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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A simple and convenient approach for preparing core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles: highly efficient and stable catalyst for the dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol to catechol.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A simple and convenient approach denoted as gel-deposition-precipitation (G-D-P) for the preparation of core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles was studied systematically. Core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles consisted of a Si-rich core and a Ni-rich shell. The G-D-P process included two steps: one was the deposition-precipitation of nickel over the gelled colloidal silica particle, generating core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles, and the other was the aging period. It was found that the nickel phyllosilicate layer was formed mainly during the aging period and served as the protective cover to resist against aggregation of the nanoparticles, which could be utilized for regulating the dispersion of nickel over the silica@nickel species nanoparticles. In the present paper, the silica@nickel species nanoparticles were used as the catalysts for preparing catechol via dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol. Their catalytic activity and long-term stability were compared to those of a catalyst prepared by a conventional deposition-precipitation (D-P) approach. The higher activity and better stability of the title reaction over the silica@nickel species nanoparticles catalyst prepared by G-D-P than those over the catalyst prepared by D-P could be due to the higher dispersion of metallic nickel stabilized by the layers of nickel phyllosilicates. Moreover, it was found that the dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol to catechol was a structurally sensitive reaction.
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A Unique Case of ?-heavy Chain Deposition Disease Characterized by Concomitant Deposition of ?2 and ?4 Subclasses.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD) is a rare entity. ?-HCDD is the predominant subtype and is characterized by glomerular and tubular deposition of a single ?-heavy chain subclass. To our knowledge, ?-HCDD with simultaneous deposition of two subclasses has not yet been described. A 39-year-old woman presented with hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, anemia, microscopic hematuria and progressive renal dysfunction. A light microscopic examination of renal biopsy specimens showed nodular glomerulosclerosis. Electron microscopy revealed electron-dense deposits along the glomerular and tubular basement membranes. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed positive glomerular and tubular staining for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and negative staining for ? and ? light chains. An analysis of the IgG subclass showed positive staining for both IgG2 and IgG4. We herein describe a unique case of ?-HCDD with concurrent deposition of two subclasses, presenting a new subtype to the disease spectrum.
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Electrocatalytic H2 production from seawater over Co, N-codoped nanocarbons.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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One of the main barriers blocking sustainable hydrogen production is the use of expensive platinum-based catalysts to produce hydrogen from water. Herein we report the cost-effective synthesis of catalytically active, nitrogen-doped, cobalt-encased carbon nanotubes using inexpensive starting materials-urea and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2·6H2O). Moreover, we show that the as-obtained nanocarbon material exhibits a remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER); and thus it can be deemed as a potential alternative to noble metal HER catalysts. In particular, the urea-derived carbon nanotubes synthesized at 900 °C (denoted as U-CNT-900) show a superior catalytic activity for HER with low overpotential and high current density in our study. Notably also, U-CNT-900 has the ability to operate stably at all pH values (pH 0-14), and even in buffered seawater (pH 7). The possible synergistic effects between carbon-coated cobalt nanoparticles and the nitrogen dopants can be proposed to account for the HER catalytic activity of U-CNT-900. Given the high natural abundance, ease of synthesis, and high catalytic activity and durability in seawater, this U-CNT-900 material is promising for hydrogen production from water in industrial applications.
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Advantage of multi-mode sapphire optical fiber for evanescent-field SERS sensing.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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An unclad, multi-mode single crystal sapphire fiber was used as a platform, and immobilized colloidal Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were used as enabler, for evanescent-field fiber-optic sensing via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) solution. The dependence of the measured Raman intensity on NP coverage density (to a maximum of 120??particles/?m2) as well as the coverage length (to a maximum of 6 cm) was investigated. We demonstrate the utility of SERS-active sapphire fibers for sensitive measurements (10-8??M R6G). We further reveal, with the aid of theoretical analysis, that multi-mode fiber offers a significant advantage compared to its single-mode counterpart because the former allows two orders of magnitude higher particle coverage density than the latter to maximize SERS benefit, while maintaining the dominance of Raman gain despite the competitive interplay of NP-induced absorption and scattering loss along the interaction path length.
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[A pilot study of establishing course of professional English on stomatology].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The importance of specialized English on stomatology is becoming more and more significant under the new situation. It used to be focused on vocabulary and literature teaching in the original course of specialized English, which was lack of practicability. Thus, we try to establish a course of professional English on stomatology during the postgraduate stage of the seven-year students in our college, in order to complement the course of specialized English on stomatology and improve the students' practical ability to use specialized English. In this paper, the teaching content and method, teaching materials setting and the feedback from students on the course were discussed and analyzed, in order to lay a foundation for better construction of the course.
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[Construction of Mouse VCAM-1 Expression Vector and Establishment of Stably Transfected MSC Line C3H10T1/2].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to construct the mouse VCAM-1 expression vector, to establish the stably transfected MSC line and to investigate the effect of VCAM-1-modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on the immunological characteristics of MSC. The cDNA of murine VCAM-1 gene was amplified by RT-PCR from the total RNA isolated from the mouse spleen; then the cDNA was inserted into the retrovirus vector PMSCVmigr-1; the recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease experiments and sequencing, then designated as PMSCVmigr-1-mVCAM-1; the recombinant plasmid PMSCVmigr-1-mVCAM-1 was transfected into 293 cells by lipofecamin and the supernatant was collected to transfect MSC cell line (C3H10T1/2). Moreover, VCAM-1 expression on MSC was evaluated by FACS. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of VCAM-1-MSC on lymphocytic transformation was tested by (3)H-TdR incorporation assay. The results indicated that the successful construction of recombinant retroviral expression plasmid of mouse VCAM-1 was confirmed by digesting and sequancing. After transfection of MSC with retroviral supernaptant, the high expression of VCAM-1 on MSC could be detected by flow cytometry. The MSC high expressing VCAM-1 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of Con A-inducing lymphocytes in dose-depentent marrer. It is concluded that recombinant retroviral encoding VCAM-1 (PMSCVmigr-1-mVCAM-1) has been successfully constructed and mouse VCAM-1 has been stably expressed in C3H10T1/2. MSC over-expressing VCAM-1 show more potent immunosuppressive effect on cellular immune reaction in vitro. Our data laid a foundation for the subsequent studying the effect of VCAM-1 transfecting into MSC on immune related disease study.
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Phosphor-in-glass for high-powered remote-type white AC-LED.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The high-powered alternating current (AC) light emitting diode (LED) (AC-LED), featuring with low cost, high energy utilization efficiency, and long service life, will become a new economic growth point in the field of semiconductor lighting. However, flicker of AC-LED in the AC cycles is not healthy for human eyes, and therefore need to be restrained. Herein we report an innovation of persistent "phosphor-in-glass" (PiG) for the remote-type AC-LED, whose afterglow can be efficiently activated by the blue light. It is experimentally demonstrated that the afterglow decay of PiG in the microsecond range can partly compensate the AC time gap. Moreover, the substitution of inorganic glass for organic resins or silicones as the encapsulants would bring out several technological benefits to AC-LED, such as good heat-dissipation, low glare, and excellent physical/chemical stability.
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Amine-accelerated manganese-catalyzed aromatic C-H conjugate addition to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyls.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Since 1987, the stoichiometric two-step C-H conjugate addition reactions have been developed. Herein we describe the first manganese-catalyzed one-step direct aromatic C-H conjugate addition to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyls, which is accelerated by a catalytic amount of dicyclohexylamine. Experimental and computational studies substantiated the validity of the proposed catalytic cycle.
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SERS-Fluorescence Monitored Drug Release of a Redox-Responsive Nanocarrier Based on Graphene Oxide in Tumor Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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A redox-responsive drug carrier based on nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) loaded with Ag nanoparticles, whose intracellular release behavior can be investigated by SERS-fluorescence combined spectroscopy, is presented. In this demonstrated drug carrier, to make the carrier integrated with the redox responsive property, we utilized disulfide linkages to load drug molecules to the surfaces of NGO directly, which can be cleaved by glutathione (GSH). Covalent drug loading and GSH-responsive release strategy can reduce the influence of the surface diffusion barriers introduced by multifunctionalization. Interestingly, the intracellular real-time drug release dynamics can be monitored by the combined SERS-fluorescence signals of the drugs, while the distribution of the drug carrier can simultaneously be tracked by the intrinsic SERS signals of NGO in the whole process. Our results show that upon the internalization of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanocarriers into living cells, DOX was efficiently released under a GSH regulated reducing environment. Because tumor cells generally exhibit a higher concentration of GSH than normal ones, this drug carrier should have potential in the field of tumor therapy.
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CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Castration resistance is a major obstacle to hormonal therapy for prostate cancer patients. Although androgen independence of prostate cancer growth is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of androgen receptor deregulation in endocrine resistance is still poorly understood. Herein, the CAMK2N1 was shown to contribute to the human prostate cancer cell growth and survival through AR-dependent signaling. Reduced expression of CAMK2N1 was correlated to recurrence-free survival of prostate cancer patients with high levels of AR expression in their tumor. CAMK2N1 and AR signaling form an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop: CAMK2N1 expression was down-regulated by AR activation; while CAMK2N1 inhibited AR expression and transactivation through CAMKII and AKT pathways. Knockdown of CAMK2N1 in prostate cancer cells alleviated Casodex inhibition of cell growth, while re-expression of CAMK2N1 in castration-resistant cells sensitized the cells to Casodex treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAMK2N1 plays a tumor suppressive role and serves as a crucial determinant of the resistance of prostate cancer to endocrine therapies.
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A family of novel Mn3Ln4 clusters displaying single-molecule magnet behavior.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Using 3-methyloxysalicylaldoxime (mosaoH2) and N-methyl diethanolamine (N-mdeaH2) as coligands, a family of heptanuclear Mn/Ln heterometallic compounds [Mn(II)Mn(III)2Ln(III)4(mosao)2(mosaoH)4(piv)4(N-mdea)4]·xMeCN [Ln = Dy(), Tb() and Y(), pivH = pivalic acid] have been prepared. The crystal structures of were obtained, and their core consists of two Mn(III)Ln2(?3-OR)2 (RO(2-) = N-mdea(2-)) triangles linked to a central Mn(II) atom. A dc magnetic susceptibility study reveals that single-ion effects of the Ln ions are dominant in compounds and . As for compound , which contains diamagnetic Y ions, the magnetic interactions between Mn ions via oximate NO bridges are revealed to be ferromagnetic. Fitting of the ?mT vs. T data gives g = 1.96 and J = 1.12 cm(-1), affording a S = 13/2 ground state. All of the three compounds exhibit frequency-dependent out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals indicative of slow magnetization relaxation and potential SMM behavior. Among them, and display the out-of-phase ? peak maximum above 2.0 K. Fitting of the ac susceptibility data to the Arrhenius law gives an energy barrier Ueff = 9.27/13.83 K for and , respectively.
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The effect of clopidogrel on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its metabolite in rats.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clopidogrel (CLO) on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine (IVA) and its metabolite in rats and develop a reliable method to determine IVA and its metabolite N-demethyl ivabradine in serum. Healthy male SD rats were randomized to be given 0.8?mg/kg IVA or IVA combined with 8?mg/kg CLO. Blood samples were collected at 0.083, 0.16, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24?h after administration. The serum concentrations of IVA and N-demethyl ivabradine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using DASver3.0 software. The parameters of AUC(0?-?t), AUC(0?-??), and Cmax for IVA in the group of IVA?+?CLO were significantly higher than those in the group of IVA (p?
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Hepatoprotective Saikosaponin Homologs from Comastoma pedunculatum.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Eight new triterpenoid saponins, the saikosaponin homologs comastomasaponins A-H (1-8), as well as a known triterpenoid (9) and eight known saponins (10-17) were isolated from the aerial portions of Comastoma pedunculatum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated spectroscopically, and their hepatoprotective activity and cytotoxic activity were evaluated against five human tumor cell lines in vitro. Compounds 1, 5-12, 14, 15, and 17 exhibited potent hepatoprotective activity, and compound 11 displayed cytotoxic activity against HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-825, A549, and A2780 human tumor cell lines.
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Risk factors for complications of pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Background and study aims: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is recommended as treatment for stones in chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for complications of pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (P-ESWL). Patients and methods: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones (>?5?mm diameter) who were treated with P-ESWL between March 2011 and June 2013 were prospectively included. Adverse events after P-ESWL were classified as complications and transient adverse events, depending on severity. The major complications of P-ESWL included post-ESWL pancreatitis, bleeding, infection, steinstrasse, and perforation. Multivariate analyses based on univariate analysis were performed to detect risk factors of overall and moderate-to-severe complications. Results: A total of 634 patients underwent 1470 P-ESWL procedures. The overall complication rate was 6.7?% of all procedures. Complications occurred in 62 patients (9.8?%) after the first ESWL procedure. The risk factors for complications were pancreas divisum (odds ratio [OR] 1.28) and the interval between diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and P-ESWL (OR 1.28). Protective factors were male sex (OR 0.50), diabetes (OR 0.45), and steatorrhea (OR 0.43). Male sex, the only identified predictor for moderate-to-severe complications, was a protective factor (OR 0.19). For the second P-ESWL procedure, complications occurred in 22/409 patients (5.4?%). Complication and asymptomatic hyperamylasemia after the first ESWL session were significantly associated with higher risk for complications after the second ESWL session (P?
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The protective effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in rat kidney cells.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Abstract Ozone (O3) has been viewed as a novel treatment for different diseases in these years and oxidative stress and apoptosis play a key role in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases including renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we investigated the role of ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) in attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model using rat kidney cells. We induced H/R injury in kidney cells treated with or without OzoneOP. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined, as well as some apoptotic proteins. We observed that oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased in H/R group compared to OzoneOP group; however, these changes were significantly decreased by the treatment with OzoneOP. We concluded that OzoneOP can protect the kidney cells against H/R injury and its mechanism may be through the reduction of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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Picroside II decreases the development of fibrosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In kidney transplantation, renal ischemia and reperfusion injury was one of the leading factors to the development of renal fibrosis, which was the main cause of graft loss. The fibrogenic changes were associated with the long term inflammation elicited by ischemia and reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Picroside II, the main active constituents of the extract of picrorrhiza scrophulariiflora roots, in attenuating renal fibrosis in a renal ischemia and reperfusion injury model. We induced ischemia and reperfusion injury in kidneys treated with or without Picroside II. We observed that inflammation and tissue fibrosis were increased in ischemia and reperfusion injury group compared to Picroside II group, however, these changes were significantly decreased by the treatment with Picroside II. We concluded that Picroside II can protect the ischemic kidney against renal fibrosis and its mechanism may be through the inhibition of the long term inflammation.
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Nurses' reflections on good nurse traits: Implications for improving care quality.
Nurs Ethics
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Good nurses show concern for patients by caring for them effectively and attentively to foster their well-being. However, nurses cannot be taught didactically to be "good" or any trait that characterizes a good nurse. Nurses' self-awareness of their role traits warrants further study.
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Expression and purification of the trypsin inhibitor from tartary buckwheat in Pichia pastoris and its novel toxic effect on Mamestra brassicae larvae.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The gene of the trypsin inhibitor of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) was successfully cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and tested for regulatory effects on insect growth. The three significant factors were optimized by single-factor experiments and central composite design in response surface methodology. Proteins were efficiently expressed at levels of 489.6-527.4 U/mg in shaken flasks. The trypsin inhibitor from tartary buckwheat (FtTI) was purified by affinity chromatography and centrifugal ultrafiltration. The purified FtTI efficiently inhibited trypsin protease activity by competitive inhibition with a Ki value 1.5 nM. The molecular mass of the purified protein was approximately 13.8 kDa. FtTI had a higher toxic killing effect on Mamestra brassicae larvae. The median lethal concentration for the larvae was 15 ?g/mL.
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Refolding of a fully functional flavivirus methyltransferase revealed that S-adenosyl methionine but not S-adenosyl homocysteine is co-purified with flavivirus methyltransferase.
Protein Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Methylation of flavivirus RNA is vital for its stability and translation in the infected host cell. This methylation is mediated by the flavivirus methyltransferase (MTase), which methylates the N7 and 2'-O positions of the viral RNA cap by utilizing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. In this report, we demonstrate that SAM, in contrast to the reaction by-product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) which was assumed previously, is co-purified with the Dengue (DNV) and West Nile virus (WNV) MTases produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli). This endogenous SAM can be removed by denaturation and refolding of the MTase protein. The refolded MTase of DNV serotype 3 (DNV3) displays methylation activity comparable to native enzyme, and its crystal structure at 2.1 Å is almost identical to that of native MTase. We characterized the binding of Sinefungin (SIN), a previously described SAM-analog inhibitor of MTase function, to the native and refolded DNV3 MTase by isothermal titration calorimetry, and found that SIN binds to refolded MTase with more than sixteen times the affinity of SIN binding to the MTase purified natively. Moreover, we show that SAM is also co-purified with other flavivirus MTases, indicating that purification by refolding may be a generally applicable tool for studying flavivirus MTase inhibition.
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Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Benzo[k]fluoranthenes-An Unexpected Isomerization Mediated by Rhodacyclopentadiene.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Herein, a Rh(III) -catalyzed stereocontrolled synthesis of benzo[k]fluoranthenes is reported. It was found that the unexpected E/Z isomerization was highly sensitive to the electronic effects of the substituents on the aryl groups. Theoretical calculations revealed that this controllable stereochemistry originates from the mediation of rhodacyclopentadiene intermediates during the isomerization. The fact that similar stereochemistry was observed when using an Ir(III) catalyst further suggests a certain generality of this discovery toward some other transition metals.
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Relationship between the Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Aims: Recently, a number of studies have shown an increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) to be a strong and independent predictor of the prognosis of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the relationship between the RDW and a poor prognosis of coronary artery disease.Methods: Four hundred and twenty-four patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) were analyzed retrospectively. We evaluated the relationships between the RDW and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTpro-BNP), fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as other parameters of blood examinations and angiographic manifestations. Results: There were 85 patients in the RDW ?14% group (mean age 60.62±11.29 years, and men: 87%) and 339 patients in the RDW ?14% group (mean age: 59.74±11.55 years, and men: 78%). The RDW ?14% group had higher platelet distribution width (PDW), NTpro-BNP and hsCRP values on admission, a heavier intracoronary thrombotic burden and a higher incidence of three-branch vascular lesions than the RDW ?14% group. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the associations between the RDW and the NTpro-BNP level, incidence of three-branch and left main lesions and intracoronary thrombotic burden remained. Conclusions: A high RDW may be associated with the severity and instability of acute myocardial infarction.
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High-frequency chest wall oscillation in prolonged mechanical ventilation patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) often retain airway secretions, which may be cleared with the assistance of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO). This study aimed to determine the effectiveness, safety and tolerance/comfort of HFCWO after extubation in PMV patients.
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Regulation of miR-101/miR-199a-3p by the epithelial sodium channel during embryo implantation: involvement of CREB phosphorylation.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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In our previous study, we have demonstrated that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mediates the embryo-derived signals leading to the activation of CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2) required for embryo implantation. This study aims to investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the ENaC-induced upregulation of COX2 during embryo implantation. The results show that the levels of miR-101 and miR-199a-3p, two COX2 targeting miRNAs, are reduced by ENaC activation, and increased by ENaC inhibition or knock-down of ENaC subunit (ENaC?) in human endometrial surface epithelial (HES) cells or in mouse uteri during implantation. Phosphorylation of CREB is induced by the activation of ENaC, and blocked by ENaC inhibition or knockdown in HES cells. Knockdown of ENaC? or CREB in HES cells or in mouse uterus in vivo results in increases in miR-101 and miR-199a-3p, accompanied with decreases in COX2 protein levels and reduction in implantation rate. The downregulation of COX2 caused by knockdown of ENaC or CREB can be recovered by the inhibitors of miR-101 or miR-199a-3p in HES cells. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism modulating COX2 expression during embryo implantation via ENaC-dependent CREB activation and COX2-targeting miRNAs.
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[Etiological study on cases with viral diarrhea in Ningxia during 2011].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the etiological characteristics of human rotavirus (HRV), human calicivirus (HuCV), human astrovirus (HAstV) and human enteral adenovirus (HAdV) in Ningxia province during 2011.
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Cisplatin and paclitaxel target significant long noncoding RNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The objectives of this study were to identify specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to clarify the function of cisplatin and paclitaxel on the confirmed laryngeal cancer lncRNAs. Fifty-four pairs of laryngeal tumor and adjacent normal tissue were collected. Candidate lncRNAs were searched in authorized databases. The significant lncRNAs were identified and confirmed through high-output real-time PCR. Chemotherapy assay evaluated the influences of cisplatin and paclitaxel on the significant lncRNAs. Thirty-seven cancer-related candidate lncRNAs were selected. Three up-expressed and two down-expressed significant lncRNAs were identified and confirmed. The expressions of lncRNA CDKN2B-AS1, HOTAIR and MALAT1 were dramatically reduced with the increasing concentration of cisplatin and paclitaxel and also lengthening of the treatment duration. Cisplatin and paclitaxel have target function on significant lncRNAs in LSCC, which presents novel molecular targets to cure LSCC patients and also leads an orientation for developing new drugs.
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Anti-diabetic medications do not influence risk of lung cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Several preclinical and observational studies have shown that anti-diabetic medications (ADMs) may modify the risk of lung cancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effect of metformin, sulfonylureas (SUs), thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and insulin on the risk of lung cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
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Conversion of industrial paper sludge to ethanol: fractionation of sludge and its impact.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Paper sludge is an attractive biomass source for the conversion to ethanol due to its low cost and the lack of severe pretreatment required. Four sludges from pulp and paper operations including both virgin kraft (VK) and recycled and deinking (RD) paper mills were analyzed. A fractionation process using a laboratory screen was utilized to produce a fiber-rich stream for enzymatic hydrolysis. This process removed 82-98 % of the ash with fiber yields from 39 to 69 %. Even though sludges in both non-fractionated and fractionated scenarios were pH-adjusted, total sugar conversion was still improved by 12-27 % by fractionation with 4.5 times less acid required for pH adjustment. Fermentation of the fractionated sludges showed very high ethanol yields. Acid insoluble clay adsorbs 3-5 mg enzyme per gram of clay depending on enzyme dosage. Acid soluble CaCO3 adsorbs about half of the enzyme compared to clay. Fractionation efficiency was also evaluated by testing different size mesh screen openings (100 to 500 mesh). The 400-mesh screen presented the best fiber yield, ash removal and ash fractionation ratio for both VK and RD sludges. The ash-rich streams have a lower C/N ratio than the original sludge which improves its suitability as soil amendment.
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Aged kidneys are refractory to ischemic postconditioning in a rat model.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Abstract Background: Ischemic postconditioning (IPoC) is defined as a series of intermittent interruptions of blood flow in the early phase of reperfusion that mechanically alters the hydrodynamics of reperfusion and it attenuates renal damage after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo. But all of these data had been obtained in adult populations and whether this protection was maintained in aging kidneys was unknown. The objective of this study was to establish whether the efficacy of IPoC is maintained in aging kidneys.
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Palladium-catalyzed one pot 2-arylquinazoline formation via hydrogen-transfer strategy.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The palladium catalytic system was first applied to 2-arylquinazoline synthesis via hydrogen transfer methodology. Various (E)-2-nitrobenzaldehyde O-methyl oximes reacted easily with alcohols or benzyl amines to provide N-heterocyclic compounds in good to high yields. Similarly, the heterocyclic products could be prepared by the reaction of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanone, urea and benzyl alcohols. In these reactions, the nitro group was reduced in situ by hydrogen generated from the alcohol dehydrogenation step.
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Luteolin from Flos Chrysanthemi and its derivatives: New small molecule Bcl-2 protein inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Over-expression of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins is closely related to tumorigenesis and associated with drug resistance. Here we report that luteolin, a main substance found in Flos Chrysanthemi, directly binds to and shows inhibitory activity against the Bcl-2 protein. We studied the binding mode of luteolin and its derivatives with target proteins, their structure-activity relationship, and their effect on the human leukemia cell line HL-60. The results suggest that luteolin and its derivatives with a benzyl group introduced to the B ring, are new small molecule Bcl-2 protein inhibitors, and their anti-tumor activity is likely related to their effect on the Bcl-2 protein.
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Isolation of two new prenylated flavonoids from Sinopodophyllum emodi fruit by silica gel column and high-speed counter-current chromatography.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Two new prenylated flavonoids, sinoflavonoids A-B, were isolated from the dried fruits of Sinopodophyllum emodi by silica gel column chromatography (SGCC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The 95% ethanol extract was partitioned with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in water, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction was pre-separated by SGCC with a petroleum ether-acetone gradient. The eluates containing target compounds were further separated by HSCCC with n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:6:4:4, v/v). Finally, 17.3mg of sinoflavonoid A and 25.9mg of sinoflavonoid B were obtained from 100mg of the pretreated concentrate. The purities of sinoflavonoid A and sinoflavonoid B were 98.47% and 99.38%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (HR-ESI-MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC). The separation procedures proved to be efficient, especially for trace prenylated flavonoids.
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Simultaneous determination of clevidipine and its primary metabolite in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application to pharmacokinetic study.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clevidipine and its primary metabolite H152/81 in dog plasma after protein precipitation with acetonitrile using felodipine as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a XB C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 3.5?m) under isocratic conditions with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 7.0) (40:60, v/v) at the flow rate of 0.3ml/min. The run time was 5.5min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the transitions of m/z 473.0?338.2 for clevidipine, m/z 356.1?324.0 for H152/81 and m/z 383.9?338.2 for the IS. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect and recovery over a concentration range of 0.15-200ng/ml for clevidipine and 10-2000ng/ml for H152/81, respectively. The analytical method was applied to support a pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous determination of clevidipine and H152/81 in ten healthy beagle dogs.
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Assessing telomere length using surface enhanced Raman scattering.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Telomere length can provide valuable insight into telomeres and telomerase related diseases, including cancer. Here, we present a brand-new optical telomere length measurement protocol using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this protocol, two single strand DNA are used as SERS probes. They are labeled with two different Raman molecules and can specifically hybridize with telomeres and centromere, respectively. First, genome DNA is extracted from cells. Then the telomere and centromere SERS probes are added into the genome DNA. After hybridization with genome DNA, excess SERS probes are removed by magnetic capturing nanoparticles. Finally, the genome DNA with SERS probes attached is dropped onto a SERS substrate and subjected to SERS measurement. Longer telomeres result in more attached telomere probes, thus a stronger SERS signal. Consequently, SERS signal can be used as an indicator of telomere length. Centromere is used as the inner control. By calibrating the SERS intensity of telomere probe with that of the centromere probe, SERS based telomere measurement is realized. This protocol does not require polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or electrophoresis procedures, which greatly simplifies the detection process. We anticipate that this easy-operation and cost-effective protocol is a fine alternative for the assessment of telomere length.
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The development and evaluation of a computerized diagnosis scheme for pneumoconiosis on digital chest radiographs.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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To diagnose pneumoconiosis using a computer-aided diagnosis system based on digital chest radiographs.
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The pathological effects of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes are amplified by an IFNAR1-triggered chemokine feedback loop in highly pathogenic influenza infection.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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BackgroundHighly pathogenic influenza viruses cause high levels of morbidity, including excessive infiltration of leukocytes into the lungs, high viral loads and a cytokine storm. However, the details of how these pathological features unfold in severe influenza infections remain unclear. Accumulation of Gr1¿+¿CD11b¿+¿myeloid cells has been observed in highly pathogenic influenza infections but it is not clear how and why they accumulate in the severely inflamed lung. In this study, we selected this cell population as a target to investigate the extreme inflammatory response during severe influenza infection.ResultsWe established H1N1 IAV-infected mouse models using three viruses of varying pathogenicity and noted the accumulation of a defined Gr1¿+¿CD11b¿+¿myeloid population correlating with the pathogenicity. Herein, we reported that CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes are the major cell compartments in this population. Of note, impaired clearance of the high pathogenicity virus prolonged IFN expression, leading to CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes amplifying their own recruitment via an interferon-¿/ß receptor 1 (IFNAR1)-triggered chemokine loop. Blockage of IFNAR1-triggered signaling or inhibition of viral replication by Oseltamivir significantly suppresses the expression of CCR2 ligands and reduced the influx of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes. Furthermore, trafficking of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes from the bone marrow to the lung was evidenced by a CCR2-dependent chemotaxis. Importantly, leukocyte infiltration, cytokine storm and expression of iNOS were significantly reduced in CCR2¿/¿ mice lacking infiltrating CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, enhancing the survival of the infected mice.ConclusionsOur results indicated that uncontrolled viral replication leads to excessive production of inflammatory innate immune responses by accumulating CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which contribute to the fatal outcomes of high pathogenicity virus infections.
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A Rapidly Self-Healing Supramolecular Polymer Hydrogel with Photostimulated Room-Temperature Phosphorescence Responsiveness.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Development of self-healing and photostimulated luminescent supramolecular polymeric materials is important for artificial soft materials. A supramolecular polymeric hydrogel is reported based on the host-guest recognition between a ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) host polymer (poly-?-CD) and an ?-bromonaphthalene (?-BrNp) polymer (poly-BrNp) without any additional gelator, which can self-heal within only about one minute under ambient atmosphere without any additive. This supramolecular polymer system can be excited to engender room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signals based on the fact that the inclusion of ?-CD macrocycle with ?-BrNp moiety is able to induce RTP emission (CD-RTP). The RTP signal can be adjusted reversibly by competitive complexation of ?-CD with azobenzene moiety under specific irradiation by introducing another azobenzene guest polymer (poly-Azo).
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Antimicrobial peptide GW-H1-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer AGS cell line is enhanced by suppression of autophagy.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. Due to its poor prognosis and high mortality rate, development of an effective therapeutic method is of urgent need. It has been reported that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host-defense peptides, can selectively bind to negatively charged prokaryotic and cancer cell membranes and exert cytotoxicity, without harming normal cells or causing severe drug resistance. We have designed a series of novel cationic AMPs with potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. In the current study, we evaluated their anticancer potency toward gastric cancer AGS cell line. Cell viability assay revealed that GW-H1 exhibited the lowest IC50 value (less than 20 ?M). Flow cytometry showed that upon GW-H1 treatment for 0-24 h, apoptotic cell populations of AGS increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Western blot analysis further revealed that upon treatment for 2-6 h, apoptosis-related caspases-3, 7, 8, 9, and PARP were cleaved and activated, while autophagy-related LC3-II and beclin-1 were concomitantly increased. These results indicated that both apoptosis and autophagy were involved in the early stage of GW-H1-induced AGS cell death. However, upon treatment for 12-24 h, LC3-II began to decrease and cleaved beclin-1 increased in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that consecutive activation of caspases cleaved beclin-1 to inhibit autophagy, thus enhancing apoptosis at the final stage. These findings provided support for future application of GW-H1 as a potential anticancer agent for gastric cancer treatment.
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Simvastatin prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis after ovariectomy.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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BackgroundPeriodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone. There is an increasing evidence that periodontitis is associated with a number of chronic disease, including osteoporosis. Periodontitis and osteoporosis are both bone destructive diseases and of high prevalence in adult population. Osteoporosis could increase some inflammatory factors that also participate in the progression of periodontitis, so as to facilitate the alveolar bone resorption. Simvastatin, specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme reductase, is of pleiotropic effects including anti-catabolic and anabolic effect on bone metabolism. This study aimed to explore the local and systemic effect of simvastatin on maxillary in rats with both osteoporosis and periodontitis.MethodsThirty-six 4-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups: sham group, ligature group, ovariectomized (OVX)¿+¿ligature group, local simvastatin administration to OVX¿+¿ligature rats (local simvastatin group), oral simvastatin administration to OVX¿+¿ligature rats (oral simvastatin group), local and oral simvastatin administration to OVX¿+¿ligature rats (L&O simvastatin group). One month after OVX, ligatures were placed on the maxillary first (M1) and second molars (M2) for 4 weeks on all rats except those in the sham group, followed by simvastatin treatment for 2 months. The maxillae, serum, and femurs were collected for further examination including micro-computed (micro-CT) tomography, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and the three-point bending test.ResultsLocal simvastatin administration increased alveolar crest height and prevented local alveolar bone loss without alteration of systemic bone loss. Oral administration prevented local and systemic bone loss with no effect on alveolar crest height.ConclusionsOur results indicate that simvastatin has the potential of promoting bone formation and reducing alveolar bone loss in maxillary following ovariectomy (OVX) and ligature placement in rats.
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The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: Characterization of ?-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 ?-defensin loci within 129?kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis.
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Association between Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene Polymorphisms and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is closely related to embryonic development and pregnancy success. The association between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms (PAI-1-844G/A and PAI-1-675G/A) and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is controversial. Therefore, we perform this review to clarify the association between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and RPL risk. We performed a systematic search for studies that described the effect of PAI-1 polymorphisms on RPL risk. The odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered under recessive genetic models. Furthermore, we conducted a subgroup analysis based on the studies' geographic regions of origin. Data were analyzed using Stata 11.2 software. Eighteen studies were included, and a high degree of statistical heterogeneity existed among the studies. In this study, we found a significant association between the PAI-1-675G/A polymorphism and the risk of RPL under the recessive model (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.21-2.38). However, no significant association between the PAI-1-844G/A polymorphism and RPL was noted. PAI-1-675G/A (4G/5G) polymorphisms play a potential role in RPL. The screening of PAI-1 (4G/5G) gene mutations should be included during an RPL diagnostic workup, and patients should be treated using anticoagulant therapy during pregnancy if necessary.
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Sox2 is involved in paclitaxel resistance of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 via the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer?associated mortality in males. The efficacy of prostate cancer chemotherapy is frequently impaired by drug resistance; however, the underlying mechanisms of this resistance remain elusive. Sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is of vital importance in the regulation of stem cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In the present study, using MTT, clone formation, cell cycle and apoptosis assays, over-expression of Sox2 was demonstrated to enhance the paclitaxel (Pac) resistance of the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line, promoting cell proliferation and exhibiting an anti?apoptotic effect. Western blot analysis revealed that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway was activated in cells overexpressing Sox2, and by targeting cyclin E and survivin, Sox2 promoted G1/S phase transition and prevented apoptosis under Pac treatment. The present study provided an understanding of Pac resistance in prostate cancer and may indicate novel therapeutic methods for chemoresistant prostate cancer.
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IL-23 promotes TCR-mediated negative selection of thymocytes through the upregulation of IL-23 receptor and ROR?t.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Transient thymic involution is frequently found during inflammation, yet the mode of action of inflammatory cytokines is not well defined. Here we report that interleukin-23 (IL-23) production by the thymic dendritic cells (DCs) promotes apoptosis of the CD4(hi)CD8(hi) double-positive (DP) thymocytes. A deficiency in IL-23 signalling interferes with negative selection in the male D(b)/H-Y T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice. IL-23 plus TCR signalling results in significant upregulation of IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) expressed predominantly on CD4(hi)CD8(hi)CD3(+)??TCR(+) DP thymocytes, and leads to ROR?t-dependent apoptosis. These results extend the action of IL-23 beyond its peripheral effects to a unique role in TCR-mediated negative selection including elimination of natural T regulatory cells in the thymus.
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Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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In comparison with terrestrial plants, those growing in wetlands have been rarely studied ethnobotanically, including in China, yet people living in or near wetlands can accumulate much knowledge of the uses of local wetland plants. A characteristic of wetlands, cutting across climatic zones, is that many species are widely distributed, providing opportunities for studying general patterns of knowledge of the uses of plants across extensive areas, in the present case China. There is urgency in undertaking such studies, given the rapid rates of loss of traditional knowledge of wetland plants as is now occurring.
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Steroids in marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: Occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 24 steroids were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China. Ten, 9, 10, 15 of 24 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from <0.1 (testosterone) to 40ng/L (prednisolone), from 0.1 (4-androstene-3,17-dione) to 2.4ng/g (progesterone), from 0.3ng/g (testosterone) to 21.4ng/g (epi-androsterone), and from <0.1 (testosterone) to 560ng/g (cortisol) (wet weight) in the water, sediment, feed and biota samples, respectively. Synthetic steroids (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, 17?-boldenone, 17?-boldenone, 17?-trenbolone, prednisolone, norgestrel) were detected in the feed samples, clearly demonstrating the illegal use of steroids in the feed. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of steroids calculated in different aquatic organisms ranged from 93.8 to 4000. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestagens via consumption of seafood (i.e., shrimps, crabs, mollusks, and fish) for different age groups were in the range of 33.4-134, 2061-8566, and 40.4-155ng/d for children (2-5years), youth (6-18years), and adults (>18years), respectively. Even though no significant risk from dietary exposure arises from individual steroid, elevated risk to humans can result from the occurrence of multiple steroids in the seafood raised in the aquaculture farms, especially for the sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and children.
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A lymphatic defect causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, afflicting more than 60 million people worldwide. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) due to impaired aqueous humor drainage is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma. Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGPT/TIE2) signaling pathway results in high IOP, buphthalmos, and classic features of glaucoma, including retinal ganglion degeneration and vision loss. Eyes from mice with induced deletion of Angpt1 and Angpt2 (A1A2Flox(WB) mice) lacked drainage pathways in the corneal limbus, including Schlemm's canal and lymphatic capillaries, which share expression of the PROX1, VEGFR3, and FOXC family of transcription factors. VEGFR3 and FOXCs have been linked to lymphatic disorders in patients, and FOXC1 has been linked to glaucoma. In contrast to blood endothelium, in which ANGPT2 is an antagonist of ANGPT1, we have shown that both ligands cooperate to regulate TIE2 in the lymphatic network of the eye. While A1A2Flox(WB) mice developed high IOP and glaucoma, expression of ANGPT1 or ANGPT2 alone was sufficient for ocular drainage. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of FOXC2 from lymphatics results in TIE2 downregulation, suggesting a mechanism for ocular defects in patients with FOXC mutations. These data reveal a pathogenetic and molecular basis for glaucoma and demonstrate the importance of angiopoietin ligand cooperation in the lymphatic endothelium.
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CT of globe rupture: analysis and frequency of findings.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The objective of our study was to evaluate the CT characteristics of globe rupture.
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Preparation of a magnetofluorescent nano-thermometer and its targeted temperature sensing applications in living cells.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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A magnetic fluorescent nano-thermometer is presented. To fabricate the nano-thermometer, magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were first encapsulated with a silica layer. Then a poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) copolymer shell with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RhBITC) embedded inside was further coated, which was denoted as the pNIPAM-co-RhBITC shell. Finally, gold nanoparticles were introduced onto the copolymer shell by in-situ growth method and the nano-thermometer (denoted as Fe3O4@SiO2@(pNIPAM-co-RhBITC)/Au) was obtained. The nano-thermometer shows dual responses to both magnetism and temperature. Specifically, the fluorescence intensity of the nano-thermometer decreases as the temperature increases, which makes the nano-thermometer suitable for intracellular temperature sensing. Using this nano-thermometer, temperature changes in live HeLa cells can be successfully detected. Moreover, due to the Fe3O4 component, magnetic field guided targeting can be realized, thus targeted temperature sensing can be achieved for living cells. Cellular temperature changes can be easily detected using the proposed nano-thermometer in the range of 26°C to 41°C with a sensitivity of -4.84%°C(-1).
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The effects of Pilates exercise on sleep quality in postpartum women.
J Bodyw Mov Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilates exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women.
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The expression of programmed death-1 in circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during hepatitis B virus infection progression and its correlation with clinical baseline characteristics.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression was investigated in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients at the chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stages.
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A novel TLR2-triggered signalling crosstalk synergistically intensifies TNF-mediated IL-6 induction.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize pathogens and trigger the production of vigorous pro-inflammatory cytokines [such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)] that induce systemic damages associated with sepsis and chronic inflammation. Cooperation between signals of TLR and TNF receptor has been demonstrated through the participation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR) adaptors in endotoxin tolerance. Here, we identify a TLR2-mediated synergy, through a MyD88-independent crosstalk, which enhances subsequent TNF-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B activation and interleukin-6 induction. Membrane-associated adaptor MAL conduces the link between TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TNFR-associated death domain, leading to a distinctive K63-ubiquitinylated TRAF6 recruitment into TNFR complex. In summary, our results reveal a novel route of TLR signal that synergistically amplifies TNF-mediated responses, indicating an innovative target for inflammation manipulation.
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Caution for acute submassive pulmonary embolism with syncope as initial symptom: a case report.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Pulmonary embolism (PE) may escape prompt diagnosis since clinical symptoms and signs are nonspecific. The occurrence of syncope as the sole initial symptom in a previously healthy patient with no predisposing factors to embolism and no hemodynamic instability is extremely rare, which may have been a factor in the delayed diagnosis. We describe a case of acute submassive PE with syncope as the initial symptom. A 62-year-old previously healthy female was admitted to our hospital for transitory episode of syncope. Following admission, chest computed tomography demonstrated embolism in the right main pulmonary and left inferior pulmonary arteries. Following the final diagnosis, the patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy with systemic urokinase. We consider that raised awareness and early diagnosis and treatment were key factors in ensuring a satisfactory prognosis.
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Ozone oxidative preconditioning inhibits renal fibrosis induced by ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a crucial contributor to the development of renal fibrosis. Ozone has been proposed as a novel medical therapy for various conditions, including organ IRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) has a beneficial effect in preventing the development of renal fibrosis following IRI. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 8 weeks of reperfusion. Prior to surgery, rats in the OzoneOP group were treated with ozone and those in the IRI and Sham groups were untreated. Blood samples were collected for the detection of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels. To assess tissue fibrosis, Masson's trichrome staining was performed. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine the localization of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting were conducted to analyze the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, ?-SMA and Smad7. The levels of BUN and Cr did not significantly differ between groups. Rats pretreated with ozone showed markedly less interstitial fibrosis than untreated rats following IRI. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that ?-SMA expression was attenuated in the OzoneOP group compared with the IRI group. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis showed that OzoneOP inhibited the IRI-induced increases in ?-SMA and TGF-?1 expression levels, and that the IRI-induced reduction in the expression of Smad7 was inhibited in the OzoneOP group. The results indicate that OzoneOP has beneficial effects on ischemic renal fibrosis. OzoneOP may exert its protective effects by a mechanism involving modulation of the TGF-?1/Smad7 pathway.
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The inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)/Src axis mediates Toll-like receptor 3 tyrosine 759 phosphorylation and enhances its signal transduction, leading to interferon-? synthesis in macrophages.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces phosphorylation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) at tyrosine 759 and subsequently triggers signaling pathways to promote interferon-? (IFN-?) production. In this study, we found that dsRNA stimulation induces biphasic TLR3 Tyr-759 phosphorylation in macrophages. In addition to the immediate TLR3 Tyr-759 phosphorylation, we identified a second wave of Tyr-759 phosphorylation accompanied by an increase of both Src and ifn-? transcription in the later phase of dsRNA stimulation. Interestingly, Src phosphorylated TLR3 Tyr-759 in vitro and in vivo. However, knockdown of Src abolished the late phase of TLR3 Tyr-759 phosphorylation and decreased the nuclear accumulation of interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3 and -7) and IFN-? production. Reintroduction of Src restored all of these molecular changes. Notably, via down-regulation of Src, dsRNA-elicited TLR3 Tyr-759 phosphorylation, the nuclear accumulation of IRF3/IRF7, and IFN-? generation were inhibited in inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)-null macrophages. TLR3 knockdown destabilized Src and reduced the nuclear level of IRF3/IRF7 and IFN-? production in macrophages exposed to LPS (a TLR4 ligand known to induce Src and IFN-? expression). Ectopic expression of wild type TLR3, but not its 759-phenylalanine mutant, restored Src activity and ifn-? transcription. Taken together, these results suggested an essential role of the iNOS/Src/TLR3 axis in IFN-? production in macrophages.
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Mandibular Advancement Splints: Occlusal Effects and Progression of Changes Associated with a Decade of Treatment.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To evaluate the magnitude and progression of dental changes associated with long-term mandibular advancement splint (MAS) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
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Efficacy of Relaxation Intervention on Pain, Self-Efficacy, and Stress-Related Variables in Patients Following Total Knee Replacement Surgery.
Pain Manag Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Following total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, patients frequently experience intense levels of pain, stress, and anxiety that may reduce their self-efficacy and thus affect their postoperative recovery. Relaxation intervention is beneficial to help patients manage physical pain and emotional tension. However, evidence for the efficacy of relaxation intervention on patients following TKR is still inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate whether a relaxation intervention helped to reduce pain, stress, and anxiety, and whether it helped to increase perceived relaxation and self-efficacy in patients following TKR. A single-group, pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was carried out at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A convenience sampling of 18 participants was recruited. Patients received three-session, individual-based relaxation interventions comprised of breathing exercises, muscle relaxation, and guided imagery. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires and physiologic measures and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and repeated measure analysis of variance. Intent-to-treat analyses were used to deal with missing data. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly lower pain, stress, and anxiety and greater perceived relaxation and self-efficacy. Findings from this study contribute to both nursing science and clinical practice. The relaxation intervention can be offered as part of standard care for patients following TKR in hospitals.
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Inhibition of fucosylation reshapes inflammatory macrophages and suppresses type II collagen-induced arthritis.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Fucosylation catalyzed by fucosyltransferases (FUTs) is an important posttranslational modification involved in a variety of biologic processes. This study was undertaken to determine the roles of fucosylation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to assess the efficacy of reestablishing immune homeostasis with the use of 2-deoxy-d-galactose (2-d-gal), a fucosylation inhibitor.
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Development and application of a monoclonal antibody against grouper iridovirus (GIV) major capsid protein.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The major capsid protein (MCP) is a main structural protein of iridoviruses, and is used as a marker for the identification, differentiation and classification of ranaviruses. In the present study, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant MCP of grouper iridovirus (GIV) were produced and characterized. All of the six mAbs were of IgG1 isotype. Among the mAbs, GIV-MCP-mAb-21 showed the highest reactivity in ELISA and was used to further characterize the expression of GIV-MCP during viral replication. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that GIV-MCP is a late gene during GIV infection. By immunofluorescence assay, the presence of GIV-MCP was observed in not only the cytoplasm but also the nucleus of GIV-infected cells, a surprising finding that might indicate additional role of GIV-MCP. In conclusion, the newly established GIV-MCP-mAbs are a valuable tool for GIV diagnostic and future studies on GIV pathogenesis.
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Interleukin-21 promotes germinal center reaction by skewing the follicular regulatory T cell to follicular helper T cell balance in autoimmune BXD2 mice.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells act as the regulatory counterpart of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells to suppress germinal center (GC) B cell differentiation. We recently showed that interleukin-21 (IL-21) promoted Tfh cell differentiation in autoimmune BXD2 mice that develop spontaneous GCs. This study was undertaken to determine the modulatory effects of IL-21 on Tfr cells and the Tfr cell to Tfh cell balance in BXD2 mice.
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Isolated panniculitis with vasculitis of the male breast suspicious for malignancy on CT and ultrasound: a case report and literature review.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report a case of a 54-year-old male patient with a hard, painful nodule within his right breast which was misdiagnosed preoperatively as breast cancer.
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Fluid overload, pulse wave velocity, and ratio of brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time in diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fluid overload is one of the characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Changes in extracellular fluid volume are associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Not only diabetes but also fluid overload is associated with cardiovascular risk factors The aim of the study was to assess the interaction between fluid overload, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial stiffness and left ventricular function in 480 patients with stages 4-5 CKD. Fluid status was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy method, Body Composition Monitor. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), as a good parameter of arterial stiffness, and brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP)/brachial ejection time (bET), correlated with impaired left ventricular function were measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. Of all patients, 207 (43.9%) were diabetic and 240 (50%) had fluid overload. For non-diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with being female (??=?-2.87, P?=?0.003), heart disease (??=?2.69, P?=?0.04), high baPWV (??=?0.27, P?=?0.04), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.10, P<0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-5.21, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. For diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with diuretics use (??=?3.69, P?=?0.003), high mean arterial pressure (??=?0.14, P?=?0.01), low bPEP/ET (??=?-0.19, P?=?0.03), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.55, P?=?0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-9.46, P<0.001). In conclusion, baPWV is associated with fluid overload in non-diabetic CKD and bPEP/bET is associated with fluid overload in diabetic CKD. Early and accurate assessment of these associated cardiovascular risk factors may improve the effects of entire care in late CKD.
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Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing, high-throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterization of oral microbiota and analyzing the changes of the microbiome in the states of health or disease. Deep understanding the knowledge of microbiota will pave the way for more effective prevent dentistry and contribute to the development of personalized dental medicine.
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Intranasal sirna targeting c-kit reduces airway inflammation in experimental allergic asthma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation caused by infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells that produce cytokines. Many studies have revealed that c-kit, a proto-oncogene, and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in the development of asthmatic inflammation. Intranasal small interference RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles targeting specific viral gene could inhibit airway inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether silencing of c-kit with intranasal small interference RNA could reduce inflammation in allergic asthma. A mouse model of experimental asthma was treated with intranasal administration of anti-c-kit siRNA to inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene. We assessed the inflammatory response in both anti-c-kit siRNA-treated and control mice. Local administration of siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of the c-kit gene and reduced airway mucus secretion and the infiltration of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, c-kit siRNA reduced the production of SCF, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5, but had no effect on interferon-? (IFN-?) generation. These results show that intranasal siRNA nanoparticles targeting c-kit can decrease the inflammatory response in experimental allergic asthma.
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Integrated microRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals the Potential Roles of miRNAs in Stage I Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) is the most dominant subtype of endometrial cancer. Aberrant transcriptional regulation has been implicated in EEC. Herein, we characterized mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes by RNA sequencing in EEC to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis. Total mRNA and small RNA were simultaneously sequenced by next generation sequencing technology for 3 pairs of stage I EEC and adjacent non-tumorous tissues. On average, 52,716,765 pair-end 100 bp mRNA reads and 1,669,602 single-end 50 bp miRNA reads were generated. Further analysis indicated that 7 miRNAs and 320 corresponding target genes were differentially expressed in the three stage I EEC patients. Six of all the seven differentially expressed miRNAs were targeting on eleven differentially expressed genes in the cell cycle pathway. Real-time quantitative PCR in sequencing samples and other independent 21 pairs of samples validated the miRNA-mRNA differential co-expression, which were involved in cell cycle pathway, in the stage I EEC. Thus, we confirmed the involvement of hsa-let-7c-5p and hsa-miR-99a-3p in EEC and firstly found dysregulation of hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-328-3p, hsa-miR-337-3p, and hsa-miR-181c-3p in EEC. Moreover, synergistic regulations among these miRNAs were detected. Transcript sequence variants such as single nucleotide variant (SNV) and short insertions and deletions (Indels) were also characterized. Our results provide insights on dysregulated miRNA-mRNA co-expression and valuable resources on transcript variation in stage I EEC, which implies the new molecular mechanisms that underlying pathogenesis of stage I EEC and supplies opportunity for further in depth investigations.
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Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with prostate cancer risk and tumor burden.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with the risk of a number of human cancers; however, the relationship between mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) has not been investigated. In a case-control study of 196 PCa patients and 196 age-paired healthy controls in a Chinese Han population, the association between mtDNA copy number in PBLs and PCa risk was evaluated. The relative mtDNA copy number was measured using quantitative real-time PCR; samples from three cases and two controls could not be assayed, leaving 193 cases and 194 controls for analysis. PCa patients had significantly higher mtDNA copy numbers than controls (medians 0.91 and 0.82, respectively; P<0.001). Dichotomized at the median value of mtDNA copy number in the controls, high mtDNA copy number was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa (adjusted odds ratio=?1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.83). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between mtDNA copy number and risk of PCa in quartile analysis (Ptrend?=?0.011). Clinicopathological analysis showed that high mtDNA copy numbers in PCa patients were significantly associated with high Gleason score and advanced tumor stage, but not serum prostate-specific antigen level (P?=?0.002, 0.012 and 0.544, respectively). These findings of the present study indicate that increased mtDNA copy number in PBLs is significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa and may be a reflection of tumor burden.
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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii inhibits interleukin-17 to ameliorate colorectal colitis in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been shown that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), one of the dominant intestinal bacterial flora, may protect colonic mucosa against the development of inflammation and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with the underlying mechanisms being unclear.
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Activation of the Wnt pathway through Wnt2 promotes metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in physiological and pathological process, including in the occurrence and development of tumor. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Wnt2 and sFRP4, key molecules of signaling pathway, are of prognostic value for survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. We performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing 90 pancreatic cancer specimens to evaluate the protein expression of Wnt2 and sFRP4. Our results showed that the cytoplasmic expression level of Wnt2 in pancreatic cancer tissues was significantly associated with LNM (P=0.029) and AJCC stage (P=0.008). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high Wnt2 expression was significantly correlated with poor clinical outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, Wnt2 may play an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer through activation of the Wnt pathways and serve as a potential candidate for treatment target of pancreatic cancer.
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Prognostic value analysis of mutational and clinicopathological factors in non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Targeting activating oncogenic driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to prolonged survival in patients harboring these specific genetic alterations. The prognostic value of these mutations has not yet been elucidated. The prevalence of recently uncovered non-coding somatic mutation in promoter region of TERT gene is also to be validated in lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to show the prevalence, association with clinicalpathological features and prognostic value of these factors.
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Dysregulated cytokine production by dendritic cells modulates B cell responses in the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The breakdown in tolerance of autoreactive B cells in the lupus-prone NZM2410-derived B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) mice results in the secretion of autoantibodies. TC dendritic cells (DCs) enhance B cell proliferation and antibody secretion in a cytokine-dependent manner. However, the specific cytokine milieu by which TC DCs activate B cells was not known. In this study, we compared TC and C57BL/6 (B6) control for the distribution of DC subsets and for their production of cytokines affecting B cell responses. We show that TC DCs enhanced B cell proliferation through the production of IL-6 and IFN-?, while antibody secretion was only dependent on IL-6. Pre-disease TC mice showed an expanded PDCA1(+) cells prior to disease onset that was localized to the marginal zone and further expanded with age. The presence of PDCA1(+) cells in the marginal zone correlated with a Type I Interferon (IFN) signature in marginal zone B cells, and this response was higher in TC than B6 mice. In vivo administration of anti-chromatin immune complexes upregulated IL-6 and IFN-? production by splenic DCs from TC but not B6 mice. The production of BAFF and APRIL was decreased upon TC DC stimulation both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these B cell survival factors do not play a role in B cell modulation by TC DCs. Finally, TC B cells were defective at downregulating IL-6 expression in response to anti-inflammatory apoptotic cell exposure. Overall, these results show that the TC autoimmune genetic background induces the production of B cell-modulating inflammatory cytokines by DCs, which are regulated by the microenvironment as well as the interplay between DC.
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Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations for Taiwanese adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations may not be accurate for Asians; thus, we developed modified eGFR equations for Taiwanese adults.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.