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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effects of three-dimensional culture on cell phenotype and hematopoietic cytokine expression of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the change of cell phenotype and the expression of hematopoiesis associated cytokines in umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) in three-dimensional (3-D) system. MSC were isolated from umbilical cord, and then cultured in 2-D and 3-D system respectively. The phenotype of MSC was detected by flow cytometry; the angiogenic capability of MSC cultured in 2-D and 3-D syitem was assessed using in vitro capillary formation assay. The cytokine expression of MSC in two kinds of culture conditions was measured by real-time PCR. The results showed that MSC were successfully isolated from umbilical cord. Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of CD31, CD133 and CD271 expressed in endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells and primitive mesenchymal stem cells increased significantly in 3-D culture conditions, as compared to 2-D system. Capillary formation assay showed that the angiogenic capability of UC-MSC was greatly enhanced. Quantitative PCR showed that the expression of ?-actin was upregulated in 3-D system. The expression of some cytokines associated with hematopoiesis, such as G-CSF, LIF, SCF, IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-3, IL-7 and IL-11, increased, especially for LIF, IL-3, IL-7. The expression of IL-10 associated with immune regulation also increased. The expression of SDF-1, IL-6 slightly decreased, but without significant difference. It is concluded that expression of CD31, CD133 and CD271 increases in 3-D system, the angiogenic capability of UC-MSC enhances and the expression of hematopoiesis-associated cytokines in UC-MSC increases in 3-D system.
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An association study on the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster, smoking and psoriasis vulgaris.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Genome-wide association and large cohort studies have consistently linked several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster to smoking behaviors and nicotine dependence. Smoking is one of the well-established environmental risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with severity of the disease. Then we conduct the study to examine whether the genetic variations related to smoking behavior located in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster also predict the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PV). The investigations may help explain the mechanisms of the smoking-PV relationship. This is a hospital base case-control study including 634 subjects (329 PV patients and 305 controls), all Chinese Han population. 8 SNPs were selected based on findings from recent studies on smoking and nicotine dependence, all located in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster. The variants were typed by SNaPshot Multiplex Kit (Applied Biosystems Co., USA). We confirmed that smoking, alcohol consumption and higher body mass index (BMI ?25) were risk factors for PV. However, none of the selected SNPs was associated with PV risk in the overall analysis and stratification analysis. And we found no association between the selected SNPs in CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster and the clinical features of PV in case-only analysis. This exploratory study does not provide a relationship between these smoking-related SNPs in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster and PV in Chinese Han population.
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[Production of GHR double-allelic knockout Bama pig by TALENs and handmade cloning].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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DNA editing techniques for targeted genome modification have witnessed remarkable advances and been widely used in various organisms. However, traditional gene targeting and cloning method has been shown to be low efficient, time-consuming and expensive for generating knockout animals, especially for big animals. Here we report the generation of site-specific genome modified pig with the newly developed artificially engineered sequence-specific endonucleases (transcription activator-like effector nuclease, TALENs) and handmade cloning (HMC) methods. First, we constructed the porcine GHR-knockout vector according to TALENs kit protocol. To obtain the nuclear donor, the fetal fibroblast cell of Bama (BM) pig were transfected with GHR-knockout vector in G418 selection medium. We collected 173 cell for further positive identification which showed that 46.2% (78/173) of the clones were GHR-knockout cell strains. We chose one bi-allelic knockout cell strain as nuclear donor to produce reconstructed embryos by HMC. It was shown that the blastocyst rate was 43.5% at the 6(th) day in vitro, then 654 HMC-blastocysts were transplanted to uterus of six recipient sows. Finally, a total of 10 live offspring were delivered including 7 bi-allelic knockout piglets. Fibroblasts were obtained from ear biopsies for GHR knockout detection. The body weight of the piglets was measured consecutively, and it was found that the GHR(-)(/)(-) pigs were only 50% smaller than that of the controls at the 20(th) week. In conclusion, our results indicate that TALENs and HMC technology can rapidly and efficiently produce knockout animals for agricultural and biomedical research.
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A novel minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique: safety and efficacy report.
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and determine the complications of ultrasound-guided 16 F tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by review of over 1000 cases in a Chinese hospital. Material and methods. A total of 1368 patients underwent 16 F tract PCNL in the hospital between March 2007 and July 2013. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all cases. Central venous puncture was chosen as a puncture device. Complications, residual stones, stone clearance and the need for auxiliary treatments were evaluated. Management experience was evaluated with respect to the complications. Results. Complications occurred in 275 out of 1368 patients (20.1%). There were 102 Clavien grade 1 (7.4%), 121 grade 2 (8.8%) and 48 grade 3 (3.5%) complications, but no grade 4 or 5 complications. Access to the kidney was established in 99.7% of cases and 82.0% of cases had complete stone clearance without undergoing further PCNL. Auxiliary treatments included shockwave lithotripsy in 135 patients, second-phase PCNL in 49 patients and ureteroscopy in 63 patients. Three cases of rare complications occurred, including a double-J stent translocated to the chest, and intraoperative acute pulmonary edema and heart failure. Severe intraoperative or postoperative complications should be managed immediately. Conclusion. An ultrasound-guided mini-tract PCNL is safe and convenient, even for patients with complicated stones.
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An Efficient Nanoscale Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Capture and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide at Ambient Pressure.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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Silver nanoparticles were successfully supported on the zeolite-type metal-organic framework MIL-101 to yield Ag@MIL-101 by a simple liquid impregnation method. For the first time, the conversion of terminal alkynes into propiolic acids with CO2 was achieved by the use of the Ag@MIL-101 catalysts. Owing to the excellent catalytic activity, the reaction proceeded at atmospheric pressure and low temperature (50?°C). The Ag@MIL-101 porous material is of outstanding bifunctional character as it is capable of simultaneously capturing and converting CO2 with low energy consumption and can be recovered easily by centrifugation.
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Role of the new rural cooperative medical system in alleviating catastrophic medical payments for hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease in poor rural areas of China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) are common diseases that impose a heavy burden on patients and their families, particularly on those living in poor areas. This study examined catastrophic medical payments faced by patients with these diseases and the effectiveness of the new rural cooperative medical system (NRCMS) at alleviating the impact of the said diseases in fourth-class rural areas (i.e. those with annual income of less than RMB 1500/$240.2 per capita) of China.
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Characterization of the medium- and long-chain n-alkanes degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SJTD-1 and its alkane hydroxylase genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A gram-negative aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium SJTD-1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA sequence, phenotype, and physiological features. SJTD-1 could efficiently mineralize medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C30) as its sole carbon source within seven days, showing the most optimal growth on n-hexadecane, followed by n-octadecane, and n-eicosane. In 36 h, 500 mg/L of tetradecane, hexadecane, and octadecane were transformed completely; and 2 g/L n-hexadecane was degraded to undetectable levels within 72 h. Two putative alkane-degrading genes (gene 3623 and gene 4712) were characterized and our results indicated that their gene products were rate-limiting enzymes involved in the synergetic catabolism of C12-C16 alkanes. On the basis of bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis, two P450 monooxygenases, along with a putative AlmA-like oxygenase, were examined. Genetically defective mutants lacking the characteristic alkane hydroxylase failed to degrade n-octadecane, thereby suggesting a different catalytic mechanism for the microbial transformation of alkanes with chain lengths over C18.
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Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a specific and sensitive blood marker for acute liver injury.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Abstract We developed a high-performance ELISA assay and measured serum BHMT levels in healthy individuals and patients with acute liver injury (ALI). The detection range of this ELISA assay was from 1.56 to 100?ng/ml. BHMT levels are significantly higher in ALI groups. In the healthy group (n?=?244), the median value (interquartile range, IQR 0-56.40) was 1.83?ng/ml. In the ALI group (n?=?42), the median value of BHMT was 748.48?ng/ml (IQR, 0-51095.92). ROC curve analysis demonstrated good sensitivity (0.86) and specificity (0.98). In addition, in five ALI cases with time course samples available, BHMT and ALT both followed the "rise and fall" temporal pattern with the disease progression. However, the slopes of BHMT curves were steeper than ALT curves. And in three out of the five cases, BHMT levels peaked 1 day earlier than ALT levels be a sensitive marker with good prognostic value.
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Corilagin Protects Against HSV1 Encephalitis Through Inhibiting the TLR2 Signaling Pathways In Vivo and In Vitro.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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In this study, we tried to explore the molecular mechanism that Corilagin protected against herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis through inhibiting the TLR2 signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro. As a result, Corilagin significantly prevented increase in the levels of TLR2 and its downstream mediators following Malp2 or HSV-1 challenge. On the other hand, in spite of TLR2 knockdown, Corilagin could still significantly suppress the expression of P38 and NEMO, phosphor-P38, and nuclear factor kappa B. The mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and its downstream mediators in the brain tissue were also significantly lowered in mice treated with Corilagin. In addition, Corilagin inhibited expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-6 protein. In conclusion, Corilagin shows the potential to protect against HSV-1-induced encephalitis, and the beneficial effects may be mediated by inhibiting TLR2 signaling pathways.
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Primary Urothelial Carcinoma of the Prostate with Glandular Differentiation: A Case Report.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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A 53-year-old man presented to our department with acute urinary retention and an approximate 8-year history of frequent urination, dysuria, poor urinary stream and nocturia. His prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values were normal (<4 ng/ml) upon repeated testing. The patient was diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia, although there was no significant improvement in his symptoms after treatment with oral finasteride and doxazosin. He then underwent transurethral resection of the prostate in February 2013, and histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma of the prostate. His treatment regimen included daily oral bicalutamide and subcutaneous injection of Zoladex once per month. Three months later, radical prostatectomy was performed, and a prostate histopathological examination indicated primary urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation. His PSA values were normal (<4 ng/ml) before and after the radical prostatectomy. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin. Two months later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated local tumor recurrence. The patient was treated with chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy for 2 months, and subsequent MRI results showed that the recurrent tumor volume was significantly reduced. As a result, radiotherapy was stopped. The patient remains alive, and his general condition has clearly improved. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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miR-203a regulates proliferation, migration, and apoptosis by targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3? in human renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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MicroRNAs play a crucial role in cancer progression and metastasis. miR-203a has been identified as a tumor suppressor in various cancers. However, its functions in renal cell carcinoma have not been illustrated. In this study, we detected the miR-203a expression in renal cell carcinoma and evaluated its association with clinical features. Overexpression of miR-203a was found in renal cell carcinoma tissues and renal cell carcinoma cells. High miR-203a expression is correlated with tumor stage and short overall survival time. Bioinformatics and luciferase assay confirmed that glycogen synthase kinase-3? was a target gene of miR-203a. Silencing of miR-203a could inhibit cell proliferation and migration, arrest them in G1 phase, and promote apoptosis in vitro. miR-203a promotes the progression of renal cell carcinoma and predicts a poor prognosis.
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Infrageneric phylogeny and temporal divergence of Sorghum (Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on low-copy nuclear and plastid sequences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The infrageneric phylogeny and temporal divergence of Sorghum were explored in the present study. Sequence data of two low-copy nuclear (LCN) genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 4 (Pepc4) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), from 79 accessions of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides together with those from outgroups were used for maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Bayesian dating based on three plastid DNA markers (ndhA intron, rpl32-trnL, and rps16 intron) was used to estimate the ages of major diversification events in Sorghum. The monophyly of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides (with the latter nested within Sorghum) was strongly supported by the Pepc4 data using BI analysis, and the monophyly of Sorghum was strongly supported by GBSSI data using both ML and BI analyses. Sorghum was divided into three clades in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms: the subg. Sorghum lineage; the subg. Parasorghum and Stiposorghum lineage; and the subg. Chaetosorghum and Heterosorghum lineage. Two LCN homoeologous loci of Cleistachne sorghoides were first discovered in the same accession. Sorghum arundinaceum, S. bicolor, S. x drummondii, S. propinquum, and S. virgatum were closely related to S. x almum in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms, suggesting that they may be potential genome donors to S. almum. Multiple LCN and plastid allelic variants have been identified in S. halepense of subg. Sorghum. The crown ages of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides and subg. Sorghum are estimated to be 12.7 million years ago (Mya) and 8.6 Mya, respectively. Molecular results support the recognition of three distinct subgenera in Sorghum: subg. Chaetosorghum with two sections, each with a single species, subg. Parasorghum with 17 species, and subg. Sorghum with nine species and we also provide a new nomenclatural combination, Sorghum sorghoides.
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Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of different dewatered sludge.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Pyrolysis behavior and kinetic properties of four different sludge, including raw sludge and three sludge respectively dewatered with FeCl3/CaO, FeCl3/CaO/coal and Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)+H2O2)/CaO, were analyzed by using thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR). The results show that organics of raw sludge mainly decomposed at 378-676K, and the decomposition temperature of conditioned sludge was prolonged to 823K. Addition of coal and catalysis of CaO/ferric salt both promoted sludge pyrolysis, leading to more NH3, CH4 and CO productions. Compared with dry sludge, wet sludge pyrolysis was hard to finish completely, and the first peak of organics' decomposition appeared at higher temperature (about 573K). Additionally, the global reaction model was suited to determine kinetic parameters, which showed that dry sludge conditioned with more CaO addition had higher E values than those of dry raw sludge. Opposite results were obtained when sludge samples were wet.
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Label-free quantitative detection of tumor-derived exosomes through surface plasmon resonance imaging.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Exosomes are endosome-derived membrane vesicles carrying proteins and nucleic acids that are involved in cellular functions such as intercellular communication, protein and RNA secretion, and antigen presentation. Therefore, exosomes serve as potential biomarkers for many diseases including cancer. Because exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, quantification of exosomes is tedious and inaccurate. Here, we present a real-time, label-free, and quantitative method to detect and characterize tumor-derived exosomes without enrichment or purification. Utilizing surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) in combination with antibody microarrays specific to the extracellular domains of exosome membrane proteins, exosomes in tumor cell culture medium can be quantitatively detected. We found a positive correlation between the metastatic potential of tumor cell lines and exosome secretion. This method provides an easy, efficient, and novel way to detect exosome secretion and thus an avenue toward the diagnosis and prognosis prediction of cancer.
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[Exploration of surgical procedures in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The median body mass index(BMI) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in China is only 24 kg/m(2) and diabetic diet in China is different from that in the Western countries. Currently there are no sufficient weight loss surgery data and guidance in China. Therefore, aside from the internationally recognized surgical procedures, Chinese surgeons have been trying to find other suitable procedures for T2DM. In 2011, operations for treatment of T2DM recommended by the International Diabetes Federation(IDF) are as follow: gastric bypass surgery(GBP), sleeve gastrectomy(SG), bile pancreatic surgery(BPD), duodenal inversion technique(DS) and the adjustable gastric band surgery(AGB). At present, the main exploratory surgery procedures in China include: sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal-jejual bypass, duodenal-jejual bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and jejual-ileal bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and ileal interposition, ileal interposition, jejunal-ileal bypass, gastric folding technique, gastric folding and banding, and other weight loss surgery under endoscopy. Each operation has different characteristics, but the optimal surgery for patients with T2DM still needs long term follow-up and large sample of multi-center clinical research. We believe that under the scientific standardization, surgeons in China will develop the most suitable procedures for patients with T2DM.
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Bio-inspired multistructured conical copper wires for highly efficient liquid manipulation.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Animal hairs are typical structured conical fibers ubiquitous in natural system that enable the manipulation of low viscosity liquid in a well-controlled manner, which serves as the fundamental structure in Chinese brush for ink delivery in a controllable manner. Here, drawing inspiration from these structure, we developed a dynamic electrochemical method that enables fabricating the anisotropic multiscale structured conical copper wire (SCCW) with controllable conicity and surface morphology. The as-prepared SCCW exhibits a unique ability for manipulating liquid with significantly high efficiency, and over 428 times greater than its own volume of liquid could be therefore operated. We propose that the boundary condition of the dynamic liquid balance behavior on conical fibers, namely, steady holding of liquid droplet at the tip region of the SCCW, makes it an excellent fibrous medium to manipulate liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the titling angle of the SCCW can also affect its efficiency of liquid manipulation by virtue of its mechanical rigidity, which is hardly realized by flexible natural hairs. We envision that the bio-inspired SCCW could give inspiration in designing materials and devices to manipulate liquid in a more controllable way and with high efficiency.
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3-Methyladenine can depress drug efflux transporters via blocking the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway thus sensitizing MDR cancer to chemotherapy.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Abstract Multi-drug resistance (MDR) cancer is an intractable problem. Over-expression of drug efflux transporters such as ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 contributes to it, by which they pump drugs out of cells, and result in the decrease in the efficacy of chemotherapy. To reverse the cancer MDR, we used 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment on taxol or doxorubicin stressed MDR cell lines A2780DX5 and SGC7091R and xeno-tumor implanted mice. The results indicate that ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 were depressed, and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway was blocked. Moreover, using FITC-labeled taxol as the indicator, we observed that the drug accumulation was enhanced in MDR cells and more cells were killed after 3-MA administration. Thus suggesting that 3-MA can reverse cancer MDR via depressing agent-efflux transporters.
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[Synthesis and characterization of dihydroeugenol acrylate].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Dihydroeugenol acrylate was synthesized by the reaction of acryloyl chloride (AC) with lignin mode compound dihydroeugenol (DH) in the presence of TEA and characterized by using FTIR, GC/MS, 1H-NMR and GPC. FTIR spectra showed that, after the esterification with acryloyl chloride, the intensity of stretching vibration peak of O-H (centered at 3 495 cm(-1)) of DH was disappeared. At the same time, a new peak appeared at 1 762 cm(-1) which was assigned to ester group. Additionally, the appearance of 1 631 and 981 cm(-1) were attributed to the carbon - carbon double bond confirmed the success in the synthesis of DH-AC. 1H-NMR spectra showed that, after the esterification with acryloyl chloride, the proton signal of O-H at 5.5 ppm was disappeared. Meanwhile, the appearance of three new proton signals at 6.0 ppm, 6.4 and 6.7 ppm, attributed to the vinylic protons, indicated that acryloyl chloride was successfully grafted onto DH. The results further confirmed the structures of the DH-AC. GC-MS results showed the DH-AC had a high purity of 98.63%. GPC results showed that dihydroeugenol acrylate could polymerize in the 1,4-dioxane using a thermal initiator of AIBN (2.0 Wt% of total monomers). The weight average molecular mass (Mw) of the homopolymer is 37 400 g x mol(-1), and the number average molecular mass is 23 400 g x mol(-1)' with a polydispersity index Mw/Mn of 1.60, indicating that the dihydroeugenol acrylate has high polymerization activity. This strategy provides a novel approach for extending the comprehensive utilization of lignin.
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Combined effects of the BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism and environment risk factors on psoriasis vulgaris.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Smoking, alcohol consumption and higher body mass index (BMI) are well established risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with the clinical traits of the disease. And the genetic influences on these three risk factors indeed exist. Previously studies have demonstrated these risk factors related genetic variants may also play a role in the development of risk factors-related diseases. Then we performed a hospital-based study in order to evaluate the combined effect of the risk factors and their related polymorphism rs6265 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene on psoriasis vulgaris (PV) risk and clinic traits. The case-control study involved 660 subjects including 345 cases and 315 controls in Chinese Han population. The variant of rs6265 was typed by SNaPshot Multiplex Kit (Applied Biosystems Co., USA). We confirmed that higher BMI (?25), smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors for PV, and the estimated ORs were 1.63(95 % confidence interval (CI); 1.12-2.37), 2.09(95 % CI; 1.44-3.03) and 1.65(95 % CI; 1.15-2.37) respectively. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between case and control. However, we found combined effect of rs6265 genotype (GG) and higher BMI (?25) increased risk of PV (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI, 1.02-4.28; P < 0.05; adjusted OR = 3.19; 95 % CI, 1.37-7.45; P < 0.05) and clinically severity of PV (OR = 2.71; 95 % CI, 1.09-6.72; P < 0.05; adjusted OR = 1.25; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.40; P < 0.05). But none such significant combined effect was observed between others genotype (AA and AG) and other risk factors. In conclusions, the combined effect of BDNF rs6265 genotype (GG) and higher BMI may increases the risk and clinical severity of PV in Chinese Han population.
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Hydrothermal synthesis of core-shell structured TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) nanocomposites for magnetic resonance and optical imaging.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Multi-modal imaging based on multifunctional nanoparticles provides deep, non-invasive and highly sensitive imaging and is a promising alternative approach that can improve the sensitivity of early cancer diagnosis. In this study, two nanoparticles, TbPO4:Ce(3+) and TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+), were synthesized via the citric-acid-mediated hydrothermal route, and then systematically characterized by means of microstructure, photoluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biocompatibility, and bioimaging. The results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) line scans indicated that TbPO4:Gd(3+) nanoshells about 5 nm in thickness were successfully coated on the TbPO4:Ce(3+) nanocores. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that the core-shell nanocomposites had a single crystal structure. The photoluminescence of the TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) and TbPO4:Ce(3+) nanoparticles was greatly intensified by 200 times and 100 times, respectively, compared with pure TbPO4 nanoparticles. In vitro cytotoxicity tests based on the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that the monodispersed nanoparticles of TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) had low toxicity. The intracellular luminescence of the nanoparticles after being internalized by HeLa cells was also observed using confocal fluorescence microscopes. MRI showed that the nanoshells of Gd-doped TbPO4 possessed a longitudinal relaxivity of 4.067 s(-1) mM(-1), which is comparable to that of the commercial MRI contrast Gd-TDPA. As a result, the core-shell structured TbPO4:Ce(3+)@TbPO4:Gd(3+) nanoparticles can potentially serve as multifunctional nanoprobes for both optical biolabels and MRI contrast agents.
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The subcellular distribution and function of MTA1 in cancer differentiation.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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The functions and mechanisms of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in cancer progression are still unclear due to a lagged recognition of the subcellular localization. In the present study, using multiple molecular technologies we confirmed for the first time that MTA1 localizes to the nucleus, cytoplasm and nuclear envelope. MTA1 is primarily localized in the nucleus of normal adult tissues but in the cytoplasm of embryonic tissues. While in colon cancer, both distributions have been described. Further investigation revealed that MTA1 localizes on the nuclear envelope in a translocated promoter region (TPR)-dependent manner, while in the cytoplasm, MTA1 shows an obvious localization on microtubules. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1 are associated with cancer progression. However, these functions may be associated with different mechanisms because only nuclear MTA1 has been associated with cancer differentiation. Overexpression of MTA1 in HCT116 cells inhibited differentiation and promoted proliferation, whereas MTA1 knockdown resulted in cell differentiation and death. Theses results not only suggest that nuclear MTA1 is a good marker for cancer differentiation diagnosis and a potential target for the treatment of cancers but also reveal the necessity to differentially examine the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic MTA1.
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Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process.
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Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to find eligible studies. Random-effects relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used. Besides, random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations. Finally, publication bias was assessed by Egger's test and Begg's test. All p values were two tailed. Seven studies, including two cohort studies and five case-control studies, were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Overall analysis in highest versus lowest level revealed that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced RCC risk (RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74-0.96). In addition, pooled estimated data showed that risk of RCC was significantly associated with vegetable and legume fiber intake (RR 0.70, RR 0.80, respectively), but not with fruit and cereal fiber intake (RR 0.92, RR 1.04, respectively). However, in dose-response analysis, no significant association was reported. Finally, no publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dietary fiber intake, especially vegetable and legume fiber, may be associated with reduced RCC risk. Considering the limitations of the included studies, more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings.
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Hybrid bio-organic interfaces with matchable nanoscale topography for durable high extracellular electron transfer activity.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Here, we developed a novel hybrid bio-organic interface with matchable nano-scale topography between a polypyrrole nanowire array (PPy-NA) and the bacterium Shewanella, which enabled a remarkably increased extracellular electron transfer (EET) current from genus Shewanella over a rather long period. PPy-NA thus exhibited outstanding performance in mediating bacterial EET, which was superior to normal electrodes such as carbon plates, Au and tin-doped In?O?. It was proposed that the combined effect of the inherent electrochemical nature of PPy and the porous structured bacterial network that was generated on the PPy-NA enabled long-term stability, while the high efficiency was attributed to the enhanced electron transfer rate between PPy-NA and microbes caused by the enhanced local topological interactions.
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Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping reduced graphene oxide sheets.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A hybrid structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets/ZnO nanorods was prepared and its photoluminescence intensity ratio between the UV and defect emission was enhanced up to 14 times. By controlling the reduction degree of rGO on the surface of ZnO nanorods, the UV emission was tuned with the introduction of localized surface plasmons resonance of rGO sheets. The suppression of the defect emission was ascribed to the charge transfer and decreased with the distance between the rGO and ZnO nanorods.
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Expression of programmed death 1 is correlated with progression of osteosarcoma.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Accumulating bodies of evidence indicate that immune dysregulation plays a key role in the development of osteosarcoma (OS). Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a surface receptor expressed on activated and exhausted T cells, which mediate T-cell inhibition upon binding with its ligand. Researches on PD-1 and OS remain extremely limited. Here, we investigated whether PD-1 could be involved in the development of OS. Expression of PD-1 was measured by flow cytometry on peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 56 OS cases and 42 healthy controls. Data revealed that percentages of PD-1 were significantly upregulated on both peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from OS patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with different tumor locations did not present obvious variations in PD-1 level. However, patients with metastasis showed significantly higher level of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells than those without metastasis (p < 0.001). Furthermore, PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells started to increase in stage III, whereas PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells started to increase in stage II. In addition, patients with pathological fracture were observed to have elevated PD-1 on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These data suggest that PD-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of OS, especially in the progression of disease.
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A comparison of posterior lumbar interbody fusion and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a literature review and meta-analysis.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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We compared the perioperative results and complications associated with PLIF and TLIF, and collected evidence for choosing the better fusion method.
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Simulated microgravity induces an inflammatory response in the common carotid artery of rats.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance is one of the most important adverse effects after exposure to space microgravity, and there are still no effective countermeasures. It has been considered that arterial remodeling may play an important role in the occurrence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance, but the cellular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether an inflammatory response exists in the common carotid artery of rats exposed to simulated microgravity. For this, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 weeks of hindlimb unweighting to simulate microgravity. The expression levels of the adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the common carotid artery of simulated microgravity rats were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses. The recruitment of monocytes in the common carotid artery of rats exposed to simulated microgravity was investigated by en face immunofluorescence staining and monocyte binding assays. Our results provided convincing evidence that there is an inflammatory response in the common carotid artery of rats exposed to simulated microgravity. Our work suggests that the inflammatory response may be a novel cellular mechanism that is responsible for the arterial remodeling that occurs during exposure to microgravity.
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Direct determination of the binding sites of cisplatin on insulin-like growth factor-1 by top-down mass spectrometry.
J. Biol. Inorg. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Cisplatin has been widely used in the chemotherapy of a variety of tumors, and the interactions of cisplatin with proteins play very important roles in its side effects and drug resistance, as well as its pharmacokinetics and the biodistribution. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was found to be associated with the drug resistance of cisplatin. Here, the interaction between cisplatin and IGF-1 was investigated using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. IGF-1-Pt(NH3)Cl was the main mono-adduct and the trans labilization was important to the reaction between IGF-1 and cisplatin, while another special mono-adduct IGF-1-Pt(NH3)Cl2 was observed. The rapid and sensitive top-down mass spectrometry-based approach in linear ion trap mass spectrometer has been developed to identify the binding sites of cisplatin in IGF-1 directly without tedious enzyme digestion. Three binding sites (Met59, Arg56 and Cys6) of cisplatin in IGF-1 were determined. The results not only provide a rapid and efficient way to identify the platinum binding sites in proteins, but also indicate that the binding of cisplatin could promote the fragmentation of IGF-1 and the rupture of disulfide bond.
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Subchronic toxicity and immunotoxicity of MeO-PEG-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-PEG-OMe triblock copolymer nanoparticles delivered intravenously into rats.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Although monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-monomethoxy (PELGE) nanoparticles have been widely studied as a drug delivery system, little is known about their toxicity in vivo. Here we examined the subchronic toxicity and immunotoxicity of different doses of PELGE nanoparticles with diameters of 50 and 200 nm (PELGE50 and PELGE200) in rats. Neither size of PELGE nanoparticles showed obvious subchronic toxic effects during 28 d of continuous intravenous administration based on clinical observation, body weight, hematology parameters and histopathology analysis. PELGE200 nanoparticles showed no overt signs of immunotoxicity based on organ coefficients, histopathology analysis, immunoglobulin levels, blood lymphocyte subpopulations and splenocyte cytokines. Conversely, PELGE50 nanoparticles were associated with an increased organ coefficient and histopathological changes in the spleen, increased serum IgM and IgG levels, alterations in blood lymphocyte subpopulations and enhanced expression of spleen interferon-?. Taken together, these results suggest that PELGE nanoparticles show low subchronic toxicity but substantial immunotoxicity, which depends strongly on particle size. These findings will be useful for safe application of PELGE nanoparticles in drug delivery systems.
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Maintaining the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells on gold nanoparticle layers with nanoscale but not microscale surface roughness.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Efficient control of the self-renewal and pluripotency maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ESC) is a prerequisite for translating stem cell technologies to clinical applications. Surface topography is one of the most important factors that regulates cell behaviors. In the present study, micro/nano topographical structures composed of a gold nanoparticle layer (GNPL) with nano-, sub-micro-, and microscale surface roughnesses were used to study the roles of these structures in regulating the behaviors of mouse ESCs (mESCs) under feeder-free conditions. The distinctive results from Oct-4 immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrate that nanoscale and low sub-microscale surface roughnesses (Rq less than 392 nm) are conducive to the long-term maintenance of mESC pluripotency, while high sub-microscale and microscale surface roughnesses (Rq greater than 573 nm) result in a significant loss of mESC pluripotency and a faster undirectional differentiation, particularly in long-term culture. Moreover, the likely signalling cascades engaged in the topological sensing of mESCs were investigated and their role in affecting the maintenance of the long-term cell pluripotency was discussed by analyzing the expression of proteins related to E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesions and integrin-mediated focal adhesions (FAs). Additionally, the conclusions from MTT, cell morphology staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays show that the surface roughness can provide a potent regulatory signal for various mESC behaviors, including cell attachment, proliferation and osteoinduction.
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Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products.
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Head fat is a novel method of measuring metabolic disorder in Chinese obese patients.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Body adiposity, especially ectopic fat accumulation, has a range of metabolic and cardiovascular effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between head fat and metabolic values in Chinese obese patients.
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Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials.
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Combined effect between CHRNB3-CHRNA6 region gene variant (rs6474412) and smoking in psoriasis vulgaris severity.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Many factors associated with causing psoriasis have been reported, such as the genetic and environmental factors. Smoking is one of the well-established environmental risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with the disease severity. In addition, several studies of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have documented gene-environment interactions involving smoking behavior. Although gene polymorphisms on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits CHRNB3-CHRNA6 region gene have been found to correlate with smoking behavior and lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population, the combined effect between the smoking-related genetic variants and smoking behavior on psoriasis vulgaris (PV) has been unreported.
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A robust pH-sensitive drug carrier: aqueous micelles mineralized by calcium phosphate based on chitosan.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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This study developed an exciting alternative to the polymeric delivery system in cancer therapy. In this study, novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymeric micelles based on chitosan were synthesized and found to be robust nanocarriers for intracellular controlled release drug delivery. The polymeric micelles of carboxymethyl chitosan-grafted-p(ethylene glycol)-dodecylamine (CMC-g-PEG-DDA) were readily mineralized in the presence of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4). Mineralization reduced polymeric micelles' size from 239 nm to 138 nm and formed a multi-core structure. The mineralized polymeric micelles (MPM) exhibited enhanced serum stability. The DOX release from the DOX-loaded mineralized polymeric micelles (MPM@DOX) at physiological pH was efficiently inhibited, At an endosomal pH (pH 5.0), DOX release was facilitated due to rapid dissolution of the calcium phosphate (CaP). These results indicate that mineralized polymeric micelles are potentially as robust carriers that can release DOX at specific sites under mild acidic conditions, such as in an extracellular matrix of tumor tissue and intracellular cell compartments.
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Helical nanostructures based on DNA self-assembly.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Recent advances in design and fabrication of helical nanostructures based on DNA self-assembly are reviewed. These helical nanostructures are either constructed entirely by DNA or based on DNA guided metal nanoparticles self-assembly. Biophysical properties and optical responses of corresponding helical nanostructures are also discussed.
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Decreased expression of P54(nrb) /NonO correlates with collagen deposition and fibrosis in human aortic dissection.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Aortic dissection (AD) is characterized by changes in the extracellular matrix, including fibrosis with collagen production. P54(nrb) /NonO is known to be involved in collagen formation. In this study, we examined whether AD is associated with abnormal P54(nrb) /NonO expression.
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Racial disparities in initiation of adjuvant endocrine therapy of early breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Endocrine therapy (ET) is the cornerstone of adjuvant therapy for hormone-receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer. The survival gap between African-American (AA) and white women with breast cancer is most pronounced in HR+ subtypes, and could be related to differences in ET use. The relationship between race and initiation of ET is not well defined. We investigated patterns of ET initiation by race in a diverse cohort of women covered by commercial health insurance. We identified 2,640 women with incident HR+ breast cancer in the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry whose records linked to commercial insurance claims using the Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) database. The sample included women age <65 years diagnosed with stage I-III HR+ cancers between 2004 and 2009. We used multivariate Poisson regression to examine the effect of race on likelihood of initiating ET. 14 % of women did not initiate ET within 12 months of diagnosis. AA women were 17 % less likely to initiate ET than whites (aRR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.74-0.93). When analyzed by subset, racial disparities persisted among women who received chemotherapy (aHR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.56-0.80) but not among women who did not receive chemotherapy (aHR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.76-1.21). AA women in our sample were less likely to initiate ET than whites, and this disparity was concentrated among chemotherapy-treated women. ET under-utilization may contribute to the racial survival gap in HR+ breast cancer, and represents an opportunity for intervention to reduce breast cancer disparities.
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Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.
Electromagn Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Abstract To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5?min on/10?min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8?h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2?W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect ?H2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1?h (p?
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Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and inflammation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) is secreted from Langerhans cells in response to oral nutrient intake. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are a new class of incretin-based anti-diabetic drugs. They function to stimulate insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. GLP-1-based therapies are now well established in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and recent literature has suggested potential applications of these drugs in the treatment of obesity and for protection against cardiovascular and neurological diseases. As we know, along with change in lifestyles, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in China is rising more than that of viral hepatitis and alcoholic fatty liver disease, and NAFLD has become the most common chronic liver disease in recent years. Recent studies further suggest that GLP-1RAs can reduce transaminase levels to improve NAFLD by improving blood lipid levels, cutting down the fat content to promote fat redistribution, directly decreasing fatty degeneration of the liver, reducing the degree of liver fibrosis and improving inflammation. This review shows the NAFLD-associated effects of GLP-1RAs in animal models and in patients with T2DM or obesity who are participants in clinical trials.
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Highly asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptophol: unexpected accelerating effect of DABCO-derived bromine complex.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Highly asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptophol by using chiral anionic phase-transfer catalyst and DABCO-derived brominating reagent is described. Optimization of the reaction conditions revealed that the reaction rate was accelerated together with improvement of enantioselectivity by addition of catalytic DABCO-derived brominating reagent. From tryptophol, 3-bromofuroindoline could be directly obtained in excellent enantioselectivities by employing this novel methodology.
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Aspirin use and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 24 epidemiologic studies.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Several epidemiologic studies were performed to clarify the protective effect of regular aspirin use on prostate cancer risk; however, the results remain controversial. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the association between regular aspirin use and risk of prostate cancer.
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Coffee consumption and urologic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Controversial results were reported among several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between coffee consumption and urologic cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to clarify these associations.
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Lipid nanoparticles loaded with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin-phospholipid complex: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Abstract 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN38), the active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), is an effective antineoplastic agent against many malignancies. Although it is 100-fold to 1000-fold more potent than CPT-11, the clinical utility of SN38 has been extremely restricted because of its poor solubility in any pharmaceutically acceptable solvents. The aim of this study was to develop SN38 nanoparticles (SN38-PC-LNs) using pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, and investigate the therapeutic efficacies in vitro and in vivo. SN38-phospholipid complex (SN38-PC) was prepared and loaded into lipid nanoparticles. The particle size was approximately 200?nm with a narrow size distribution. A high encapsulation efficiency of 88.11%?±?1.41% and drug loading of 9.55%?±?0.84% were achieved under the optimal condition. SN38-PC-LNs exhibited potent cytotoxic effects against a panel of human tumor cell lines (HT-29, HepG2, A549 and MCF-7). In vivo evaluation proved the enhanced antitumor efficacy of SN38-PC-LNs in mice bearing S180 tumor as well. The results from this study demonstrated an effective formulation of SN38 has been developed, which is promising for the delivery of SN38 for tumor chemotherapy.
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Reproductive health service use and social determinants among the floating population: a quantitative comparative study in Guangzhou City.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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BackgroundThe World Health Assembly has pledged to achieve universal reproductive health (RH) coverage by 2015. Therefore, China has been vigorously promoting the equalisation of basic public health services (i.e. RH services). The floating population (FP) is the largest special group of internal migrants in China and constitutes the current national focus. However, gaps exist in the access of this group to RH services in China.MethodsA total of 453 members of the FP and 794 members of the residential population (RP) aged 18 to 50 years from five urban districts in Guangzhou City were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2009. Information on demographics and socioeconomic status (SES) were collected from these two groups to evaluate the utilisation of RH knowledge and skills and family planning services (FPS), and to identify social determinants.ResultsThe proportion of individuals with low SES in the FP (19.2%) was higher than that in the RP (6.3%) (P <0.001). Of the FP, 9.7% to 35.8% had no knowledge of at least one skill, a proportion higher than the counterpart values (6.2% to 27.5%) for the RP (P <0.05). The frequency of FPS use among the FP and RP was low. However, FPS use was higher among the FP than among the RP (3.51 vs. 2.99) (P =0.050). Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the social determinants that influence FPS use in the FP and RP. The factors that affect FPS utilisation of the RP included SES (OR =4.652, 95% CI =1.751, 12.362), whereas those of the FP excluded SES.ConclusionsThe FPS use of the FP in Guangzhou City was higher under equalised public health services. However, a need still exists to help the FP with low SES to improve their RH knowledge and skills through access to public RH services.
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Chinese brushes: controllable liquid transfer in ratchet conical hairs.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The controllable liquid transfer of a Chinese brush is attributable to the unique anisotropic multi-scale structures of the freshly emergent hairs. A large mass of liquid an be dynamically balanced within the brush as a cooperative effect of the Laplace pressure difference, the asymmetrical retention force, and gravity. Inspired by this, a device is developed with parallel hairs that allows for direct writing of micro-lines.
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MAPK11 in breast cancer cells enhances osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to bone and induce osteolytic bone destruction in patients. These metastases cause severe bone pain, high risk of fractures and hypercalcemia, and are essentially incurable and fatal. Recent studies show that breast cancer cells in bone activate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. However the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. This study shows that the p38 MAPK (p38) isoform MAPK11 (p38?) is expressed in breast cancer cells. By using specific small hairpin RNAs for MAPK11, we demonstrated that p38?-mediated p38 activity in breast cancer cells is responsible for breast cancer-induced osteolytic bone destruction. The addition of conditioned media from breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which have high expression of p38?, induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. In contrast, knockdown of p38? in breast cancer cells reduced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and reduced bone destruction in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse models. The knockdown of p38? did not affect tumor growth or survival or the ability of cancer cells to home to bone. Furthermore, our results showed that p38? upregulated the expression and secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in breast cancer cells, and upregulated MCP-1 activates osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study elucidates a novel molecular mechanism of breast cancer cell-induced osteolytic bone destruction. This study also indicates that targeting breast cancer cell p38? and its product MCP-1 may be a viable approach to treat or prevent bone destruction in patients with bone-metastatic breast cancer.
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Mass spectrometry-based analysis of glycoproteins and its clinical applications in cancer biomarker discovery.
Clin Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins and plays essential roles in various biological processes. Aberration in the glycan moieties of glycoproteins is associated with many diseases. It is especially critical to develop the rapid and sensitive methods for analysis of aberrant glycoproteins associated with diseases. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for glycoprotein analysis. Especially, tandem mass spectrometry can provide highly informative fragments for structural identification of glycoproteins. This review provides an overview of the development of MS technologies and their applications in identification of abnormal glycoproteins and glycans in human serum to screen cancer biomarkers in recent years.
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MicroRNA-338-3p regulates osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal stem cells by targeting Runx2 and Fgfr2.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) could provide new insight into the treatment of bone loss diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression during stem cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we showed that miR-338-3p expression was significantly down-regulated during the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. Additionally, miR-338-3p was up-regulated in ovariectomized (OVX) mice compared with sham mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that the over-expression of miR-338-3p can inhibit the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers such as Osterix (Osx), thus reducing osteoblast differentiation. Bioinformatic analysis and dual luciferase assays confirmed that miR-338-3p can repress gene expression by targeting Runx2 and Fgfr2. In the BMSCs derived from OVX mice, the inhibition of miR-338-3p partially rescued mineralization and osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, our data show that miR-338-3p plays an important role during osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs and serves as a potential modulator of osteoporosis via its effect on osteoblasts.
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Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the leaves of Momordica charantia.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract from the leaves of Momordica charantia L. led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and four known (3-6) cucurbitane-type triterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analyses of spectroscopic data including IR, UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Also the absolute configurations of momordicines I (3) and II (4) were determined for the first time by application of the modified Mosher's method, acid hydrolysis, and GC analysis.
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Enhanced brain small-worldness after sleep deprivation: a compensatory effect.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Sleep deprivation has a variable impact on extrinsic activities during multiple cognitive tasks, especially on mood and emotion processing. There is also a trait-like individual vulnerability or compensatory effect in cognition. Previous studies have elucidated the altered functional connectivity after sleep deprivation. However, it remains unclear whether the small-world properties of resting-state network are sensitive to sleep deprivation. A small-world network is a type of graph that combines a high local connectivity as well as a few long-range connections, which ensures a higher information-processing efficiency at a low cost. The complex network of the brain can be described as a small-world network, in which a node is a brain region and an edge is present when there is a functional correlation between two nodes. Here, we investigated the topological properties of the human brain networks of 22 healthy subjects under sufficient sleep and sleep-deprived conditions. Specifically, small-worldness is utilized to quantify the small-world property, by comparing the clustering coefficient and path length of a given network to an equivalent random network with same degree distribution. After sufficient sleep, the brain networks showed the property of small-worldness. Compared with the resting state under sufficient sleep, the small-world property was significantly enhanced in the sleep deprivation condition, suggesting a possible compensatory adaptation of the human brain. Specifically, the altered measurements were correlated with the neuroticism of subjects, indicating that individuals with low-levels of neuroticism are more resilient to sleep deprivation.
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Folic acid stimulation of neural stem cell proliferation is associated with altered methylation profile of PI3K/Akt/CREB.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is required for development and repair in the nervous system. NSC amplification in vitro is a necessary step towards using NSC transplantation therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Folic acid (FA) has been shown to act through DNA methyltransferase to stimulate NSC proliferation. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, the effect of FA on the methylation profiles in neonatal rat NSCs was assessed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-DNA microarray (MeDIP-Chip). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were determined by quantitative differentially methylated regions analysis, and genes carrying at least three DMRs were selected for pathway analysis. Gene network analysis revealed links with steroid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation and the PI3K/Akt/CREB, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Jak-STAT and MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, Akt3 acted as a hub in the network, in which 14 differentially methylated genes converged to the PI3K/Akt/CREB signaling pathway. These findings indicate that FA stimulates NSC proliferation by modifying DNA methylation levels in the PI3K/Akt/CREB pathway.
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A hierarchical word-merging algorithm with class separability measure.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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In image recognition with the bag-of-features model, a small-sized visual codebook is usually preferred to obtain a low-dimensional histogram representation and high computational efficiency. Such a visual codebook has to be discriminative enough to achieve excellent recognition performance. To create a compact and discriminative codebook, in this paper we propose to merge the visual words in a large-sized initial codebook by maximally preserving class separability. We first show that this results in a difficult optimization problem. To deal with this situation, we devise a suboptimal but very efficient hierarchical word-merging algorithm, which optimally merges two words at each level of the hierarchy. By exploiting the characteristics of the class separability measure and designing a novel indexing structure, the proposed algorithm can hierarchically merge 10,000 visual words down to two words in merely 90 seconds. Also, to show the properties of the proposed algorithm and reveal its advantages, we conduct detailed theoretical analysis to compare it with another hierarchical word-merging algorithm that maximally preserves mutual information, obtaining interesting findings. Experimental studies are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on multiple benchmark data sets. As shown, it can efficiently produce more compact and discriminative codebooks than the state-of-the-art hierarchical word-merging algorithms, especially when the size of the codebook is significantly reduced.
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Physically flexible, rapid-response gas sensor based on colloidal quantum dot solids.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A gas sensor based on PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is constructed on a paper substrate, yielding flexible, rapid-response NO? gas sensors, fabricated from the solution phase. The devices are highly sensitive and fully recoverable at room temperature, which is attributed to the excellent access of gas molecules to the CQD surface, realized by surface ligand removal, combined with the desirable binding energy of NO? with the PbS CQDs.
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The effect of high moisture heat-acid treatment on the structure and digestion property of normal maize starch.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of thermal-acid treatment on the formation of resistant starch (RS). The maximum RS content in citric acid-heat treated starches (CAHT) reached 36.55%, which was 7 times higher of that in native starch. According to HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis, amylopectin was more susceptible to hydrolysis than amylose during citric acid-heat treatment (CAH). X-ray measurement revealed that even though the starch crystalline pattern was changed from A-type to a more resistant B-type after CAH, the fraction of crystalline region decreased from 21.16% to 8.37%. The hydroxyls on the starch chains were substituted by the citric acid anhydrides during CAH according to FT-IR analysis, which led to the formation of ester bond cross-linking structures in starch granules, and it could be the main contribution to the increase of RS content in CAHT samples.
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Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma posing as urothelial carcinoma of the right ureter: a case report and literature review.
Case Rep Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This is a case report of a 67-year-old patient with distant metastasis of prostate cancer to the right ureter which caused hydronephrosis. At the beginning, both of the cytology of the morning urine and imaging findings were consistent with urothelial carcinoma. Nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Interestingly, the pathological examination of the excised ureter revealed that the malignancy was derived from the prostate. No skeletal metastasis was detected. However, after four months of follow-up, several abnormal signal shadows were reported in skeletal scintigraphy and the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was gradually increasing. We present such a case for its unique presentation. A review of the literature is also provided.
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A polypyridyl-pyrene based off-on Cd²? fluorescent sensor for aqueous phase analysis and living cell imaging.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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By retaining the quadrapyridyl receptor of polypyridylhexaazatriphenylene (a Cd(2+) sensor reported by us) and extending its chromophoric group with pyrene, a chemical sensor (1) was designed and synthesized in this work. This sensor exhibit selective off-on fluorescence response to Cd(2+) over other metal ions, and the detection limit is as low as 0.02 ?M. The Cd(2+) sensing of 1 has high water toleration and can be carried out in the media with the water content up to 70%. Additionally, 1 was successfully applied to the in vivo imaging of intracellular Cd(2+) in living HaLa cells, and showed low cytotoxicity and cell membrane permeability in these experiments. These results suggest that 1 has potential application in the Cd(2+) analysis of environmental and biological samples.
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Biomolecule-doped PEDOT with three-dimensional nanostructures as efficient catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.
Small
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Metal macro-cyclic compounds have drawn considerable attention as alternative catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. However, the continuous pyrolysis process usually needed for improving the performance of these compounds require an elevated temperature and complicated procedures, thus leading to an unpredictable transformation of the chemical structures and limiting their applications. Herein, we develop a new insight to fabricating hemin-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with controllable three-dimensional nanostructures via a one-step, tri-phase, self-assembled polymerization routine. We demonstrate that the hemin-induced synergistic effect results in a very high 4-electron oxygen reduction activity, a better stability, and free from methanol crossover effects even in a neutral phosphate buffer solution (PBS).
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Effectiveness of chemoradiation for head and neck cancer in an older patient population.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare chemoradiation therapy (CRT) with radiation therapy (RT) only in an older patient population with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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A fluorogenic probe with aggregation-induced emission characteristics for carboxylesterase assay through formation of supramolecular microfibers.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Herein, we report a novel fluorescent "light-up" probe useful for carboxylesterase assay that is based on a tetraphenylethylene derivative containing carboxylic ester groups. The specific cleavage of the carboxylic ester bonds by carboxylesterase results in the generation of a relatively hydrophobic moiety that self-assembles into supramolecular microfibers, thus giving rise to "turn-on" fluorescent signals. A high sensitivity towards carboxylesterase was achieved with a detection limit as low as 29?pM, which is much lower than the corresponding assays based on other fluorescent approaches.
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PM?.? emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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As stricter standards for diesel vehicles are implemented in China, and the use of diesel trucks is forbidden in urban areas, determining the contribution of light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) to on-road PM2.5 emissions in cities is important. Additionally, in terms of particle number and size, particulates emitted from LDGVs have a greater health impact than particulates emitted from diesel vehicles. In this work, we measured PM2.5 emissions from 20 LDGVs in Beijing, using an improved combined on-board emission measurement system. We compared these measurements with those reported in previous studies, and estimated the contribution of LDGVs to on-road PM2.5 emissions in Beijing. The results show that the PM2.5 emission factors for LDGVs, complying with European Emission Standards Euro-0 through Euro-4 were: 117.4 ± 142, 24.1 ± 20.4, 4.85 ± 7.86, 0.99 ± 1.32, 0.17 ± 0.15 mg/km, respectively. Our results show a significant decline in emissions with improving vehicle technology. However, this trend is not reflected in recent emission inventory studies. The daytime contributions of LDGVs to PM2.5 emissions on highways, arterials, residential roads, and within urban areas of Beijing were 44%, 62%, 57%, and 57%, respectively. The contribution of LDGVs to PM2.5 emissions varied both for different road types and for different times.
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The VP2 protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) expressed in a baculovirus exhibits RNA polymerase activity.
Virol Sin
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The double-shelled grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is capable of endogenous RNA transcription and processing. Genome sequence analysis has revealed that the protein VP2, encoded by gene segment 2 (S2), is the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In previous work, we have ex-pressed the functional region of VP2 that is associated with RNA polymerase activity (denoted as rVP2(390-900)) in E. coli and have prepared a polyclonal antibody against VP2. To characterize the GCRV RNA polymerase, a recombinant full-length VP2 (rVP2) was first constructed and expressed in a baculovirus system, as a fusion protein with an attached His-tag. Immunofluorescence (IF) assays, together with immunoblot (IB) analyses from both expressed cell extracts and purified Histagged rVP2, showed that rVP2 was successfully expressed in Sf9 cells. Further characterization of the replicase activity showed that purified rVP2 and GCRV particles exhibited poly(C)-dependent poly(G) polymerase activity. The RNA enzymatic activity required the divalent cation Mg(2+), and was optimal at 28 °C. The results provide a foundation for further studies on the RNA polymerases of aquareoviruses during viral transcription and replication.
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Discovering social events through online attention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Twitter is a major social media platform in which users send and read messages ("tweets") of up to 140 characters. In recent years this communication medium has been used by those affected by crises to organize demonstrations or find relief. Because traffic on this media platform is extremely heavy, with hundreds of millions of tweets sent every day, it is difficult to differentiate between times of turmoil and times of typical discussion. In this work we present a new approach to addressing this problem. We first assess several possible "thermostats" of activity on social media for their effectiveness in finding important time periods. We compare methods commonly found in the literature with a method from economics. By combining methods from computational social science with methods from economics, we introduce an approach that can effectively locate crisis events in the mountains of data generated on Twitter. We demonstrate the strength of this method by using it to locate the social events relating to the Occupy Wall Street movement protests at the end of 2011.
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The role of N-acetyltransferase 8 in mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against hepatic I/R injury and explore the role of N-acetyltransferase 8 (NAT8) in the process.
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Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) predicts the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and anti-Dll4 suppresses tumor growth in vivo.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in embryonic vascular development and tumor growth. In this study, we measured the expression of Dll4 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and explored the correlation between Dll4 and ccRCC. We used sh-Dll4 treatment in a nude mouse model to observe the effect that inhibition of the Dll4/Notch pathway had on angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We found up-regulation of Dll4 to be closely correlated with distant metastasis and worse overall survival. Cox regression analysis showed that Dll4 might be a prognostic marker of ccRCC. Blockade of Dll4/Notch signaling inhibited tumor growth in the mouse model via anti-angiogenesis and anti-vasculogenesis effects. We concluded that Dll4 might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of ccRCC.
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Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the treatment of patients with poststroke urinary incontinence.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on poststroke urinary incontinence (UI).
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Platelet-Secreted MicroRNA-223 Promotes Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products via Targeting the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Platelets play a significant role in atherosclerosis, stroke, and asthma through active interaction with neutrophils, monocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. The mechanism underlying these intercellular interactions, however, is incompletely understood. In this study, we report that platelets can remotely modulate vascular endothelial cell apoptosis through releasing microRNA-223 (miR-223)-containing microvesicles (MVs). First, platelets expressed abundant miRNAs, and miR-223 had the highest level of expression. Platelet miR-223 and other miRNAs can be upregulated by the stimulation with thrombopoietin (TPO) or thrombin. Unlike leukocytes, platelets contained high levels of pre-miRNAs, and upregulation of mature platelet miRNAs by TPO was correlated with decreased pre-miRNAs. Second, under stimulation with TPO, platelets released a large amount of MVs, which also contain higher levels of miR-223. Elevation of miR-223 inside circulating platelet MVs (P-MVs) was also observed in plasma samples from patients with enteritis, hepatitis, nephritis, or atherosclerosis. Third, incubation of P-MVs with HUVECs, which had significantly lower levels of miR-223 than platelets, showed that P-MVs effectively delivered miR-223 into HUVECs. Finally, in HUVECs, exogenous platelet miR-223 decreased the level of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and thus promoted HUVEC apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end products. The proapoptotic effect of P-MVs on HUVECs was largely abolished by depleting cellular miR-223 using anti-miR-223 antisense oligonucleotide. In conclusion, our study presents the first evidence, to our knowledge, that platelet-released miR-223 promotes advanced glycation end product-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis via targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.
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One-Pot Three-Component Approach to the Synthesis of Polyfunctional Pyrazoles.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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A simple, multicomponent, and straightforward reaction of vinyl azide, aldehyde, and tosylhydrazine affords the construction of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1H-pyrazoles regioselectively in the presence of base with moderate to excellent yields. A range of functionality could be tolerated in this methodology, and a possible mechanism is proposed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.