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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ophiopogonin D Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Autophagic Cell Death by Relieving Mitochondrial Damage in vitro and in vivo.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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It has been reported that Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), a steroidal glycoside and an active component extracted from Ophiopogon japonicas, promotes antioxidative protection of the cardiovascular system. However, it is unknown whether OP-D exerts protective effects against DOX-induced autophagic cardiomyocyte injury. Here, we demonstrate that DOX induced excessive autophagy through the generation of ROS in H9c2 cells and in mouse hearts, which was indicated by a significant increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and up-regulation of the expression of GFP-LC3. Pretreatment with OP-D partially attenuated the above phenomena, similar to the effects of treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, OP-D treatment significantly relieved the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential by anti-oxidative effects through down-regulating the expression of both phosphorylated JNK and ERK. The ability of OP-D to reduce the generation of ROS due to mitochondrial damage and, consequently, to inhibit autophagic activity partially accounts for its protective effects in the hearts against DOX-induced toxicity.
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Incidence and clinical characteristics of transient ST-T elevation during transseptal catheterization for atrial fibrillation ablation.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Transient ST-T elevation (STE) is a rare complication that occurs during transseptal catheterization. This study aims to delineate the incidence and characteristics of transient STE during transseptal catheterization for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation.
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Flavonoids of Rosa roxburghii Tratt Act as Radioprotectors.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To study the radioprotective effects of flavonoids from Rosa roxburghii Tratt (FRT).
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[Ophiopogonin D protects cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced injury through suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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This study aimed to examine whether ophiopogonin D (OP-D) is capable of protecting cardiomyocytes against DOX-induced injury and the mechanisms involved. H9c2 cells were cultured. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and toxicity. Mito-tracker as fluorescence probe was used to measure ROS content raised from mitochondria. The mRNA and protein expression of ATF6alpha, GRP78 and CHOP were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that a significant endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was induced upon exposure of H9c2 cells to DOX as indicated by the increase in the expression of ERS related proteins, which was paralleled with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in the viability of H9c2 cells. Whereas, DOX-induced ROS accumulation and up-regulation of ERS related proteins were partially abolished by pretreatment with OP-D. Consequently, a DOX-induced ERS was mitigated by application of OP-D. Similarly, DOX-induced decrease in cell viability was partially attenuated by either inhibiting CHOP or pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant. Moreover, cardiac ultrastructural abnormalities seen in mouse receiving DOX injections were obviously ameliorated by pretreatment of OP-D. Taken together, the present study proved that OP-D protects cardiomyocytes against DOX-induced injury, at least in part, through reducing ROS accumulation and alleviating ERS.
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Retrospective Review on Obstetric Cases of Critically Ill and Dead Patients in Dongguan.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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This retrospective analysis was set to understand the epidemiological status of the critically ill obstetric patients in Dongguan city, Guangdong, China. Understanding the risk factors for the death cases can provide scientific evidences for future preventive strategies to decrease the maternal mortality rate. This retrospective included the statistical data and clinical data on the cases of critically ill and dead obstetric patients admitted to Dongguan People's Hospital and Dongguan Maternal & Child Health Hospital from September 1st, 2009 to August 31st, 2013. Data included numbers of the critically ill maternal and obstetric women, common obstetric and maternal comorbidities and complications in the critically ill patients, the basic characteristics of maternal and obstetric deaths, records of regular prenatal examinations, the time intervals between onset of acute symptoms and ICU admission, blood purification, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score. During the 5-year period, there were increasing trend of critically ill pregnant and obstetric patients, and the prevalence rate of critically ill obstetric patients was 8.99-9.28 %. The most common obstetric causes of admission were massive postpartum hemorrhage (63.54 %), followed by pregnancy-associated hypertension (15.85 %) and placenta previa (8.92 %). The most common non-obstetric causes of admission were acute heart failure (1.98 %). In the observed period, 20 critically ill obstetric patients died in these two hospitals (mortality rate 0.24 %, 20/8,129). The mean age of dead women was (30.3 ± 6.6) years old and mean gestational age was (30.1 ± 9.3) weeks. 75 % of the patient had more than two pregnancies. Over 90 % of the patients received education below junior high school level. 85 % of the patients were non-Dongguan natives and regular prenatal care rate was only 15 % on dead cases. The most common causes of death were pregnancy-associated hypertension, acute heart failure, and massive postpartum hemorrhage. The dead patients experienced longer interval between onset of acute symptoms and ICU admission (media = 62.5 h), higher APACHE II score (25.4 ± 5.4), and lower blood purification treatment rate (10 %). The incidence of critically ill pregnant and obstetric patients is high in Dongguan city. The group of dead obstetric patients, the majority of which were non-Dongguan natives, usually experienced above-average pregnancies, lower educational level, lower regular prenatal care rate, and longer interval between onset of acute symptoms and ICU admission. Critically ill obstetric patients may benefit from publicized informed relevant education, government-supported health care, preventative interventions of critical obstetric and medical complications, timely ICU admission after onset of acute symptoms, and the enhanced support of organ functions within the ICU.
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Circulating Tetrahydrobiopterin as a Novel Biomarker for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is unpredictable and lethal. A clinically valid biomarker to monitor the disease has not been available. Based on our recent discoveries that uncoupled eNOS/tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency plays a causal role in various models of AAA, the present study examined the relationship between circulating and tissue levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) in angioteinsin II infused hyperphenylalaninemia (hph-1) and apoE null mice. For apoE nulls, tissue and plasma H4B levels decreased time dependently, to 2.69±0.15 and 1.99±0.06 pmol/mg respectively (from 4.86±0.32 and 3.31±0.13 at baseline) by week 3, when aneurysms develop. For hph-1s, tissue and plasma H4B levels decreased significantly to 1.02±0.10 and 0.98±0.09 pmol/mg (from 1.84±0.18 and 1.48±0.12 pmol/mg at baseline) by week 1, when aneurysms develop. Oral folic acid administration, which has been shown to improve aortic H4B levels to completely prevent or markedly decrease the incidence of AAA, significantly increased tissue and plasma H4B levels in both animal models starting at week 1. The two H4B measurements at all conditions showed significant linear correlation, suggesting that plasma H4B accurately predicts its tissue levels when H4B is either reduced or enhanced. Taken together, these data demonstrate that H4B levels decrease with AAA development and increase with folic acid treatment in two different murine models of AAA, and that plasma H4B levels accurately reflect its levels in the tissue, suggesting that circulating H4B levels may be used clinically as a novel and powerful biomarker for the development and response to treatment of AAA.
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Association of CYP17A1 gene -34T/C polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in Han Chinese population.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of the cytochrome P450 17? (CYP17A1) gene -34T/C polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese population. Methods: Three-hundred eighteen patients with PCOS and 306 controls were recruited and the CYP17A1 -34T/C polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Furthermore, the relationship of CYP17A1 -34T/C polymorphism and clinical feature parameters of PCOS patients was also analyzed. Results: The prevalence rates of CYP17A1 genotype TT, TC and CC were 49.69%, 43.71% and 6.6% in the case group and those were 44.77%, 46.08% and 9.15% in the control group. The frequencies of CYP17A1 T and C alleles were 71.54% and 28.46% in the case group, and those were 67.81% and 32.19% in the control group. Neither the genotypic nor the allelic distribution was significantly different between the cases and controls. However, the PCOS patients with the genotype of CC had significantly higher total testosterone levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) than those with the genotype of TT or TC. Conclusions: The CYP17A1 gene -34T/C polymorphism might not be directly correlated with the PCOS, but might influence PCOS via the association of testosterone level and the HOMA-IR.
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Comparison of Hero 642 and K3 rotary nickel-titanium files in curved canals of molars and a systematic review of the literature.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The aim of the present study was to compare the root canal preparation ability of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) Hero 642 and K3 files in curved mandibular or maxillary molars. A total of 40 extracted mandibular molars with two separate mesial canals, an apical width of approximately size ?15 and a root canal curvature of 15-30° were randomly divided into two groups and instrumented using Hero 642 (n=20) or K3 files (n=20). Canal straightening, working length, transportation, cross-sectional area, minimum dentin thickness and the canal angle curvature degree were examined, and a systematic review of the literature was conducted. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to the mean degree of straightening, mean change in working length, mean transportation, amount of dentin removed or remaining minimum dentin thickness (P>0.05). The canal angle curvature decreased in the two groups postoperatively. The systematic review identified six studies, and overall the two files performed similarly in the majority of categories examined. Therefore, the rotary NiTi Hero 642 and K3 files demonstrated comparable shaping abilities and maintenance of working length.
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NADPH oxidase 4 induces cardiac arrhythmic phenotype in zebrafish.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmia, although a causal relationship remains undefined. We have recently demonstrated a marked up-regulation of NADPH oxidase isoform 4 (NOX4) in patients with atrial fibrillation, which is accompanied by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the impact on the cardiac phenotype of NOX4 overexpression in zebrafish. One-cell stage embryos were injected with NOX4 RNA prior to video recording of a GFP-labeled (myl7:GFP zebrafish line) beating heart in real time at 24-31 h post-fertilization. Intriguingly, NOX4 embryos developed cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by irregular heartbeats. When quantitatively analyzed by an established LQ-1 program, the NOX4 embryos displayed much more variable beat-to-beat intervals (mean S.D. of beat-to-beat intervals was 0.027 s/beat in control embryos versus 0.038 s/beat in NOX4 embryos). Both the phenotype and the increased ROS in NOX4 embryos were attenuated by NOX4 morpholino co-injection, treatments of the embryos with polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase, or NOX4 inhibitors fulvene-5, 6-dimethylamino-fulvene, and proton sponge blue. Injection of NOX4-P437H mutant RNA had no effect on the cardiac phenotype or ROS production. In addition, phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II was increased in NOX4 embryos but diminished by polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase, whereas its inhibitor KN93 or AIP abolished the arrhythmic phenotype. Taken together, our data for the first time uncover a novel pathway that underlies the development of cardiac arrhythmia, namely NOX4 activation, subsequent NOX4-specific NADPH-driven ROS production, and redox-sensitive CaMKII activation. These findings may ultimately lead to novel therapeutics targeting cardiac arrhythmia.
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Controllable assembly of a three-dimensional metal-organic supramolecular framework displaying hydrogen-bonding and ?-? stacking interactions.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The complex poly[[aqua(?2-phthalato-?(2)O(1):O(2)){?3-2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetato-?(4)N(2),N(3):O:O'}{?2-2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetato-?(3)N(2),N(3):O}dizinc(II)] dihydrate], {[Zn2(C10H8N3O2)2(C8H4O4)(H2O)]·2H2O}n, has been prepared by solvothermal reaction of 2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetonitrile (PPAN) with zinc(II). Under hydrothermal conditions, PPAN is hydrolyzed to 2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetate (PPAA(-)). The structure determination reveals that the complex is a one-dimensional double chain containing cationic [Zn4(PPAA)4](4+) structural units, which are further extended by bridging phthalate ligands. The one-dimensional chains are extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture via hydrogen-bonding and ?-? stacking interactions.
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Lithium binaphtholate-catalyzed enantioselective enyne addition to ketones: access to enynylated tertiary alcohols.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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A new catalytic enantioselective enyne addition to ketones has been developed. In the presence of chiral lithium binaphtholate, the addition reaction proceeded smoothly to produce a series of enynylated tertiary alcohols in up to 96% yield and 94% enantiomeric excess. Convenient transformation of the adduct via Pauson-Khand cycloaddition reaction afforded the bicyclic product without detectable loss of enantioselectivity. Furthermore, catalytic asymmetric enyne addition to trifluoromethylketone was applied in the synthesis of the Efavirenz analogue.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress links hepatitis C virus RNA replication to wild-type PGC-1?/liver-specific PGC-1? upregulation.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes not only severe liver problems but also extrahepatic manifestations, such as insulin resistance (IR). Wild-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (WT-PGC-1?) is essential in hepatic gluconeogenesis and has recently been demonstrated to link HCV infection to hepatic insulin resistance (IR). A recent study has characterized a novel human liver-specific PGC-1? (L-PGC-1?) transcript, which is proposed to reflect human adaption to more complex pathways. However, the effect of HCV infection on L-PGC-1? expression and the mechanism by which HCV modulates WT-PGC-1?/L-PGC-1? remain unclear. In this study, we showed that HCV infection upregulated both WT-PGC-1? and L-PGC-1?, which further promoted HCV production. The upregulation of both PGC-1? isoforms depended on HCV RNA replication. By using promoter-luciferase reporters, kinase inhibitors, and dominant negative mutants, we further observed that the HCV-induced upregulation of WT-PGC-1? was mediated by the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), whereas that of L-PGC-1? was mediated by CREB phosphorylation and forkhead box O1 dephosphorylation. Moreover, HCV infection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and pharmacological induction of ER stress upregulated WT-PGC-1?/L-PGC-1? and phosphorylated CREB. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of HCV-induced ER stress impaired WT-PGC-1?/L-PGC-1? upregulation along with decreased phosphorylated CREB. The correlation of hepatic mPGC-1? with ER stress was further confirmed in mice. Overall, HCV infection upregulates both WT-PGC-1? and L-PGC-1? through an ER stress-mediated, phosphorylated CREB-dependent pathway, and both PGC-1? isoforms promote HCV production in turn.
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Aeshna shennong sp. nov., a new species from Hubei Province, China (Odonata: Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Aeshna shennnong sp. nov. (holotype male: Dajiuhu national wetland park in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Shennongjia City, Hubei Province, China, 28. VIII. 2013) is described, illustrated and compared with its most similar congener, A. petalura Martin, 1908. The holotype will be deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. New distribution records of A. petalura from mainland China are also provided.
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Cyclic aldimines as superior electrophiles for Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative Mannich reaction of ?-ketoacids with a broad scope and high enantioselectivity.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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A novel Cu-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of cyclic aldimines with ?-ketoacids is described. The cyclic structure of these aldimines, in which the C?N bond is constrained in the Z geometry, appears to be important, allowing Mannich condensation to proceed in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. A chiral chroman-4-amine was synthesized from the decarboxylative Mannich product in several steps without loss of enantioselectivity.
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Description of Chlorogomphus auripennis spec. nov. from Guangdong Province, with new records of Chlorogomphidae from Yunnan Province, China (Odonata: Chlorogomphidae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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A new chlorogomphid, Chlorogomphus (Orogomphus) auripennis spec. nov. (holotype male; Mt Nankunshan, Longmen County, Guangdong Province, China, 20. V. 2008) is described and illustrated. It is the first species belonging to the subgenus Orogomphus recorded from mainland China. The holotype will be deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Chlorogomphus auratus Martin, 1910 and Chloropetalia selysi (Fraser, 1929) are recoded from Chinese territory for the first time. The total number of Chlorogomphidae in China reaches 20. Description of the hitherto unknown female of Chlorogomphus yokoii Karube, 1995 is provided.
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Effect of minimally invasive percutaneous plates versus interlocking intramedullary nailing in tibial shaft treatment for fractures in adults: a meta-analysis.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of this article was to determine the effects of minimally invasive percutaneous plates versus interlocking intramedullary nailing in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures in adults.
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Predictors of recurrence after a repeat ablation procedure for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: role of left atrial enlargement.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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This study sought to explore the predictors of recurrence in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing repeat catheter ablation, especially the impact of left atrial (LA) remodelling after the original procedure on the outcome of repeat procedure.
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[Prognostic analysis of children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura treated by Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication therapy on prognosis in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP).
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Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.
J. Plant Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.
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Prolonged PR interval and risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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It has been demonstrated that a prolonged PR interval is associated with an increased risk of AF. However, the impact of a prolonged PR interval on recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation is not clear. A total of 112 patients with a prolonged PR interval (PR > 200 ms) (PPR group) and 112 age- and gender-matched control patients (on a 1:1 basis) with a normal PR interval (NPR group) were included in this study. AF recurrence was defined as the occurrence of confirmed atrial tachyarrhythmia lasting more than 30 seconds beyond 3 months after catheter ablation in the absence of any antiarrhythmic treatment. During a mean follow-up period of 10.9 ± 5.5 months (range, 3-18 months), 61 patients (27.2%) developed recurrence of AF. The recurrence rate was higher in the PPR group than in the NPR group (33.9% versus 20.5%, respectively; P = 0.018). Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age, body mass index, valvular heart disease, left atrial diameter, and pulmonary vein isolation identified only a prolonged PR interval as an independent predictor of recurrence of AF (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.05; P = 0.027). Patients with a prolonged PR interval were at an increased risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation.
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Pharmacokinetics and penetration into synovial fluid of systemical and electroporation administered sinomenine to rabbits.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Sinomenine is an anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drug derived from the Sinomenium acutum. The major site of RA treatment is within the synovial compartment. However, the pharmacokinetic and penetration into synovial fluid (SF) of sinomenine have not been reported. In our study, the pharmacokinetics and penetration into SF of systemic and electroporation administered sinomenine were investigated by microdialysis incorporated with HPLC-MS/MS. Sinomenine went into plasma and SF more rapidly with higher peak concentration (Cmax ) by intramuscular injection compared with oral administration. The area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-? ) of intramuscularly injected sinomenine was 1,403,294.75?±?125,534.567?ng?min/mL in plasma and 456,116.37?±?62,648.36?ng?min/mL in SF, which were equivalent with those for an oral dose. These results indicated that equal amounts of sinomenine could penetrate into SF by the two administration routes, and the permeation ratios were approximately 1:3. The AUC0-? and Cmax were lower with electroporation compared with systemic administration, but the CSF /CPlasma (concentration of sinomenine in SF vs that of plasma) at 90, 120, 150, 180, 240 and 480?min by electroporation was 3- to 10-fold higher relative to systemic administration. This illustrated that sinomenine can be targeted into joints by electroporation, and electroporation is a potential technique for sinomenine's transdermal delivery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Validated HILIC-MS/MS assay for determination of vindesine in human plasma: Application to a population pharmacokinetic study.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The first HILIC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for determination of vindesine (VDS) in human plasma using vinorelbine as an internal standard (IS) has been developed and validated. Plasma samples clean-up consisted of solid phase extraction with a strata™-X column. The compounds were separated on a HILIC column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 15mM ammonium acetate buffer containing 0.15% formic acid (80:20, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer via electrospray positive ionization (ESI(+)). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 754.6?123.8 for VDS and 779.4?323.3 for IS, respectively. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.3-28ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification for VDS was 0.3ng/ml. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 13%, and the accuracy exceeded 96%. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of population pharmacokinetics of VDS after intravenous infusion of Xi Ai Ke Vial(®) (3mg of Vindesine Sulfate for Injection) to Chinese Han subjects with hematological malignant disorders.
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Netrin-1 abrogates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction via nitric oxide-dependent attenuation of NOX4 activation and recoupling of NOS.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Despite an established role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the upstream activators have remained incompletely defined. We have recently identified an innovative role of exogenously applied netrin-1 in cardioprotection, which is mediated by increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this "pharmacological" treatment of netrin-1 preserves mitochondrial function via novel mechanisms that are NO dependent. Freshly isolated C57BL6 mouse hearts were perfused using a Langendorff system, and subjected to a 20min global ischemia/60min reperfusion, in the presence or absence of netrin-1. I/R induced marked increases in infarct size, total superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production, activity and protein abundance of NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform 4 (NOX4), as well as impaired mitochondrial integrity and function, all of which were attenuated by netrin-1. This protective effect of netrin-1 is attributed to cGMP, a downstream effector of NO. The protein levels of NOX1 and NOX2 were however unaffected, and infarct size from NOX1 and NOX2 knockouts was not different from wild type animals. Scavenging of NO with PTIO reversed inhibitory effects of netrin-1 on NOX4, while NO donor attenuated NOX4 protein abundance. In vivo NOX4 RNAi, or sepiapterin perfusion, resulted in recoupling of NOS, decreased infarct size, and blockade of dysfunctional mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial superoxide production. These data demonstrate that netrin-1 induces cardioprotection through inhibition of NOX4 activity, which leads to recoupling of NOS, augmented NO bioavailability, reduction in oxidative stress, and ultimately preservation of mitochondrial function. The NO-dependent NOX4 inhibition connects with our previously established pathway of DCC/ERK1/2/eNOS/NO/DCC feed-forward mechanism, to maintain NOS in the coupling state to attenuate oxidative stress to preserve mitochondrial function. These findings may promote development of novel therapeutics for cardiac I/R injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Mitochondria".
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Role of vascular oxidative stress in obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Obesity is associated with vascular diseases that are often attributed to vascular oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that vascular oxidative stress could induce obesity. We previously developed mice that overexpress p22phox in vascular smooth muscle, tg(sm/p22phox), which have increased vascular ROS production. At baseline, tg(sm/p22phox) mice have a modest increase in body weight. With high-fat feeding, tg(sm/p22phox) mice developed exaggerated obesity and increased fat mass. Body weight increased from 32.16 ± 2.34 g to 43.03 ± 1.44 g in tg(sm/p22phox) mice (vs. 30.81 ± 0.71 g to 37.89 ± 1.16 g in the WT mice). This was associated with development of glucose intolerance, reduced HDL cholesterol, and increased levels of leptin and MCP-1. Tg(sm/p22phox) mice displayed impaired spontaneous activity and increased mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In mice with vascular smooth muscle-targeted deletion of p22phox (p22phox(loxp/loxp)/tg(smmhc/cre) mice), high-fat feeding did not induce weight gain or leptin resistance. These mice also had reduced T-cell infiltration of perivascular fat. In conclusion, these data indicate that vascular oxidative stress induces obesity and metabolic syndrome, accompanied by and likely due to exercise intolerance, vascular inflammation, and augmented adipogenesis. These data indicate that vascular ROS may play a causal role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
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MiR-204/miR-211 downregulation contributes to candidemia-induced kidney injuries via derepression of Hmx1 expression.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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This study was aimed to exploit the role of heme oxygenase Hmx1 and the potential miRNA mechanisms in the kidney injuries induced by urinary tract infection by Candida species/Candidemia.
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Long-term results of single-procedure catheter ablation for atrial fibrillationin pre- and post-menopausal women.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To address whether menopause affects outcome of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) by comparing the safety and long-term outcome of a single-procedure in pre- and post-menopausal women.
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Nitratireductor shengliensis sp. nov., isolated from an oil-polluted saline soil.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Two Gram-negative, non-motile, short-rod-shaped bacterial isolates, designated 110399(T) and 110248, were isolated from an oil-polluted saline soil in Shengli Oilfield, Eastern China. The two strains shared 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the DNA-DNA relatedness value being 80.0 %. They were both capable to grow at 20-40 °C, pH 7-9, and 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl with the optimum growth happened at 30 °C, pH 8, and 2-6 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two strains were members of Nitratireductor and most closely related to Nitratireductor pacificus pht-3B(T) and N. basaltis J3(T) with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities being 97.1 and 97.0 %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel strains and two type strains were below 27 ± 7 %. The strains 110399(T) and 110248 also differed from N. pacificus and N. basaltis in nitrate reduction, salt tolerance, enzyme activities, and utilization of carbon sources. The major cellular fatty acids of strain 110399(T) were C19:0?8c cyclo (10.5 %) and Summed Feature 8 (C18:1?7c and/or C18:1?6c, 41.5 %) which are typical in the genus Nitratireductor. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The genome DNA G+C content of strain 110399(T) and 110248 was 61.1 and 61.7 mol%. On the basis of genetic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic analyses, strains 110399(T) and 110248 represent a novel species within the genus Nitratireductor, for which the name Nitratireductor shengliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 110399(T) (=CGMCC 1.12519(T) = LMG 27405(T)).
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Electroanatomical Mapping of the Right Atrium during Atrial Tachycardia Originating from Right Superior Pulmonary Vein: Additional Insights on Differential Diagnosis.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Atrial tachycardia (AT) from the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) may mimic right atrial (RA)-AT due to its proximity to the superior vena cava (SVC) and the preferential connections between the left atrium and right atrium.
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Pacing or ablation: which is better for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation-related tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome?
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Symptomatic prolonged sinus pauses on termination of atrial fibrillation (AF) are an accepted indication for pacemaker implantation. We evaluated the outcome of AF ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF-related tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome and compared the efficacy of catheter ablation with permanent pacing plus antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs).
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Netrin-1 improves post-injury cardiac function in vivo via DCC/NO-dependent preservation of mitochondrial integrity, while attenuating autophagy.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Reperfusion injury of the heart is a severe complication of angioplasty treatment of acute myocardial ischemia, for which no therapeutics are currently available. The present study aimed to identify whether and how a novel protein, netrin-1, induces cardioprotection in vivo during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Wild type (WT) C57BL6/J mice were subjected to a 30min coronary occlusion followed by a 24h reperfusion with vehicle (normal saline), netrin-1, UO126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), PTIO (nitric oxide/NO scavenger), netrin-1/UO126 or netrin-1/PTIO intraventricularly. Some were injected of netrin-1 via tail vein. Netrin-1 at 5?g/kg induced a substantial reduction in infarct size (19.7±5.0% from 41.3±1.8% in the controls), and markedly improved cardiac function as measured by ejection fraction and fractional shortening from echocardiography. Experiments with mice deficient in netrin-1 receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer, DCC+/-), or reperfusion with netrin-1/UO126 or netrin-1/PTIO, attenuated the protective effects of netrin-1, implicating intermediate roles of DCC, ERK1/2 and NO. Netrin-1 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and eNOS was abolished in DCC+/-mice. Electron spin resonance (ESR) determination of NO production from isolated left ventricles demonstrated that netrin-1 improves NO bioavailability, which was attenuated by UO126 or in DCC+/-mice, suggesting upstream roles of DCC and ERK1/2 in NO production. Netrin-1 further reduced mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial superoxide production, which was absent when co-treated with PTIO or UO126, or in DCC+/-mice, indicating critical roles of DCC, ERK1/2 and NO in preserving mitochondrial integrity. In a permanent coronary ligation model of myocardial infarction (MI) to assess post-MI remodeling, netrin-1 abolished the marked increase in autophagy. In summary, our data demonstrate robust cardioprotective effect of netrin-1 in vivo, as shown by reduced infarct size and improved cardiac function. Mechanistically, this protection is mediated by netrin-1 receptor DCC, and NO dependent preservation of mitochondria. This work clearly establishes a therapeutic potential of netrin-1 for acute treatment of MI, perhaps also for chronic post-MI remodeling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases.
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Surgical treatment of pilon fracture based on ankle position at the time of injury/initial direction of fracture displacement: a prospective cohort study.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate a surgical strategy for pilon fractures based on ankle position/initial direction of fracture displacement at the time of injury.
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Quantitative analysis of erythromycylamine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a bioequivalence study of dirithromycin enteric-coated tablets with a special focus on the fragmentation pattern and carryover effect.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of erythromycylamine, which is the predominant active metabolite of dirithromycin in human plasma. After solid-phase extraction, the analyte and internal standard (IS) were separated by using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 20 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.9, adjusted with formic acid)-acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) on a Phenyl-Hexyl column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 ?m) and then analyzed in positive ion mode under electrospray ionization. Azithromycin was selected as the IS because it has the most similar mass spectrometric and chromatographic behaviors to the analyte. The respective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, m/z 368.5>83.2 for erythromycylamine and m/z 375.4>115.2 for IS were chosen to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity in determination. A more acidic mobile phase (pH 3.9) than those of previous reports and a special needle wash (ethylene glycol-acetonitrile-water, 50:30:20, v/v/v, adjusted to pH 3.9 using formic acid) were used to eliminate the carryover effects of the two macrolides. The method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.5-440.0 ng/mL for erythromycylamine in human plasma (r=0.9999). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were 0.5 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. The mean extraction recoveries were higher than 94.0% for the analyte and IS. The intra- and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.4 to 5.4% and from 1.6 to 4.0%, respectively. The accuracy varied between 91.2 and 101.2%. The established method was successfully applied to analyze the human plasma samples from 24 healthy subjects in a bioequivalence study of two dirithromycin enteric-coated formulations.
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A novel Glycine soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14, interacting with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK, regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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It has been well demonstrated that cystatins regulated plant stress tolerance through inhibiting the cysteine proteinase activity under environmental stress. However, there was limited information about the role of cystatins in plant alkali stress response, especially in wild soybean. Here, in this study, we focused on the biological characterization of a novel Glycine soja cystatin protein GsCPI14, which interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and positively regulated plant alkali stress tolerance. The protein-protein interaction between GsCBRLK and GsCPI14 was confirmed by using split-ubiquitin based membrane yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Expression of GsCPI14 was greatly induced by salt, ABA and alkali stress in G. soja, and GsCBRLK overexpression (OX) in Glycine max promoted the stress induction of GmCPI14 expression under stress conditions. Furthermore, we found that GsCPI14-eGFP fusion protein localized in the entire Arabidopsis protoplast and onion epidermal cell, and GsCPI14 showed ubiquitous expression in different tissues of G. soja. In addition, we gave evidence that the GST-GsCPI14 fusion protein inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain in vitro. At last, we demonstrated that OX of GsCPI14 in Arabidopsis promoted the seed germination under alkali stress, as evidenced by higher germination rates. GsCPI14 transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also displayed better growth performance and physiological index under alkali stress. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the G. soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14 interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.
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Pharmacological postconditioning treatment of myocardial infarction with netrin-1.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The present study investigated whether pharmacological postconditoning with netrin-1 is cardioprotective against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, and the underlying signaling mechanisms. Langendorff perfused hearts isolated from wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 or DCC+/- mice underwent a 20-min of ischemia, followed by a 60-min of reperfusion, in the presence or absence of netrin-1, or netrin-1 in combination with U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), or PTIO (nitric oxide/NO scavenger). In WT mice, netrin-1 postconditioning dramatically reduced infarct size to 17.0±2.5%, from 40.5±4.2% in the untreated I/R group. U0126 or PTIO alone had no effect on infarct size but abolished the effects of netrin-1. The protective effect of netrin-1 was markedly diminished in DCC+/- mice (44.5±2% vs. 15±2.6 % for infract size in DCC+/- vs. DCC+/+ group). Our results indicate that netrin-1, given as a pharmacological postconditioning agent, induces cardioprotection via a DCC-dependent mechanism that involves ERK1/2 activation and NO production. Combined with our previous findings, netrin-1 treatment proves to be extremely and consistently beneficial whenever delivered to the heart, establishing its substantial promises for being developed into a robust therapeutic strategy for acute myocardial infarction.
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Extended photoresponse and multi-band luminescence of ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanorods.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Aligned ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanorods (NRs) with type-II energy band alignment were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition of ZnSe on the surfaces of hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs. The obtained ZnO/ZnSe core/shell NRs are composed of wurtzite ZnO cores and zinc blende ZnSe shells. The bare ZnO NRs are capable of emitting strong ultraviolet (UV) near band edge (NBE) emission at 325-nm light excitation, while the ZnSe shells greatly suppress the emission from the ZnO cores. High-temperature processing results in an improvement in the structures of the ZnO cores and the ZnSe shells and significant changes in the optical properties of ZnO/ZnSe core/shell NRs. The fabricated ZnO/ZnSe core/shell NRs show optical properties corresponding to the two excitonic band gaps of wurtzite ZnO and zinc blende ZnSe and the effective band gap between the conduction band minimum of ZnO and the valence band maximum ZnSe. An extended photoresponse much wider than those of the constituting ZnO and ZnSe and a multi-band photoluminescence including the UV NBE emission of ZnO and the blue NBE emission of ZnSe are observed.
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A comparison of primary and delayed wound closure in severe open tibial fractures initially treated with internal fixation and vacuum-assisted wound coverage: a case-controlled study.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The ideal timing of wound closure for open tibial fractures is debatable. This study aimed to compare outcomes of primary and delayed wound closure in severe open tibial fractures initially treated with internal fixation and vacuum-assisted wound coverage (VAC). Data of 80 patients with Gustilo-Anderson type IIIA and IIIB open tibial fractures treated with primary internal fixation, VAC, either primary wound closure (PWC) or delayed wound closure (DWC), and external fixation were reviewed retrospectively, and outcomes and complications compared. Patients were divided into three groups, including a PWC group (n = 27), DWC group (n = 22), and a control group (n = 31) that had received external fixation. Among all patients, the median age was 38 years (IRQ 32-47 years), and 67.5% were male. Injuries included 33 Gustilo-Anderson type IIIA and 47 type IIIB. Among injuries, 83% (66/80) were high-energy trauma, 63.8% were contaminated and median injury severity score (ISS) was 14 points. Significant differences were found between groups in fixation methods (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between groups in rates of deep infection, osteomyelitis, amputation and nonunion at 6 and 12 months (all p > 0.05), although all rates were markedly lower in the PWC group. The outcomes of PWC performed in conjunction with primary internal fixation and VAC for the treatment of Gustilo-Andersen type IIIA and IIIB open tibial fractures are similar to or better than those of DWC with primary internal fixation and VAC.
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Dysregulation of vitamin D metabolism in the brain and myocardium of rats following prolonged exposure to dexamethasone.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Chronic stress or hypercortisolism may increase the risks of depression, cardiac disorders, and osteoporosis, which are also associated with vitamin D (VD) deficiency. Both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are widely distributed and affect many aspects of human physiology. The cross talk between the two steroids is pervasive, but the effect of glucocorticoids on circulating VD and local VD metabolism remains elusive.
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Clinical effectiveness analysis of dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of Dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome (FES) in high-risk patients with long bone shaft fractures. According to the different preventive medication, a total of 1837 cases of long bone shaft fracture patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 16 were divided into four groups: dextran plus dexamethasone group, dextran group, dexamethasone group and control group. The morbidity and mortality of FES in each group were analyzed with pairwise comparison analysis. There were totally 17 cases of FES and 1 case died. The morbidity of FES was 0.33% in dextran plus dexamethasone group and significantly lowers than that of other groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion from our data is dextran 40 plus dexamethasone can effectively prevent long bone shaft fractures occurring in high-risk patients with FES.
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Apolipoprotein e gene variants of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia patients in a community population of nanking.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore apolipoprotein E gene variants distribution among the patients of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia for the elderly community population in Nanking, the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques were employed to analyze the gene frequency of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) for 113 cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 85 cases with vascular dementia (VaD), 147 cases with questionable dementia (QD), and 396 dementia-free controls. It was found that ApoE ?4 gene container (37.17%) and allele frequency (21.24±2.72) of ApoE ?4 in AD group were significantly higher than those in both control and VaD group (p<0.05). With the increment of ?4 gene dose, the incidence of the AD was significantly increased. Compared with the control group, ApoE ?4 had risk ratio (RR) of 1.82 to develop AD (p =4e-4), and attributable risk percentage (ARP) of 45%. These results suggest that ApoE ?4 gene may be responsible for up to 45% of the genetic component of Alzheimer's disease, and may act as a discriminator between AD and VaD as well.
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Recoupling of eNOS with folic acid prevents abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E null mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have previously shown that eNOS uncoupling mediates abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation in hph-1 mice. In the present study we examined whether recoupling of eNOS prevents AAA formation in a well-established model of Angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E (apoE) null mice by targeting some common pathologies of AAA. Infusion of Ang II resulted in a 92% incidence rate of AAA in the apoE null animals. In a separate group, animals were treated orally with folic acid (FA), which is known to recouple eNOS through augmentation of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) function. This resulted in a reduction of AAA rate to 19.5%. Imaging with ultrasound showed that FA markedly inhibited expansion of abdominal aorta. FA also abolished elastin breakdown and macrophage infiltration in the AAA animals. The eNOS uncoupling activity, assessed by L-NAME-sensitive superoxide production, was minimal at baseline but greatly exaggerated with Ang II infusion, which was completely attenuated by FA. This was accompanied by markedly improved tetrahydrobiopterin and nitric oxide bioavailability. Furthermore, the expression and activity of DHFR was decreased in Ang II-infused apoE null mice specifically in the endothelial cells, while FA administration resulted in its recovery. Taken together, these data further establish a significant role of uncoupled eNOS in mediating AAA formation, and a universal efficacy of FA in preventing AAA formation via restoration of DHFR to restore eNOS function.
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A Glycine Soja 14-3-3 Protein GsGF14o Participates in Stomatal and Root Hair Development and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.
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Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4? and Downstream Secreted Phospholipase A2 GXIIB Regulate Production of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. The life cycle of HCV is closely associated with the metabolism of lipids, especially very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in hepatocytes. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?), the most abundant transcription factor in the liver, regulates the VLDL secretory pathway. However, the effects of HNF4? on the HCV life cycle are unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of HNF4? on HCV assembly and secretion. HCV in HNF4?-deficient hepatocytes showed reduced assembly and secretion but unchanged entry and RNA replication. Bezafibrate, a chemical inhibitor of HNF4?, suppressed HCV assembly and secretion. HNF4? downregulation resulted in rearrangement of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs), as evidenced by the aggregation of large LDs and distorted cytosolic distribution. Phospholipase A2 GXIIB (PLA2GXIIB), an HNF4?-regulated factor involved in VLDL secretion, was found to be crucial in HCV secretion. PLA2GXIIB expression was upregulated in hepatocytes harboring HCV subgenomic replicons or in HCV-infected hepatocytes. This upregulation was transcriptionally controlled in an HNF4?-dependent manner after HCV infection. Furthermore, PLA2GXIIB combined with microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was found to be responsible for the regulation of HNF4?-induced HCV infectivity. These results suggest that HNF4? and its downstream PLA2GXIIB are important factors affecting the late stage of the HCV life cycle and may serve as potential drug targets for the treatment of HCV infection.
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[Surgical strategy for upper cervical vertebrae instability through the anterior approach].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To explore the choice and effect of internal fixation in treating upper cervical vertebrae instability through anterior approach.
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Efficacy of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in patients with a permanent pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To study the clinical efficacy of catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with a permanent pacemaker (PM) for sick sinus syndrome (SSS).
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Bis[?-1-(3,5-di-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl-idene)hydrazine]bis-[(nitrato-?O)silver(I)] aceto-nitrile disolvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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In the centrosymmetric binuclear title complex, [Ag2(NO3)2(C11H8Cl2N4)2]·2CH3CN, the Ag(I) atom is four-coordinated and exhibits a highly distorted tetrahedral coordination sphere defined by three N atoms from two 1-(3,5-di-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl-idene)hy-drazine ligands and one O atom from a nitrate anion. Inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bonds link the complex mol-ecules, resulting in a two-dimensional supra-molecular structure parallel to (001).
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Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications of fleet electrification and inform better decision making.
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[Clinical study of repairing donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin with auto-scalp grafting].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To study the effects of using auto-scalp for repairing donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin with auto-scalp grafting.
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A one-dimensional coordination polymer created via in situ ligand synthesis involving C-N bond formation.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The novel cadmium complex catena-poly[cadmium(II)-?3-{2-[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]butanedioato}], [Cd(C12H9N3O4)]n, has been prepared by the conjugate addition reaction of 2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine to fumaric acid in the presence of Cd(OAc)2·3H2O (OAc is acetate) at 413?K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complex consists of one-dimensional ladders constructed from [Cd2(COO)2] dimeric subunits. A combination of hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking interactions extend the one-dimensional ladders into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.
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[The study of the protective effect and its mechanism of Edaravone to neurons with hydrogen peroxide stimulated].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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To prove the protective effect of Edaravone to neurons and to study the particular mechanism.
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HPLC-DAD method for comprehensive quality control of Semen Strychni.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Semen Strychni is the seed of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae). Its quality control procedure remains an issue since previous reports only focused on Strychnos alkaloids. To the best of our knowledge, chlorogenic acid (a phenolic acid) and loganin (an iridoid glycoside) are selected for the first time as marker constituents of quality control for Semen Strychni because of their bioactive activity correlating with therapeutic effects.
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Evaluation of biomechanical properties of anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system using three-dimensional finite element analysis.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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To evaluate a new anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system using finite element analysis.
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Antibiotic penetration into rabbit nucleus pulposus with discitis.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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To assess the penetration into nucleus pulposus (NP) of cephazolin and clindamycin in a discitis model.
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[Efficacy observation on application of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald wound in children].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To observe the effect of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald in children.
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Overexpression of GsZFP1 enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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GsZFP1 encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. In our previous study, when GsZFP1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced drought and cold tolerance. However, it is still unknown whether GsZFP1 is also involved in salt stress. GsZFP1 is from the wild legume Glycine soja. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further elucidate the functions of the GsZFP1 gene under salt and drought stress in the forage legume alfalfa and to investigate its biochemical and physiological functions under these stress conditions. Our data showed that overexpression of GsZFP1 in alfalfa resulted in enhanced salt tolerance. Under high salinity stress, greater relative membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed and more free proline and soluble sugars accumulated in transgenic alfalfa than in the wild-type (WT) plants; in addition, the transgenic lines accumulated less Na(+) and more K(+) in both the shoots and roots. Overexpression of GsZFP1 also enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa. The fold-inductions of stress-responsive marker gene expression, including MtCOR47, MtRAB18, MtP5CS, and MtRD2, were greater in transgenic alfalfa than those of WT under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, the transgenic alfalfa plants generated in this study could be used for farming in salt-affected as well as arid and semi-arid areas.
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Isolated conduction within the left His-Purkenje system during sinus rhythm and idiopathic left ventricle tachycardia: findings from mapping the whole conduction system.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Functionally, left His-Purkenje system (HPS) is insulated from the adjacent myocardium and exhibits isolated conduction during sinus rhythm (SR), but in vivo human study is rare. Meanwhile, whether the isolated conduction also exists during idiopathic left ventricle tachycardia (ILVT) is not clearly defined. The current study aimed to delineate the activation sequence and gross anatomy of left HPS during SR and ILVT.
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Impact of the origin of sinus node artery on recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Major atrial coronary arteries, including the sinus node artery (SNA), were commonly found in the areas involved in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and could cause difficulties in achieving linear block at the left atrial (LA) roof. The SNA is a major atrial coronary artery of the atrial coronary circulation. This study aimed to determine impact of the origin of SNA on recurrence of AF after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal AF.
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Dietary selenium influences calcium release and activation of MLCK in uterine smooth muscle of rats.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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We sought to elucidate the effects of different concentrations of dietary selenium on calcium ion release, MLCK levels, and muscle contraction in the uterine smooth muscle of rats. The selenium (Se) content of blood and of uterine smooth muscle tissues was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Ca(2+) content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calmodulin (CaM) and MLCK RNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Dietary Se intake increased the Se levels in the blood and in uterine smooth muscle tissues and increased the Ca(2+) concentration in uterine smooth muscle tissues. The addition of Se also promoted CaM expression and enhanced MLCK activation in uterine smooth muscle tissues. In conclusion, Ca(2+), CaM, and MLCK were regulated by Se in uterine smooth muscle; Se plays a major role in regulating smooth muscle contraction in the uterus.
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Expression of wild soybean WRKY20 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance and regulates ABA signalling.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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The WRKY-type transcription factors are involved in plant development and stress responses, but how the regulation of stress tolerance is related to plant development is largely unknown. GsWRKY20 was initially identified as a stress response gene using large-scale Glycine soja microarrays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the expression of this gene was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), salt, cold, and drought. Overexpression of GsWRKY20 in Arabidopsis resulted in a decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. However, compared with the wild type, GsWRKY20 overexpression lines were more sensitive to ABA in stomatal closure, and exhibited a greater tolerance to drought stress, a decreased water loss rate, and a decreased stomatal density. Moreover, microarray and qRT-PCR assays showed that GsWRKY20 mediated ABA signalling by promoting the expression of negative regulators of ABA signalling, such as AtWRKY40, ABI1, and ABI2, while repressing the expression of the positive regulators of ABA, for example ABI5, ABI4, and ABF4. Interestingly, GsWRKY20 also positively regulates the expression of a group of wax biosynthetic genes. Further, evidence is provided to support that GsWRKY20 overexpression lines have more epicuticular wax crystals and a much thicker cuticle, which contribute to less chlorophyll leaching compared with the wild type. Taken together, the findings reveal an important role for GsWRKY20 in enhancing drought tolerance and regulating ABA signalling.
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Oxidative stress in atrial fibrillation: an emerging role of NADPH oxidase.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Patients with AF have up to seven-fold higher risk of suffering from ischemic stroke. Better understanding of etiologies of AF and its thromboembolic complications are required for improved patient care, as current anti-arrhythmic therapies have limited efficacy and off target effects. Accumulating evidence has implicated a potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AF. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is likely involved in the structural and electrical remodeling of the heart, contributing to fibrosis and thrombosis. In particular, NADPH oxidase (NOX) has emerged as a potential enzymatic source for ROS production in AF based on growing evidence from clinical and animal studies. Indeed, NOX can be activated by known upstream triggers of AF such as angiotensin II and atrial stretch. In addition, treatments such as statins, antioxidants, ACEI or AT1RB have been shown to prevent post-operative AF; among which ACEI/AT1RB and statins can attenuate NOX activity. On the other hand, detailed molecular mechanisms by which specific NOX isoform(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of AF and the extent to which activation of NOX plays a causal role in AF development remains to be determined. The current review discusses causes and consequences of oxidative stress in AF with a special focus on the emerging role of NOX pathways.
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Outcome of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with prior ischemic stroke.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been demonstrated to be effective in a subsets of patients with AF. However, very few data are available in regard to patients with prior history of stroke undergoing catheter ablation. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of catheter ablation in AF patients with prior ischemic stroke.
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Stress and vitamin D: altered vitamin D metabolism in both the hippocampus and myocardium of chronic unpredictable mild stress exposed rats.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Exposure to stressful life events is associated with the onset of major depression and increases the risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. While recent evidence has indicated the existence of an interrelationship between local vitamin D (VD) metabolism and many aspects of human physiology including brain and heart function, much is still unknown concerning the biological link between VD signaling and stress-induced depressive behavior and cardiac dysfunction. In the present study, we observed the VD intracrine system in the hippocampus and myocardium of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) exposed rats. After 4 weeks of CUMS procedure, rats were induced to a depressive-like state and the cytochromes P450 enzymes involved in VD activating and catabolizing (CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 respectively) and VD receptor (VDR) were assessed by real time RT-PCR and western blot in the hippocampus, myocardium and kidney. In the hippocampus of depressed rats, CYP27B1, CYP24A1 and VDR expression were significantly increased and the local status of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) was higher compared with controls. Furthermore, hippocampal mRNA levels of VD target genes (calbindin-d28k, neurotrophin-3) and RXR? (heterodimeric partner of VDR) were upregulated in response to chronic stress. Similar to the hippocampus, CUMS also induced CYP27B1/CYP24A1/VDR expression in the myocardium. However, renal metabolism of VD and serum1,25(OH)2D status were unchanged. Meanwhile, sertraline treatment could partly normalize the stress-induced alterations of VD metabolism. In conclusion, this study firstly showed a co-elevated expression of CYP27B1/CYP24A1/VDR in both the hippocampus and myocardium of CUMS rats, which suggests VD signaling may be involved in the compensatory mechanism that protect from stress-induced deteriorating effects on the brain and heart.
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A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.
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miR-16 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting IGF1R and the Raf1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway in osteosarcoma.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Several miRNAs have been implicated in the development and progression of osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, we found that miR-16 is downregulated in OS cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of miR-16 suppresses OS cell proliferation and tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that IGF1R is a direct target of miR-16. Mechanistic investigation revealed that miR-16 overexpression inhibits the Raf1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. In clinical specimens, IGF1R levels inversely correlate with miR-16 expression. Our results provide significant clues regarding the role of miR-16 as a tumor suppressor by targeting IGF1R in OS.
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A novel model of burn-blast combined injury and its phasic changes of blood coagulation in rats.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Burn-blast combined injury has a complex pathological process that may cause adverse complications and difficulties in treatment. This study aims to establish a standard animal model of severe burn-blast combined injury in rats and also to investigate early phasic changes of blood coagulation. By using 54 Wistar rats, distance from explosion source (Hexogen) and size of burned body surface area were determined to induce severe burn-blast combined injury. Thereafter, 256 rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 64): blast injury group, burn injury group, burn-blast combined injury group, and sham injury group. Gross anatomy and pathological changes in lungs were investigated at 3, 24, 72, and 168 h, respectively. Blood was also collected for analyzing coagulation parameters as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and plasma levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin III, and ?2-antiplasmin from 0 to 168 h after injury. Severe burn-blast combined injury was induced by inflicting rats with a moderate blast injury when placing rats 75 cm away from explosion source and a full-thickness burn injury of 25% total body surface area. The rats with burn-blast combined injury had more severe lung injuries when compared with the other three groups. Pathological examination in the BBL group showed diffused alveolar hemorrhage, fluid filling, alveolar atelectasis, rupture and hyperplasia of partial alveolar septum, emphysema-like change, reduced capillary bed, and infiltration of extensive polymorphonuclear cells after injury. The blood of combined injured rats was in a hypercoagulable state within 24 h, shortly restored from 24 to 48 h, and rehypercoagulated from 48 to 72 h after injury. A secondary excessively fibrinolytic function was also found thereafter. The rat model of burn-blast combined injury was successfully established by simulating real explosion characteristics. Rats with burn-blast combined injuries suffered from more severe lung injuries and abnormal coagulation and fibrinolytic function than those induced by a burn injury or a blast injury component. Hence, a time-dependent treatment strategy on coagulation function should be emphasized in clinical therapy of burn-blast combined injury.
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Biomechanical analysis of the acetabular buttress-plate: are complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area stable after treatment with anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate fixation?
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The acetabular buttress-plate has been widely used in treating difficult cases with satisfying clinical results. However, the biomechanical properties of a postoperative acetabular fracture fixed by the buttress-plate are not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of stability after the anterior tube buttress-plate fixation of complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area.
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Ablation of left-sided accessory pathways with atrial insertion away from the mitral annulus using an electroanatomical mapping system.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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A left-sided accessory pathway (AP) with atrial insertion away from the mitral annulus (MA) may result in difficulty or failed ablation along the MA. We report our initial experience of ablating this rare form of AP by a 3-dimensional electroanatomical mapping system (CARTO).
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Repeated haloperidol administration has no effect on vitamin D signaling but increase retinoid X receptors and Nur77 expression in rat prefrontal cortex.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Both vitamin D (VD) signaling and Nur77 are implicated in dopaminergic neurotransmission and dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency rats exhibit schizophrenia-like behaviors and disturbance of dopamine system, which could be partly normalized by haloperidol treatment. By blocking dopamine D2 receptor, haloperidol induces Nur77 expression, suggesting a modulatory role of Nur77 in brain dopamine system. Rxr is the heterodimeric partner of both Nur77 and vitamin D receptor and also participates in homeostatic regulation of central dopamine neurotransmission. Although D2 antagonist-induced Nur77 expression has been reported by several studies, the change of its active partner Rxr remains elusive. Here, we studied the impact of 2 weeks administration of haloperidol on VD signaling and Nur77/Rxr expression in rat prefrontal cortex. It was found that haloperidol has no effect on local VD signaling, but could significantly increase Nur77, Rxr?, and Rxr? expression, which indicated that Nur77/Rxr, but not vdr/Rxr, was implicated in dopamine-related neuroadaptation. Given that VD deficiency is commonly observed in schizophrenia patients, the renal metabolism of VD was also examined.
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miR-346 regulates osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by targeting the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is regulated by multiple transcription factors and signaling molecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators in various biological processes by mediating mRNA degradation or translational inhibition of target genes. In this study, we report that miR-346 plays critical roles in regulating osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. The expression of endogenous miR-346 was increased during osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Overexpression of miR-346 significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation, whereas miR-346 depletion suppressed this process. Further studies confirmed that miR-346 directly targeted the 3-UTR of the glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) gene so as to suppress the expression of GSK-3? protein. Similar to miR-346 overexpression, GSK-3? depletion promoted osteogenic differentiation, whereas GSK-3? overexpression reversed the promotional effect of miR-346. We further found that miR-346 overexpression activated the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and increased the expression of several downstream genes including CyclinD1, c-Myc, TCF-1 and LEF-1. Depletion of ?-catenin almost completely blocked the positive role of miR-346 on osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-346 positively regulates hBMSC osteogenic differentiation by targeting GSK-3? and activating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
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Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.
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