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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Expression of transcript factors SALL4 and OCT4 in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC).
Transl Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2014
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SALL4 and OCT4 are transcription factors and play essential roles in stem cell development and oncogenesis. However, the expression of these transcription factors has not been well studied in lung cancers. In this study, we evaluated the expression of SALL4 and OCT4 in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) by immunochemistry. NSCLC tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed with a total of 77 primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 90 primary lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs). A mouse monoclonal anti-human SALL4 (1:400 dilution) and a polyclonal anti-human OCT4 (1:200 dilution) antibodies were used. Nuclear staining of SALL4 and OCT4 was scored semi-quantitatively using a three tiered scale. The expressions of SALL4 and OCT4 were correlated with the tumor differentiation, pathological stage, and patients' clinical information.
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Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g(-1) in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30?000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ?56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition.
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Molecular charge transfer by adsorbing TCNQ/TTF molecules via ?-? interaction: a simple and effective strategy to modulate the electronic and magnetic behaviors of zigzag SiC nanoribbons.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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By means of first-principles computations, we first propose a simple and effective strategy through the molecular charge transfer via noncovalent ?-? interaction to modulate the electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag SiC nanoribbons (zSiCNRs). This charge transfer is induced by adsorbing the electron-withdrawing/donating tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecules on the surface of the pristine zSiCNR. It is revealed that all the TCNQ- and TTF-modified zSiCNR-systems can exhibit considerable adsorption energies in the range from -137.2 to -184.0 kJ mol(-1) and from -71.3 to -76.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively, indicating that these zSiCNR-complexes possess high structure stabilities. This kind of a molecular charge transfer via ?-? interaction can break the magnetic degeneracy of zSiCNRs, and the sole ferromagnetic (FM) metallicity and even antiferromagnetic (AFM) half-metallicity can be achieved. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting SiC-based nanomaterials in the application of spintronics and multifunctional nanodevices in the near future.
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Effect of dielectric cladding on active plasmonic device based on InGaAsP multiple quantum wells.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) planar waveguide with amorphous silicon (?-Si) cladding is studied, for empowering the device modulation response. The device is fabricated with multiple quantum wells (MQWs) as the gain media electrically pumped for compensating SPP propagation loss on Au film waveguide. The SPP propagation greatly benefits from the modal gain for the long-range hybrid mode, which is optimized by adopting an ?-Si cladding layer accompanied with minimal degradation of mode confinement. The proposed structure presented more sensitive response to electrical manipulation than the one without cladding in experiment.
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MiR-183/-96/-182 cluster is up-regulated in most breast cancers and increases cell proliferation and migration.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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IntroductionThe miR-183/-96/-182 cluster is a conserved polycistronic microRNA (miRNA) cluster which is highly expressed in most breast cancers. Although there are some sporadic reports which demonstrate the importance of each miRNA in this cluster in breast cancer, the biological roles of this cluster as a whole and its regulation mechanisms in breast cancer are still unclear. We compared the expression of this cluster in different cancer types, analyzed the regulation mechanism of this cluster, identified new target genes, and examined the impact of this cluster on breast cancer cells.MethodsThe miRNA level was detected by LNA-based northern blot and Real-time PCR, and was also analyzed from TCGA dataset. Bioinformatics research and luciferase assay were applied to find the promoter regions and transcription factors. To investigate the biological effects of the miR-183/-96 /-182 cluster in breast cancer, we generated miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183 overexpression stable cell lines to check the overdose effects; we also used miR-Down¿ antagomir for each miRNA as well as miR-183/-96 /-182 cluster sponge lentivirus to check the knockdown effects. Growth, migration, cell cycle profile and survival of these cells was then monitored by colony formation assay, MTT assay, cell wound healing assay, flow cytometry and microscopy. The target gene was validated by Real-time PCR, luciferase assay, Western blot and Phalloidin/DAPI counterstaining.ResultsThe miR-183/-96/-182 cluster was highly expressed in most breast cancers, and its transcription is disordered in breast cancer. The miR-183/-96/-182 cluster was transcribed in the same pri-miRNA and its transcription was regulated by ZEB1 and HSF2. It increased breast cell growth by promoting more rapid completion of mitosis, promoted cell migration and was essential for cell survival. MiR-183 targeted the RAB21 mRNA directly in breast cancer.ConclusionThe miR-183/-96/-182 cluster is up-regulated in most breast cancer. It functions as an oncogene in breast cancer as it increases cell proliferation and migration.
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Cognitive Outcome After Pediatric Stem-Cell Transplantation: Impact of Age and Total-Body Irradiation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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To examine the influence of age and conditioning with total-body irradiation (TBI) on the trajectory of cognitive functioning after treatment with pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT).
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APASdb: a database describing alternative poly(A) sites and selection of heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3'-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and APA-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology. Here we present a web-accessible database, named APASdb (http://mosas.sysu.edu.cn/utr), which can visualize the precise map and usage quantification of different APA isoforms for all genes. The datasets are deeply profiled by the sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (SAPAS) method capable of high-throughput sequencing 3'-ends of polyadenylated transcripts. Thus, APASdb details all the heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals, and maintains near complete coverage for APA sites, much better than the previous databases using conventional methods. Furthermore, APASdb provides the quantification of a given APA variant among transcripts with different APA sites by computing their corresponding normalized-reads, making our database more useful. In addition, APASdb supports URL-based retrieval, browsing and display of exon-intron structure, poly(A) signals, poly(A) sites location and usage reads, and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs). Currently, APASdb involves APA in various biological processes and diseases in human, mouse and zebrafish.
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A twisted-intramolecular-charge-transfer (TICT) based ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with a mega-Stokes shift and a positive temperature coefficient.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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The fluorescence intensity of N,N-dimethyl-4-((2-methylquinolin-6-yl)ethynyl)aniline exhibits an unusual intensification with increasing temperature, by activating more vibrational bands and leading to stronger TICT emissions upon heating in dimethyl sulfoxide. Based on the different temperature dependence at various wavelengths, as shown in the TICT fluorescence spectrum, this dye can be employed to ratiometrically detect temperature.
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Targeted proteomics: a bridge between discovery and validation.
Expert Rev Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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New technologies in mass spectrometry are beginning to mature and show unique advantages for the identification and quantitation of proteins. In recent years, one of the significant goals of clinical proteomics has been to identify biomarkers that can be used for clinical diagnosis. As technology has progressed, the list of potential biomarkers has grown. However, the verification and validation of these potential biomarkers is increasingly challenging and require high-throughput quantitative assays, targeting specific candidates. Targeted proteomics bridges the gap between biomarker discovery and the development of clinically applicable biomarker assays.
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XGlycScan: An Open-source Software For N-linked Glycosite Assignment, Quantification and Quality Assessment of Data from Mass Spectrometry-based Glycoproteomic Analysis.
MOJ Proteom Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Mass spectrometry based glycoproteomics has become a major means of identifying and characterizing previously N-linked glycan attached loci (glycosites). In the bottom-up approach, several factors which include but not limited to sample preparation, mass spectrometry analyses, and protein sequence database searches result in previously N-linked peptide spectrum matches (PSMs) of varying lengths. Given that multiple PSM scan map to a glycosite, we reason that identified PSMs are varying length peptide species of a unique set of glycosites. Because associated spectra of these PSMs are typically summed separately, true glycosite associated spectra counts are lost or complicated. Also, these varying length peptide species complicate protein inference as smaller sized peptide sequences are more likely to map to more proteins than larger sized peptides or actual glycosite sequences. Here, we present XGlycScan. XGlycScan maps varying length peptide species to glycosites to facilitate an accurate quantification of glycosite associated spectra counts. We observed that this reduced the variability in reported identifications of mass spectrometry technical replicates of our sample dataset. We also observed that mapping identified peptides to glycosites provided an assessment of search-engine identification. Inherently, XGlycScan reported glycosites reduce the complexity in protein inference. We implemented XGlycScan in the platform independent Java programing language and have made it available as open source. XGlycScan's source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/xglycscan/src and its compiled binaries and documentation can be freely downloaded at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/xglycscan/downloads. The graphical user interface version can also be found at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/xglycscangui/src and https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/xglycscangui/downloads respectively.
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M2Lite: An Open-source, Light-weight, Pluggable and Fast Proteome Discoverer MSF to mzIdentML Tool.
J Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Proteome Discoverer is one of many tools used for protein database search and peptide to spectrum assignment in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, the inadequacy of conversion tools makes it challenging to compare and integrate its results to those of other analytical tools. Here we present M2Lite, an open-source, light-weight, easily pluggable and fast conversion tool. M2Lite converts proteome discoverer derived MSF files to the proteomics community defined standard - the mzIdentML file format. M2Lite's source code is available as open-source at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/m2lite/src and its compiled binaries and documentation can be freely downloaded at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/m2lite/downloads.
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[Expression of follistatin, activin A and BMP-4 in rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To investigate the expression and significance of follistatin, activin A and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in normal brain tissues of rats and the brain tissues with hypoxic and ischemicgin.
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[Research Progress of Epigenetic Drug Decitabine in AML].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Epigenetics is a gene regulation mechanism that can be reversible and heritable, but do not involve the DNA sequence changes. DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications, which is closely correlate with tumorigenesis. Decitabine is a methylation inhibitor, which has different action mechanism and targeting characteristics from the traditional chemotherapy, representing a new therapeutic strategy. This review mainly focuses on the anti-leukemia mechanism of decitabine and its clinical efficacy for AML.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus roborowskii (Squamata: Gekkonidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus roborowskii was sequenced here. It was determined to be 16,644 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The 22 tRNA genes could be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure described for vertebrate mitochondrial tRNAs. The base composition of the heavy strand was 30.33% A, 30.35% C, 14.65% G and 24.67% T. The control region was located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 1248?bp in length and some tandem repeat sequences were found in it.
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Upconversion luminescent logic gates and turn-on sensing of glutathione based on two-photon excited quantum dots conjugated with dopamine.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Under the two-photon excitation, upconversion luminescent "INHIBIT" and "OR" logic gates of water-dispersed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were constituted by conjugating the QDs with dopamine. This facilitated the development of a novel QDs-based upconversion luminescent probe for efficient turn-on sensing of glutathione.
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Comparison of three plate system for lateral malleolar fixation.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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This study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes with three different implants and evaluate the effectiveness of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for the distal fibular fractures.
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A facile cation exchange-based aqueous synthesis of highly stable and biocompatible Ag2S quantum dots emitting in the second near-infrared biological window.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Second near-infrared (NIR-II) emitting Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with high stability and biocompatibility were synthesized and developed toward an ideal nanoprobe. This study reports a facile synthesis of NIR-II Ag2S QDs on the basis of cation exchange between visible-emitting CdS QDs and Ag(+) ions in aqueous solution. Experimental data testified that the cation exchange was quick and complete and that the resultant products were single monoclinic Ag2S without CdS QDs. The prepared Ag2S QDs were systematically characterized, showed typical NIR-II emission and high PL stability, and had small diameters (?3.5 nm) and a quantum yield up to 2.3%. The results of cytotoxicity assay suggested that the Ag2S QDs produced negligible effects in altering the cell proliferation or in generating reactive oxygen species, indicating an ultralow cytotoxicity and an excellent biocompatibility. These properties have opened up the possibility of using Ag2S QDs for effective bioimaging applications.
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Argonaute high-throughput sequencing of RNAs isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation reveals a snapshot of miRNA gene regulation in the mammalian retina.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Mounting evidence points to roles for miRNA gene regulation in promoting development, function, and cell survival in the mammalian retina. However, little is known regarding which retinal genes are targets of miRNAs. Here, we employed a systematic, nonbiased, biochemical approach to identify targets of miRNA gene regulation in the bovine retina, a common model species for vision research. Using Argonaute high-throughput sequencing of RNAs isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation analysis, we identified 348 high-confidence miRNA target sites within 261 genes. This list was enriched in rod and cone photoreceptor genes and included 28 retinal disease genes, providing further evidence of a role of miRNAs in the pathology of blinding diseases.
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TGF? signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptor signaling plays a paradoxical effect in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), in which its tumor-inhibitory role at early stages turns into a tumor-promoting role at later stages. The underlying mechanism remains far from clear. Here we provide strong evidence that the activation of TGF? receptor signaling in PDAC cells increased SMAD3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation to inhibit cell growth. Meanwhile, it also activated SMAD7 to induce nuclear translocation and retention of ?-catenin, which not only attenuated the inhibition of cell growth by nuclear SMAD3 but also activated vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to promote vascularization. Our data thus support a model involving crosstalk of the TGF? and Wnt signaling pathways, for regulating the complicated effect of TGF? signaling on the tumorigenesis of PDAC.
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The "lateral gutter drive-through" sign revisited: a cadaveric study exploring its real mechanism based on the individual posterolateral structure of knee joints.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Although the validity of the "lateral gutter drive-through" (LGDT) test has been proved to offer high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing the posterolateral rotational instability of knee joints, the real mechanism on how the injury pattern of individual posterolateral knee structure triggers the positive LGDT sign still remains unknown.
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Effects of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphism on bosentan metabolism.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C9 is an important member of the P450 enzyme superfamily, with 58 CYP2C9 allelic variants previously reported. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 significantly influence the efficacy and safety of some drugs, which might cause adverse effects and therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to assess the catalytic activities of 38 human CYP2C9 alleles, including 24 novel alleles (*36-*60) found in the Han Chinese population, toward bosentan (BOS) in vitro. Insect microsomes expressing the 38 CYP2C9 alleles were incubated with 10-625 ?M bosentan for 30 minutes at 37°C and terminated by cooling to -80°C immediately. BOS and hydroxyl bosentan, the major metabolite of BOS, were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Thirty-eight defective alleles can be classified into three categories according to the relative clearance value compared with wild type: nine alleles exhibited significantly increased intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) compared with the wild type (1.5-fold-?4.9-fold relative clearance); nine alleles exhibited significantly reduced intrinsic clearance values compared with the wild type (0.6-28.9% relative clearance). The remaining 20 alleles exhibited no significant difference (1-fold) in enzyme activity compared with the wild type. These findings suggest that more attention should be directed to subjects carrying these infrequent CYP2C9 alleles when administering BOS in the clinic. This is the first report of all these rare alleles for BOS metabolism, providing fundamental data for further clinical studies on CYP2C9 alleles.
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Allelochemicals in the rhizosphere soil of Euphorbia himalayensis.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Weed infestation has been known to cause considerable reductions in crop yields, thereby hindering sustainable agriculture. Many plants in genus Euphorbia affect neighboring plants and other organisms by releasing chemicals into the environment. In view of the serious threat of weeds to agriculture, the allelochemicals of Euphorbia himalayensis and their allelopathic effects were investigated. The extract of root exudates from rhizosphere soil exhibited allelopathic activities against crops (wheat, rape, and lettuce) and grasses (Poa annua, Festuca rubra, and red clover). Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation from the root extract of E. himalayensis led to the characterization of two ellagic acid derivatives and a jatrophane diterpene, which observably showed phytotoxic activities against lettuce, Festuca arundinacea, and F. rubra. They were further confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to have concentrations of 3.6, 3.8, and 8.99 nmol/g in the rhizospere soil, respectively. Bioassay indicated that the combination of the allelochemicals could be selective plant growth regulator in agriculture.
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Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity.
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[Study on HPLC fingerprint of Eriobotrya japonica flower].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Eriobotrya japonica flower.
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[A review of the role and function of microbes in coral reef ecosystem].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Coral reef is consisted with several kinds of reef-associated organisms, including coral, fish, benthos, algae and microbes, which is an important marine ecosystem. Coral reef lives in the oligotrophic environment, has very highly primary productivity and net productivity, and is called "tropical rain forest in ocean". In corals, diverse microorganisms exert a significant influence on biogeochemical and ecological processes, including food webs, organism life cycles, and nutrient cycling. With the development of molecular biology, the role of microorganisms in a coral system is becoming more outstanding. In this article, we reviewed current understanding on 1) the onset of coral-bacterial associations; 2) the characteristics of microbes in coral (specificity, plasticity and co-evolution) ; 3) the role and signal regulation of microbes in the health and disease of coral; and 4) the response mechanism of microbes for global climatic change and consequent effects, such as temperature rise, ocean acidification and eutrophication. The aims of this article were to summarize the latest theories and achievements, clear the mechanism of microbial ecology in coral reefs and provide a theoretical reference for better protection and maintaining the coral's biodiversity.
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Inhibitory effect of emodin on migration, invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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In breast cancer, metastasis is the main reason for patient mortality. In the present study, we used breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and a mouse xenograft model to demonstrate the effect of emodin on the migration, invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and the related mechanisms. In vitro, wound healing and Transwell assays showed that emodin dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that emodin decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis showed that emodin downregulated the expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA and uPAR as well as p38 inhibitor SB203580 and ERK inhibitor PD980559, even though TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not obviously changed in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, emodin inhibited the activity of p38 and ERK1/2 in the MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, emodin inhibited lung metastasis in mice bearing the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts with no obvious changes in body weight, liver and kidney functions. These results indicated that emodin inhibited the lung metastasis of human breast cancer in a mouse xenograft model, and inhibited the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells associated with the downregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA and uPAR expression as well as decreased activity of p38 and ERK.
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BRAF V600E mutation and KRAS codon 13 mutations predict poor survival in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA are the most common somatic alterations found in the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from Western countries; but their prevalence and prognostic value have not been adequately assessed in Asian patients. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation frequencies of these genes in Chinese CRC patients and to investigate their impact on prognosis.
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Peer support for patients with type 2 diabetes in rural communities of China: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The prevalence of diabetes has been growing rapidly in developing countries. This causes devastating economic burdens and increases demands on the health care system. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a cost-effective and multi-faceted approach for diabetes care. Peer support models provide a potentially low-cost, flexible means which complements the current existing health care services. In this way, trained peer leaders can become qualified extensions to a formal healthcare system, capable of assisting education delivery and bolstering the efforts of professional staff. As such, creating a cultural specific peer support program and determining whether it is acceptable and cost-effective in rural communities of China is crucial. This study aims to implement and evaluate biophysical and psychosocial outcomes of peer support program for people with type 2 diabetes in rural communities, and to explore the program's feasibility and sustainability in China.
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The identification of six novel proteins with fibronectin or collagen type I binding activity from Streptococcus suis serotype 2.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Streptococcus suis, a major swine pathogen, is an emerging zoonotic agent that causes meningitis and septic shock. Bacterial cell wall and secreted proteins are often involved in interactions with extracellular matrix proteins (ECMs), which play important roles in the initial steps of pathogenesis. In this study, 2D SDS-PAGE, western blotting-based binding affinity measurements, and microtiter plate binding assays were used to identify cell wall and secreted proteins from S. suis that interact with fibronectin and collagen type I. We identified six proteins from S. suis, including three proteins (translation elongation factor G, oligopeptide-binding protein OppA precursor, and phosphoglycerate mutase) that show both fibronectin and collagen type I binding activity. To the best of our knowledge, these three newly identified proteins had no previously reported fibronectin or collagen type I binding activity. Overall, the aim in this study was to identify proteins with ECM binding activity from S. suis and it represents the first report of six new proteins from S. suis that interact with fibronectin or collagen type I.
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Water-soluble multidentate polymers compactly coating Ag2S quantum dots with minimized hydrodynamic size and bright emission tunable from red to second near-infrared region.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Hydrodynamic size-minimized quantum dots (QDs) have outstanding physicochemical properties for applications in multicolor molecular and cellular imaging at the level of single molecules and nanoparticles. In this study, we have reported the aqueous synthesis of Ag2S QDs by using thiol-based multidentate polymers as capping reagents. By regulating the composition of the precursors (AgNO3 and sulfur-N2H4·H2O complex) and multidentate polymers (poly(acrylic acid)-graft-cysteamine-graft-ethylenediamine), as well as the reaction time, Ag2S QDs (2.6-3.7 nm) are prepared, displaying tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission from red to the second near-infrared region (687-1096 nm). The small hydrodynamic thickness (1.6-1.9 nm) of the multidentate polymers yields a highly compact coating for the QDs, which results in the bright fluorescent QDs with high PL quantum yields (QYs: 14.2-16.4%). Experimental results confirm that the QDs have high PL stability and ultralow cytotoxicity, as well as high PLQYs and small hydrodynamic sizes (4.5-5.6 nm) similar to fluorescent proteins (27-30 kDa), indicating the feasibility of highly effective PL imaging in cells and living animals.
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TolC promotes ExPEC biofilm formation and curli production in response to medium osmolarity.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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While a high osmolarity medium activates Cpx signaling and causes CpxR to repress csgD expression, and efflux protein TolC protein plays an important role in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli, whether TolC also responds to an osmolarity change to regulate biofilm formation in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) remains unknown. In this study, we constructed ?tolC mutant and complement ExPEC strains to investigate the role of TolC in the retention of biofilm formation and curli production capability under different osmotic conditions. The ?tolC mutant showed significantly decreased biofilm formation and lost the ability to produce curli fimbriae compared to its parent ExPEC strain PPECC42 when cultured in M9 medium or 1/2 M9 medium of increased osmolarity with NaCl or sucrose at 28°C. However, biofilm formation and curli production levels were restored to wild-type levels in the ?tolC mutant in 1/2 M9 medium. We propose for the first time that TolC protein is able to form biofilm even under high osmotic stress. Our findings reveal an interplay between the role of TolC in ExPEC biofilm formation and the osmolarity of the surrounding environment, thus providing guidance for the development of a treatment for ExPEC biofilm formation.
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Xuebijing attenuates hypotension through the upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor?associated protein 1 in rats suffering from heat stroke.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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In our previous study, we demonstrated that Xuebijing (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine, attenuates hypotension in rats suffering from heatstroke (HS). However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was carried out to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of XBJ on hypotension n rats suffering from HS. For this purpose, 72 anesthetized rats were randomized into 3 groups and intravenously injected twice daily for 3 days with XBJ (4 ml/kg body weight, XBJ group) or phosphate?buffered saline (PBS) (HS and sham-operated groups). Models of HS were established in the HS and XBJ groups by placing the rats in a simulated climate chamber with a temperature of 40?C and a humidity of 60%. Rectal temperature, arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded. Angiotensin ? (Ang ?) levels were increased during HS (shown by ELISA), and XBJ had no apparent effect on Ang ? levels. The levels of Ang ? type 1 (AT1) receptor surface expression and AT1 receptor?associated protein 1 (Arap1) were decreased during HS; however, these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with XBJ (shown by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis). For in vitro experiments, rat macrophages pre-treated with XBJ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pre-treatment with XBJ induced a marked inhibitory effect on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS?stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, XBJ inhibited the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF??B) induced by LPS in the macrophages. Taken together, our data demonstrate that XBJ promotes Arap1 expression by inhibiting the activation of the NF??B signaling pathway and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be the molecular mechanisms through which XBJ alleviates blood pressure reduction in rats suffering from HS.
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Taurine attenuates amyloid ? 1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activating of SIRT1 in SK-N-SH cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Amyloid ? (A?) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Studies indicate that A? causes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurons loss in vivo and in vitro. Taurine, a naturally occurring ?-amino acid in the brain, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties. In the present study, the effects of taurine on cell viability and mitochondrial function in A?1-42-treated SK-N-SH cells were investigated. Pretreatment of taurine significantly attenuated A?1-42-induced neuronal death. Similarly, taurine suppressed the mPTP opening and reversed mitochondrial function in the presence of A?1-42. Additionally, taurine attenuated the intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS generation induced by A?1-42. Moreover, the expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was obviously recovered by taurine in A?1-42-treated SK-N-SH cells. Our results suggest that taurine prevents A?1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of SIRT1. This study implies that taurine is a prospective additive for AD patients.
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Activation of SIRT1 by curcumin blocks the neurotoxicity of amyloid-?25-35 in rat cortical neurons.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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As one of the most important hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), ?-amyloid (A?) plays important roles in inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in neurons. Curcumin extracted from the yellow pigments spice plant turmeric shows multiplied bioactivities such as antioxidant and anti-apoptosis properties in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against A?25-35-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons was investigated. We found that pretreatment of curcumin prevented the cultured cortical neurons from A?25-35-induced cell toxicity. In addition, curcumin improved mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), decreased ROS generation and inhibited apoptotic cell death in A?25-35 treated neurons. Furthermore, we found that application of curcumin activated the expression of SIRT1 and subsequently decreased the expression of Bax in the presence of A?25-35. The protective effect of curcumin was blocked by SIRT1 siRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of SIRT1 is involved in the neuroprotective action of curcumin.
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Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant.
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Autoantibodies to IgG/HLA class II complexes are associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Specific HLA class II alleles are strongly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, how HLA class II regulates susceptibility to RA has remained unclear. Recently, we found a unique function of HLA class II molecules: their ability to aberrantly transport cellular misfolded proteins to the cell surface without processing to peptides. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody that binds to denatured IgG or Fc fragments of IgG and is detected in 70-80% of RA patients but also in patients with other diseases. Here, we report that intact IgG heavy chain (IgGH) is transported to the cell surface by HLA class II via association with the peptide-binding groove and that IgGH/HLA class II complexes are specifically recognized by autoantibodies in RF-positive sera from RA patients. In contrast, autoantibodies in RF-positive sera from non-RA individuals did not bind to IgGH/HLA class II complexes. Of note, a strong correlation between autoantibody binding to IgG complexed with certain HLA-DR alleles and the odds ratio for that allele's association with RA was observed (r = 0.81; P = 4.6 × 10(-5)). Our findings suggest that IgGH complexed with certain HLA class II alleles is a target for autoantibodies in RA, which might explain why these HLA class II alleles confer susceptibility to RA.
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Label-free quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals differentially regulated proteins and pathway in PRRSV-infected pulmonary alveolar macrophages.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen of swine worldwide and causes significant economic losses. Through regulating the host proteins phosphorylation, PRRSV was found to manipulate the activities of several signaling molecules to regulate innate immune responses. However, the role of protein phosphorylation during PRRSV infection and the signal pathways responsible for it are relatively unknown. Here liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to systematically investigate the global phosphorylation events in PRRSV-infected pulmonary alveolar macrophages. In total, we identified 2125 unique phosphosites, of which the phosphorylation level of 292 phosphosites on 242 proteins and 373 phosphosites on 249 proteins was significantly altered at 12 and 36 h pi, respectively. The phosphoproteomics data were analyzed using ingenuity pathways analysis to identify defined canonical pathways and functional networks. Pathway analysis revealed that PRRSV-induced inflammatory cytokines production was probably due to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-?B signal pathway, which were regulated by several protein kinases during virus infection. Interacting network analysis indicated that altered phosphoproteins were involved in cellular assembly and organization, protein synthesis, molecular transport, and signal transduction in PRRSV infected cells. These pathways and functional networks analysis could provide direct insights into the biological significance of phosphorylation events modulated by PRRSV and may help us elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of PRRSV infection.
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High nasal resistance may be a result rather than a cause of obstructive sleep apnea.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show high nasal resistance (NR). The present study tested the hypothesis that nasal obstruction in OSA patients could be caused by pharyngeal narrow. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on NR in patients with OSA. Rhinomanometry was performed and the Mallampati score was recorded during wakefulness in a sitting position before and after UPPP for 33 patients with OSA. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were used as a control group. The NR in patients with OSA (0.37 ± 0.22 Pa/cm(3)/s) was significantly higher than that of the normal controls (0.19 ± 0.04 Pa/cm(3)/s) (p < 0.01). The NR decreased from 0.37 ± 0.22 to 0.20 ± 0.05 Pa/cm(3)/s (p < 0.01) after UPPP with the Mallampati score decreased from 3.00 ± 0.56 to 1.52 ± 0.57 (p < 0.01). However, NR values after UPPP were still higher than those of the control group, but there was no significant difference between those two groups (p = 0.34). The present study showed that the high NR may not be completely attributable to nasal anatomic obstruction, but may result from pharyngeal narrow in OSA. High NR may be a result of OSA rather than a cause.
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Phytotoxic flavonoids from roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae).
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Allelopathy, the negative effect on plants of chemicals released to the surroundings by a neighboring plant, is an important factor which contributes to the spread of some weeds in plant communities. In this field, Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is one of the most toxic and ecologically-threatening weeds in some of the grasslands of north and west China. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root extracts of this plant led to the isolation of eight flavonoids 1-8, whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds obtained, except 7-methoxylneochaejasmin A (4) and (+)-epiafzelechin (5), showed strong phytotoxic activity against Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Seedling growth was reduced by neochamaejasmin B (1), mesoneochamaejasmin A (2), chamaejasmenin C (3), genkwanol A (6), daphnodorin B (7) and dihydrodaphnodorin B (8) with IC50 values of 6.9, 12.1, 43.2, 74.8, 7.1 and 27.3?g/mL, respectively, and all of these compounds disrupted root development. Endogenous auxin levels at the root tips of the A. thaliana DR5::GUS transgenic line were largely reduced by compounds 1, 2 and 6-8, and were increased by compound 4. Moreover, the inhibition rate of A. thaliana auxin transport mutants pin2 and aux1-7 by compounds 1-8 were all lower than the wild type (Col-0). The influence of these compounds on endogenous auxin distribution is thus proposed as a critical factor for the phytotoxic effect. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 8 were found in soils associated with S. chamaejasme, and these flavonoids also showed phytotoxicity to Clinelymus nutans L., an associated weed of S. chamaejasme. These results indicated that some phytotoxic compounds from roots of S. chamaejasme may be involved in the potential allelopathic behavior of this widespread weed.
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Dioscin-induced apoptosis of human LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells through activation of caspase-3 and modulation of Bcl-2 protein family.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Dioscin is a natural steroid saponin derived from several plants, showing potent anti-cancer effect against a variety of tumor cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of dioscin against human LNCaP cells, and evaluated the possible mechanism involved in its antineoplastic action. It was found that dioscin (1, 2 and 4 ?mol/L) could significantly inhibit the viability of LNCaP cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry revealed that the apoptosis rate was increased after treatment of LNCaP cells with dioscin for 24 h, indicating that apoptosis was an important mechanism by which dioscin inhibited cancer. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax in LNCaP cells. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly increased, and meanwhile procaspase-3 was markedly decreased. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated, whereas the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was up-regulated. Moreover, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was drastically decreased. These results suggested that dioscin possessed potential anti-tumor activity in human LNCaP cells through the apoptosis pathway, which might be associated with caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein family.
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Low prevalence of hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Chinese patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The exact prevalence of hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remains unclear in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) because many of these patients routinely avoid the use of NSAIDs. Since the diagnosis of aspirin hypersensitivity is based mainly on history, the aspirin challenge protocol is seldom used clinically in China. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of NSAID hypersensitivity in Chinese patients diagnosed with CRS. In a unique cohort study, consecutive CRS patients received intramuscular diclofenac sodium injection or diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets to relieve intraoperative and postoperative pain following nasal surgery. In addition, data on NSAID hypersensitivity in large-sample series of CRS patients were collected by searching relevant literature published in Chinese to determine the prevalence of NSAID hypersensitivity in Chinese patients with CRS. A total of 244 consecutive CRS patients were included in this study. Three (1.34%) patients experienced a severe asthmatic attack after intramuscular diclofenac sodium injection and were diagnosed with NSAID hypersensitivity. Despite the use of different methods to diagnose NSAID hypersensitivity, the prevalence of NSAID hypersensitivity in Chinese CRS patients was between 0.28 and 1.46%. The prevalence of NSAID hypersensitivity in Chinese patients with CRS is low, which is a distinct clinical characteristic of Chinese CRS patients. Despite the apparently low prevalence of the condition in this population, a large number of patients in China are affected by this disorder, which should not be overlooked or regarded with an indifferent attitude in medical research and clinical practices.
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Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging in frontotemporal dementia.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Novel biomarkers for monitoring progression in neurodegenerative conditions are needed. Measurement of microstructural changes in white matter (WM) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a useful outcome measure. Here we report trajectories of WM change using serial DTI in a cohort with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD).
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Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities from leaves, stems and roots of medicinal Stellera chamaejasme L.
Syst. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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A diverse array of bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere and different plant organs play a crucial role in plant health and growth. Therefore, a general understanding of these bacterial communities and their diversity is necessary. Using the 16S rRNA gene clone library technique, the bacterial community structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria in Stellera chamaejasme compartments were compared and clarified for the first time. Grouping of the sequences obtained showed that members of the Proteobacteria (43.2%), Firmicutes (36.5%) and Actinobacteria (14.1%) were dominant in both samples. Other groups that were consistently found, albeit at lower abundance, were Bacteroidetes (2.1%), Chloroflexi (1.9%), and Cyanobacteria (1.7%). The habitats (rhizosphere vs endophytes) and organs (leaf, stem and root) structured the community, since the Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that more varied bacteria inhabited the rhizosphere compared to the organs of the plant. In addition, correspondence analysis also showed that differences were apparent in the bacterial communities associated with these distinct habitats. Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that the profiles obtained from the rhizosphere and roots were similar, whereas leaf and stem samples clustered together on the opposite side of the plot from the rhizosphere and roots. Taken together, these results suggested that, although the communities associated with the rhizosphere and organs shared some bacterial species, the associated communities differed in structure and diversity.
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Human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical donor-derived cytokine-induced killer cells are safe and prolong the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of administering cytokine-induced killer cells (termed allogeneic CIKs), obtained from the blood of the offspring of patients, for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Symptoms, signs and laboratory assessment results for 303 cancer patients were collected prior to and following treatment with autologous or allogeneic CIKs. In addition, 54 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enrolled and divided into allogeneic CIK and optimal support groups (n=27 per group) according to gender, age, Karnofsky performance status score, TNM stage and histological type. In addition, overall survival (OS) was compared between the two groups. A total of 303 patients were treated with CIKs for 647 cycles, with 308 and 339 cycles in the autologous and allogeneic CIK groups, respectively. The mean number of CIKs in the autologous and allogeneic groups was 2.11±0.32×10(10) and 2.29±0.36×10(10), respectively, with no marked differences identified between the two groups (t=1.147; P>0.05). The predominant adverse events included insomnia, fever, nausea, vomiting and mild abdominal pain, which were found, respectively, in nine (6.8%), eight (6.0%), two (1.5%) and one (0.8%) patients receiving autologous CIKs and 11 (6.5%), 10 (5.9%), one (0.6%) and one (0.6%) patients receiving allogeneic CIKs, with no marked differences identified between the two groups (P>0.05). Adverse events were not associated with cell count, frequency or duration of treatment. Following CIK treatment, the outcomes of routine blood tests, and liver and kidney function tests, as well as immune function and electrocardiogram examinations remained unchanged (P>0.05). The median OS was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.6-13.4 months) and 8.0 months (95% CI, 5.3-10.7 months) for NSCLC patients receiving allogeneic CIKs and optimal support, respectively; a statistically significant difference was identified (?(2)=5.618; P=0.018). The present study demonstrated that CIKs from human leukocyte antigen haploidentical donors are safe and prolong the survival of NSCLC patients.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Papilio bianor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), and its phylogenetic position within Papilionidae.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Papilio bianor was determined in the present paper. The complete mtDNA from P. bianor was 15,358 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The P. bianor genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. To determine the phylogentic position of P. bianor with related species within Papilionidae, the Bayesian phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide dataset of the 13 protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic trees confirmed that P. bianor and four species of Papilionidae clustered into a clade, and shared a close relationship with Papilio maraho. Meanwhile, the molecular phylogenetic trees also confirmed that Papilionidae is a monophyletic group, and Pieridae is closely related with Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae.
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A?-HBc virus-like particles immunization without additional adjuvant ameliorates the learning and memory and reduces A? deposit in PDAPP mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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?-Amyloid peptide (A?) immunization is regarded as a promising therapy to Alzheimer's disease. The full length A? as antigen might induce meningoencephalitis adverse effect since the middle and C-terminal fragments of A? contain T cell epitopes. While N-terminal fragment of A?, containing B cell epitope, has weak or no immunogenicity. To improve the immunogenicity, in the previous study, we used HBv core antigen as carrier to make fusion protein containing 2 A?1-15. The fusion protein could form virus-like particles (VLPs) and had strong immunogenicity. The antisera prevented A? fiber formation and protected the PC12 cells against toxicity of A?. In the present study, we immunized 12-month old AD transgenic mice, PDAPP mice, to observe the therapeutic effect of immunization on behaviour and pathology. During immunization, the titer of anti-A? antibody reached to nearly 1:10(6) after 4th inoculation, and then maintained that level to the end of the experiment. After 6-month immunization, the behavioral changes of mice were tested by Morris Water Maze (MWM). The escape latency of immunized mice was shorter than control, and these mice entered platform quadrant more times. Immunohistochemistry results showed that A?-HBc VLPs immunized mice had less amyloid deposit with less microglia in cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, A?-HBc VLPs ameliorated the learning and memory and reduced cerebral A? deposit in PDAPP mice.
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Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Abstract Sex hormone imbalance is causally related with visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction and visceral obesity - an etiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), associated with high risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In general, premenopausal women appear to be protected from CVD and the dramatic decline in sex steroid hormone occurring during menopausal transitions or other sex-related disorders influence the regional distribution, function, and metabolism of AT and increase the risk of CVD. Visceral AT dysfunction, manifesting as abnormality of fatty acid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MetS. However, direct evidence of molecular mechanisms of depot-specific AT alterations, and dysfunction causally related to MetS is limited in studies on postmenopausal women due to difficulty in collecting discrete AT specimens at different ages and repeated sampling from different fat depots. This can be overcome using animal models that can mimic the cluster of pathology leading to MetS and help establish the molecular basis of links between loss of gonadal function on various AT depots and their contribution to MetS. Our group used sex hormone imbalance FSH receptor knock out (FORKO) female mice to recapitulate different aspects of the MetS and addressed the mechanism of visceral obesity related to MetS and discover two novel sex steroid hormone-regulated deep mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDAs) genes. Taken together, such recent studies raise hopes for pharmacologic intervention strategies targeting sex steroid hormone signaling in AT to provide protection against AT dysfunction.
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Intracellular fluorescent thermometry and photothermal-triggered drug release developed from gold nanoclusters and doxorubicin dual-loaded liposomes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Gold nanoclusters and doxorubicin dual-loaded liposomes were prepared by using a supercritical CO2 method, and developed toward intracellular fluorescent thermometry, photothermal-triggered drug release and tumor therapy.
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Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.
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Human RAD6 Promotes G1-S Transition and Cell Proliferation through Upregulation of Cyclin D1 Expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein ubiquitinylation regulates protein stability and activity. RAD6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which that has been substantially biochemically characterized, functions in a number of biologically relevant pathways, including cell cycle progression. In this study, we show that RAD6 promotes the G1-S transition and cell proliferation by regulating the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that RAD6 influences the transcription of CCND1 by increasing monoubiquitinylation of histone H2B and trimethylation of H3K4 in the CCND1 promoter region. Our study presents, for the first time, an evidence for the function of RAD6 in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human cells, raising the possibility that RAD6 could be a new target for molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer therapeutics.
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Progressive Degradation of Crude Oil n-Alkanes Coupled to Methane Production under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons has become a well-known process, little is known about which crude oil tend to be degraded at different temperatures and how the microbial community is responded. In this study, we assessed the methanogenic crude oil degradation capacity of oily sludge microbes enriched from the Shengli oilfield under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The microbial communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes combined with cloning and sequencing. Enrichment incubation demonstrated the microbial oxidation of crude oil coupled to methane production at 35 and 55°C, which generated 3.7±0.3 and 2.8±0.3 mmol of methane per gram oil, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were preferentially removed over relatively shorter-chain n-alkanes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the concurrence of acetoclastic Methanosaeta and hydrogenotrophic methanogens but different methanogenic community structures under the two temperature conditions. Candidate divisions of JS1 and WWE 1, Proteobacteria (mainly consisting of Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Syntrophorhabdus) and Firmicutes (mainly consisting of Desulfotomaculum) were supposed to be involved with n-alkane degradation in the mesophilic conditions. By contrast, the different bacterial phylotypes affiliated with Caldisericales, "Shengli Cluster" and Synergistetes dominated the thermophilic consortium, which was most likely to be associated with thermophilic crude oil degradation. This study revealed that the oily sludge in Shengli oilfield harbors diverse uncultured microbes with great potential in methanogenic crude oil degradation over a wide temperature range, which extend our previous understanding of methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.
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Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
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Ginsenoside Rb1 Prevents H2O2-Induced HUVEC Senescence by Stimulating Sirtuin-1 Pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have previously reported that Ginsenoside Rb1 may effectively prevent HUVECs from senescence, however, the detailed mechanism has not demonstrated up to now. Recent studies have shown that sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in the development of endothelial senescence. The purpose of this study was to explore whether Sirt1 is involved in the action of Ginsenoside Rb1 regarding protection against H2O2-induced HUVEC Senescence.
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SPIDIA-RNA: Second External Quality Assessment for the Pre-Analytical Phase of Blood Samples Used for RNA Based Analyses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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One purpose of the EC funded project, SPIDIA, is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical handling of blood samples for RNA molecular testing. To this end, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs) were implemented. Here we report the results of the second SPIDIA-RNA EQA. This second study included modifications in the protocol related to the blood collection process, the shipping conditions and pre-analytical specimen handling for participants. Participating laboratories received two identical proficiency blood specimens collected in tubes with or without an RNA stabilizer. For pre-defined specimen storage times and temperatures, laboratories were asked to perform RNA extraction from whole blood according to their usual procedure and to return extracted RNA to the SPIDIA facility for further analysis. These RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, presence of interfering substances, and gene expression levels for the validated markers of RNA stability: FOS, IL1B, IL8, GAPDH, FOSB and TNFRSF10c. Analysis of the gene expression results of FOS, IL8, FOSB, and TNFRSF10c, however, indicated that the levels of these transcripts were significantly affected by blood collection tube type and storage temperature. These results demonstrated that only blood collection tubes containing a cellular RNA stabilizer allowed reliable gene expression analysis within 48 h from blood collection for all the genes investigated. The results of these two EQAs have been proposed for use in the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for Standardization.
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Biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical quality variation of mRNA in blood samples.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two different blood collection tubes were stored for varying times at different temperatures, and microarray analysis was performed on resultant extracted RNA. A large set of potential mRNA quality biomarkers for monitoring post-phlebotomy gene expression changes and mRNA degradation in blood was identified. qPCR assays for the potential biomarkers and a set of relevant reference genes were generated and used to pre-validate a sub-set of the selected biomarkers. The assay precision of the potential qPCR based biomarkers was determined, and a final validation of the selected quality biomarkers using the developed qPCR assays and blood samples from 60 healthy additional subjects was performed. In total, four mRNA quality biomarkers (USP32, LMNA, FOSB, TNRFSF10C) were successfully validated. We suggest here the use of these blood mRNA quality biomarkers for validating an experimental pre-analytical workflow. These biomarkers were further evaluated in the 2nd ring trial of the SPIDIA-RNA Program which demonstrated that these biomarkers can be used as quality control tools for mRNA analyses from blood samples.
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BTLA exhibits immune memory for ?? T cells in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite past extensive studies, the role of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) in ?? T cells in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (ATB) remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that BTLA expression on ?? T cells is decreased in patients with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Particularly, BTLA expression levels are likely critical for ?? T cells to manifest and maintain an active central memory phenotype with high capacity for secretion of IFN-? and perforin, which are important for immune memory against TB infection. BTLA(high) ?? T cells also exhibited higher capacity in response to Mtb peptide stimulation. In contrast to the role of BTLA played for negative regulation of immune responses, our data in the current studies suggest that BTLA expression on ?? T cells is likely associated with protective immune memory against Mtb infection in the setting of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. This previous unappreciated role for BTLA may have implications for prevention and treatment of patients with Mtb infection.
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Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by amyloid ?-peptide (A?) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Substantial evidence has indicated that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is involved in A?-induced neuronal death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported as an effective anti-oxidant for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified. In this study, we investigated whether AS-IV could prevent A?1-42-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells via inhibiting the mPTP opening. The results showed that pretreatment of AS-IV significantly increased the viability of neuronal cells, reduced apoptosis, decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of A?1-42. In addition, pretreatment of AS-IV inhibited the mPTP opening, rescued mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), enhanced ATP generation, improved the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and blocked cytochrome c release from mitochondria in A?1-42 rich milieu. Moreover, pretreatment of AS-IV reduced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in an A?1-42 rich environment. These data indicate that AS-IV prevents A?1-42-induced SK-N-SH cell apoptosis via inhibiting the mPTP opening and ROS generation. These results provide novel insights of AS-IV for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.
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[Blocking Effect of Arsenic trioxide on the Proliferation and Cell Cycle of Human Burkitt Lymphoma Cells and Its Related Mechanism].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide(As2O3) on proliferation and cell cycle of human Burkitt lymphoma cells and its related molecular mechanism, so as to provide experimental evidence for treatment of Burkitt lymphoma with As2O3. Human Burkitt lymphoma cell line Namalwa was used as the model, the effect of As2O3 on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the expression of cell cycle modulation related genes, including mRNA and protein level, were detected by MTT method, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that the As2O3 inhibited significantly the growth and proliferation of Namalwa cells in concentration-and time-dependent manner. The As2O3 arrested obviously cell cycle of Namalwa cells in G1 phase, and showed significant concentration-effect relationship. The As2O3 induced the apoptosis of Namalwa cells in concentration-and time-dependent manner, downregulated the expession of the important driving genes of cell cycle including Cyclin E and CDK2 in mRNA and protein level, upregulated the expession of the important inhibiting gene of cell cycle-P21 in mRNA and protein level in concentration-dependent manner. It is concluded that As2O3 inhibits significantly the growth and proliferation of Namalwa cells, and the effect was closely relates with its inducing the apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle of Namalwa. The action of blocking cell cycle is closely associated with its downregulating the expession of driving genes of cell cycle-Cyclin E and CDK2, upregulating the expession of the inhibiting gene of cell cycle-P21.
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Vitapex can promote the expression of BMP-2 during the bone regeneration of periapical lesions in rats.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Purpose: To investigate the effect of Vitapex on the healing of periapical lesions and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) during the periapical bone regeneration. Materials and Methods: Periapical lesions were induced in Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats by an occlusal pulp exposure in the mandibular ?rst molars and were verified by X-ray. Total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups, and they were obturated with Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE), or with Vitapex, or non-treated as negative control group. The rats of three groups were randomly killed at week 0, 2, 4, and 8 after root canal therapy, and then the mandibles were processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: At week 0, only a few BMP-2 positive cells could be observed in all rats. While the expression of BMP-2 was dramatically increased in case of Vitapex group at week 2 and week 4, and then climaxed at week 8. However, no apparent changes were observed in ZOE group and negative group at week 2, 4, and 8. Conclusion: These observations suggested that Vitapex has a greater ability in inducing bone regeneration than ZOE by the expression of BMP-2 induction in the treatment of rats experimental periapical lesions.
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Differences in rheological and fractal properties of conditioned and raw sewage sludge.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Rheological tests for raw and conditioned activated sludge (AS) or anaerobic digested sludge (ADS) show that power-law relationships can be used to describe the evolution of several theological parameters, i.e., limiting viscosity (eta(infinity)), yield stress (tau(y)), cohesion energy of the sludge network (Ec), and storage modulus (G), with total suspended solid (TSS) content in raw and conditioned sludge. A gel-like structure that behaves similar to weak-link flocs/aggregates was observed in AS and ADS. As derived from the double-logarithmic plots of G-TSS content, the mass fractal dimensions of the raw and conditioned AS or ADS flocs/aggregates were 2.70 and 2.53 or 2.85 and 2.79, respectively. The rheological tests also indicate that both polymer conditioning and increased TSS content led to improved elastic behavior, cohesion energy, and yield stress of the sludge network, as well as expanded the corresponding linear viscoelastic range. The porosity of AS or ADS flocs/aggregates will be improved by polymer conditioning.
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[Value of color Doppler ultrasound in the examination of prethrombotic state].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To explore the clinical value of color Doppler ultrasound in patients with prethrombotic state (PTS).
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Aqueous synthesis of human serum albumin-stabilized fluorescent Au/Ag core/shell nanocrystals for highly sensitive and selective sensing of copper(II).
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Utilizing human serum albumin as a reducing plus stabilizing agent, fluorescent Au/Ag core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared in water at pH 9.0 and at physiological temperature (37 °C). The preparation of Au/Ag NCs did not involve any external reducing or stabilizing agents, and thus was eco-friendly. Moreover, the as-prepared Au/Ag NCs exhibited excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties that were utilized in the development of a PL sensor for the detection of Cu(2+). Experimental results showed that the PL of Au/Ag NCs was almost linearly quenched by each increment of Cu(2+) concentration in the range of 0-200 nM, and the corresponding linear equation had a good correlation coefficient of 0.9959. The limit of detection for this sensor method was calculated to be 5 nM. In the presence of Cu(2+), the PL quenching of Au/Ag NCs was highly selective and sensitive in comparison to other metal ions and anions determined under the same conditions. In addition, the detection mechanism of this PL sensor was investigated. To further evaluate the analytical performance of this sensor, the concentrations of Cu(2+) were determined in real samples, including tap water, river water, gastric juice, urine and mixed solutions.
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[Screening of chlorobenzene-degrading bacterium and purification of its degradation enzyme].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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We screened a bacterial strain capable of degrading chlorobenzene, and purified the corresponding degradation enzyme.
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Facile synthesis of quantum dots/mesoporous silica/quantum dots core/shell/shell hybrid microspheres for ratiometric fluorescence detection of 5-fluorouracil in human serum.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Compared to single photoluminescence (PL) intensity-based sensors, dual-emitting-based ratiometric PL sensors are more preferable because the influence from PL fluctuation in the reagents and background PL can be reduced to a minimum. However, so far no report has been directed to the ratiometric PL detection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In this study, for the first time, high-quality quantum dots (QD1)/mesoporous silica (SiO2)/quantum dots (QD2) core/shell/shell hybrid microspheres (QD1/SiO2/QD2) were prepared by self-assembly, and further developed toward a ratiometric PL sensor of 5-FU. The addition of 5-FU induced regular PL quenching of QD2, but hardly influenced on the PL of QD1 in the microspheres. Based on the linear relationship (R = -0.9994) between the ratiometric PL intensity (IQD2/IQD1) and the molar concentration of 5-FU (0-1 ?M), a ratiometric PL sensor for 5-FU was achieved and displays a low limit of detection (20 nM). Experimental results testified that this sensor for the detection of 5-FU in human serum samples was highly sensitive and selective over other inorganic ions and biological molecules. Compared with conventional analysis techniques and other spectrofluorimetric methods reported previously, this proposed ratiometric PL sensor could be a good candidate for the highly efficient detection of 5-FU.
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Effects of polysaccharide from pumpkin on biochemical indicator and pancreatic tissue of the diabetic rabbits.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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A water-soluble polysaccharide (PCE-CC) was obtained from pumpkin which belongs to the family Cucubitaceae by the water and ethanol extract, organic solvent fractional extraction and deproteinization. The present study was designed to investigate PCE-CC possible mechanism underlying the improvement of damaged pancreatic islets. Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were injected with PCE-CC for 21 days to assess effects on islet tissue morphology. After 21 days, the weights of the alloxan-induced diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits fed with diet contained PCE-CC were significantly increased as compared to the negative group. The data of blood glucose (BG), total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) indicated that PCE-CC had beneficial effects on the improvement in the control of blood glucose, serum lipid and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Observing the pancreatic tissue of the diabetic rabbits revealed that PCE-CC could promote the regeneration of damaged pancreatic islets by stimulating ?-cell proliferation, which was accompanied by a decrease in plasma glucose levels. PCE-CC was further separated and purified to obtain PCE-CCH by ion exchange and gel chromatography. PCE-CCH was a heteropolysaccharide and consisted of glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and little amount of hexuronic acid, with a molecular weight of 1.15×10(5)Da.
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Clinical and pathological features and imaging manifestations of bronchial anthracofibrosis: the findings in 15 patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF) has been defined as a luminal narrowing associated with anthracotic pigmentation on bronchoscopy without a relevant history of pneumoconiosis or smoking. The aim of the study is to study the clinical features and imaging manifestations of BAF, and to promote the awareness of this disease.
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Combination of human leukocyte antigen and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genetic background influences the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma in male patients with hepatitis B virus infection.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, and -C loci were genotyped with high resolution by a routine sequence-based typing method. The effect of each KIR locus, HLA ligand, and HLA-KIR combination was examined individually by Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis. Multivariate Cox hazard regression model was also applied. We identified C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 as an independent risk factor for earlier onset age of HCC (median onset age was 44 for C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 positive patients compared to 50 for negative patients, P = 0.04 for KM analysis; HR = 1.70, P = 0.004 for multivariate Cox model). We conclude that KIR and HLA genetic background can influence the onset age of HCC in male patients with HBV infection. This study may be useful to improve the current HCC surveillance program in HBV-infected patients. Our findings also suggest an important role of natural killer cells (or other KIR-expressing cells) in the progress of HBV-related HCC development.
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[Progress of study on PML in cancer stem cell of hematologic malignancies].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), encoded by PML gene, plays a tumor suppressor in acute promyelocytic leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Recent evidence indicates that PML involves in regulating multiple cell biological function, regulates self-renewal and maintains stable function in stem cell/cancer stem cell of multiple tissues, leading to drug resistance of cancer. This review summarizes the latest research advances about the relationship and therapeutic options between PML and cancer stem cell of hematologic neoplasms, aiming to propose a new avenue for blood cancer treatment.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.