory from the TVPS-R, the sequential coupling of eye and hand, and the motion coherence demonstrated a moderate or strong correlation with the MABC-2 in the DCD rather than the TD group. It was concluded that the motor problems screened by MABC-2 were significantly related to the visual-perceptual deficits of children with DCD. MABC-2 is suggested to be a prescreening tool to identify the visual-perceptual related motor deficits.
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Electroacupuncture at ST36-ST37 and at ear ameliorates hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure rats.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Our previous study showed that mossy fiber sprouting can occur in the hippocampus region in rats 6 wk after kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure, and this mossy fiber sprouting can facilitate epileptogenesis. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), which is similar to cervical VNS, can reduce the occurrence of epileptic seizure in intractable epilepsy patients. Greater parasympathetic nerve activity can be caused by 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA). Therefore, we investigated the effect of 2 Hz EA at ST-36-ST37 and at the ear on mossy fiber sprouting in kainic-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that applying 2 Hz EA at ST36-ST37 and at the ear for 3 d per week over 6 consecutive weeks can ameliorate mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus region of rats. These results indicated that applying 2 Hz EA at ST36-ST37 and at the ear might be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of epilepsy in humans.
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Plasma apelin: A novel biomarker for predicting diabetes.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Apelin regulates insulin sensitivity and secretion in animals. However, whether plasma apelin predicts incident diabetes in humans remains unknown.
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Chromosome distribution of early miscarriages with present or absent embryos: female predominance.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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The objective of this study is to compare the chromosomal distribution of early miscarriages with or without embryonic poles.
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Modulation of alternative splicing by expression of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, catalyzed by small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), plays an important role in proteome complexity and the modulation of cellular functions. snRNP polypeptide N (SmN), is tissue-specifically expressed, where it replaces snRNP polypeptide B (SmB)/B' in the Sm core assembly of snRNPs. Recent studies have demonstrated that perturbation of snRNPs leads to alternative splicing, but whether SmN modulates functions of the splicing machinery remains unclear. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of SmN increased utilization of the proximal 5' splice site on an adenovirus early gene 1A reporter. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying SmN-dependent alternative splicing, we generated a HeLa cell line with an inducible expression system for SmN. Upon SmN induction, SmB/B' expression decreased dramatically, despite only small changes in the level and splicing pattern of SNRPB mRNA. In addition, SmN was incorporated into the U2 snRNP but not into the U1 snRNP after induction. Sedimentation analysis revealed a decrease in the level of mature U2 snRNP. This result suggests that SmN incorporation into the Sm core may impede processing, decreasing the level of functional U2 snRNP. We also found that the inclusion frequencies of alternatively spliced exons in the bridging integrator 1 and exocyst complex component 7 (EXOC7) genes were modulated by SmN expression. An enhanced GFP-EXOC7 reporter was used to confirm that SmN increases the inclusion frequency of EXOC7 exon 7. Taken together, our findings indicate that SmN expression reduces the level of mature U2 snRNP, leading to alternative splicing.
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Clinical presentations of patients from different age cohorts with biliary tract stone diseases.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The role of clinical symptoms, transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS), and liver function tests (LFTs) in evaluating common bile duct (CBD) stones in patients suspected to have pancreatobiliary disease has been studied. However, it is unclear whether these predictive models are useful in different age cohorts. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical presentations from different age cohorts with and without CBD stones.
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Cardiac surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis: risk factors for predicting mortality.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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To evaluate the results of cardiac surgery in cirrhotic patients and to find the predictors of early and late mortality.
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Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced matrix metalloproteinase activation by the modulation of the lectin-like oxLDL receptor 1-regulated signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has been found in atherosclerotic lesions. Previous reports have identified that oxLDL, via the upregulation of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1), modulates the expression of MMPs in endothelial cells. Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has often been considered as a therapeutic compound for cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the probable molecular mechanisms underlying the antiatherogenic effects of GbE. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GbE on oxLDL-activated MMPs of human endothelial cells and to test the involvement of LOX-1 and protein kinase C (PKC)-?, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?).
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Cholesterol glucosylation by Helicobacter pylori delays internalization and arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and contributes to chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa. H. pylori persistence occurs because of insufficient eradication by phagocytic cells. A key factor of H. pylori, cholesterol-?-glucosyltransferase encoded by capJ that extracts host cholesterol and converts it to cholesteryl glucosides, is important to evade host immunity. Here, we examined whether phagocytic trafficking in macrophages was perturbed by capJ-carrying H. pylori.
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Malignant ventricular arrhythmias after off-pump coronary artery bypass.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) are rare complications after coronary surgery. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) was developed to decrease postoperative complications. No studies to date have specifically addressed VT/VF after OPCAB. We sought to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of VT/VF after OPCAB.
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Sustained delivery of latanoprost by thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogel for controlling ocular hypertension.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Glaucoma is an irreversible ocular disease that may lead to progressive visual field loss and eventually to blindness with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Latanoprost is one of the most potent ocular hypotensive compounds, the current first-line therapy in glaucoma. However, the daily instillation required for efficacy and undesirable side-effects are major causes of treatment adherence failure and persistence in glaucoma therapy. In the present study, we developed an injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel as a sustained-release system of latanoprost for glaucoma treatment. The latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel can gel within 1min at 37°C. The results show a sustained release of latanoprost from C/G/GP hydrogel in vitro and in vivo. The latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel showed a good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. A rabbit model of glaucoma was established by intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. After a single subconjunctival injection of latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel, IOP was significantly decreased within 8days and then remained at a normal level. The results of the study suggest that latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel may have a potential application in glaucoma therapy.
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Gammadelta (??) T lymphocytes do not impact the development of early atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Gammadelta (??) T cells are a subset of pro-inflammatory innate-like T lymphocytes that serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. ?? T cells are highly enriched in cholesterol compared to ?? T cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of ?? T cells in atherosclerosis, a cholesterol and inflammation-driven disease.
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Care bundle to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sternal wound infection after off-pump coronary artery bypass.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sternal wound infection (SWI) after cardiac surgery is endemic in our hospital. An infection control care bundle with preoperative chlorhexidine showering and povidone iodine paint before bathing was introduced in 2006. From 2001 to 2012, 23 (2.3%) of 1,010 patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass had SWIs. SWI significantly decreased after 2006 (1.4% vs 3.4%, respectively; P = .03). Care bundle was more protective against MRSA infection (2.3% vs 0.5%, respectively; P = .021). SWI remained a common complication after off-pump coronary artery bypass. MRSA infection was most common, and the mortality was high. Care bundle can effectively decrease the incidence of SWI, especially infection caused by MRSA.
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Mechanisms of early and delayed stroke after systematic off-pump coronary artery bypass.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Stroke is one of the most devastating complications after cardiac surgery. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) has been reported to offer a lower risk of stroke. However, limited information was available on timing and mechanisms of stroke after OPCAB. We sought to assess the incidence, timing, and mechanisms of stroke after OPCAB.
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Curcumin-induced Aurora-A suppression not only causes mitotic defect and cell cycle arrest but also alters chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Overexpression of oncoprotein Aurora-A increases drug resistance and promotes lung metastasis of breast cancer cells. Curcumin is an active anticancer compound in turmeric and curry. Here we observed that Aurora-A protein and kinase activity were reduced in curcumin-treated human breast chemoresistant nonmetastatic MCF-7 and highly metastatic cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Curcumin acts in a similar manner to Aurora-A small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulting in monopolar spindle formation, S and G2/M arrest, and cell division reduction. Ectopic Aurora-A extinguished the curcumin effects. The anticancer effects of curcumin were enhanced by Aurora-A siRNA and produced additivity and synergism effects in cell division and monopolar phenotype, respectively. Combination treatment with curcumin overrode the chemoresistance to four Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anticancer drugs (ixabepilone, cisplatin, vinorelbine, or everolimus) in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was characterized by a decrease in cell viability and the occurrence of an additivity or synergy effect. Ectopic expression of Aurora-A attenuated curcumin-enhanced chemosensitivity to these four tested drugs. A similar benefit of curcumin was observed in MCF-7 cells treated with ixabepilone, the primary systemic therapy to patients with invasive breast cancer (stages IIA-IIIB) before surgery. Antagonism effect was observed when MCF-7 cells were treated with curcumin plus cisplatin, vinorelbine or everolimus. Curcumin-induced enhancement in chemosensitivity was paralleled by significant increases (additivity or synergy effect) in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases, the consequences of Aurora-A inhibition. These results suggest that a combination of curcumin with FDA-approved anticancer drugs warrants further assessment with a view to developing a novel clinical treatment for breast cancer.
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Iridium-decorated palladium-platinum core-shell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Carbon-supported Pt, Pd, Pd-Pt core-shell (Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C) and Ir-decorated Pd-Pt core-shell (Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C) catalysts were synthesized, and their physical properties, electrochemical behaviors, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) characteristics and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performances were investigated herein. From the XRD patterns and TEM images, Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has been confirmed that Pt was deposited on the Pd nanoparticle which had the core-shell structure. Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has more positive OH reduction peak than Pt/C, which is beneficial to weaken the binding energy of Pt-OH during the ORR. Thus, Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has higher ORR activity than Pt/C. The maximum power density of H2-O2 PEMFC using Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C is 792.2 mW cm(-2) at 70°C, which is 24% higher than that using Pt/C. The single-cell accelerated degradation test of PEMFC using Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C shows good durability by the potential cycling of 40,000 cycles. This study concludes that Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has the low Pt content, but it can facilitate the low-cost and high-efficient PEMFC.
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Seroincidence of HIV and prevalence of transmitted drug resistance of HIV-1 strains among persons seeking voluntary counselling and testing in Taiwan.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The total case number of persons who are newly diagnosed with HIV continues to increase in Taiwan and men who have sex with men (MSM) have re-emerged as the leading risk group for HIV transmission. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence rate of HIV infection among those individuals who sought voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service at a university hospital.
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Incidence of recent HCV infection among persons seeking voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Taiwan.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The incidence of recent hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) infection has been noted to be increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those with HIV infection, in several resource-rich settings. In Taiwan, the incidence of recent HCV infection increased from 0 in 1994-2000, 2.29 in 2001-2005 to 10.13 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 2006-2010. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence rate of recent HCV infection among those individuals who sought voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service at a University Hospital.
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Dual-layered nanogel-coated hollow lipid/polypeptide conjugate assemblies for potential pH-triggered intracellular drug release.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To achieve effective intracellular anticancer drug delivery, the polymeric vesicles supplemented with the pH-responsive outlayered gels as a delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX) were developed from self-assembly of the lipid/polypeptide adduct, distearin grafted poly(?-glutamic acid) (poly(?-GA)), followed by sequential deposition of chitosan and poly(?-GA-co-?-glutamyl oxysuccinimide)-g-monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) in combination with in situ covalent cross-linking on assembly surfaces. The resultant gel-caged polymeric vesicles (GCPVs) showed superior performance in regulating drug release in response to the external pH change. Under typical physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and 37 °C) at which the ?-GA/DOX ionic pairings remained mostly undisturbed, the dense outlayered gels of GCPVs significantly reduced the premature leakage of the uncomplexed payload. With the environmental pH being reduced from pH 7.4 to 4.7, the drug liberation was appreciably promoted by the massive disruption of the ionic ?-GA/DOX complexes along with the significant swelling of nanogel layers upon the increased protonation of chitosan chain segments. After being internalized by HeLa cells via endocytosis, GCPVs exhibited cytotoxic effect comparable to free DOX achieved by rapidly releasing the payload in intracellular acidic endosomes and lysosomes. This strongly implies the great promise of such unique GCPVs as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for potential anticancer treatment.
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Effect of electroacupuncture on rats with chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We adopt the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model to induce neuropathic pain to Spragrue-Dawley (SD) rats by ligating the right sciatic nerve of using four 4-0 chromic gut sutures and subsequently applying 2 and 15 Hz electroacupuncture (EA), respectively, to the right (ipsilateral) Zusanli (St-36) and Shangjuxu (St-37) acupoints. The results of this study are summarized as follows: (1) the differences in withdrawal latencies for the radiant heat test and total lift leg counts for the cold plate test (4°C) of the control (i.e., non-EA) and sham groups were greater than those of the 2 Hz EA (2EA) and 15 Hz EA (15EA) groups; (2) the von Frey test filament gram counts of the control and sham groups were less than those of the 2EA and 15EA groups on the 6th, 7th, 8th, 11th, 12th, and 13th day following ligation; and (3) the 2EA and 15EA groups exhibited reduced cerebral transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) expressions, although we did not observe a similar effect for cerebral TRPV1 or spinal TRPV4/TRPV1 expressions. These findings show that 2 and 15 Hz EA can reduce CCI-induced neuropathic pain, which indicates that various spinal segmental and gate effects have a crucial function in pain reduction. The relationship between EA and TRPV4/TRPV1 expression requires further study.
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among adults at high risk for HIV transmission two decades after implementation of nationwide hepatitis B virus vaccination program in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after implementation of universal neonatal HBV vaccination and catch-up vaccination programs remains rarely investigated among the adults who were born in the vaccination era (in or after 1986) and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors.
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Broadband charge transfer dynamics in P3HT:PCBM blended film.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Broadband exciton dynamics in P3HT:PCBM blended film was observed by the femtosecond time-resolved photoluminescence sum-frequency technique. Onsager-Braun theory is applied to analyze the distribution of charge transfer radius at different energy levels. In our evaluation, the optimal diameter of P3HT fiber is about 14.3 nm for achieving the best exciton dissociation in P3HT:PCBM blended films. This technique can be readily used in the optimization of high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.
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1.5T versus 3T MRI for targeting subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Background. Accurate stereotactic placement of the electrode into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is imperative to the therapeutic efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, it is not always possible to directly visualize the very small STN using 1.5T MR imaging. Objective. To evaluate whether 3T MR imaging can provide better identification of the STN and clinical outcome than 1.5T MR imaging. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with advanced Parkinsons disease underwent 1.5T (n = 16) or 3T (n = 23) fast spin echo T2-weighted (FSE-T2WI) MR imaging for targeting the STN. A semi-quantitative 3-point scoring system was proposed to rank the clearness of STN contour: Score "0" if non-visible; Score "1" if visible but with blurred margin; and "2" if visible with clear margin. The unified Parkinsons disease rating scale (UPDRS) was also compared before operation and post-operation. Results. The STN score was 2 in all the patients of the 3T group, whereas it was relatively blurred (mean score, 1.19) in the 1.5T group (P < 0.001). The number of microelectrode trajectories (1.2 versus 1.5; P < 0.05) was lower in the 3T group; consequently, the operative time was also less (P < 0.05) as compared with that in the 1.5T group. The outcome of UPDRS motor examination showed no significant difference in two groups. Conclusion. 3T MR imaging is a reliable and more accurate method for direct targeting of the STN for DBS surgery. However, the technique of high-sequence MR imaging may not influence the clinical outcome significantly.
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Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12?mg/kg, i.p.) to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3?h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0?g/kg), RP (0.25?mg/kg), and valproic acid (VA, 250?mg/kg) for 3?d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp) of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 ? , IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- ? remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.
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Aspirin attenuates Vinorelbine-induced endothelial inflammation via modulating SIRT1/AMPK axis.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Vinorelbine (VNR), a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid acquired from vinblastine, is frequently used as the candidate for intervention of solid tumors. Nevertheless, VNR-caused endothelial injuries may lead a mitigative effect of clinical treatment efficiency. A growing body of evidence reveals that aspirin is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammation drug. We investigated whether aspirin attenuate VNR-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were treated with VNR to cause endothelial inflammation. Western blotting, ROS assay, ELISA were used to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of aspirin. We confirmed that VNR supresses SIRT1 expression, reduced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation as well as enriched PKC activation in treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, the membrane translocation assay displayed that the levels of NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and Rac-1 in membrane fractions of endothelial cells were higher in cells that had been treated with VNR for than in untreated cells. We corroborated that treatment of Aspirin significantly diminishes VNR-repressed SIRT1, LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation and VNR-promoted NADPH oxidase activation, however, those findings were vanished by SIRT1 and AMPK siRNAs. Our data also shown that Aspirin represses VNR-activated TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) activation, inhibited the interaction of TAK1/TAK-binding protein1 (TAB1), suppressed NF-kappa B activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. We demonstrated a novel connection between VNR-caused oxidative damages and endothelial dysfunction, and provide further insight into the protective effects of aspirin in VNR-caused endothelial dysfunction.
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Spectroscopic Study of the I2 Formation from the Photolysis of Iodomethanes (CHI3, CH2I2, CH3I, and CH2ICl) at Different Wavelengths.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Emission spectra following the photolysis of iodomethanes (CHI3, CH2I2, CH3I, and CH2ICl) at 266 nm were recorded in a slow flow cell. In addition to emission from the electronically excited species including CH (A(2)?, B(2)?(-), and C(2)?(+)), C2 (d(3)?g), and atomic iodine ((4)P(o)), a series of emission bands was observed in the 12?000-19?000 cm(-1) region. The dominant structure of these emission bands was verified as the I2 B(3)?(+)0,u-X(1)?(+)g emission at the 532 nm excitation, and the observed I2 was formed from collisions between iodine atoms generated from the C-I bond dissociation in these iodomethanes. The I2 emission spectra following the photolysis of CH2I2 at different wavelengths were acquired, and the threshold energy for the first C-I bond cleavage was determined to be 208 ± 1 kJ mol(-1). We also obtained the emission spectra of pure I2 at several visible excitation wavelengths for comparison with those from the photolysis of iodomethanes, and a least-squares global fit of the observed I2 emission bands yields more accurate anharmonicity parameters for the vibrational structure in the I2 B-X transition.
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FeoC from Klebsiella pneumoniae contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Iron is essential for pathogen survival, virulence, and colonization. Feo is suggested to function as the ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) transporter. The enterobacterial Feo system is composed of 3 proteins: FeoB is the indispensable component and is a large membrane protein likely to function as a permease; FeoA is a small Src homology 3 (SH3) domain protein that interacts with FeoB; FeoC is a winged-helix protein containing 4 conserved Cys residues in a sequence suitable for harboring a putative iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster. The presence of an iron-sulfur cluster on FeoC has never been shown experimentally. We report that under anaerobic conditions, the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae FeoC (KpFeoC) exhibited hyperfine-shifted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and a UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectrum characteristic of a paramagnetic center. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results were consistent only with the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Substituting the cysteinyl sulfur with oxygen resulted in significantly reduced cluster stability, establishing the roles of these cysteines as the ligands for the Fe-S cluster. When exposed to oxygen, the [4Fe-4S] cluster degraded to [3Fe-4S] and eventually disappeared. We propose that KpFeoC may regulate the function of the Feo transporter through the oxygen- or iron-sensitive coordination of the Fe-S cluster.
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Coached practice using ERCP mechanical simulator improves trainees ERCP performance: a randomized controlled trial.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Preliminary data suggested that simulation practice using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) mechanical simulator (EMS) improved trainees skill. The aims of the current study were to confirm the impact of coached EMS practice at the beginning of ERCP training and to investigate whether subsequent uncoached EMS practice provides additional benefit.
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Dynamic evolution of conducting nanofilament in resistive switching memories.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) has been considered the most promising next-generation nonvolatile memory. In recent years, the switching behavior has been widely reported, and understanding the switching mechanism can improve the stability and scalability of devices. We designed an innovative sample structure for in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe the formation of conductive filaments in the Pt/ZnO/Pt structure in real time. The corresponding current-voltage measurements help us to understand the switching mechanism of ZnO film. In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been used to identify the atomic structure and components of the filament/disrupted region, determining that the conducting paths are caused by the conglomeration of zinc atoms. The behavior of resistive switching is due to the migration of oxygen ions, leading to transformation between Zn-dominated ZnO(1-x) and ZnO.
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Role of QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube assay for active and latent tuberculosis infection in investigation of tuberculosis outbreak in a university.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Identification and monitoring of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the key steps to prevent transmission during a TB outbreak. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube assay (QFT-GIT) in the investigation of active TB and LTBI cases during a TB outbreak in a university.
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Three distinct modes of Mec1/ATR and Tel1/ATM activation illustrate differential checkpoint targeting during budding yeast early meiosis.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Recombination and synapsis of homologous chromosomes are hallmarks of meiosis in many organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by Spo11-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), whereas chromosome synapsis is mediated by a tripartite structure named the synaptonemal complex (SC). Previously, we proposed that budding yeast SC is assembled via noncovalent interactions between the axial SC protein Red1, SUMO chains or conjugates, and the central SC protein Zip1. Incomplete synapsis and unrepaired DNA are monitored by Mec1/Tel1-dependent checkpoint responses that prevent exit from the pachytene stage. Here, our results distinguished three distinct modes of Mec1/Tec1 activation during early meiosis that led to phosphorylation of three targets, histone H2A at S129 (?H2A), Hop1, and Zip1, which are involved, respectively, in DNA replication, the interhomolog recombination and chromosome synapsis checkpoint, and destabilization of homology-independent centromere pairing. ?H2A phosphorylation is Red1 independent and occurs prior to Spo11-induced DSBs. DSB- and Red1-dependent Hop1 phosphorylation is activated via interaction of the Red1-SUMO chain/conjugate ensemble with the Ddc1-Rad17-Mec3 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. During SC assembly, Zip1 outcompetes 9-1-1 from the Red1-SUMO chain ensemble to attenuate Hop1 phosphorylation. In contrast, chromosome synapsis cannot attenuate DSB-dependent and Red1-independent Zip1 phosphorylation. These results reveal how DNA replication, DSB repair, and chromosome synapsis are differentially monitored by the meiotic checkpoint network.
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Thymoquinone induces apoptosis in oral cancer cells through p38? inhibition.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Oral cancer is a common malignancy associated with high morbidity and mortality. While p38 MAPK is reported to be involved in different cellular activities such as proliferation and differentiation, reports rarely define the roles of the individual members of the p38 MAPK family in cancer. We used two unique cell lines developed by our lab representing chemically induced oral cancer cells (T28) and non-tumor cells (N28) obtained from tissues surrounding the induced cancer as a model to screen out whether p38 MAPK is involved in the malignant transformation processes. The results suggest an association between p38? not p38? and oral cancer development. Additionally, the anti-cancer activity of thymoquinone (TQ) was screened out and we found evidences suggesting that the anti-tumor activity of TQ may be attributed to the downregulation of p38? MAPK.
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Improvement of plant growth and seed yield in Jatropha curcas by a novel nitrogen-fixing root associated Enterobacter species.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Jatropha curcas L. is an oil seed producing non-leguminous tropical shrub that has good potential to be a fuel plant that can be cultivated on marginal land. Due to the low nutrient content of the targeted plantation area, the requirement for fertilizer is expected to be higher than other plants. This factor severely affects the commercial viability of J. curcas.
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Superparamagnetic hollow hybrid nanogels as a potential guidable vehicle system of stimuli-mediated MR imaging and multiple cancer therapeutics.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Hollow hybrid nanogels were prepared first by the coassembly of the citric acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, 44 wt %) with the graft copolymer (56 wt %) comprising acrylic acid and 2-methacryloylethyl acrylate units as the backbone and poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) as the grafts in the aqueous phase of pH 3.0 in the hybrid vesicle structure, followed by in situ covalent stabilization via the photoinitiated polymerization of MEA residues within vesicles. The resultant hollow nanogels, though slightly swollen, satisfactorily retain their structural integrity while the medium pH is adjusted to 7.4. Confining SPION clusters to such a high level (44 wt %) within the pH-responsive thin gel layer remarkably enhances the transverse relaxivity (r2) and renders the MR imaging highly pH-tunable. For example, with the pH being adjusted from 4.0 to 7.4, the r2 value can be dramatically increased from 138.5 to 265.5 mM(-1) s(-1). The DOX-loaded hybrid nanogels also exhibit accelerated drug release in response to both pH reduction and temperature increase as a result of the substantial disruption of the interactions between drug molecules and copolymer components. With magnetic transport guidance toward the target and subsequent exposure to an alternating magnetic field, this DOX-loaded nanogel system possessing combined capabilities of hyperthermia and stimuli-triggered drug release showed superior in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa cells as compared to the case with only free drug or hyperthermia alone. This work demonstrates that the hollow inorganic/organic hybrid nanogels hold great potential to serve as a multimodal theranostic vehicle functionalized with such desirable features as the guidable delivery of stimuli-mediated diagnostic imaging and hyperthermia/chemotherapies.
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Single-crystalline ?-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of ?-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the ?-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/?m), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation.
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Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.
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Combination of autophagy inducer rapamycin and oncolytic adenovirus improves antitumor effect in cancer cells.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Combination of oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) and chemotherapy drugs has shown promising therapeutic results and is considered as a potential approach for cancer therapy. We previously have shown that autophagy may generate decomposed cellular molecules that can be used as nutrition to support virus replication in cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated a unique combination of the novel oncolytic Ad-cycE with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer and first-line chemotherapeutic drug.
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Surgical proficiency and quality indicators in off-pump coronary artery bypass.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) was developed to decrease postoperative mortality and morbidity. Surgeon experience influences outcome. The required levels of surgical proficiency and maturation of technical skills are uncertain. We sought to assess the surgical proficiency in OPCAB and to identify the required levels of technical maturation.
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Phase transformation and thermoelectric properties of bismuth-telluride nanowires.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention due to the current interest in energy conversion and recent advancements in nano-engineering. A simple approach to synthesize BiTe and Bi2Te3 micro/nanowires was developed by combining solution chemistry reactions and catalyst-free vapor-solid growth. A pathway to transform the as-grown BiTe nanostructures into Bi2Te3 can be identified through the Bi-Te phase diagram. Structural characterization of these products was identified using standard microscopy practices. Meanwhile, thermoelectric properties of individual Bi-Te compound micro/nanowires were determined by the suspended microdevice technique. This approach provides an applicable route to synthesize advanced high performance thermoelectric materials in quantities and can be used for a wide range of low-dimensional structures.
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In situ TEM and energy dispersion spectrometer analysis of chemical composition change in ZnO nanowire resistive memories.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) has been of wide interest for its potential to replace flash memory in the next-generation nonvolatile memory roadmap. In this study, we have fabricated the Au/ZnO-nanowire/Au nanomemory device by electron beam lithography and, subsequently, utilized in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe the atomic structure evolution from the initial state to the low-resistance state (LRS) in the ZnO nanowire. The element mapping of LRS showing that the nanowire was zinc dominant indicating that the oxygen vacancies were introduced after resistance switching. The results provided direct evidence, suggesting that the resistance change resulted from oxygen migration.
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Comparative effectiveness of two doses versus three doses of hepatitis A vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare the serologic response between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) receiving two and three doses of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine and HIV-uninfected MSM receiving two doses of HAV vaccine. Between June 2009 and December 2010, 582 MSM aged 18 to 40 years who were seronegative for HAV were enrolled in the study. HIV-infected MSM received either two doses of HAV vaccine (1,440 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units) (n = 140) with the second dose given at week 24 or three doses (n = 225) with the second and third dose given at weeks 4 and 24, respectively, while HIV-uninfected MSM (n = 217) received two doses. The primary endpoint was seroconversion at week 48. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HAV antibody was determined at weeks 48 and 72. At week 48, the seroconversion rate was 75.7%, 77.8%, and 88.5% in intention-to-treat analysis for two-dose HIV-infected, three-dose HIV-infected, and two-dose HIV-uninfected MSM, respectively. The GMC of anti-HAV antibody at week 48 for three-dose HIV-infected MSM (2.29 ± 0.73 log10 mIU/mL) was significantly higher than that for two-dose HIV-infected MSM (1.94 ± 0.66; P < 0.01), but was lower than HIV-uninfected MSM (2.49 ± 0.42; P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed higher CD4 counts (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for per 50 cells/?L increase, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.21) and undetectable plasma HIV RNA load (AOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.10-3.28) before HAV vaccination were predictive of seroconversion in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: Serologic response rate to three and two doses of HAV vaccine was similar in HIV-infected MSM, which was lower than that in HIV-uninfected MSM receiving two doses. HAV vaccination in HIV-infected patients with a higher CD4 count and suppression of HIV replication increased the seroconversion rate.
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Validity and clinimetric properties of the Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure in children with cerebral palsy.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the validity, responsiveness, and clinimetric properties of the Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure (SAROMM) in children with cerebral palsy (CP).
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Cancer risk in patients with Graves disease: a nationwide cohort study.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The possibility of an association of Graves disease (GD) with subsequent cancers has been previously reported.
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Enhancing of intensity of fluorescence by DEP manipulations of polyaniline-coated Al?O? nanoparticles for immunosensing.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A novel modification of low-cost Al?O? nanoparticles (Al?O? NPs) for antibody-protein immunosensing is proposed. The modified NPs are utilized to enhance the intensity of fluorescence in a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with a microelectrode array. The surface of the Al?O? NPs is modified by ionic polyaniline (PANDB) rather than the conventional silane (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) to conjugate the antibody on the outer shell. After the PANDB-Al?O? NPs is functionalized to form probes, a DEP chip with a vertical non-uniform electric field that is produced by top and bottom electrodes condenses and immobilizes the nanoprobes on the surface of the electrodes by positive DEP force for immunosensing of the fluorescent protein. Additionally, each microelectrode array can be individually controlled with/without DEP manipulation using a computer program. Experimental results indicate that PANDB-based nanoprobes provide more rapid and sensitive immunosensing than those having undergone conventional silane modification. During immunosensing, fluorescence intensity can be doubled by the application of extra DEP force. The individual control of NPs on the microelectrode array has great potential for applications in multi-antibody arrays in a single chip for immunosensing.
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Pregnancy outcomes of anti-hypertensives for women with chronic hypertension: a population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The impact of anti-hypertensive treatment on fetus was unclear, and hence, remains controversial. We set out in this study to estimate the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm delivery and small for gestational age amongst women with chronic hypertension, and to determine whether the use of anti-hypertensive drugs increases the risk of such adverse pregnancy outcomes.
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Multi-step manipulations of PMMA submicron particles using dielectrophoresis.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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A microfluidic chip for multi-step manipulations of polymethylmethacrylate submicron particles (PMMA-SMPs) based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been developed that includes four main functions of focusing, guiding, trapping and releasing the submicron particles. The structure of the DEP chip consists of a top electrode made of indium tin oxide (ITO), a flow chamber formed by optically clear adhesive (OCA) tape and bottom electrodes with different patterns for different purposes. The bottom electrodes can be divided into three parts: a fish-bone type electrode array which provides the positive DEP force for focusing the suspended nanoparticles near the inlet in the flow chamber; the second is for switching and guiding the focused nanoparticles along the electrode surface to the target area, like a flow passing along a virtual channel; and a trapping electrode in the downstream for trapping and releasing the guided nanoparticles. According to the simulation and experimental results, nanoparticles can be aligned along the electrode of the focusing electrode and guided toward the target electrode by means of a positive DEP force between the top and bottom electrodes, with the effects of Brownian motion and Stokes force. In order to demonstrate the sequence of DEP manipulations, a PMMA-NP suspension is introduced to the DEP chip; the size of the PMMA-SMPs is about 300 nm. Furthermore, a LabVIEW program developed for sequence control of the AC signals for the multi-step manipulations. Consequently, the DEP chip provides an excellent platform technology for the multi-step manipulation of submicron particles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Caffeic Acid phenethyl ester inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human pancreatic cancer cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Background. This study aimed to investigate the effect of propolis component caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human pancreatic cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods. The transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?-) induced EMT in human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells was characterized by observation of morphology and the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin by western blotting. The migration potential was estimated with wound closure assay. The expression of transcriptional factors was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry staining. The orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenograft model was used for in vivo assessment. Results. The overexpression of vimentin was attenuated by CAPE, and the alteration in morphology from polygonal to spindle shape was partially reversed by CAPE. Furthermore, CAPE delayed the TGF-?-stimulated migration potential. CAPE treatment did not reduce the expression levels of Smad 2/3, Snail 1, and Zeb 1 but inhibited the expression of transcriptional factor Twist 2. By using an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model, CAPE suppressed the expression of Twist 2 and growth of PANC-1 xenografts without significant toxicity. Conclusion. CAPE could inhibit the orthotopic growth and EMT of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells accompanied by downregulation of vimentin and Twist 2 expression.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.