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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic susceptibility to hepatoxicity due to bosentan treatment in pulmonary hypertension.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Background. Hepatotoxicity is a major side effect of treatment with bosentan in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Bosentan is metabolized by the cytochrome CYP2C9 and inhibits the bile salt export pump, which is encoded by ABCB11. This suggests that genetic variants of CYP2C9 and/or ABCB11 may predispose patients to bosentan-induced liver injury. Material and methods. PH patients with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) an increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) during bosentan therapy were included in our analysis. Functionally relevant alleles of CYP2C9 and 16 representative variants of ABCB11 were genotyped. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results. Variants of ABCB11 were not associated with bosentan-induced liver injury. In contrast, variant alleles of CYP2C9 were more common in patients with elevated transaminases (allele frequency 52%) compared to controls (allele frequency 24%, P = 0.04, odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.01-11.8). Conclusion. Our data indicate hepatotoxicity of bosentan from decreased hepatic metabolism due to common variants of CYP2C9.
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Interaction of cyclic mechanical stretch and toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate immunity in rat alveolar type II cells.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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In cases of infection-induced acute lung injury, mechanical ventilation might be necessary to maintain oxygenation. Although low tidal volume ventilation is applied, alveolar over-distension may occur and result in ventilator-induced lung injury. In this study, we investigate (i) the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation on high-amplitude stretching; and (ii) the effect of stretching on LPS-mediated immune response in isolated rat alveolar type II cells.
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Factors associated with fatigue in sarcoidosis.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Fatigue is a frequent symptom of patients suffering from sarcoidosis. The origin of fatigue associated with sarcoidosis is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of affected organs, medication, and comorbidity on fatigue related to sarcoidosis.
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Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease: updated Recommendations of the Cologne Consensus Conference 2011.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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The 2009 European Guidelines on Pulmonary Hypertension did not cover only pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but also some aspects of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chronic lung disease. These guidelines point out that the drugs currently used to treat patients with PAH (prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors) have not been sufficiently investigated in other forms of PH. Therefore, the use of these drugs in patients with chronic lung disease and PH is not recommended. This recommendation, however, is not always in agreement with medical needs as physicians feel sometimes inclined to also treat other forms of pulmonary hypertension which may affect the quality of life and survival of these patients in a similar manner as in PAH. In June 2010, a consensus conference was held in Cologne, Germany, to discuss open and controversial issues surrounding the practical implementation of the European Guidelines. The conference was sponsored by the German Society of Cardiology, the German Society of Respiratory Medicine and the German Society of Pediatric Cardiology (DGK, DGP and DGPK). To this end, a number of working groups were initiated, one of which was specifically dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of PH due to chronic lung disease. This manuscript describes in detail the results and recommendations of this working group which were last updated in October 2011.
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Outcome prediction in pneumonia induced ALI/ARDS by clinical features and peptide patterns of BALF determined by mass spectrometry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Peptide patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assumed to reflect the complex pathology of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) better than clinical and inflammatory parameters and may be superior for outcome prediction.
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Fatigue in patients with sarcoidosis, compared with the general population.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Fatigue is a significant symptom in sarcoidosis patients. The causes for this symptom are unclear. The aims of this study were to analyze age and gender differences in fatigue, compared with the general population, and to test the psychometric properties of two questionnaires measuring fatigue in sarcoidosis.
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Standard PAH therapy improves long term survival in CTEPH patients.
Clin Res Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), subsequent to pulmonary embolism is a relatively frequent cause of pulmonary hypertension. Similar to patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), CTEPH carries a poor prognosis. There is no hard evidence for any other therapy except pulmonary endarterectomy and none for those patients that are not eligible for this procedure.
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High concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor reduce stretch-induced apoptosis of alveolar type II cells.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has protective as well as injurious effects in ARDS/acute lung injury. The influence of VEGF was investigated in a model of stretch-induced apoptosis. High-amplitude mechanical stretch induced the secretion of VEGF. High VEGF concentrations may prevent stretch-induced apoptosis by restoring stretch-impaired phospatidylinositol-3 kinase signalling.
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Preoperative introduction and maintenance immunosuppression therapy of oral-only tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids reduce acute rejection episodes after lung transplantation.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Immunosuppression therapy in lung transplantation (LTX) remains unsatisfactory due to a high incidence of infection and frequent acute rejection (AR), leading to early onset of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The long-term success of LTX is limited by BOS, associated with marked morbidity and mortality. The strongest risk factor for BOS is frequent AR. Decreasing frequent AR episodes might lead to improved long-term survival following LTX.
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Lamellar body exocytosis by cell stretch or purinergic stimulation: possible physiological roles, messengers and mechanisms.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2009
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A major function of the pulmonary alveolar type II cell is the secretion of surfactant, a lipoprotein-like substance, via exocytosis of secretory vesicles termed lamellar bodies (LBs). The process of surfactant secretion is remarkable in several aspects, considering stimulus-delayed fusion activity, poor solubility of vesicle contents, long hemifusion lifetimes, slow fusion pore expansion and active, actin-driven content release. Cell stretch as well as P2Y(2) receptor stimulation by extracellular ATP are considered the most potent stimuli for LB exocytosis. For both stimuli, elevation of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](c) is a key step. This review summarizes possible physiological roles and pathways of stretch- or ATP-induced surfactant secretion and discusses molecular mechanisms controlling the pre-, hemi- and postfusion phase, in comparison with neuroendocrine release mechanisms.
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Lung cancer: current diagnosis and treatment.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Much progress has been made in the treatment of lung cancer in the last ten years (adjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapy, individualized therapy). Nonetheless, lung cancer is still the leading cause of death due to cancer and thus remains a major medical, scientific, and social problem.
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History of guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma: from opinion to control.
Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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The Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA) was launched in 1993 in collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institutes of Health (USA) and the WHO. Its first effort was the production of a consensus report on asthma treatment, which aimed to bridge the gap between the various treatment options and the incorporation and implementation of innovative treatment forms into daily clinical practice. The first report published in 1995, A Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, has been translated into several languages, widely adopted and provided the foundation for several asthma guidelines worldwide. The GINA and other guidelines were primarily based on consensus of expert opinion in order to employ a severity-based classification system as a guide to treatment. However, in the late 1990s, guidelines underwent a major paradigm shift from opinion- to evidence-based classification as the foundation for asthma management. A second major shift involved the classification of asthma according to the level of disease control as a guide to treatment, which was realized for the first time in the revised 2006 GINA guidelines. Since their first appearance, asthma guidelines have played a leading role in disseminating information about asthma. In addition, they have had a substantial impact on standardizing asthma care around the world, which is likely to continue in the future. This article addresses the history of guideline development and issues related to asthma guidelines, with particular emphasis on the GINA guidelines.
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Inhaled iloprost for the control of pulmonary hypertension.
Vasc Health Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance with a poor prognosis. Various pulmonary and extrapulmonary causes are now recognized to exist separately from the idiopathic form of pulmonary hypertension. An imbalance in the presence of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease, one example being the lack of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin and its analogues are potent vasodilators with antithrombotic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory qualities, all of which are important factors in the pathogenesis of precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Iloprost is a stable prostacyclin analogue available for intravenous and aerosolized application. Due to the severe side effects of intravenous administration, the use of inhaled iloprost has become a mainstay in PAH therapy. However, owing to the necessity for 6 to 9 inhalations a day, oral treatment is often preferred as a first-line therapy. Numerous studies proving the efficacy and safety of inhaled iloprost have been performed. It is therefore available for a first-line therapy for PAH. The combination with endothelin-receptor antagonists or sildenafil has shown encouraging effects. Further studies with larger patient populations will have to demonstrate the use of combination therapy for long-term treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
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[Pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis in the elderly].
Med. Klin. (Munich)
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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With the increase of the proportion of the elderly in the total population more cases of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are observed in this age group as well. Symptoms of TB are unspecific, often less apparent in the elderly, and may therefore cause a delay in the diagnostic process. A history of TB and comorbidities are more common in elder as compared to younger TB patients. The tuberculin skin test is less frequently positive. The interferon-gamma-release assay is complementary and together with clinical, radiologic, and bacteriologic test results helpful for the diagnosis or the exclusion of an active or latent TB infection. Medical treatment of TB in the elderly follows the established guidelines in the same way as for younger patients. The likelihood of drug-induced side effects and interactions with concomitant medications, however, is increased. Comorbidity and age-related immunosuppression may lead to a delay in the healing process. Higher age, comorbidity, and immunosuppression are predictors of an increased TB mortality. Even in a low-incidence country like Germany, TB should be recognized as an explanation for clinical symptoms particularly in the elderly patient group in order to allow an early diagnosis and therapy and thus a reduction of mortality and prevention of a further spread of this disease.
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Rapamycin reduces high-amplitude, mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell death caused by mechanical over-distension is likely to contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Consequently, the search for cytoprotective interventions is of interest. We investigated the effect of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) viability in a model of high-amplitude mechanical stretch. Cyclic mechanical stretch (30% increase in membrane surface area, cycling frequency 40/min), employed for 24 h induced apoptosis in HMVEC-L. This effect was reduced by rapamycin treatment. Focusing on possible mechanisms of action we demonstrated that the stretch-induced reduction in the anti-apoptotic messenger pAkt could be restored by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, we observed rapamycin-induced modifications in the HMVEC-L actin cytoskeleton architecture and global cellular f-actin content which functionally resulted in an increased global cellular mechanical stability - as indicated by an increased HMVEC-L osmomechanical resistance - thereby possibly desensitizing HMVEC-L to mechanical stimulation. According to the data from the present study, rapamycin represents a promising cytoprotective agent under mechanically challenging conditions such as mechanical ventilation.
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[Spectrum of tuberculous diseases in a pulmonary outpatient clinic].
Med. Klin. (Munich)
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Although the incidence of 6.6 newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) cases per 100,000 inhabitants is in decline in Germany, TB remains a disease of significant epidemiologic importance.
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Effects of nasal high flow on ventilation in volunteers, COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.
Respiration
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A high flow of air applied by large bore nasal cannulae has been suggested to improve symptoms of chronic respiratory insufficiency. In pediatric patients, nasal high-flow (nHF) ventilation was similarly effective compared to noninvasive ventilation with a face mask. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe changes in respiratory parameters.
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Non-invasive evaluation of cystic fibrosis related liver disease in adults with ARFI, transient elastography and different fibrosis scores.
PLoS ONE
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Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection.
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Exercise dependence of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension.
Respiration
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is secreted by cardiac ventricular myocytes upon pressure and volume overload and is a prognostic marker to monitor the severity of precapillary pulmonary hypertension and the extent of right heart failure.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.