Clonorchis sinensis has been classified as group I biological carcinogen for cholangiocarcinoma by the World Health Organization. Biological studies on excretory/secretory products (ESPs) enabled us to understand the pathogenesis mechanism of C. sinensis and develop new strategies for the prevention of clonorchiasis. In this study, sequence analysis showed that annexin B30 from C. sinensis (CsANXB30) is composed of four annexin repeats which were characterized by type II and III Ca(2+)-binding sites or KGD motif with the capability of Ca(2+)-binding. In addition, immunoblot assay revealed that recombinant CsANXB30 (rCsANXB30) could be recognized by the sera from rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera from rats immunized by CsESPs. Real-time PCR showed that its transcriptional level was the highest at the stage of metacercaria. Immunofluorescence assay was employed to confirm that CsANXB30 was distributed in the tegument, intestine, and egg of adult worms, as well as the tegument and vitellarium of metacercaria. rCsANXB30 was able to bind phospholipid in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and human plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cytokine and antibody measurements indicated that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsANXB30 developed a strong IL-10 production in spleen cells and a high level of IgG1 isotype, indicating that rCsANXB30 could trigger specific humoral and cellular immune response in rats. The present results implied that CsANXB30 might be involved in a host-parasite interaction and affected the immune response of the host during C. sinensis infection.
The vacuolar ATPase enzyme complex (V-ATPase) pumps protons across membranes, energized by hydrolysis of ATP. Extensive investigations on structural and biochemical features of these molecules have implied their importance in the physiological process. In this study, a full-length sequence encoding a vacuolar ATP synthase subunit ?-like protein of Clonorchis sinensis (CsATP-?) was isolated from our cDNA library. The hypothetical 226 amino acid sequence shared 76% identity with ATP-? proteins of Schistosoma japonicum and above 55% identity with ATP-? proteins from human and other eukaryotes. Characteristic Asp??? amino acid residues and seven B-cell epitopes were predicted in this sequence. The complete coding sequence of the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant CsATP-? (rCsATP-?) protein could be probed by anti-rCsATP-? rat serum and C.sinensis-infected human serum in Western blotting experiment, indicating that it is an antigen of strong antigenicity. The high level of antibody titers (1:204,800) showed that CsATP-? has a powerful immunogenicity. Both the increased level and the change trend of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum showed that the rCsATP-? can induce strong combined Th1/Th2 immune responses in rats and stimulate the immune response changes to the dominant Th2 from Th1 along with long time infection. The results of immunoblot and immunolocalization demonstrated that CsATP-? was consecutively expressed at various developmental stages of the parasite, which was supported by real-time PCR analysis. In immunohistochemistry, CsATP-? was localized on the intestine, vitellarium, and testicle of an adult worm and excretory bladder of metacercaria, implying that CsATP-? may relate to energy intake and metabolism. This fundamental study would contribute to further researches that are related to growth and development and immunomodulation of C. sinensis.
Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis). Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.
Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb]) was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs) showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C) showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection worldwide. Thus, the present study improves our understanding of the global epidemiology and evolution of C. sinensis.
Cysteine proteases play essential roles in parasite physiology as well as in host-parasite interactions through their modulation of various biological and pathobiological events. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCP) was isolated from our adult cDNA library. The open reading frame contains 984 bp encoding 327 amino acids. The present amino acid sequence shared 68% identity with two known CsCP genes and 29-49% identity with that of other species. Bioinformatics analysis showed that conserved domains and characteristic amino acid residues of cysteine proteases were observed in this sequence. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that CsCP was consecutively transcribed in various developmental stages of the parasite, including adult worm, excysted juvenile, metacercaria and egg. Recombinant CsCP (rCsCP) could be probed by rat anti-CsCP serum, rabbit anti-excretory-secretory products (ESP) serum and serum from human infected with Clonorchis sinensis in Western blot. The result of immunolocalization showed that CsCP was mainly located in the oral sucker, excretory bladder and tegument of cercariae and metacercariae, as well as the intestine of adult worm. The rCsCP-based IgG and its isotypes were all detected in sera from human infected with C. sinensis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of IgG1 is the highest. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the most appropriate cut-off value that yielded the high sensitivity (86.96%) and specificity (70.42%). These results revealed that CsCP may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for clonorchiasis.
Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB) and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases.
Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are evidenced to regulate numerous biological processes such as immunoregulation in parasitic helminths. The functions of serpins from Clonorchis sinensis remain unclear to date. In this study, two serpin genes, respectively denominated as CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2, had been selected from metacercaria cDNA library of C. sinensis. The biochemical activities of both recombinant proteins (rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2) were analyzed by assays of inhibition on some serine or cysteine proteases, the results showed that rCsproSERPIN significantly inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin and thrombin, while rCsSERPIN2 inhibited only chymotrypsin. Moreover, cytokine and antibody measurements indicated that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2 respectively developed a strong IFN-? production and IgG2a levers of sera were higher than IgG1. Besides, immunoblot assays revealed that the rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2 could be recognized by the sera of rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera of rabbits immunized by excretory/secretory products. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays illuminated the two were similarly localized in the reproductive organs such as vitelline glands, testis and eggs in adult stage. In short, all the results collectively indicated that CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2 might play important role in the parasite development by preventing the parasite from digestion by exogenous serine proteases, as well as CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2 probably involved in immunoregulation of host by inducing Th1-biased type cytokines in rats.
Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (p<0.05) and 36.1% (p<0.05), respectively. In consistence with immune responses in sera, elevated level of cytokines IFN-? and IL-4 in splenocytes suggested that CsPmy could induce combined cellular immunity and humoral immunity in host. Taken together, CsPmy could be a promising vaccine candidate in the prevention of C. sinensis regarding its high immunogenicity and surface localization.
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