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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A categorical structure-activity relationship analysis of GPR119 ligands.
SAR QSAR Environ Res
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The categorical structure-activity relationship (cat-SAR) expert system has been successfully used in the analysis of chemical compounds that cause toxicity. Herein we describe the use of this fragment-based approach to model ligands for the G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Using compounds that are known GPR119 agonists and compounds that we have confirmed experimentally that are not GPR119 agonists, four distinct cat-SAR models were developed. Using a leave-one-out validation routine, the best GPR119 model had an overall concordance of 99%, a sensitivity of 99%, and a specificity of 100%. Our findings from the in-depth fragment analysis of several known GPR119 agonists were consistent with previously reported GPR119 structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses. Overall, while our results indicate that we have developed a highly predictive cat-SAR model that can be potentially used to rapidly screen for prospective GPR119 ligands, the applicability domain must be taken into consideration. Moreover, our study demonstrates for the first time that the cat-SAR expert system can be used to model G protein-coupled receptor ligands, many of which are important therapeutic agents.
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[Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway promotes the nuclear translocation of B7-H4].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway on the subcellular distribution of negative co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4. Methods The HEK293 cells transfected stably with B7-H4, named B7-H4/HEK293, were treated with the PI3K/AKT specific inhibitor LY294002 and/or the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB). The subcellular localization of B7-H4 in B7-H4/HEK293 was observed by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the expression levels of B7-H4 in membrane, cytoplasm and nuclear were detected by Western blotting. Results CLSM showed that LY294002 effectively induced the nuclear translocation of B7-H4 when compared with vehicle group. When the B7-H4/HEK293 cells were treated with LY294002 and LMB, more B7-H4 was translocated into nuclear. Western blotting demonstrated that after the PI3K/AKT signal pathway was inhibited by LY294002 for 24 hours, the levels of B7-H4 in cell membrane and cytoplasm decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the expression in nuclear increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion The PI3K/AKT signal pathway might inhibit the nuclear translocation of B7-H4.
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PCB77 Inducing Renal Tubular Cell Apoptosis.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract PCBs are a family of persistent environmental toxicants with a wide spectrum of toxic features, such as neurotoxic, hepatoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption effects, and oncogenic effects. The kidney is the most important organ involved in the elimination of toxins and drugs. To date, little has been done to investigate the potential influence of nephrotoxicity of 3,3',4,4'- tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77). By assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death in renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells cultures, we found that PCB77 could decrease cellular viability at least at 30??M concentration after 3?h exposure. PCB77 was demonstrated to promote DNA breakage resulting in apoptosis. Moreover, apoptotic subcellular morphological changes administration of PCB77 was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Appearance swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and chromatin agglutinate, and other apoptosis cells morphological characteristics could be visible. Due to increased PCB77 concentration, cells viability was decreased. Collectively, our findings identified the morphological mechanism that PCB77-induced nephrotoxicity via promoting renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis. It is suggested that using and production of PCB77 should be carefully managed to reduce public health risks.
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Correlation of Macular Choroidal Thickness with Concentrations of Aqueous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in High Myopia.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To investigate the association of both aqueous and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and macular choroidal thickness in high myopia. Materials and methods: VEGF concentrations were measured in aqueous and serum samples via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared between high myopia (n?=?36 eyes, 36 patients) and normal control (n?=?42 eyes, 42 patients) eyes. Macular choroidal thickness, the distance from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the scleral interface, was determined via enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Axial length was measured using the intraocular (IOL) lens Master. Results: Aqueous levels of VEGF from high myopia patients were significantly lower compared with those from control persons (61.4?±?27.6 versus 122.6?±?52.4?pg/ml; p?
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The inhibitory effect of salmon calcitonin on intervertebral disc degeneration in an ovariectomized rat model.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Intervertebral disc degeneration related to postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important issue in spinal disorder research. This study aimed to investigate the effects of salmon calcitonin (sCT), as an antiresorptive medication, on lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration using a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model.
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Dietary pattern and nutrient intake of korean children with atopic dermatitis.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by itching and eczema-like skin lesions, and its symptoms alleviate with age. Recently, the prevalence of AD has increased among adolescents and adults. The increasing prevalence of AD seems to be related to westernized lifestyles and dietary patterns.
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[Investigation on the short-term clinical application of two types of glass fiber posts].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The clinical results of restoring defective teeth with two types of glass fiber prothetic systems is investigated to acquire clinical experience for further application of glass fiber posts with independent intellectual property rights.
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Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activity protects against lipopolysaccharide?induced cardiac dysfunction in rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis is associated with an increased risk of mortality. The mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzyme is crucial for protecting the heart from ischemic injury. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of ALDH2 in cardiac dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male rats were treated intraperitoneally with LPS, and their stroke volume and cardiac output were evaluated using an M?mode echocardiograph. The expression levels and activity of ALDH2, nitric oxide content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, and the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) were also evaluated. Treatment with LPS (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) resulted in a steady decrease in cardiac output and stroke volume. The ALDH2 activity was decreased in a dose?dependent manner; however, the ALDH2 protein expression levels remained unchanged. Alda?1, a specific activator of ALDH2, increased the activity of ALDH2 and lessened LPS?induced cardiac dysfunction. A marked opening of the MPTP was observed 12 h following treatment with LPS, which was prevented by Alda?1. The improvement in cardiac function in response to treatment with Alda?1, was partially prevented by treatment with the MPTP inhibitor atractyloside. LPS treatment induced an increase in iNOS activation and inhibition of ALDH2 activity. The iNOS selective inhibitor, aminoguanidine, partially reversed the LPS?induced ALDH2 activity decrease and MPTP opening. These results indicate that ALDH2 activity may have a role in protecting against LPS?induced cardiac dysfunction. The potential mechanism may involve inhibition of MPTP opening and iNOS expression.
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Unique Genomic Arrangements in an Invasive Serotype M23 Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes Identify Genes That Induce Hypervirulence.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF(-)) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ?M23ND.1 to ?M23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors.
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C-reactive protein induces pulmonary artery smooth cell proliferation via modulation of ERK1/2, Akt and NF-kappaB pathways.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of systemic inflammation, which is also associated with pulmonary artery disease. However, the impact of CRP on cell proliferation of the pulmonary arterial wall has been investigated less. We, therefore, examined the effects and potential mechanisms of CRP on proliferation in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMC).
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Correlation of changes of (non)exfoliated endometrial organelles and expressions of Musashi-1 and ?-catenin with endometriosis in menstrual period.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract This study aims to investigate the correlation of structural changes of endometrial organelles and expressions of Musashi-1 (Msi-1) and ?-catenin with the endometriosis (EMs) in the menstrual period. The structural changes of exfoliated and nonexfoliated endometrial organelles in the experimental group and the control group were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the first and fifth day of menstruation. (1) TEM: compared with the control group, the exfoliated endometrial organelles in the experimental group on the first day were rich, with irregular nucleus, the bi-nucleolus could be seen, with rich chromatin; while the shapes of epithelial secretory cells in the nonexfoliated endometrial gland were irregular, with abundant organelles, the basal film varied in width, with abnormal curvature, and a lot of intercellular collagen fibers could be seen. (2) The expressions of Msi-1 and ?-catenin in the exfoliated and nonexfoliated endometrium of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group and exhibited positively correlation, while no correlation could be found within the control group. (1) The organelles' structural changes might cause the changes of endometrial cellular functions. (2) Msi-1 might participate in the formation of EMs through activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
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Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Alzheimer's Disease: Risk, Mechanisms, and Therapy.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a neurotrophic support on neuron of central nervous system (CNS) and is a key molecule in the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory storage in hippocampus. However, changes of BDNF level and expression have been reported in the CNS as well as blood of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the last decade, which indicates a potential role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the latest progress in the field of BDNF and its biological roles in AD pathogenesis. We will discuss the interaction between BDNF and amyloid beta (A?) peptide, the effect of BDNF on synaptic repair in AD, and the association between BDNF polymorphism and AD risk. The most important is, enlightening the detailed biological ability and complicated mechanisms of action of BDNF in the context of AD would provide a future BDNF-related remedy for AD, such as increment in the production or release of endogenous BDNF by some drugs or BDNF mimics.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor negatively regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activity by inhibiting NLRP3 transcription.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex, which plays crucial roles in host defense against pathogens. The NLRP3 protein level is considered rate limiting for the activation of the inflammasome, thus its expression must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate NLRP3 expression, especially at the transcriptional level, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we show that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation inhibits NLRP3 expression, caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1? secretion in peritoneal macrophages, whereas siRNA knockdown of AhR has opposite effects. AhR could bind to the xenobiotic response element (XRE) in the NLRP3 promoter and inhibit NLRP3 transcription. Furthermore, AhR activation suppresses Alum-induced peritonitis in vivo. Therefore, we identified AhR as a negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activity by inhibiting the transcription of NLRP3 and suggested AhR as a potential target for the intervention of diseases with uncontrolled inflammasome activation.
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Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of two ostrich ?-defensins: AvBD2 and AvBD7.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Avian ?-defensins (AvBDs) are a family of small antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the innate immunity of birds. Herein, we report on two new ostrich AvBD genes, AvBD2 and AvBD7, which were isolated from the bone marrow of ostriches (Struthio camelus). The coding regions of ostrich AvBD2 and AvBD7 comprised 195 bp and 201bp, which encoded 64 and 66 amino acids, respectively. Homology analysis showed that ostrich AvBD2 had the highest similarity (up to 86%) with the swan goose (Anser cygnoides) AvBD2, while ostrich AvBD7 shared the highest similarity (up to 81%) with chicken AvBD7. Analysis of the codon-usage bias showed that the two ostrich AvBDs had different codon-usage patterns from other AvBDs. The two synthetic AvBD peptides exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and these activities decreased significantly in the presence of 100mM NaCl (P<0.01). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AvBD2 and AvBD7 were widely expressed at different levels in 17 different tissues. This is the first report of the nucleotide sequences of ostrich AvBDs. Further investigations of these two AvBDs may help us to gain new insights into the immune defense system of the ostrich and to make subsequent therapeutic use of ostrich defensins.
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Ritonavir-induced hepatotoxicity and ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To investigate the effect of ritonavir on hepatocyte proliferation, we detected the change of cleaved caspase-3 expression level in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, the morphological and ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes derived from RTV-treated mice have been observed. The results showed that ritonavir can evidently inhibit hepatocyte proliferation and increase cleaved caspase-3 expression level. Under the electron microscope, chromatin margination, mitochondrial cristae disappearance, karyopyknosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization can be observed in the hepatocytes of mice treated with ritonavir. In conclusion, the mechanism of ritonavir's hepatotoxicity is that it induces apoptosis of hepatocytes via the caspase-cascade system.
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Palladium-decorated hydrogen-gas sensors using periodically aligned graphene nanoribbons.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Polymer residue-free graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of 200 nm width at 1 ?m pitch were periodically generated in an area of 1 cm(2) via laser interference lithography using a chromium interlayer prior to photoresist coating. High-quality GNRs were evidenced by atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Palladium nanoparticles were then deposited on the GNRs as catalysts for sensing hydrogen gases, and the GNR array was utilized as an electrically conductive path with less electrical noise. The palladium-decorated GNR array exhibited a rectangular sensing curve with unprecedented rapid response and recovery properties: 90% response within 60 s at 1000 ppm and 80% recovery within 90 s in nitrogen ambient. In addition, reliable and repeatable sensing behaviors were revealed when the array was exposed to various gas concentrations even at 30 ppm.
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[Association between the glomerular filtration rate of renal dysfunction and metabolic syndrome: an age-stratified analysis].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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To explore the relationship between the renal dysfunction rate and metabolic syndrome(MS), stratified by age.
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The real-world application of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Objectives: Most previous studies that have investigated single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) are case series with limited sample sizes. We have reviewed the outcome of 500 consecutive cases of SILC performed by a single surgeon at our center. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to October 2012, a single surgeon performed 1250 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for various gallbladder (GB) diseases. SILC was chosen as the surgical modality unless there was evidence of acute cholecystitis or GB empyema, the patient had a prior history of upper abdominal surgery, endoscopic sphincterotomy, or had comorbidities with an ASA score of III or higher. The clinicopathologic features and perioperative data of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age and BMI of included patients were 42.7 years and 23.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean operating time was 52 min. Patients stayed in the hospital for an average of 1.3 days postoperatively. In 55 patients, an additional 2 mm trocar was inserted for retraction of the GB. One patient was converted to an open cholecystectomy because of Mirizzi syndrome. There were no observed complications including incisional hernias in this patient population. Conclusions: SILC is a safe, effective procedure for cholecystectomy that may be considered the main surgical strategy in select patients.
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Pouchitis: prevention and treatment.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Pouchitis, representing a spectrum of disease phenotypes, is the most common long-term complication in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Its management and prevention are challenging.
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Impact of estimated HDL particle size via the ratio of HDL-C and apoprotein A-I on short-term prognosis of diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Revascularization and statin therapy are routinely used in the management of stable coronary artery disease. However, it is unclear whether the estimated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size (eHDL-S), the ratio of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) to apoprotein A-I (apoA-I), is associated with the clinical outcomes of diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Design, synthesis and anticancer activity of oxoaporphine alkaloid derivatives.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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A series of new oxoaporphine derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity of topoisomerase I, cytotoxicity and DNA-binding properties were studied. Oxoaporphine can strongly inhibit topoisomerase I at concentrations of 5-50?µM and the cytotoxicity of the derivatives are more potent than their lead compound. Hypochromism, broadening and red shift in the absorption spectra were observed when these compounds bind to calf thymus DNA (CT DNA). These spectral characteristics were consistent with the intercalative binding of these compounds.
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[Modeling nitrogen transformation in a novel circular-flow corridor wetland].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Nitrogen transformation and removal in a novel circular-flow corridor (CFC) wetland was simulated. A computer model covering 6 nitrogen forms, 3 media and 10 transferring pathways, was developed. The results show that the TN removal is attributed to zeolite adsorption (53.3%), plants NH4(+) -N uptake (27.6%), denitrification (10.2%), plants NO3(-) -N uptake (2.9%) and short-cut denitrification (1.5%). The major removal pathway for NH4(+) -N varies from season to season. In January, the zeolite adsorption played the most important role in NH4(+) -N removal with a contribution of 84.5%. From April to June, the plants uptake accounted for 76.4%-85.3% NH4(+) -N removal. While in July, there were three removal pathways, namely zeolite absorption (36.1%), nirtosation (45.8%) and plants uptake (21.4%), playing an important role in nitrogen removals. Additionally, regular plants harvesting, periodical zeolite regenerating and aquatic plants growing can improve the TN removal rate by 1.7%-7.7%, 43.1%-72.2% and 19.8%-36.2%, respectively. In short, it is by the diverse removal pathways in CFC wetland that nitrogen can be continuously removed.
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A Full Compositional Range for a (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) Nanostructure: High Efficiency for Overall Water Splitting and Optical Properties.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Bulk (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) as a photocatalyst has received increasing attention as a potential solution for the energy shortage challenge; however, its catalytic performance is highly limited by its bulk form. To improve the photochemical potential, the nanoscale form of this multiple-metal oxynitrides is desirable. In this work, a new type of (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) nanostructure is obtained. Its composition can tuned to the full range (0.18 < x < 0.95). The (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) nanostructure exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity for overall water splitting, and the highest quantum efficiency of (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) is as high as 17.3% under visible light irradiation. Using this new type of (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) nanostructure, the narrowing of the bandgap for (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) is not only due to an increase in the valence band maximum, but it is also related to a decrease in the conduction band minimum.
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Structural basis of G protein-coupled receptor-Gi protein interaction: formation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor-Gi protein complex.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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In this study, we applied a comprehensive G protein-coupled receptor-G?i protein chemical cross-linking strategy to map the cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2)-G?i interface and then used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the dynamics of complex formation. Three cross-link sites were identified using LC-MS/MS and electrospray ionization-MS/MS as follows: 1) a sulfhydryl cross-link between C3.53(134) in TMH3 and the G?i C-terminal i-3 residue Cys-351; 2) a lysine cross-link between K6.35(245) in TMH6 and the G?i C-terminal i-5 residue, Lys-349; and 3) a lysine cross-link between K5.64(215) in TMH5 and the G?i ?4?6 loop residue, Lys-317. To investigate the dynamics and nature of the conformational changes involved in CB2·Gi complex formation, we carried out microsecond-time scale molecular dynamics simulations of the CB2 R*·G?i1?1?2 complex embedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer, using cross-linking information as validation. Our results show that although molecular dynamics simulations started with the G protein orientation in the ?2-AR*·G?s?1?2 complex crystal structure, the G?i1?1?2 protein reoriented itself within 300 ns. Two major changes occurred as follows. 1) The G?i1 ?5 helix tilt changed due to the outward movement of TMH5 in CB2 R*. 2) A 25° clockwise rotation of G?i1?1?2 underneath CB2 R* occurred, with rotation ceasing when Pro-139 (IC-2 loop) anchors in a hydrophobic pocket on G?i1 (Val-34, Leu-194, Phe-196, Phe-336, Thr-340, Ile-343, and Ile-344). In this complex, all three experimentally identified cross-links can occur. These findings should be relevant for other class A G protein-coupled receptors that couple to Gi proteins.
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[Genome-wide identification and analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Medicago truncatula].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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WRKY gene family plays important roles in plant by involving in transcriptional regulations during various physiologically processes such as development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. WRKY genes have been identified in various plants. However, only few WRKY genes in Medicago truncatula have been identified with systematic analysis and comparison. In this study, we identified 93 WRKY genes through analyses of M. truncatula genome. These genes include 19 type-I genes, 49 type II genes and 13 type-III genes, and 12 non-regular type genes. All of these genes were characterized through analyses of gene duplication, chromosomal locations, structural diversity, conserved protein motifs and phylogenetic relations. The results showed that 11 times of gene duplication event occurred in WRKY gene family involving 24 genes. WRKY genes, containing 6 gene clusters, are unevenly distributed into chromosome 1 to 6, and there is the purifying selection pressure in WRKY group III genes.
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[Structure and function of a novel thermostable pullulanase].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Research on novel pullulanase has major significance on the domestic industrialization of pullulanase and the breakdown of foreign monopoly. A thermophilic bacteria LM 18-11 producing thermostable pullulanase was isolated from Lunma hot springs of Yunnan province. It was identified as Anoxybacillus sp. by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. Full-length pullulanase gene was cloned from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11. The optimum temperature of the pullulanase was between 55 and 60 degrees C with a half-life as long as 48 h at 60 degrees C; and its optimum pH was between 5.6 and 6.4. V(max) and K(m) of the pullulanase was measured as 750 U/mg and 1.47 mg/mL, which is the highest specific activity reported so far. The pullulanase crystals structure showed a typical alpha-amylase family structure. The N-terminal has a special substrate binding domain. Activity and substrate binding were decreased when the domain was deleted, the V(max) and K(m) were 324 U/mg and 1.95 mg/mL, respectively. The pullulanase was highly heterologous expressed in Bacillus subtilis by P43 promoter. The extracellular enzyme activity was 42 U/mL, which increased more than 40 times compared to the initial strain. This pullulanase has good application prospects.
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Age dependent changes in cartilage matrix, subchondral bone mass, and estradiol levels in blood serum, in naturally occurring osteoarthritis in Guinea pigs.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The Dunkin Hartley (DH) guinea pig is a widely used naturally occurring osteoarthritis model. The aim of this study was to provide detailed evidence of age-related changes in articular cartilage, subchondral bone mineral density, and estradiol levels. We studied the female Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age (eight animals in each group). Histological analysis were used to identify degenerative cartilage and electron microscopy was performed to further observe the ultrastructure. Estradiol expression levels in serum were assessed, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and glycosaminoglycan expression in cartilage was performed by immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density of the tibia subchondral bone was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Histological analysis showed that the degeneration of articular cartilage grew more severe with increasing age starting at 3 months, coupled with the loss of normal cells and an increase in degenerated cells. Serum estradiol levels increased with age from 1 to 6 months and thereafter remained stable from 6 to 12 months. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in cartilage increased with age, but no significant difference was found in glycosaminoglycan expression between 1- and 3-month old animals. The bone mineral density of the tibia subchondral bone increased with age before reaching a stable value at 9 months of age. Age-related articular cartilage degeneration occurred in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs beginning at 3 months of age, while no directly positive or negative correlation between osteoarthritis progression and estradiol serum level or subchondral bone mineral density was discovered.
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ALDH1A1 mediates resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to the CHOP regimen.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Although there have been substantial advances in our knowledge of the resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to chemotherapy, there are few efficient treatment strategies for recurrent/refractory DLBCL. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1 in the resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to the chemotherapeutic mixture consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). The involvement of ALDH1A1 in DLBCL was elucidated by knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition; Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and clone formation assays were used to determine its role in CHOP sensitivity and clone formation ability. Caspase colorimetric assay was used to measure the extent of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling proteins, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to measure the differential expression of ALDH1A1 of DLBCL patients and healthy donors. ALDH1A1 showed a 5.64-fold higher expression in malignant B cells than in normal B cells. Diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) decreased the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the CHOP regimen in Farage cells from 344.78?±?65.75 to 183.88?±?49.75 ng/ml (P?=?0.004). Both knockdown and inhibition of ALDH1A1 reduced clonogenicity, increased caspase-3/caspase-9 activity, and attenuated the phosphorylation status of STAT3/NF-?B. The prognosis of patients with a high level of ALDH1A1 expression was poor compared with that of patients with low levels of expression (P?=?0.044). ALDH1A1 is a new mediator for resistance of DLBCL to CHOP; it is a predictor of clinical prognosis and may serve as a potential target to improve chemotherapy responsiveness of human DLBCL.
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Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis enhances cellular invasion in ovarian carcinoma cells via integrin ?1 and ?3 expressions.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Accumulating evidence has showed that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 axis played important roles in cancer metastases, but the detailed function in ovarian cancer is still largely unknown. In the present study, we determined the location of CXCR4 and lipid rafts, a specialized structure on cell membrane, in ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 cells by immunofluorescence. To analyze the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 and lipid rafts in tumor cell migration and invasion, Transwell assay and wound healing assay were also performed. Cytoflowmetry was carried out to determine the participation of integrins. Our data showed that CXCR4 and GM1 (marker of lipid rafts) were expressed in both ovarian cancer tissue and SKOV3 cells, and SDF-1 promoted the invasion and migration of SKOV3 cells, which was mediated by complete lipid rafts. Further studies uncovered that SDF-1 upregulated the expression of integrin ?1 and ?3, two molecules closely related with cancer metastasis. These results indicated that SDF-1 might promote the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer by regulating these two integrin molecules.
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Platinum sensitivity and CD133 expression as risk and prognostic predictors of central nervous system metastases in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To characterize prognostic and risk factors of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
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FOXO1 3'UTR functions as a ceRNA in repressing the metastases of breast cancer cells via regulating miRNA activity.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are RNA molecules that affect each other's expression through competition for their shared microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study we explored whether FOXO1 3'UTR can function as a ceRNA in repressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of breast cancer cells via regulating miR-9 activity. We found that miR-9 binds to both the FOXO1- and E-cadherin-3'UTR, indicating that the FOXO1- and E-cadherin-3'UTR can be linked through miR-9. Follow-up analyses showed that there existed a competition of miR-9 between FOXO1 and E-cadherin-3'UTR. Thus FOXO1 3'UTR inhibits the metastases of breast cancer cells via induction of E-cadherin expression. Our results suggest that FOXO1 3'UTR may function as a miRNA-inhibitor in modulating metastasis of breast cancer cells.
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Therapeutic efficacy of the multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE against Helicobacter pylori infection in a Mongolian gerbil model and its microRNA-155-associated immuno-protective mechanism.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Vaccination is an effective means of preventing infectious diseases, including those caused by Helicobacter pylori. In this study, we constructed a novel multi-epitope vaccine, CTB-UE, composed of the cholera toxin B subunit and tandem copies of the B and Th cell epitopes from the H. pylori urease A and B subunits. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE against H. pylori infection in a Mongolian gerbil model and studied its immuno-protective mechanisms. The experimental results indicated that urease activity, H. pylori colonisation density, the levels of IL-8 and TNF-? in the serum, and the levels of COX-2 and NAP in gastric tissue were significantly lower and the IgG level in the serum and the IFN-? level in spleen lymphocytes were significantly higher in the vaccinated group compared with the model control group; additionally, gastric mucosal inflammation was notably alleviated following vaccination. The results showed that CTB-UE had a good therapeutic effect on H. pylori infection. The immuno-protective mechanism was closely related to the immune response mediated by microRNA-155, the expression of which was strongly up-regulated after CTB-UE administration. The expression levels of the microRNA-155 target proteins IFN-?R?, AID, and PU.1 were significantly down-regulated; these results indicated that CTB-UE induced an immune response biased towards Th1 cells by up-regulating microRNA-155 to inhibit IFN-?R? expression and induced a humoral immune response towards B cells by up-regulating microRNA-155 to inhibit PU.1 and AID expression. These results demonstrate that the multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE may be a promising therapeutic vaccine against H. pylori infection and is a new therapeutic tool for human use.
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[Effect of carbon monoxide releasing molecule on experimental periodontitis in rats].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To evaluate the effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on experimental periodontitis in rats.
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Association of red cell distribution width with the presence of coronary artery ectasia.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Red cell distribution width (RDW) has recently been considered as a strong predictor of a variety of acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases, while the association between RDW and coronary artery ectasia (CAE) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of RDW levels in the presence of the CAE.
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Oral immunization with recombinant Lactococcus lactis delivering a multi-epitope antigen CTB-UE attenuates Helicobacter pylori infection in mice.
Pathog Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Urease is an essential virulence factor and colonization factor for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and is considered as an excellent vaccine candidate antigen. However, conventional technologies for preparing an injectable vaccine require purification of the antigenic protein and preparation of an adjuvant. Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 (L. lactis) could serve as an antigen-delivering vehicle for the development of edible vaccine. In previous study, we constructed a multi-epitope vaccine, designated CTB-UE, which is composed of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), three Th cell epitopes and two B-cell epitopes from urease subunits. To develop a novel type of oral vaccine against H. pylori, genetically modified L. lactis strains were established to secrete this epitope vaccine extracellularly in this study. Oral prophylactic immunization with recombinant L. lactis significantly elicited humoral anti-urease antibody responses (P < 0.001) and reduced the gastric colonization of H. pylori from 7.14 ± 0.95 to 4.68 ± 0.98 log10 CFU g(-1) stomach. This L. lactis oral vaccine offers a promising vaccine candidate for the control of H. pylori infection.
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Correlation of anterior corneal higher-order aberrations with age: a comprehensive investigation.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of the anterior cornea of eyes with cataract in a senior Chinese population and their correlations with age.
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The effects of X-ray irradiation on the proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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To investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation on the proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells; MCF-7 breast cancer cells were irradiated with X-ray. After irradiation, morphological changes and growth inhibition rate of the irradiated cells were observed under an inverted microscope. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess the proliferation of the irradiated MCF-7 cells. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe the morphology and ultrastructure of the irradiated MCF-7 cells. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression level of apoptosis-related protein caspase-3. Our results showed, at 48?h after the irradiation (0?Gy and 8?Gy), cells oval in shape, cell shrinkage or swelling and partial formation of debris under inverted microscope; as well as cytoplasmic vacuolization or inspissation, increased electron density of cytoplasm, structural damage of organelles, blurred mitochondrial cristae and chromatin margination under transmission electron microscopy; the survival rate of MCF-7 cells in X-ray group was 17.3% lower than that in control group (0?Gy) (p?
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Sulfated modification of longan polysaccharide and its immunomodulatory and antitumor activity in vitro.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LP1) was prepared from Dimocarpus longan Lour. by hot water extraction, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its sulfated derivative (LP1-S) was prepared by the sulfuric acid method. Preliminary tests in vitro showed LP1 and LP1-S could stimulate murine lymphocytes proliferation, increase pinocytic activity of murine macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in macrophages. Furthermore, LP1-S exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells in vitro than LP1, which might be caused by the sulfate group in its structures. These results indicated that the LP1-S might be useful for developing safe antitumor drugs or health food.
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Relationship between different surgical methods, hemorrhage position, hemorrhage volume, surgical timing, and treatment outcome of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.
World J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The present study aimed to explore the relationship between surgical methods, hemorrhage position, hemorrhage volume, surgical timing and treatment outcome of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH).
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The role of visfatin on the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis in the spleen of LPS-treated rats.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The purpose of the present study is to determine if visfatin is involved in inflammation or apoptosis induced by LPS in rat. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: saline group, LPS group, visfatin group and Visfatin?+?LPS co-stimulated group. Spleen samples from each group of rats were collected for study. The spleen structure was examined by histological imaging. Apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL reaction. Caspase-3 was detected with immunohistochemistry and western blot. The apoptosis-related genes were detected by qPCR and inflammatory cytokines were tested by ELISA. Our main findings were as follows. (1) Macrophages were markedly increased in the visfatin group compared with the saline group. This finding was confirmed when spleen samples were examined with western blot using CD68 antibody. (2) Visfatin promoted the expression of CD68 and caspase-3 in rat spleen, whereas visfatin could inhibit the expression of CD68 and activated caspase-3 in spleen of LPS-induced acute inflammation. (3) Visfatin had a pro-apoptotic effect on normal rat spleen, whereas it exerted an anti-apoptotic effect during LPS-induced lymphocytes apoptosis in rat spleen. Moreover, the effect of visfatin on cell apoptosis was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. (4) Visfatin could modulate both the anti-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat spleen, such as IL-10, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-? and IL-1?. Taken together, we demonstrate that visfatin could participate in the inflammatory process in rat spleen by modulating the macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Also, visfatin plays a dual role in the apoptosis in rat spleen, which is mediated by the mitochondrial pathway.
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Ophthalmic viscosurgical device-assisted sutureless-incision cataract surgery for a hard nucleus or mature cataract.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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We describe a modified method of sutureless-incision cataract surgery using an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) to extract a hard lenticular nucleus or mature cataract. After an isosceles trapezoid-shaped sclerocorneal tunnel and a round 7.0 mm diameter capsulorhexis are made, the nucleus is displaced into the anterior chamber. As OVD is injected, the OVD cannula acts as a slide to guide the nucleus out of the eye. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device-assisted sutureless-incision cataract surgery was used in a consecutive series of 182 eyes with a hard nucleus (57 eyes), mature cataract (47 eyes), or both (78 eyes). No posterior capsule rupture or vitreous loss occurred during surgery and no wound leakage or hypotony occurred postoperatively. The uncorrected visual acuity improved to 20/60 or better in 122 eyes (67%) on the first postoperative day. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device-assisted sutureless-incision cataract surgery, usually without additional instruments or sutures, offers an effective and uncomplicated technique for managing a brunescent or mature cataract.
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An increase in the incidence of hip fractures in Tangshan, China.
Osteoporos Int
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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We determined the number and incidence of hip fractures in Tangshan, China, in 2010. Compared with data we reported in Tangshan from 1994, the crude and age-specific incidence increased significantly for both sexes, especially in women. Strategies are needed for effective fracture prevention in the future.
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Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c as a marker predicting the severity of coronary artery disease and early outcome in patients with stable angina.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) has been widely recognized as a marker for predicting the severity of diabetes mellitus (DM) and several cardiovascular diseases. However, whether HbA1c could predict the severity and clinical outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) remains largely unknown. We determine relationship of HbA1c with severity and outcome in patients with stable CAD.
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The prevalence of glucose metabolism disturbances in Chinese Muslims and possible risk factors: a study from northwest China.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Objective To survey the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-diabetes mellitus (PDM) in the Muslim population in northwest China, and discuss the risk factor. Materials and methods According to the income and the population, we randomly selected 3 villages with stratified and cluster sampling. The subjects were residents ? 20 years of age, and were from families which have been local for > 3 generations. The questionnaire and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were completed and analyzed for 660 subjects. Results The prevalence of DM and PDM between the Han and Muslim populations were different (P = 0.041). And the prevalence were also different with respect to age in the Han (P < 0.001) and Muslim population (P < 0.001) respectively. Except for the 20-year-old age group the prevalence of DM and PDM within the Muslim population was higher than the Han (P = 0.013), we did not find any significant difference for other age groups (P > 0.05). The intake of salt (P < 0.001) and edible oil (P < 0.001) in the Muslim population was higher than the Han, while cigarette smoking (P < 0.001) and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001) was lower. BMI (P < 0.001), age (P = 0.025), and smoking cigarettes (P = 0.011) were risk factors for DM and PDM, but alcohol consumption (P < 0.001) was a protective factor. Conclusions In northwest China, the prevalence of DM was higher in the Muslim population, and it was special higher on the 20-year-old age compared to the Han. This might be explained by the potential genetic differences and poor dietary habits.
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Impact of admission triglyceride for early outcome in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The role of triglyceride (TG) in predicting the outcomes in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well investigated.
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Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on fat deposition in broilers.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFCP) in broilers. A total of 480 female Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, each consisting of six pens as replicates, and fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3 or 5 g kg(-1) HFCP.
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Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Patients before Cataract Surgery in Northern China.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Purpose. To analyze the prevalence and presentation patterns of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates in a teaching hospital in northern China. Methods. From May 1, 2012, to April 30, 2013, partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster) measurements of all qualified cataract surgery candidates were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results. The study evaluated 12,449 eyes from 6,908 patients with a mean age of 69.80 ± 11.15 (SD) years. The corneal astigmatism was 0.5 diopters (D) or less in 20.76% of eyes, 1.0?D or more in 47.27% of eyes, 2.0?D or more in 13.16% of eyes, and 3.0?D or more in 3.75% of eyes. With-the-rule astigmatism was found in 30.36% of eyes, while against-the-rule was found in 52.41% of eyes. The percentage of against-the-rule astigmatism increased with age. Conclusion. Our study showed that almost one-half of preoperative eyes (47.27%) in northern China have a corneal astigmatism of 1.0?D or more, indicating that more surgical techniques or toric IOLs are needed to achieve better visual rehabilitation.
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The relationship between disease activity measured by the BASDAI and psychological status, stressful life events, and sleep quality in ankylosing spondylitis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) is a standard instrument regularly used to assess disease activity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the well-being of a patient is also affected by impairment of function as well as psychological status and other factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if psychological status, stressful life events, and sleep quality contribute significantly to BASDAI. Six hundred eighty-three AS patients satisfying the Modified New York Criteria for AS were recruited from the rheumatology clinics of seven hospitals in China. Patients with other concomitant disorders were excluded. Participants were requested to complete a set of clinical examinations and the following questionnaires: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI), Health Assessment Questionnaire for Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S), and Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). Spearman correlation analysis showed that BASDAI was highly associated with degree and duration of morning stiffness, overall pain, nocturnal back pain, overall back pain, anxiety, and BASFI (all P??0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that overall pain was the maximal statistical contribution in predicting disease activity (standardized coefficient, 0.335). In hierarchic multiple regression analysis, psychological variables added an only additional 2.7 % to the overall R (2) beyond that accounted for by demographic and medical variables, resulting in a final R (2) of 53.5 %. Although BASDAI is a very good measurement of pain and stiffness and to a certain extent effect of functional impairment in AS, it barely takes into account psychological status, stress life events, and sleep quality These factors should be evaluated by other modalities.
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The PI3K/AKT Pathway and FOXO3a Transcription Factor Mediate High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes.
Iran Red Crescent Med J
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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PI3K/AKT pathway plays major roles in regulating cardiomyocyte metabolism. The roles of PI3K/AKT pathway and FOXO3a in mediating high glucose-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes remain unclear.
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Comparison of the Retinal Straylight in Pseudophakic Eyes with PMMA, Hydrophobic Acrylic, and Hydrophilic Acrylic Spherical Intraocular Lens.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Purpose. To investigate the intraocular straylight value after cataract surgery. Methods. In this study, 76 eyes from 62 patients were subdivided into three groups. A hydrophobic acrylic, a hydrophilic acrylic, and a PMMA IOL were respectively, implanted in 24 eyes, 28 eyes, and 24 eyes. Straylight was measured using C-Quant at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively in natural and dilated pupils. Results. The hydrophilic acrylic IOLs showed significantly lower straylight values than those of the hydrophobic acrylic IOLs in dilated pupils at 1 week and 1 month after surgery (P < 0.05). However, the straylight values of the hydrophilic acrylic IOLs were the lowest among the three IOL groups. No significant difference was observed in straylight between 1 week and 1 month postoperatively in each group with natural and dilated pupils (P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was found in straylight between natural and dilated pupils in each group at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Although the hydrophobic acrylic IOL induced more intraocular straylight, straylight differences among the 3 IOLs were minimal. Pupil size showed no effect on intraocular straylight; the intraocular straylight was stable 1 week after surgery.
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The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.
Int J Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.
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Association of fibrinogen with severity of stable coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Some studies have suggested a relation of plasma fibrinogen to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether plasma fibrinogen can predict the presence and severity of CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus has not been determined.
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Transphosphorylation of EGFR at Y845 plays an important role in its autophosphorylation and kinase activity.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a critical role in various types of human cancer such as lung, breast, brain and colon cancer. However, how EGFR activation is initiated and what type of interaction is linked to its transphosphorylation and autophosphorylation as well as the biological consequences in case of interruption and blockade of these two types of EGFR phosphorylation, remain elusive. In the present study, we provided evidence that EGFR transphosphorylation at Y845 indeed plays an important role in its autophosphorylation and kinase activity. Our results suggest that the modulation of EGFR transphosphorylation may influence its activity and function, indicating a potential target mechanism for treating EGFR-associated diseases and various types of cancer.
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Enhanced light absorption of silicon nanotube arrays for organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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By combining nanoimprint lithography technique and a two-step lift-off process, a Si nanotube array is fabricated and applied as a light absorber for n-Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The light is effectively trapped within the nanotubes and the device reveals a Jsc of 29.9 mA · cm(-2) and a power conversion efficiency of 10.03%, which is an enhancement of 13.4% compared to the cell having the best-known Si architecture of nanocones as a light absorber to date.
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Understanding Strategy of Nitrate and Urea Assimilation in a Chinese Strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens through RNA-Seq Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. Here, RNA-seq technology was used to profile the transcriptome of a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, and a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie nitrate and urea utilization. The number of differentially expressed genes between urea-grown and mixture N-grown cells were much less than those between urea-grown and nitrate-grown cells. Compared with nitrate-grown cells, mixture N-grown cells contained much lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins that are involved in nitrate transport and assimilation. Together with profiles of nutrient changes in media, these results suggest that A. anophagefferens primarily feeds on urea instead of nitrate when urea and nitrate co-exist. Furthermore, we noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine-urea and TCA cycles were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source.
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Relation of leukocytes and its subsets counts with the severity of stable coronary artery disease in patients with diabetic mellitus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Both coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with inflammation. However, whether and which leukocytes can predict the presence and extent of CAD in patients with DM has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of leukocyte and its subsets counts with the severity of CAD in patients with DM.
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[Difference evaluation of three kinds of root of Aconitum carmichaelii in Sichuan based on UPLC analysis of six alkaloids and chemometrics].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was established and validated to simultaneously determine the contents of six aconitum alkaloids in mother, daughter and fibrous roots of 19 batches of Aconitum carmichaelii from Sichuan province. The separation of the six alkaloids was achieved on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm) column at 40 degrees C with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile in 30 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate buffer solution (adjusted to pH 10.0 with aqueous ammonia) in gradient mode. The data and plots showed that the six aconitum alkaloids have different distributions. Four aconitum alkaloids were almost same in mother and daughter root except benzoylmesaconine and mesaconitine, while the fibrous root differed from the other two roots. The comparisons of significant differences of six aconitum alkaloids between the mother and daughter roots definitely demonstrated that benzoylmesaconine and mesaconitine were the representative components. The 38 detecting samples were classified as two clusters by hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principle component analysis (PCA), the results indicated that the mother root was different from the daughter root on chemical material basis. The study might contribute to the reasonable clinical application of A. carmichaelii.
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Perventricular Closure of a Post-Traumatic Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect Guided by Transesophageal Echocardiogram.
J Card Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Minimally invasive perventricular closure is emerging as an alternative to conventional open surgery in treating traumatic ventricular septal defects (VSDs). We report a case of successful perventricular closure of a post-traumatic muscular VSD in a patient who sustained blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle accident. A larger Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (16?mm in diameter) was used to close the VSD near the apex.
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CB2 cannabinoid receptor is a novel target for third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulators bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The purpose of the current study was to investigate the ability of the third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene to bind and act on CB2 cannabinoid receptor. We have identified, for the first time, that CB2 is a novel target for bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene. Our results showed that bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene were able to compete for specific [(3)H]CP-55,940 binding to CB2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data also demonstrated that by acting on CB2, bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene concentration-dependently enhanced forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene caused parallel, rightward shifts of the CP-55,940, HU-210, and WIN55,212-2 concentration-response curves without altering the efficacy of these cannabinoid agonists on CB2, which indicates that bazedoxifene- and lasofoxifene-induced CB2 antagonism is most likely competitive in nature. Our discovery that CB2 is a novel target for bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene suggests that these third-generation SERMs can potentially be repurposed for novel therapeutic indications for which CB2 is a target. In addition, identifying bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene as CB2 inverse agonists also provides important novel mechanisms of actions to explain the known therapeutic effects of these SERMs.
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Redox-active quinones induces genome-wide DNA methylation changes by an iron-mediated and Tet-dependent mechanism.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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DNA methylation has been proven to be a critical epigenetic mark important for various cellular processes. Here, we report that redox-active quinones, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in natural products, cancer therapeutics and environment, stimulate the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC in vivo, and increase 5hmC in 5751 genes in cells. 5hmC increase is associated with significantly altered gene expression of 3414 genes. Interestingly, in quinone-treated cells, labile iron-sensitive protein ferritin light chain showed a significant increase at both mRNA and protein levels indicating a role of iron regulation in stimulating Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation. Consistently, the deprivation of cellular labile iron using specific chelator blocked the 5hmC increase, and a delivery of labile iron increased the 5hmC level. Moreover, both Tet1/Tet2 knockout and dimethyloxalylglycine-induced Tet inhibition diminished the 5hmC increase. These results suggest an iron-regulated Tet-dependent DNA demethylation mechanism mediated by redox-active biomolecules.
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[Early visual results and mechanism of pseudo-accommodation of the Quatrix aspheric intraocular lens].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To assess the clinical and visual outcomes of the implantation of the Quatrix intraocular lens (IOL) and investigate the mechanism of pseudo-accommodation of these lens.
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[Several problems of clinical application of Toric IOL].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Nowadays, ultrasonic emulsification combined intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has been the mainstream technology for treating a cataract. In order to further improve the patients visual quality after surgery, Toric IOL has been used in clinic. Toric IOL can correct corneal astigmatism stably, reasonably and predictably. Clinicians should pay more attention to the details and according to the patients conditions to make personalized options when choosing Toric IOL.
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Building research infrastructure in community health centers: a Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) report.
J Am Board Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings.
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[Mechanism of carbon monoxide affecting the expression of cellular adhesion molecule under stimulation of inflammatory cytokines to human gingival fibroblasts].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To investigate the mechanism by which carbon monoxide inhibits the expression of adhesion molecules on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) stimulated with inflammatory cytokines.
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The importance of hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking to the affinity and efficacy of cannabinoid receptor CB2 antagonist, 5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-[(4-methylphenyl)methyl]-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbox
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Despite the therapeutic promise of the subnanomolar affinity cannabinoid CB2 antagonist, 5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-[(4-methylphenyl)methyl]-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528, 1), little is known about its binding site interactions and no primary interaction site for 1 at CB2 has been identified. We report here the results of Glide docking studies in our cannabinoid CB2 inactive state model that were then tested via compound synthesis, binding, and functional assays. Our results show that the amide functional group of 1 is critical to its CB2 affinity and efficacy and that aromatic stacking interactions in the TMH5/6 aromatic cluster of CB2 are also important. Molecular modifications that increased the positive electrostatic potential in the region between the fenchyl and aromatic rings led to more efficacious compounds. This result is consistent with the EC-3 loop negatively charged amino acid, D275 (identified via Glide docking studies) acting as the primary interaction site for 1 and its analogues.
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Increased red cell distribution width in patients with slow coronary flow syndrome.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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An elevated red cell distribution width has been recognized as a predictor of various cardiovascular diseases. Slow coronary flow syndrome is an important angiographic clinical entity with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to examine the relationship between red cell distribution width and the presence of slow coronary flow syndrome.
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Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 80: 1009-1017, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Effect of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia in rats.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Although propofol has been reported to offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury, its impact on cerebral edema following ischemia is not clear. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia and its mechanism of action, focusing on modulation of aquaporins (AQPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1?. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h. For post-treatment with propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol was administered for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Nineteen rats undergoing sham surgery were also included in the investigation. Edema and BBB integrity were assessed by quantification of cerebral water content and extravasation of Evans blue, respectively, following 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, the expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was determined 24 h after reperfusion and the expression of HIF-1? was determined 8 h after reperfusion. Propofol post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral edema (P < 0.05) and BBB disruption (P < 0.05) compared with the saline-treated control. The expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 at 24 h and of HIF-1? at 8 h following ischemia/reperfusion was significantly suppressed in the propofol post-treatment group (P < 0.05). Propofol post-treatment attenuated cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia, in association with reduced expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The decreased expression of AQPs and MMPs after propofol post-treatment might result from suppression of HIF-1? expression.
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Improved inhibitory activities against tumor-cell migration and invasion by 15-benzylidene substitution derivatives of andrographolide.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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In the present study, andrographolide (Andro, 1) derivatives were screened to identify potent inhibitors against tumor-cell migration and invasion, and associated structure-activity relationships were studied. Compared to 1, compounds 8a-8d exhibited more potent activities against migration in SGC-7901, PC-3, A549, HT-29 and Ec109 cell lines. Improved activities against tumor-cell migration and invasion were proved to be associated with the down-regulation of MMPs.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.